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Sample records for plant mitochondrion based

  1. The Roles of Mitochondrion in Intergenomic Gene Transfer in Plants: A Source and a Pool

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    Nan Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intergenomic gene transfer (IGT is continuous in the evolutionary history of plants. In this field, most studies concentrate on a few related species. Here, we look at IGT from a broader evolutionary perspective, using 24 plants. We discover many IGT events by assessing the data from nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Thus, we summarize the two roles of the mitochondrion: a source and a pool. That is, the mitochondrion gives massive sequences and integrates nuclear transposons and chloroplast tRNA genes. Though the directions are opposite, lots of likenesses emerge. First, mitochondrial gene transfer is pervasive in all 24 plants. Second, gene transfer is a single event of certain shared ancestors during evolutionary divergence. Third, sequence features of homologies vary for different purposes in the donor and recipient genomes. Finally, small repeats (or micro-homologies contribute to gene transfer by mediating recombination in the recipient genome.

  2. Pervasive within-Mitochondrion Single-Nucleotide Variant Heteroplasmy as Revealed by Single-Mitochondrion Sequencing

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    Jacqueline Morris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A number of mitochondrial diseases arise from single-nucleotide variant (SNV accumulation in multiple mitochondria. Here, we present a method for identification of variants present at the single-mitochondrion level in individual mouse and human neuronal cells, allowing for extremely high-resolution study of mitochondrial mutation dynamics. We identified extensive heteroplasmy between individual mitochondrion, along with three high-confidence variants in mouse and one in human that were present in multiple mitochondria across cells. The pattern of variation revealed by single-mitochondrion data shows surprisingly pervasive levels of heteroplasmy in inbred mice. Distribution of SNV loci suggests inheritance of variants across generations, resulting in Poisson jackpot lines with large SNV load. Comparison of human and mouse variants suggests that the two species might employ distinct modes of somatic segregation. Single-mitochondrion resolution revealed mitochondria mutational dynamics that we hypothesize to affect risk probabilities for mutations reaching disease thresholds. : Morris et al. use independent sequencing of multiple individual mitochondria from mouse and human brain cells to show high pervasiveness of mutations. The mutations are heteroplasmic within single mitochondria and within and between cells. These findings suggest mechanisms by which mutations accumulate over time, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Keywords: single mitochondrion, single cell, human neuron, mouse neuron, single-nucleotide variation

  3. The import and function of diatom and plant frataxins in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Long, Shaojun; Vávrová, Zuzana; Lukeš, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2008), s. 100-104 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960705; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129; GA ČR GA204/06/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : frataxin * mitochondrion * Trypanosoma * diatom * evolutionary conservativeness * import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.951, year: 2008

  4. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

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    Tomohisa Mori

    Full Text Available The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  5. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  6. Malleable Mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verner, Zdeněk; Basu, Somsuvro; Benz, C.; Dixit, S.; Dobáková, Eva; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Hashimi, Hassan; Horáková, Eva; Huang, Zhenqiu; Paris, Zdeněk; Peña-Diaz, Priscila; Ridlon, L.; Týč, Jiří; Wildridge, David; Zíková, Alena; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 315, 2015 Feb 07 (2015), s. 73-151 ISSN 1937-6448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/2513; GA MŠk LL1205; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk LH12104; GA ČR GAP305/12/2261 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Kinetoplast * Metabolism * Mitochondrial transport * Mitochondrion * RNA import * T. brucei * Trypanosome * kDNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2015

  7. The mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix pyriformis contains the complete glycine cleavage system.

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    Zuzana Zubáčová

    Full Text Available All eukaryotic organisms contain mitochondria or organelles that evolved from the same endosymbiotic event like classical mitochondria. Organisms inhabiting low oxygen environments often contain mitochondrial derivates known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes or neutrally as mitochondrion-like organelles. The detailed investigation has shown unexpected evolutionary plasticity in the biochemistry and protein composition of these organelles in various protists. We investigated the mitochondrion-like organelle in Trimastix pyriformis, a free-living member of one of the three lineages of anaerobic group Metamonada. Using 454 sequencing we have obtained 7 037 contigs from its transcriptome and on the basis of sequence homology and presence of N-terminal extensions we have selected contigs coding for proteins that putatively function in the organelle. Together with the results of a previous transcriptome survey, the list now consists of 23 proteins - mostly enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, transporters and maturases of proteins and transporters of metabolites. We have no evidence of the production of ATP in the mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix but we have obtained experimental evidence for the presence of enzymes of the glycine cleavage system (GCS, which is part of amino acid metabolism. Using homologous antibody we have shown that H-protein of GCS localizes into vesicles in the cell of Trimastix. When overexpressed in yeast, H- and P-protein of GCS and cpn60 were transported into mitochondrion. In case of H-protein we have demonstrated that the first 16 amino acids are necessary for this transport. Glycine cleavage system is at the moment the only experimentally localized pathway in the mitochondrial derivate of Trimastix pyriformis.

  8. Mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species lead to enhanced amyloid beta formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuner, K.; Schutt, T.; Kurz, C.; Eckert, S.H.; Schiller, C.; Occhipinti, A.; Mai, S.; Jendrach, M.; Eckert, G.P.; Kruse, S.E.; Palmiter, R.D.; Brandt, U.; Drose, S.; Wittig, I.; Willem, M.; Haass, C.; Reichert, A.S.; Muller, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Intracellular amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers and extracellular Abeta plaques are key players in the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Still, the molecular signals triggering Abeta production are largely unclear. We asked whether mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species

  9. Phylogenomic analysis of Odyssella thessalonicensis fortifies the common origin of Rickettsiales, Pelagibacter ubique and Reclimonas americana mitochondrion.

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    Kalliopi Georgiades

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolution of the Alphaproteobacteria and origin of the mitochondria are topics of considerable debate. Most studies have placed the mitochondria ancestor within the Rickettsiales order. Ten years ago, the bacterium Odyssella thessalonicensis was isolated from Acanthamoeba spp., and the 16S rDNA phylogeny placed it within the Rickettsiales. Recently, the whole genome of O. thessalonicensis has been sequenced, and 16S rDNA phylogeny and more robust and accurate phylogenomic analyses have been performed with 65 highly conserved proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results suggested that the O. thessalonicensis emerged between the Rickettsiales and other Alphaproteobacteria. The mitochondrial proteins of the Reclinomonas americana have been used to locate the phylogenetic position of the mitochondrion ancestor within the Alphaproteobacteria tree. Using the K tree score method, nine mitochondrion-encoded proteins, whose phylogenies were congruent with the Alphaproteobacteria phylogenomic tree, have been selected and concatenated for Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenies. The Reclinomonas americana mitochondrion is a sister taxon to the free-living bacteria Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, and together, they form a clade that is deeply rooted in the Rickettsiales clade. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Reclinomonas americana mitochondrion phylogenomic study confirmed that mitochondria emerged deeply in the Rickettsiales clade and that they are closely related to Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique.

  10. Cardiomyocytes undergo apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus cardiomyopathy through mitochondrion- and death receptor-controlled pathways.

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    Twu, Cheryl; Liu, Nancy Q; Popik, Waldemar; Bukrinsky, Michael; Sayre, James; Roberts, Jaclyn; Rania, Shammas; Bramhandam, Vishnu; Roos, Kenneth P; MacLellan, W Robb; Fiala, Milan

    2002-10-29

    We investigated 18 AIDS hearts (5 with and 13 without cardiomyopathy) by using immunocytochemistry and computerized image analysis regarding the roles of HIV-1 proteins and tumor necrosis factor ligands in HIV cardiomyopathy (HIVCM). HIVCM and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were significantly related to each other and to the expression by inflammatory cells of gp120 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In HIVCM heart, active caspase 9, a component of the mitochondrion-controlled apoptotic pathway, and the elements of the death receptor-mediated pathway, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Fas ligand, were expressed strongly on macrophages and weakly on cardiomyocytes. HIVCM showed significantly greater macrophage infiltration and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate compared with non-HIVCM. HIV-1 entered cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by macropinocytosis but did not replicate. HIV-1- or gp120-induced apoptosis of rat myocytes through a mitochondrion-controlled pathway, which was inhibited by heparin, AOP-RANTES, or pertussis toxin, suggesting that cardiomyocyte apoptosis is induced by signaling through chemokine receptors. In conclusion, in patients with HIVCM, cardiomyocytes die through both mitochondrion- and death receptor-controlled apoptotic pathways.

  11. A hybrid reference-guided de novo assembly approach for generating Cyclospora mitochondrion genomes.

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    Gopinath, G R; Cinar, H N; Murphy, H R; Durigan, M; Almeria, M; Tall, B D; DaSilva, A J

    2018-01-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with large and complex foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Linking samples from cyclosporiasis patients during foodborne outbreaks with suspected contaminated food sources, using conventional epidemiological methods, has been a persistent challenge. To address this issue, development of new methods based on potential genomically-derived markers for strain-level identification has been a priority for the food safety research community. The absence of reference genomes to identify nucleotide and structural variants with a high degree of confidence has limited the application of using sequencing data for source tracking during outbreak investigations. In this work, we determined the quality of a high resolution, curated, public mitochondrial genome assembly to be used as a reference genome by applying bioinformatic analyses. Using this reference genome, three new mitochondrial genome assemblies were built starting with metagenomic reads generated by sequencing DNA extracted from oocysts present in stool samples from cyclosporiasis patients. Nucleotide variants were identified in the new and other publicly available genomes in comparison with the mitochondrial reference genome. A consolidated workflow, presented here, to generate new mitochondrion genomes using our reference-guided de novo assembly approach could be useful in facilitating the generation of other mitochondrion sequences, and in their application for subtyping C. cayetanensis strains during foodborne outbreak investigations.

  12. Roles of the Nfu Fe–S targeting factors in the trypanosome mitochondrion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benz, C.; Kovářová, Julie; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Pierik, A. J.; Lukeš, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 10 (2016), s. 641-651 ISSN 0020-7519 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma brucei * Nfu1 * iron–sulphur cluster * Fe–S Mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  13. Two strategies for the development of mitochondrion-targeted small molecule radiation damage mitigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Céline; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere

  14. Phylogenetic analyses suggest lateral gene transfer from the mitochondrion to the apicoplast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oborník, Miroslav; Van de Peer, Y.; Hypša, Václav; Frickey, T.; Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Meyer, A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 285, 1-2 (2002), s. 109-118 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB5022904; GA AV ČR IAA6022903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : apicoplast * mitochondrion * hybrid genome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2002

  15. The mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix pyriformis contains the complete glycine cleavage system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zubáčová, Z.; Novák, L.; Bublíková, J.; Vacek, V.; Fousek, Jan; Rídl, Jakub; Tachezy, J.; Doležal, P.; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e55417 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1010 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transcriptome sequencing * Trimastix * mitochondrion -like organelle * glycine cleavage complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  16. Futile import of tRNAs and proteins into the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei evansi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paris, Zdeněk; Hashimi, Hassan; Lun, Sijia; Alfonzo, J. D.; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2011), 116-120 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * tRNA * Protein import * Mitochondrion * Kinetoplast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2011

  17. YCF45 protein, usually associated with plastids, is targeted into the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Týč, Jiří; Long, Shaojun; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 1 (2010), s. 43-47 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Plastid * Mitochondrion * Targeting * YCF45 * Horizontal gene transfer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.875, year: 2010

  18. Sigma-1 receptor chaperones at the ER-mitochondrion interface regulate Ca(2+) signaling and cell survival.

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    Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2007-11-02

    Communication between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion is important for bioenergetics and cellular survival. The ER supplies Ca(2+) directly to mitochondria via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) at close contacts between the two organelles referred to as mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). We found here that the ER protein sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), which is implicated in neuroprotection, carcinogenesis, and neuroplasticity, is a Ca(2+)-sensitive and ligand-operated receptor chaperone at MAM. Normally, Sig-1Rs form a complex at MAM with another chaperone, BiP. Upon ER Ca(2+) depletion or via ligand stimulation, Sig-1Rs dissociate from BiP, leading to a prolonged Ca(2+) signaling into mitochondria via IP3Rs. Sig-1Rs can translocate under chronic ER stress. Increasing Sig-1Rs in cells counteracts ER stress response, whereas decreasing them enhances apoptosis. These results reveal that the orchestrated ER chaperone machinery at MAM, by sensing ER Ca(2+) concentrations, regulates ER-mitochondrial interorganellar Ca(2+) signaling and cell survival.

  19. Plant mitochondrial genome: “A sweet and safe home'' for transgene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer of transgene through pollens to related plant species is a big environmental concern. Mitochondrion is also a superb and putative aspirant for transgene containment like plastids. Having its own transcription and translation machinery, and maternal inheritance gives assurance of transgene containment with high ...

  20. The metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G translocation and oxidative DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonam; Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Biswas, Joyshree; Rama Raju, K Siva; Joshi, Neeraj; Wahajuddin; Singh, Sarika

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the involvement of mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G in piracetam (P)-induced protective mechanisms. Studies have shown the antiapoptotic effects of piracetam but the mechanism of action of piracetam is still an enigma. To assess the involvement of endonuclease G in piracetam-induced protective effects, astrocyte glial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and piracetam. LPS treatment caused significantly decreased viability, mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, which were attenuated by piracetam cotreatment. Cotreatment of astrocytes with piracetam showed its significantly time-dependent absorption as observed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Astrocytes treated with piracetam alone showed enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in comparison to control astrocytes. However, in LPS-treated cells no significant alteration in MMP was observed in comparison to control cells. Protein and mRNA levels of the terminal executor of the caspase-mediated pathway, caspase-3, were not altered significantly in LPS or LPS + piracetam-treated astrocytes, whereas endonuclease G was significantly translocated to the nucleus in LPS-treated astrocytes. Piracetam cotreatment attenuated the LPS-induced endonuclease G translocation. In conclusion this study indicates that LPS treatment of astrocytes caused decreased viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, and translocation of endonuclease G to the nucleus, which was inhibited by piracetam cotreatment, confirming that the mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G is one of the factors involved in piracetam-induced protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Apoptotic-like tumor cells and apoptotic neutrophils in mitochondrion-rich gastric adenocarcinomas: a comparative study with light and electronmicroscopy between these two forms of cell death

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    Antonio Venuti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrion-rich adenocarcinomas represent a rare variant of gastric adenocarcinomas composed predominantly of columnar adenocarcinoma cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, a strong supranuclear immunoreactivity for antimitochondrial antibody, and a marked neutrophil infiltration associated to tumor cell death. The purpose of this work is to investigate, using correlated light and electron microscopy, mitochondrion-rich gastric adenocarcinomas focusing on the nature of the death in neoplastic cells and in infiltrating neutrophils. Adenocarcinoma cells, single or in small clusters, showed convoluted nuclei, irregularly condensed chromatin, loss of microvilli, and nuclear envelope dilatation. No nuclear fragmentation was observed in these dying cells and the plasma membrane did not show signs of disruption. These ultrastructural findings represent intermediate aspects between apoptosis and necrosis and are compatible with apoptosis-like programmed cell death. By contrast, some infiltrating neutrophils showed ultrastructural signs of classic apoptosis such as chromatin condensation into compact geometric (globular, crescent-shaped figures, tightly packed cytoplasmic granules and intact cell membrane. Our study provides ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis-like tumour cell death in mitochondrion-rich gastric carcinomas and confirms that stereotyped outcome either as apoptosis or necrosis of tumor cells cannot always be expected in human neoplasms.

  2. Optical spectroscopic characteristics of lactate and mitochondrion as new biomarkers in cancer diagnosis: understanding Warburg effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Ni, X. H.; Pu, Yang; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R.; Wang, W. B.; Masilamani, V.; Rizwan, A.; Alfano, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis even under normoxia and mostly under hypoxia. Warburg proposed this effect of altered metabolism in cells more than 80 years ago. It is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Optical spectroscopy can be used to explore this effect. Pathophysiological studies indicate that mitochondria of cancer cells are enlarged and increased in number. Warburg observed that cancer cells tend to convert most glucose to lactate regardless of the presence of oxygen. Previous observations show increased lactate in breast cancer lines. The focus of this study is to investigate the relative content changes of lactate and mitochondria in human cancerous and normal breast tissue samples using optical spectroscopic techniques. The optical spectra were obtained from 30 cancerous and 25 normal breast tissue samples and five model components (Tryptophan, fat, collagen, lactate and mitochondrion) using fluorescence, Stokes shift and Raman spectroscopy. The basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and a set of algorithm were used to analyze the spectra. Our analyses of fluorescence spectra showed a 14 percent increase in lactate content and 2.5 times increase in mitochondria number in cancerous breast tissue as compared with normal tissue. Our findings indicate that optical spectroscopic techniques may be used to understand Warburg effect. Lactate and mitochondrion content changes in tumors examined using optical spectroscopy may be used as a prognostic molecular marker in clinic applications.

  3. Mitochondrion-Permeable Antioxidants to Treat ROS-Burst-Mediated Acute Diseases

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    Zhong-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion. Nevertheless, astaxanthins are so unstable that most of them are inactivated after oral administration. Therefore, astaxanthin injection is suggested hypothetically. The drawbacks of the antioxidants are also reviewed, which limit the use of antioxidants as coadjuvants in the treatment of ROS-associated disorders.

  4. Pathways to Aging: The Mitochondrion at the Intersection of Biological and Psychosocial Sciences

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    Martin Picard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence suggests that both biological and psychosocial factors impact the process of aging. However, our understanding of the dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial factors across the life course is still fragmentary. For example, it needs to be established how the interaction of individual factors (e.g., genetic and epigenetic endowment and personality, behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, diet, and stress management, and psychosocial experiences (e.g., social support, well-being, socioeconomic status, and marriage in perinatal, childhood, and adulthood influence health across the aging continuum. This paper aims to outline potential intersection points serving as an interface between biological and psychosocial factors, with an emphasis on the mitochondrion. Mitochondria are cellular organelles which play a critical role in cellular senescence. Both chronic exposure to psychosocial stress and genetic-based mitochondrial dysfunction have strikingly similar biological consequences; both predispose individuals to adverse age-related health disorders and early mortality. Exploring the interactive nature of the factors resulting in pathways to normal healthy aging, as well as those leading to morbidity and early mortality, will continue to enhance our ability to translate research into effective practices that can be implemented throughout the life course to optimise the aging process.

  5. Pathways to aging: the mitochondrion at the intersection of biological and psychosocial sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that both biological and psychosocial factors impact the process of aging. However, our understanding of the dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial factors across the life course is still fragmentary. For example, it needs to be established how the interaction of individual factors (e.g., genetic and epigenetic endowment and personality), behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, diet, and stress management), and psychosocial experiences (e.g., social support, well-being, socioeconomic status, and marriage) in perinatal, childhood, and adulthood influence health across the aging continuum. This paper aims to outline potential intersection points serving as an interface between biological and psychosocial factors, with an emphasis on the mitochondrion. Mitochondria are cellular organelles which play a critical role in cellular senescence. Both chronic exposure to psychosocial stress and genetic-based mitochondrial dysfunction have strikingly similar biological consequences; both predispose individuals to adverse age-related health disorders and early mortality. Exploring the interactive nature of the factors resulting in pathways to normal healthy aging, as well as those leading to morbidity and early mortality, will continue to enhance our ability to translate research into effective practices that can be implemented throughout the life course to optimise the aging process.

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection induces apoptosis through a Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated, caspase 3-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Adachi, Tetsuya; Kitayama, Kikumi; Bungyoku, Yasuaki; Kitazawa, Sohei; Ishido, Satoshi; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak

    2008-11-01

    We previously reported that cells harboring the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replicon as well as those expressing HCV NS3/4A exhibited increased sensitivity to suboptimal doses of apoptotic stimuli to undergo mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis (Y. Nomura-Takigawa, et al., J. Gen. Virol. 87:1935-1945, 2006). Little is known, however, about whether or not HCV infection induces apoptosis of the virus-infected cells. In this study, by using the chimeric J6/JFH1 strain of HCV genotype 2a, we demonstrated that HCV infection induced cell death in Huh7.5 cells. The cell death was associated with activation of caspase 3, nuclear translocation of activated caspase 3, and cleavage of DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is known to be an important substrate for activated caspase 3. These results suggest that HCV-induced cell death is, in fact, apoptosis. Moreover, HCV infection activated Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, as revealed by its conformational change and its increased accumulation on mitochondrial membranes. Concomitantly, HCV infection induced disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, followed by mitochondrial swelling and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. HCV infection also caused oxidative stress via increased production of mitochondrial superoxide. On the other hand, HCV infection did not mediate increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) or GRP94, which are known as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced proteins; this result suggests that ER stress is not primarily involved in HCV-induced apoptosis in our experimental system. Taken together, our present results suggest that HCV infection induces apoptosis of the host cell through a Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated, caspase 3-dependent pathway(s).

  7. Energy Equivalence of Information in the Mitochondrion and the Thermodynamic Efficiency of ATP Synthase.

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    Matta, Chérif F; Massa, Lou

    2015-09-01

    Half a century ago, Johnson and Knudsen resolved the puzzle of the apparent low efficiency of the kidney (∼ 0.5%) compared to most other bodily organs (∼ 40%) by taking into account the entropic cost of ion sorting, the principal function of this organ. Similarly, it is shown that the efficiency of energy transduction of the chemiosmotic proton-motive force by ATP synthase is closer to 90% instead of the oft-quoted textbook value of only 60% when information theoretic considerations are applied to the mitochondrion. This high efficiency is consistent with the mechanical energy transduction of ATP synthase known to be close to the 100% thermodynamic limit. It would have been wasteful for evolution to maximize the mechanical energy transduction to 100% while wasting 40% of the chemiosmotic free energy in the conversion of the proton-motive force into mechanical work before being captured as chemical energy in adenosine 5'-triphosphate.

  8. Mitochondrion-mediated cell death: dissecting yeast apoptosis for a better understanding of neurodegeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Ralf J., E-mail: ralf.braun@uni-bayreuth.de [Institut für Zellbiologie, Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2012-11-28

    Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are common hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington diseases, and the motor neuron disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Damaged mitochondria pivotally contribute to neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death in these disorders, e.g., due to their inability to provide the high energy requirements for neurons, their generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their induction of mitochondrion-mediated cell death pathways. Therefore, in-depth analyses of the underlying molecular pathways, including cellular mechanisms controlling the maintenance of mitochondrial function, is a prerequisite for a better understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model for deciphering mitochondrial quality control mechanisms and the distinct mitochondrial roles during apoptosis and programmed cell death. Cell death upon expression of various human neurotoxic proteins has been characterized in yeast, revealing neurotoxic protein-specific differences. This review summarizes how mitochondria are affected in these neurotoxic yeast models, and how they are involved in the execution and prevention of cell death. I will discuss to which extent this mimics the situation in other neurotoxic model systems, and how this may contribute to a better understanding of the mitochondrial roles in the human disorders.

  9. Mitochondrion-mediated cell death: dissecting yeast apoptosis for a better understanding of neurodegeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Ralf J.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are common hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington diseases, and the motor neuron disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Damaged mitochondria pivotally contribute to neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death in these disorders, e.g., due to their inability to provide the high energy requirements for neurons, their generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their induction of mitochondrion-mediated cell death pathways. Therefore, in-depth analyses of the underlying molecular pathways, including cellular mechanisms controlling the maintenance of mitochondrial function, is a prerequisite for a better understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model for deciphering mitochondrial quality control mechanisms and the distinct mitochondrial roles during apoptosis and programmed cell death. Cell death upon expression of various human neurotoxic proteins has been characterized in yeast, revealing neurotoxic protein-specific differences. This review summarizes how mitochondria are affected in these neurotoxic yeast models, and how they are involved in the execution and prevention of cell death. I will discuss to which extent this mimics the situation in other neurotoxic model systems, and how this may contribute to a better understanding of the mitochondrial roles in the human disorders.

  10. The mitochondrial gene encoding ribosomal protein S12 has been translocated to the nuclear genome in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, L; Brennicke, A; Schuster, W

    1992-01-01

    The Oenothera mitochondrial genome contains only a gene fragment for ribosomal protein S12 (rps12), while other plants encode a functional gene in the mitochondrion. The complete Oenothera rps12 gene is located in the nucleus. The transit sequence necessary to target this protein to the mitochondrion is encoded by a 5'-extension of the open reading frame. Comparison of the amino acid sequence encoded by the nuclear gene with the polypeptides encoded by edited mitochondrial cDNA and genomic sequences of other plants suggests that gene transfer between mitochondrion and nucleus started from edited mitochondrial RNA molecules. Mechanisms and requirements of gene transfer and activation are discussed. Images PMID:1454526

  11. Plant subcellular proteomics: Application for exploring optimal cell function in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-06-30

    Plants have evolved complicated responses to developmental changes and stressful environmental conditions. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to elucidate localized cellular responses and investigate communications among subcellular compartments during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean, which is a valuable legume crop rich in protein and vegetable oil, can grow in several climatic zones; however, the growth and yield of soybean are markedly decreased under stresses. To date, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in soybean to examine the specific protein profiles of cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum. In this review, methods for the purification and purity assessment of subcellular organelles from soybean are summarized. In addition, the findings from subcellular proteomic analyses of soybean during development and under stresses, particularly flooding stress, are presented and the proteins regulated among subcellular compartments are discussed. Continued advances in subcellular proteomics are expected to greatly contribute to the understanding of the responses and interactions that occur within and among subcellular compartments during development and under stressful environmental conditions. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to investigate the cellular events and interactions among subcellular compartments in response to development and stresses in plants. Soybean could grow in several climatic zones; however, the growth and yield of soybean are markedly decreased under stresses. Numerous proteomics of cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum was carried out to investigate the respecting proteins and their functions in soybean during development or under stresses. In this review, methods of subcellular-organelle enrichment and purity assessment are summarized. In addition, previous findings of

  12. An FtsH protease is recruited to the mitochondrion of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Tanveer

    Full Text Available The two organelles, apicoplast and mitochondrion, of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have unique morphology in liver and blood stages; they undergo complex branching and looping prior to division and segregation into daughter merozoites. Little is known about the molecular processes and proteins involved in organelle biogenesis in the parasite. We report the identification of an AAA+/FtsH protease homolog (PfFtsH1 that exhibits ATP- and Zn(2+-dependent protease activity. PfFtsH1 undergoes processing, forms oligomeric assemblies, and is associated with the membrane fraction of the parasite cell. Generation of a transfectant parasite line with hemagglutinin-tagged PfFtsH1, and immunofluorescence assay with anti-PfFtsH1 Ab demonstrated that the protein localises to P. falciparum mitochondria. Phylogenetic analysis and the single transmembrane region identifiable in PfFtsH1 suggest that it is an i-AAA like inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Expression of PfFtsH1 in Escherichia coli converted a fraction of bacterial cells into division-defective filamentous forms implying a sequestering effect of the Plasmodium factor on the bacterial homolog, indicative of functional conservation with EcFtsH. These results identify a membrane-associated mitochondrial AAA+/FtsH protease as a candidate regulatory protein for organelle biogenesis in P. falciparum.

  13. Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam Attenuates the Translocation of Mitochondrion-Specific Proteins of Caspase-Independent Pathway, Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase 1 Up-regulation and Oxidative DNA Fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Sonam; Biswas, Joyshree; Joshi, Neeraj; Sivarama Raju, K; Wahajuddin, Mu; Singh, Sarika

    2018-03-12

    Piracetam, a nootropic drug, has been clinically used for decades; however, its mechanism of action still remains enigmatic. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of mitochondrion-specific factors of caspase-independent pathway like apoptotic-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease-G (endo-G) in piracetam-induced neuroprotection. N2A cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibited significant cytotoxicity, impaired mitochondrial activity, and reactive oxygen species generation which was significantly attenuated with piracetam co-treatment. Cells co-treated with LPS and piracetam exhibited significant uptake of piracetam in comparison to only piracetam-treated cells as estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS). LPS treatment caused significant translocation of AIF and endonuclease-G in neuronal N2A cells which were significantly attenuated with piracetam co-treatment. Significant over-expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also observed after treatment of LPS to cells which was inhibited with piracetam co-treatment demonstrating its anti-inflammatory property. LPS-treated cells exhibited significant oxidative DNA fragmentation and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) up-regulation in nucleus, both of which were attenuated with piracetam treatment. Antioxidant melatonin but not z-VAD offered the inhibited LPS-induced DNA fragmentation indicating the involvement of oxidative DNA fragmentation. Further, we did not observe the altered caspase-3 level after LPS treatment initially while at a later time point, significantly augmented level of caspase-3 was observed which was not inhibited with piracetam treatment. In total, our findings indicate the interference of piracetam in mitochondrion-mediated caspase-independent pathway, as well as its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract indicating the novel interference of metabolic enhancer piracetam (P) in neuronal death

  14. FPGA-Based Plant Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Kim, Hang Bae [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    This paper relates to a plant protection system which detects non-permissible conditions and determines initiation of protective actions for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Conventional plant protection systems were designed based on analog technologies. It is well known that existing protection systems for NPPs contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Nowadays maintenance and repair for analog-based plant protection systems may be difficult as analog parts become obsolete or difficult to obtain. Accordingly, as an alternative to the analog technology, the digitalisation of the plant protection system was required. Recently digital plant protection systems which include programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and/or computers have been introduced. However PLC or computer-based plant protection systems use an operating system and application software, and so they may result in a common mode failure when a problem occurs in the operating system or application software. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to conventional protection or control systems. The paper presents the design of a four-channel plant protection system whose protection functions are implemented in FPGAs without any central processing unit or operating system.

  15. FPGA-Based Plant Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Kim, Hang Bae

    2011-01-01

    This paper relates to a plant protection system which detects non-permissible conditions and determines initiation of protective actions for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Conventional plant protection systems were designed based on analog technologies. It is well known that existing protection systems for NPPs contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Nowadays maintenance and repair for analog-based plant protection systems may be difficult as analog parts become obsolete or difficult to obtain. Accordingly, as an alternative to the analog technology, the digitalisation of the plant protection system was required. Recently digital plant protection systems which include programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and/or computers have been introduced. However PLC or computer-based plant protection systems use an operating system and application software, and so they may result in a common mode failure when a problem occurs in the operating system or application software. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to conventional protection or control systems. The paper presents the design of a four-channel plant protection system whose protection functions are implemented in FPGAs without any central processing unit or operating system

  16. Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2018-02-13

    Plant-based diets, defined in terms of low frequency of animal food consumption, have been increasingly recommended for their health benefits. Numerous studies have found plant-based diets, especially when rich in high quality plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes and intermediate risk factors. This review summarizes the current evidence base examining the associations of plant-based diets with cardiovascular endpoints, and discusses the potential biological mechanisms underlying their health effects, practical recommendations and applications of this research, and directions for future research. Healthful plant-based diets should be recommended as an environmentally sustainable dietary option for improved cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.

  18. Plant aging and design bases documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1985-01-01

    As interest in plant aging and lifetime extension continues to grow, the need to identify and capture the original design bases for the plant becomes more urgent. Decisions on lifetime extension and availability must be based on a rational understanding of design input, assumptions, and objectives. As operating plant time accumulates, the history of the early design begins to fade. The longer the utility waits, the harder it will be to re-establish the original design bases. Therefore, the time to develop this foundation is now. This paper demonstrates the impact that collecting and maintaining the original design bases of the plant can have on a utility's lifetime extension program. This impact becomes apparent when considering the technical, regulatory and financial aspects of lifetime extension. It is not good enough to know that the design information is buried somewhere in the corporate archives, and that given enough time, it could be retrieved. To be useful to the lifetime extension program, plant design information must be concise, readily available (i.e., retrievable), and easy to use. These objectives can only be met through a systematic program for collecting and presenting plant design documentation. To get the maximum benefit from a lifetime extension program, usable design bases documentation should be available as early in the plant life as possible. It will help identify areas that require monitoring today so that data is available to make rational decisions in the future

  19. Cytoplasmic and nuclear DNA markers as powerful tools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants are distinguished among eukaryotes in possessing two DNA-containing organelles, the mitochondrion and the plastid, whereas, most eucaryotes contain only the mitochondrial genome. Recently, both organelles are used efficiently in population studies as plant geneticists developed molecular techniques that ...

  20. Plant-mPLoc: a top-down strategy to augment the power for predicting plant protein subcellular localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chen Chou

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental goals in proteomics and cell biology is to identify the functions of proteins in various cellular organelles and pathways. Information of subcellular locations of proteins can provide useful insights for revealing their functions and understanding how they interact with each other in cellular network systems. Most of the existing methods in predicting plant protein subcellular localization can only cover three or four location sites, and none of them can be used to deal with multiplex plant proteins that can simultaneously exist at two, or move between, two or more different location sits. Actually, such multiplex proteins might have special biological functions worthy of particular notice. The present study was devoted to improve the existing plant protein subcellular location predictors from the aforementioned two aspects. A new predictor called "Plant-mPLoc" is developed by integrating the gene ontology information, functional domain information, and sequential evolutionary information through three different modes of pseudo amino acid composition. It can be used to identify plant proteins among the following 12 location sites: (1 cell membrane, (2 cell wall, (3 chloroplast, (4 cytoplasm, (5 endoplasmic reticulum, (6 extracellular, (7 Golgi apparatus, (8 mitochondrion, (9 nucleus, (10 peroxisome, (11 plastid, and (12 vacuole. Compared with the existing methods for predicting plant protein subcellular localization, the new predictor is much more powerful and flexible. Particularly, it also has the capacity to deal with multiple-location proteins, which is beyond the reach of any existing predictors specialized for identifying plant protein subcellular localization. As a user-friendly web-server, Plant-mPLoc is freely accessible at http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/plant-multi/. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to

  1. The prediction of the LWR plant accident based on the measured plant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.; Schmuck, P.

    2005-01-01

    In case of accident affecting a nuclear reactor, it is essential to anticipate the possible development of the situation to efficiently succeed in emergency response actions, i.e. firstly to be early warned, to get sufficient information on the plant: and as far as possible. The ASTRID (Assessment of Source Term for Emergency Response based on Installation Data) project consists in developing a methodology: of expertise to; structure the work of technical teams and to facilitate cross competence communications among EP players and a qualified computer tool that could be commonly used by the European countries to reliably predict source term in case of an accident in a light water reactor, using the information available on the plant. In many accident conditions the team of analysts may be located far away from the plant experiencing the accident and their decision making is based on the on-line plant data transmitted into the crisis centre in an interval of 30 - 600 seconds. The plant condition has to be diagnosed based on this information, In the ASTRID project the plant status diagnostics has been studied for the European reactor types including BWR, PWR and VVER plants. The directly measured plant data may be used for estimations of the break size from the primary system and its locations. The break size prediction may be based on the pressurizer level, reactor vessel level, primary pressure and steam generator level in the case of the steam generator tube rupture. In the ASTRID project the break predictions concept was developed and its validity for different plant types and is presented in the paper, when the plant data has been created with the plant specific thermohydraulic simulation model. The tracking simulator attempts to follow the plant behavior on-line based on the measured plant data for the main process parameters and most important boundary conditions. When the plant state tracking fails, the plant may be experiencing an accident, and the tracking

  2. Ochratoxin A Inhibits Mouse Embryonic Development by Activating a Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Der Hsuuw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA, a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects exerted by OTA on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, on subsequent embryonic attachment, on outgrowth in vitro, and following in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated with or without OTA (1, 5, or 10 μM for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining; apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay; and embryo implantation and post-implantation development were assessed by examination of in vitro growth and the outcome of in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 10 μM OTA displayed a significantly increased level of apoptosis and a reduction in total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked difference in implantation success rate between OTA-pretreated and control blastocysts either during in vitro embryonic development (following implantation in a fibronectin-coated culture dish or after in vivo embryo transfer. However, in vitro treatment with 10 μM OTA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos by the mouse uterus, and decreased fetal weight upon embryo transfer. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to OTA triggers apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development after transfer of embryos to host mice. In addition, OTA induces apoptosis-mediated injury of mouse blastocysts, via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling processes that impair subsequent embryonic development.

  3. Base case industrial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper briefly describes an industrial scale plant for reprocessing thermal oxide fuel. This description was used as a base case by the Group for their later assessments and for comparing actual national plans for reprocessing plants. The plant described uses the Purex process and assumes an annual throughput of 1000 t/U. The maintenance, safety and safeguards philosophy is described. An indication of the construction schedule and capital and operating costs is also given

  4. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  5. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  6. Two Strategies for the Development of Mitochondrion-Targeted Small Molecule Radiation Damage Mitigators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Celine; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 protein complex inhibitor BEB55 to mitigate radiation effects by clonogenic survival curves with the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 and the human bone marrow stromal (KM101) and pulmonary epithelial (IB3) cell lines. The p53-dependent mechanism of action was tested with p53 +/+ and p53 -/- murine bone marrow stromal cell lines. C57BL/6 NHsd female mice were injected i.p. with JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55 individually or in combination, after receiving 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Results: Each drug, JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55, individually or as a mixture of all three compounds increased the survival of 32D cl 3 (p = 0.0021, p = 0.0011, p = 0.0038, and p = 0.0073, respectively) and IB3 cells (p = 0.0193, p = 0.0452, p = 0.0017, and p = 0.0019, respectively) significantly relative to that of control irradiated cells. KM101 cells were protected by individual drugs (p = 0.0007, p = 0.0235, p = 0.0044, respectively). JP4-039 and MCF201-89 increased irradiation survival of both p53 +/+ (p = 0.0396 and p = 0.0071, respectively) and p53 -/- cells (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively), while BEB55 was ineffective with p53 -/- cells. Drugs administered individually or as a mixtures of all three after TBI significantly increased mouse survival (p = 0.0234, 0.0009, 0.0052, and 0.0167, respectively). Conclusion: Mitochondrial targeting of small molecule radiation mitigators decreases irradiation-induced cell death in vitro and prolongs survival of lethally irradiated mice.

  7. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  8. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P J [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  9. Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Coan, Susan; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Akter, Humaira; McLeod, Helen

    2015-01-01

    A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. PMID:26066012

  10. The sigma-1 receptor: roles in neuronal plasticity and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kourrich, Saïd; Su, Tsung-Ping; Fujimoto, Michiko; Bonci, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) have been implicated in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The Sig-1R is an intracellular chaperone that resides specifically at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion interface referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). Here, Sig-1Rs regulate ER-mitochondrion Ca2+ signaling. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Sig-1R functions. Based on this, we suggest that the key cellular mechanism linking Sig-1Rs to neur...

  11. A Web-Based Rice Plant Expert System Using Rule-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Setiawan Honggowibowo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants can be attacked by various kinds of diseases which are possible to be determined from their symptoms. However, it is to recognize that to find out the exact type of disease, an agricultural expert’s opinion is needed, meanwhile the numbers of agricultural experts are limited and there are too many problems to be solved at the same time. This makes a system with a capability as an expert is required. This system must contain the knowledge of the diseases and symptom of rice plants as an agricultural expert has to have. This research designs a web-based expert system using rule-based reasoning. The rule are modified from the method of forward chaining inference and backward chaining in order to to help farmers in the rice plant disease diagnosis. The web-based rice plants disease diagnosis expert system has the advantages to access and use easily. With web-based features inside, it is expected that the farmer can accesse the expert system everywhere to overcome the problem to diagnose rice diseases.

  12. Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus nanoparticles are described, and examples are provided. The review ends with a discussion of the implications of plant-based cancer immunotherapy for developing countries. PMID:28884013

  13. Users' guide for a personal-computer-based nuclear power plant fire data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Fire Data Base has been developed for use with an IBM XT (or with a compatible system). Nuclear power plant fire data is located in many diverse references, making it both costly and time-consuming to obtain. The purpose of this Fire Data Base is to collect and to make easily accessible nuclear power plant fire data. This users' guide discusses in depth the specific features and capabilities of the various options found in the data base. Capabilities include the ability to search several database fields simultaneously to meet user-defined conditions, display basic plant information, and determine the operating experience (in years) for several nuclear power plant locations. Step-by-step examples are included for each option to allow the user to learn how to access the data

  14. Development of a knowledge-based information management system for plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hyung Sang; Park, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Roh, Eun Chul; Lee, Byung Ine

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the importance of Plant Maintenance(PM) was highly raised to provide efficient plant operation which highly affects the productivity. For this reason, a number of engineering methodologies, such as Risk-Based Inspection(RBI), Fitness For Service guidelines(FFS), Plant Lifecycle Management(PLM), have been applied to improve the plant operation efficiency. Also, a network-based business operation system, which is called ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning), has been introduced in the field of plant maintenance. However, there was no attempt to connect engineering methodologies to the ERP PM system. In this paper, a knowledge-based information system for the plant operation of steel making company has been proposed. This system, which is named as K-VRS(Knowledge-based Virtual Reality System), provides a connection between ERP plant maintenance module and knowledge-based engineering methodologies, and thus, enables network-based highly effective plant maintenance process. The developed system is expected to play a great role for more efficient and safer plant maintenance

  15. Development of a knowledge-based information management system for plant maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hyung Sang; Park, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Eun Chul; Lee, Byung Ine [Pohang Iron and Steel Company, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Recently, the importance of Plant Maintenance(PM) was highly raised to provide efficient plant operation which highly affects the productivity. For this reason, a number of engineering methodologies, such as Risk-Based Inspection(RBI), Fitness For Service guidelines(FFS), Plant Lifecycle Management(PLM), have been applied to improve the plant operation efficiency. Also, a network-based business operation system, which is called ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning), has been introduced in the field of plant maintenance. However, there was no attempt to connect engineering methodologies to the ERP PM system. In this paper, a knowledge-based information system for the plant operation of steel making company has been proposed. This system, which is named as K-VRS(Knowledge-based Virtual Reality System), provides a connection between ERP plant maintenance module and knowledge-based engineering methodologies, and thus, enables network-based highly effective plant maintenance process. The developed system is expected to play a great role for more efficient and safer plant maintenance.

  16. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Ab Kasim; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah; Shukri Mohd

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  17. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  18. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  20. SciLab Based Remote Control of Thermo-Optical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Jano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the web-based implementation of the control system of a thermo-optical plant. The control of the plant is based on the SciLab software which originally is not designed for web-based applications. The paper shows a possible way to circumvent this limitation. The ultimate goal is to enable remote controlled experiment using SciLab. The paper also describes possible tools for communication and control of the real plant and visualization of results.

  1. An automated, high-throughput plant phenotyping system using machine learning-based plant segmentation and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Unseok; Chang, Sungyul; Putra, Gian Anantrio; Kim, Hyoungseok; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    A high-throughput plant phenotyping system automatically observes and grows many plant samples. Many plant sample images are acquired by the system to determine the characteristics of the plants (populations). Stable image acquisition and processing is very important to accurately determine the characteristics. However, hardware for acquiring plant images rapidly and stably, while minimizing plant stress, is lacking. Moreover, most software cannot adequately handle large-scale plant imaging. To address these problems, we developed a new, automated, high-throughput plant phenotyping system using simple and robust hardware, and an automated plant-imaging-analysis pipeline consisting of machine-learning-based plant segmentation. Our hardware acquires images reliably and quickly and minimizes plant stress. Furthermore, the images are processed automatically. In particular, large-scale plant-image datasets can be segmented precisely using a classifier developed using a superpixel-based machine-learning algorithm (Random Forest), and variations in plant parameters (such as area) over time can be assessed using the segmented images. We performed comparative evaluations to identify an appropriate learning algorithm for our proposed system, and tested three robust learning algorithms. We developed not only an automatic analysis pipeline but also a convenient means of plant-growth analysis that provides a learning data interface and visualization of plant growth trends. Thus, our system allows end-users such as plant biologists to analyze plant growth via large-scale plant image data easily.

  2. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified

  3. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  4. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ..., this 14th day of October 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0092] Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative Monitoring and...

  5. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    -scale DME plants based on gasification of torrefied biomass. 2. Small-scale DME/methanol plants based on gasification of wood chips. 3. Alternative methanol plants based on electrolysis of water and gasification of biomass. The plants were modeled by using the component based thermodynamic modeling...... why the differences, in biomass to DME/methanol efficiency, between the small-scale and the large-scale plants, showed not to be greater, was the high cold gas efficiency of the gasifier used in the small-scale plants (93%). By integrating water electrolysis in a large-scale methanol plant, an almost...... large-scale DME plant) to 63%, due to the relatively inefficient electrolyser....

  6. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystian Junqueira Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1 and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3. Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10 and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS.

  7. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  8. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  9. Supporting plant operation through computer-based procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Victor; Medrano, Javier; Mendez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Digital Systems are becoming more important in controlling and monitoring nuclear power plant operations. The capabilities of these systems provide additional functions as well as support operators in making decisions and avoiding errors. Regarding Operation Support Systems, an important way of taking advantage of these features is using computer-based procedures (CBPs) tools that enhance the plant operation. Integrating digital systems in analogue controls at nuclear power plants in operation becomes an extra challenge, in contrast to the integration of Digital Control Systems in new nuclear power plants. Considering the potential advantages of using this technology, Tecnatom has designed and developed a CBP platform taking currently operating nuclear power plants as its design basis. The result is a powerful tool which combines the advantages of CBPs and the conventional analogue control systems minimizing negative effects during plant operation and integrating operation aid-systems to support operators. (authors)

  10. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  11. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Stephan; Burd, Nicholas A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and consumer market interest is increasingly directed toward the use of plant-based proteins as dietary components aimed at preserving or increasing skeletal muscle mass. However, recent evidence suggests that the ingestion of the plant-based proteins in soy and wheat results in a lower muscle protein synthetic response when compared with several animal-based proteins. The possible lower anabolic properties of plant-based protein sources may be attributed to the lower digestibility of plant-based sources, in addition to greater splanchnic extraction and subsequent urea synthesis of plant protein-derived amino acids compared with animal-based proteins. The latter may be related to the relative lack of specific essential amino acids in plant- as opposed to animal-based proteins. Furthermore, most plant proteins have a relatively low leucine content, which may further reduce their anabolic properties when compared with animal proteins. However, few studies have actually assessed the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of plant proteins, with soy and wheat protein being the primary sources studied. Despite the proposed lower anabolic properties of plant vs. animal proteins, various strategies may be applied to augment the anabolic properties of plant proteins. These may include the following: 1) fortification of plant-based protein sources with the amino acids methionine, lysine, and/or leucine; 2) selective breeding of plant sources to improve amino acid profiles; 3) consumption of greater amounts of plant-based protein sources; or 4) ingesting multiple protein sources to provide a more balanced amino acid profile. However, the efficacy of such dietary strategies on postprandial muscle protein synthesis remains to be studied. Future research comparing the anabolic properties of a variety of plant-based proteins should define the preferred protein sources to be used in nutritional interventions to support skeletal muscle mass gain

  12. AgroKnowledgeBase (AKB) for plant diseases: Poppy plant use case

    OpenAIRE

    Terhorst, Andew; Morshed, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    World’s economy drives on crop production. Currently, most of the countries are facing food shortage in each year. Farmers are trying to increase their productivity but they need specific information so that they can take right decision in the right time. One of particular challenge facing farmers is plant disease, which can be defined as deviation from normal physiological functioning that harmful to a plant. In this paper, we proposed a knowledge based prototype called AKB that help farmer...

  13. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... EGCg shows dose-dependent protective effect against UV-B-induced damage on hairless mouse skin. Thus, the plant compound can potentially be used as an alternative agent for photoprotection against UV-B exposure. Keywords: UV-B, Green tea EGCg, Photoprotection, Stratum corneum, Mitochondrion, Melanosome ...

  14. In-plant reliability data base for nuclear power plant components: data collection and methodology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, J.P.; Borkowski, R.J.; Pike, D.H.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a component reliability data for use in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments and reliabiilty studies is presented in this report. The sources of the data are the in-plant maintenance work request records from a sample of nuclear power plants. This data base is called the In-Plant Reliability Data (IPRD) system. Features of the IPRD system are compared with other data sources such as the Licensee Event Report system, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data system, and IEEE Standard 500. Generic descriptions of nuclear power plant systems formulated for IPRD are given

  15. The Whole Genome Assembly and Comparative Genomic Research of Thellungiella parvula (Extremophile Crucifer Mitochondrion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial (mt genome of an extremophile species Thellungiella parvula (T. parvula have been determined with the lengths of 255,773 bp. T. parvula mt genome is a circular sequence and contains 32 protein-coding genes, 19 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes with a 11.5% coding sequence. The base composition of 27.5% A, 27.5% T, 22.7% C, and 22.3% G in descending order shows a slight bias of 55% AT. Fifty-three repeats were identified in the mitochondrial genome of T. parvula, including 24 direct repeats, 28 tandem repeats (TRs, and one palindromic repeat. Furthermore, a total of 199 perfect microsatellites have been mined with a high A/T content (83.1% through simple sequence repeat (SSR analysis and they were distributed unevenly within this mitochondrial genome. We also analyzed other plant mitochondrial genomes’ evolution in general, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organelles genomes in plants. Comparing with other Brassicaceae species, T. parvula is related to Arabidopsis thaliana whose characters of low temperature resistance have been well documented. This study will provide important genetic tools for other Brassicaceae species research and improve yields of economically important plants.

  16. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kahleova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

  17. Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus na...

  18. Virtual medical plant modeling based on L-system | Ding | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aid of graphics and PlantVR, we implemented the plant shape and 3-D structure's reconstruction. Conclusion: Three-dimensional structure virtual plant growth model based on time- controlled L-system has been successfully established. Keywords: Drug R&D, toxicity, medical plants, fractals; L-system; quasi binary-trees.

  19. Initial investigation of dietitian perception of plant-based protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Glenna J; Kress, Kathleen S; Armbrecht, Eric S; Mukherjea, Ratna; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2014-07-01

    Interest in plant-based diets is increasing, evidenced by scientific and regulatory recommendations, including Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Dietitians provide guidance in dietary protein selection but little is known about how familiar dietitians are with the quality of plant versus animal proteins or methods for measuring protein quality. Likewise, there is a need to explore their beliefs related to dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess dietitians' perceptions of plant-based protein quality and to determine if these are affected by demographic factors such as age and dietary practice group (DPG) membership. This was a cross-sectional design using an online survey. The survey was sent to all members of the Missouri Dietetic Association. All completed surveys (136) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were responses to belief and knowledge questions about the protein quality of plant-based diets, along with demographic information including age and DPG membership. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were determined, and chi-square analysis was used to determine the associations between belief and knowledge responses and demographic characteristics. Responses to belief statements suggested a high level of support for plant-based diets. No associations were found between any of the belief questions and demographic factors. A majority of respondents were not familiar with protein quality determination methods that are currently recognized by global regulatory and advisory agencies. Potential barriers identified in shifting to a more plant-based diet were lack of interest and perceived difficulty. Knowledge among dietitians of plant-based protein quality in general, and methods of protein quality measurement more specifically, needs to be addressed to enhance their knowledge base for making dietary protein recommendations. Two potential avenues for training are university curricula and continuing education opportunities provided to

  20. The development of base-isolated APWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Nitta, T.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows: The seismic design of nuclear power stations plays a critical role in the assurance of plant safety in Japan, and standardization of design is difficult to achieve because every site is subject to different seismic conditions. However, the introduction of seismic -isolation devices is one way to rationally achieve safety assurance and promote design standardization. Base-isolated APWR (advanced pressurized water reactor) plants were developed by applying seismic -isolation devices to APWR plants. The introduction of seismic -isolation devices, which are installed between the ground and buildings, largely decreases the effect of seismic force on buildings. Therefore, the limitation of building shape and eccentricity, which are undertaken in order to prevent the floating of buildings, could be eliminated. This permits the flexibility of building layouts, which result in a reduction of building volume. At the same time, the thickness of the buildings walls that are specific to nuclear power stations, can also be decreased except radiation shield. As for the base-isolated APWR equipment design, the rational design of support structures for equipment and pipings is possible, because the floor response acceleration is greatly reduced. For the cost reduction, it has been confirmed that the base-isolated APWR plants are more economical than traditional APWR plants even after the additionally required expenses for seismic-isolation devices are taken into account. This is primarily because of the rational design of the buildings and equipment which is possible as described above. Another advantage is that building standardization can be promoted because the seismic-isolation devices are able to control the seismic force transmitted to the buildings. This is accomplished by arranging the characteristics of the isolation devices according to the seismic conditions of each site. The introduction of these devices to nuclear power stations is nearly ready

  1. Feasibility design study. Land-based OTEC plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, J. H.; Minor, J.; Jacobs, R.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to determine the feasibility of installing 10 MWe (MegaWatt-electric) and 40 MWe land-based OTEC demonstration power plants at two specific sites: Keahole Point on the western shore of the island of Hawaii; and Punta Tuna, on the southeast coast of the main island of Puerto Rico. In addition, the study has included development of design parameters, schedules and budgets for the design, construction and operation of these plants. Seawater systems (intake and discharge pipes) were to be sized so that flow losses were equivalent to those expected with a platform-based OTEC power plant. The power module (components and general arrangement was established based on the TRW design. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  2. Exergoeconomic evaluation of a KRW-based IGCC power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsavonis, G.; Lin, L.; TawFik, T.; Gallaspy, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study supported by the US Department of Energy, in which several design configurations of Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW)-based Integrated Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants were developed. One of these configurations was analyzed from the exergoeconomic (thermoeconomic) viewpoint. The detailed exergoeconomic evaluation identified several changes for improving the cost effectiveness of this IGCC design configuration. Based on the cost information supplied by the M.W. Kellogg Company, an attempt was made to calculate the economically optimal exergetic efficiency for some of the most important plant components. This information is currently used in plant optimization studies

  3. Risk-based management of invading plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt-Twynam, Samuel R; Parnell, Stephen; Stutt, Richard O J H; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-05-01

    Effective control of plant disease remains a key challenge. Eradication attempts often involve removal of host plants within a certain radius of detection, targeting asymptomatic infection. Here we develop and test potentially more effective, epidemiologically motivated, control strategies, using a mathematical model previously fitted to the spread of citrus canker in Florida. We test risk-based control, which preferentially removes hosts expected to cause a high number of infections in the remaining host population. Removals then depend on past patterns of pathogen spread and host removal, which might be nontransparent to affected stakeholders. This motivates a variable radius strategy, which approximates risk-based control via removal radii that vary by location, but which are fixed in advance of any epidemic. Risk-based control outperforms variable radius control, which in turn outperforms constant radius removal. This result is robust to changes in disease spread parameters and initial patterns of susceptible host plants. However, efficiency degrades if epidemiological parameters are incorrectly characterised. Risk-based control including additional epidemiology can be used to improve disease management, but it requires good prior knowledge for optimal performance. This focuses attention on gaining maximal information from past epidemics, on understanding model transferability between locations and on adaptive management strategies that change over time. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Simulation Based Data Reconciliation for Monitoring Power Plant Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young

    2010-01-01

    Power plant efficiency is analyzed by using measured values, mass/energy balance principles, and several correlations. Since the measured values can have uncertainty depending on the accuracy of instrumentation, the results of plant efficiency should definitely have uncertainty. The certainty may occur due to either the randomness or the malfunctions of a process. In order to improve the accuracy of efficiency analysis, the data reconciliation (DR) is expected as a good candidate because the mathematical algorithm of the DR is based on the first principles such as mass and energy balance considering the uncertainty of instrumentation. It should be noted that the mass and energy balance model for analyzing power plant efficiency is equivalent to a steady-state simulation of a plant system. Therefore the DR for efficiency analysis necessitates the simulation which can deal with the uncertainty of instrumentation. This study will propose the algorithm of the simulation based DR which is applicable to power plant efficiency monitoring

  5. The research for the design verification of nuclear power plant based on VR dynamic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Yu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a new method of design verification through the VR plant, in order to perform verification and validation the design of plant conform to the requirements of accident emergency. The VR dynamic plant is established by 3D design model and digital maps that composed of GIS system and indoor maps, and driven by the analyze data of design analyzer. The VR plant could present the operation conditions and accident conditions of power plant. This paper simulates the execution of accident procedures, the development of accidents, the evacuation planning of people and so on, based on VR dynamic plant, and ensure that the plant design will not cause bad effect. Besides design verification, simulated result also can be used for optimization of the accident emergency plan, the training of accident plan and emergency accident treatment. (author)

  6. Plant response-based sensing for control starategies in sustainable greenhouse production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacira, M.; Sase, S.; Okushima, L.; Ling, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of environmental variability is one of the major concerns in experimental design for both research in plant systems and greenhouse plant production. Microclimates surrounding plants are not usually uniform. Therefore, many samples and sensors are required to obtain a true representation of the plant population. A plant monitoring system capable of reducing the required number of samples by reducing environmental variability would be more advantageous. To better understand plant-environment interaction, it is essential to study plants, microclimate surrounding the plants and the growth media. To achieve this, the monitoring system must be equipped with proper instrumentation. To achieve proper management practices and sustainable greenhouse production, it is essential first to understand plants and their interactions with their surroundings and then establish plant response-based sensing and control strategies for greenhouse processes. Therefore, an effort was conducted to review and discuss current sensing and control strategies in greenhouse research and plant production and provide recommendations on plant response-based sensing and control strategies for sustainable greenhouse production

  7. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  8. The absence of A-to-I editing in the anticodon of plant cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG demands a relaxation of the wobble decoding rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Carolin A; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A; Igloi, Gabor L

    2012-10-01

    It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNA (Arg) does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNA (Arg) ICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNA (Arg) ACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNA (Arg) ACG.

  9. Reliability research to nuclear power plant operators based on several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; Li Fu; Zhao Bingquan

    2009-01-01

    The paper utilizes many kinds of international reliability research methods, and summarizes the review of reliability research of Chinese nuclear power plant operators in past over ten years based on the simulator platform of nuclear power plant. The paper shows the necessity and feasibility of the research to nuclear power plant operators from many angles including human cognition reliability, fuzzy mathematics model and psychological research model, etc. It will be good to the safe operation of nuclear power plant based on many kinds of research methods to the reliability research of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  10. The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro

    2017-10-24

    Breastfeeding, infant formula and cow's milk are basic foods in infant nutrition. However, they are being increasingly replaced either totally or partially by plant-based beverages.The composition of 164 plant-based beverages available in Spain was reviewed based on the nutritional labeling of the package and the manufacturers' webpages. This was compared to the composition of cow's milk and infant formula. In addition, the nutritional disease associated with consumption of plant-based beverages in infants and children was reviewed by means of a literature search in Medline and Embase since 1990 based on the key words "plant-based beverages" or "rice beverages" or "almond beverages" or "soy beverages" and "infant" or "child".The nutritional composition of 54 soy beverages, 24 rice beverages, 22 almond beverages, 31 oat beverages, 6 coconut beverages, 12 miscellaneous beverages and 15 mixed beverages was described. At least 30 cases of nutritional disease in children associated with nearly exclusive consumption of plant-based beverages have been published. A characteristic association has been observed between soy beverage and rickets, rice beverage and kwashiorkor, and almond-based beverage and metabolic alkalosis.The nutritional quality of plant-based beverages is lower than that of cow's milk and infant formula, therefore they are not a nutritional alternative. Predominant or exclusive use of these beverages in infant feeding can lead to serious nutritional risks. In the case of nonexclusive feeding with these beverages, the pediatrician should be aware of the nutritional risks and limitations of these beverages in order to complement their deficiencies with other foods.

  11. Hazard identification based on plant functional modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.; Whetton, C.

    1993-10-01

    A major objective of the present work is to provide means for representing a process plant as a socio-technical system, so as to allow hazard identification at a high level. The method includes technical, human and organisational aspects and is intended to be used for plant level hazard identification so as to identify critical areas and the need for further analysis using existing methods. The first part of the method is the preparation of a plant functional model where a set of plant functions link together hardware, software, operations, work organisation and other safety related aspects of the plant. The basic principle of the functional modelling is that any aspect of the plant can be represented by an object (in the sense that this term is used in computer science) based upon an Intent (or goal); associated with each Intent are Methods, by which the Intent is realized, and Constraints, which limit the Intent. The Methods and Constraints can themselves be treated as objects and decomposed into lower-level Intents (hence the procedure is known as functional decomposition) so giving rise to a hierarchical, object-oriented structure. The plant level hazard identification is carried out on the plant functional model using the Concept Hazard Analysis method. In this, the user will be supported by checklists and keywords and the analysis is structured by pre-defined worksheets. The preparation of the plant functional model and the performance of the hazard identification can be carried out manually or with computer support. (au) (4 tabs., 10 ills., 7 refs.)

  12. Interplay between cytochrome c and gibberellins during Arabidopsis vegetative development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Racca, S.; Welchen, E.; Gras, D. E.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Maurino, V. G.; Gonzalez, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2018), s. 105-121 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cytochrome c * DELLA protein * gibberellin * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  13. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the U.S. nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement. Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. Both organizations recognized that performance indicators have limitations and could be subject to misinterpretation and misuse with the potential for an adverse impact on safety. This paper reports on performance indicators presently in use, e.g., unplanned automatic scrams, unplanned safety system actuation, safety system failures, etc., which are logically related to safety. But, a reliability/risk-based method for evaluating either individual indicators or an aggregated set of indicators is not yet available

  14. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli He

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  15. Photoprotection in Plants Optical Screening-based Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Solovchenko, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    Optical screening of excessive and potentially harmful solar radiation is an important photoprotective mechanism, though it has received much less attention in comparison with other systems preventing photooxidative damage to photoautotrophic organisms. This photoprotection in the form of screening appears to be especially important for juvenile and senescing plants as well as under environmental stresses—i.e. in situations where the efficiency of enzymatic ROS elimination, DNA repair and other ‘classical’ photoprotective systems could be impaired. This book represents an attempt to develop an integral view of optical screening-based photoprotection in microalgae and higher plants. Towards this end, the key groups of pigments involved in the screening of ultraviolet and visible components of solar radiation in microalgae and higher plants, and the patterns of their accumulation and distribution within plant cells and tissues, are described. Special attention is paid to the manifestations of screening pi...

  16. FIREDATA, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Event Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean 'and' or 'or' logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name of calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information. 2 - Method of solution: The six database files used to store nuclear power plant fire event information, FIRE, DESC, SUM, OPEXPER, OPEXBWR, and EXPERPWR, are accessed by software to display information meeting user-specified criteria or to perform numerical calculations (e.g., to determine the operating experience of a nuclear plant). FIRE contains specific searchable data relating to each of 354 fire events. A keyword concept is used to search each of the 31 separate entries or fields. DESC contains written descriptions of each of the fire events. SUM holds basic plant information for all plants proposed, under construction, in operation, or decommissioned. This includes the initial criticality and commercial operation dates, the physical location of the plant, and its operating capacity. OPEXPER contains date information and data on how various plant locations are

  17. Computer-based control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V.K.; Shugam, R.A.; Ol'shevsky, Yu.N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-based control systems of nuclear power plants may be classified into those using computers for data acquisition only, those using computers for data acquisition and data processing, and those using computers for process control. In the present paper a brief review is given of the functions the systems above mentioned perform, their applications in different nuclear power plants, and some of their characteristics. The trend towards hierarchic systems using control computers with reserves already becomes clear when consideration is made of the control systems applied in the Canadian nuclear power plants that pertain to the first ones equipped with process computers. The control system being now under development for the large Soviet reactors of WWER type will also be based on the use of control computers. That part of the system concerned with controlling the reactor assembly is described in detail

  18. The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in the Regulation of Mitochondrion-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Rats with Isopropylarterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Du

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the regulatory effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2 on myocardial injury induced by isopropylarterenol (ISO hydrochloride and its mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, ISO group, ISO plus SO2 group, and SO2 only group. Cardiac function was measured and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected. Bcl-2, bax and cytochrome c (cytc expressions, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in the left ventricular tissues were examined in the rats. The opening status of myocardial mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP and membrane potential were analyzed. The results showed that ISO-treated rats developed heart dysfunction and cardiac injury. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the left ventricular tissues was augmented, left ventricular tissue bcl-2 expression was down-regulated, bax expression was up-regulated, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced, MPTP opened, cytc release from mitochondrion into cytoplasm was significantly increased, and both caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities were increased. Administration of an SO2 donor, however, markedly improved heart function and relieved myocardial injury of the ISO-treated rats; it lessened cardiomyocyte apoptosis, up-regulated myocardial bcl-2, down-regulated bax expression, stimulated mitochondrial membrane potential, closed MPTP, and reduced cytc release as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in the left ventricular tissue. Hence, SO2 attenuated myocardial injury in association with the inhibition of apoptosis in myocardial tissues, and the bcl-2/cytc/caspase-9/caspase-3 pathway was possibly involved in this process.

  19. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    McMacken, Michelle; Shah, Sapana

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk ...

  20. Screen-based process control in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Arnoldt, C.; Hessler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Requirements, development and conceptual design of a screen-based control room for nuclear power plants are outlined. The control room consists of three or four equally equipped operator workstations comprising screens for process information and manual process control. A plant overview will assist the coordination among the operators. A safety classified backup system (safety control area) is provided to cover postulated failures of the control means. Some aspects of ergonomical validation and of future development trends are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Vegetarian on purpose: Understanding the motivations of plant-based dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel L; Burrow, Anthony L

    2017-09-01

    Much recent research has explored vegetarians' dietary motivations, recurrently highlighting the significant influence they exert on how people view themselves and others. For vegetarians and other plant-based dieters, dietary motivations have been theorized to be a central aspect of identity. Yet not all plant-based dieters are motivated to follow their diets; rather, some face aversions and constraints. In this paper, we propose that motivations, aversions, and constraints constitute three distinct reasons for consuming a plant-based diet. After conceptually distinguishing motivations from aversions and constraints, we critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two conceptual frameworks that exist for studying these motivations systematically: the ethical-health framework and the Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI) motivational orientations framework. Importantly, these frameworks serve different purposes, and their suitability often depends on the research question at hand. Particularly given an increasing prevalence of plant-based dieting, cultivating a more holistic understanding of these two frameworks is necessary for advancing this discipline. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward risk-based control of nuclear power plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Veseley, W.E.; Kim, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Futhermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period. (orig.)

  3. IPE Data Base: Plant design, core damage frequency and containment performance information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Lin, C.C.; Pratt, W.T.; Su, T.; Danziger, L.

    1995-01-01

    This data base stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants have conducted in response to NRC's Generic Letter GL88-20. The IPE Data Base is a collection of linked files which store information about plant design, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. The information contined in the various files is based on data contained in the IPE submittals. The information extracted from the submittals and entered into the IPE Data Base can be maniulated so that queries regarding individual or groups of plants can be answered using the IPE Data Base. The IPE Data Base supports detailed inquiries into the characteristics of individual plants or classes of plants. Progress has been made on the IPE Data Base and it is largely complete. Recent focus has been the development of a user friendly version which is menu driven and allows the user to ask queries of varying complexity easily, without the need to become familiar with particular data base formats or conventions such as those of DBase IV or Microsoft Access. The user can obtain the information he desired by quickly moving through a series of on-screen menus and ''clicking'' on appropriate choices. In this way even a first time user can benefit from the large amount of information stored in the IPE Data Base without the need of a learning period

  4. Risk-based inspection in the context of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Wellington A.; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power plant owners have to consider several aspects like safety, availability, costs and radiation exposure during operation of nuclear power plants. They also need to demonstrate to regulatory bodies that risk assessment and inspection planning processes are being implemented in effective and appropriate manner. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) is a methodology that, unlike time-based inspection, involves a quantitative assessment of both failure probability and consequence associated with each safety-related item. A correctly implemented RBI program classifies individual equipment by its risks and prioritizes inspection efforts based on this classification. While in traditional deterministic approach, the inspection frequencies are constant, in the RBI approach the inspection interval for each item depends on the risk level. Regularly, inspection intervals from RBI result in risk levels lower or equal than deterministic inspection intervals. According to the literature, RBI solutions improve integrity and reduce costs through a more effective inspection. Risk-Informed In-service Inspection (RI-ISI) is the equivalent term used in the nuclear area. Its use in nuclear power plants around world is briefly reviewed in this paper. Identification of practice methodologies for performing risk-based analyses presented in this paper can help both Brazilian nuclear power plant operator and regulatory body in evaluating the RI-ISI technique feasibility as a tool for optimizing inspections within nuclear plants. (author)

  5. Risk-based inspection in the context of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Wellington A.; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plant owners have to consider several aspects like safety, availability, costs and radiation exposure during operation of nuclear power plants. They also need to demonstrate to regulatory bodies that risk assessment and inspection planning processes are being implemented in effective and appropriate manner. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) is a methodology that, unlike time-based inspection, involves a quantitative assessment of both failure probability and consequence associated with each safety-related item. A correctly implemented RBI program classifies individual equipment by its risks and prioritizes inspection efforts based on this classification. While in traditional deterministic approach, the inspection frequencies are constant, in the RBI approach the inspection interval for each item depends on the risk level. Regularly, inspection intervals from RBI result in risk levels lower or equal than deterministic inspection intervals. According to the literature, RBI solutions improve integrity and reduce costs through a more effective inspection. Risk-Informed In-service Inspection (RI-ISI) is the equivalent term used in the nuclear area. Its use in nuclear power plants around world is briefly reviewed in this paper. Identification of practice methodologies for performing risk-based analyses presented in this paper can help both Brazilian nuclear power plant operator and regulatory body in evaluating the RI-ISI technique feasibility as a tool for optimizing inspections within nuclear plants. (author)

  6. Small Nuclear Co-generation Plants Based on Shipbuilding Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V. I.; Veshnyakov, K. B.; Goryunov, E. V.; Zalugin, V. I.; Panov, Yu. K.; Polunichev, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear cogeneration plants and power desalination complexes of relatively small power, using proven shipbuilding technology, becomes more and more attractive for solving the power supply problems of remote districts of the Extreme North and the Far East with small and medium power grids and for removing the shortage of fresh water in different world regions. The idea of transportation of the power unit with high degree of readiness to the place of its location with minimum construction and mounting activities at the site is very attractive. Compactness typical of RP based on shipbuilding technology allows to develop floating or ground-based plants at minimum use of water area and territory. Small construction scope at the site under conditions of minimum anthropogenic loads and high ecological indices are important arguments in favor of floating nuclear cogeneration plant based on ship power units against the alternative fossil sources. At present, the activities on floating nuclear cogeneration plant design, which is developed on the basis of floating power unit with two KLT-40S reactor plant, which is a modified option of standard KLT-40-type ship plant for icebreaker fleet in Russia are the most advanced. To date, a detailed design of reactor plant has been developed and approved, design activities on floating power unit are in the stage of completion, the site for its location has been selected and licensing by GAN, Russia, is in progress. Besides OKBM has developed some designs of nuclear cogeneration plants of different power on the basis of integral reactor plants, using the experience of transport and stationary power plants designing. Nuclear cogeneration plant investment analysis showed acceptable social and economical efficiency of the design that creates conditions for commercial construction of floating power units with KLT-40S reactor plan. At the same time the reduction of the design recovering terms, increase of budget income and

  7. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  8. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  9. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J [Duke Engineering and Services, Marlborough, MA (United States); Rumble, E; Rodwell, E [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  10. Solid-support substrates for plant growth at a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    Zeoponics is only in its developmental stages at the Johnson Space Center and is defined as the cultivation of plants in zeolite substrates that contain several essential plant growth cations on their exchange sites, and have minor amounts of mineral phases and/or anion-exchange resins that supply essential plant growth anions. Zeolites are hydrated aluminosilicates of alkali and alkaline earth cations with the ability to exchange most of their constituent exchange cations as well as hydrate/dehydrate without change to their structural framework. Because zeolites have extremely high cation exchange capabilities, they are very attractive media for plant growth. It is possible to partially or fully saturate plant-essential cations on zeolites. Zeoponic systems will probably have their greatest applications at planetary bases (e.g., lunar bases). Lunar raw materials will have to be located that are suited for the synthesis of zeolites and other exchange resings. Lunar 'soil' simulants have been or are being prepared for zeolite/smectite synthesis and 'soil' dissolution studies.

  11. An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Kikuo; Akagi, Shinsuke; Nakatogawa, Tetsundo; Tanaka, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants has been developed. The design of the layout of nuclear power plants is a time-consuming task requiring expertise, in which a lot of machinery and equipment must be arranged in a plant building considering various kinds of design constraints, i.e. spatial, functional, economical etc. Computer aided layout design systems have been widely expected and the application of AI technology is expected as a promising approach for the synthesis phase of this task. In this paper, we present an approach to the layout design of nuclear power plants based on a constraint-directed search; one of the AI techniques. In addition, we show how it was implemented with an object-oriented programming technique and give an example of its application. (author)

  12. Performance Based Failure Criteria of the Base Isolation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The realistic approach to evaluate the failure state of the base isolation system is necessary. From this point of view, several concerns are reviewed and discussed in this study. This is the preliminary study for the performance based risk assessment of a base isolated nuclear power plant. The items to evaluate the capacity and response of an individual base isolator and a base isolation system were briefly outlined. However, the methodology to evaluate the realistic fragility of a base isolation system still needs to be specified. For the quantification of the seismic risk for a nuclear power plant structure, the failure probabilities of the structural component for the various seismic intensity levels need to be calculated. The failure probability is evaluated as the probability when the seismic response of a structure exceeds the failure criteria. Accordingly, the failure mode of the structural system caused by an earthquake vibration should be defined first. The type of a base isolator appropriate for a nuclear power plant structure is regarded as an elastometric rubber bearing with a lead core. The failure limit of the lead-rubber bearing (LRB) is not easy to be predicted because of its high nonlinearity and a complex loading condition by an earthquake excitation. Furthermore, the failure mode of the LRB system installed below the nuclear island cannot be simply determined because the basemat can be sufficiently supported if the number of damaged isolator is not much

  13. Non-coding RNA may be associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, James D.; Koloušková, Pavla; Sloan, D.B.; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1599-1612 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Editing * Mitochondrion * Non-coding RNA * Silene vulgaris * Splicing * Transcriptome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  14. The knowledge-based framework for a nuclear power plant operator advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    An important facet in the design, development, and evaluation of aids for complex systems is the identification of the tasks performed by the operator. Operator aids utilizing artificial intelligence, or more specifically knowledge-based systems, require identification of these tasks in the context of a knowledge-based framework. In this context, the operator responses to the plant behavior are to monitor and comprehend the state of the plant, identify normal and abnormal plant conditions, diagnose abnormal plant conditions, predict plant response to specific control actions, and select the best available control action, implement a feasible control action, monitor system response to the control action, and correct for any inappropriate responses. These tasks have been identified to formulate a knowledge-based framework for an operator advisor under development at Ohio State University that utilizes the generic task methodology proposed by Chandrasekaran. The paper lays the foundation to identify the responses as a knowledge-based set of tasks in accordance with the expected human operator responses during an event. Initial evaluation of the expert system indicates the potential for an operator aid that will improve the operator's ability to respond to both anticipated and unanticipated events

  15. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

  16. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.J.; Kim, I.S.; Hwang, I.K.; Lee, D.Y.; Ham, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  17. INFORMATION SYSTEM SALES OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS-BASED ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutedi Sutedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants have fairly high commercial value and much sought after by various circles. The prospect is in the business of ornamental plants can be said very brilliant and profitable. Where is in the business of ornamental plants can bring about advantages not the least. The business struggled with ornamental plants can have very favorable prospects for the long term. There are an awful lot of various kinds of ornamental plants that we can choose to use as ornaments to beautify residential home. The ornamental plants can be used as indoor ornamental plants placed in homes or can also be used as outdoor ornamental plants grown in the garden. Ornamental plants while more popular community-wide information system for ornamental plant however is currently designed specifically and not many people who know the information on price and specs or type of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants so that the need for sales information system of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants-based online. With the sales information system of Indoor and Outdoor ornamental plants-based online is expected to facilitate the customers, business processes that occur in the company's units, unit – units that exist within the system a functioning production units as the unit working on/produce ornamental plants. With the utilization of the system marketing media, promoting, finding new customers, the sales process, recapitulation payment of ornamental plants, control the conditions of stock products, development and delivery of products to customers including convincing the product gets to the customer

  18. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  19. Model-based plant-wide optimization of large-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2017-01-01

    Second generation biorefineries transform lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals with higher added value following a conversion mechanism that consists of: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and purification. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal operational point...... with respect to maximum economic profit of a large scale biorefinery plant using a systematic model-based plantwide optimization methodology. The following key process parameters are identified as decision variables: pretreatment temperature, enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, and yeast loading per batch...... in fermentation. The plant is treated in an integrated manner taking into account the interactions and trade-offs between the conversion steps. A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis follows at the optimal solution considering both model and feed parameters. It is found that the optimal point is more sensitive...

  20. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMacken, Michelle; Shah, Sapana

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Evidence from observational and interventional studies demonstrates the benefits of plant-based diets in treating type 2 diabetes and reducing key diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications. Optimal macronutrient ratios for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes are controversial; the focus should instead be on eating patterns and actual foods. However, the evidence does suggest that the type and source of carbohydrate (unrefined versus refined), fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated versus saturated and trans), and protein (plant versus animal) play a major role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Multiple potential mechanisms underlie the benefits of a plant-based diet in ameliorating insulin resistance, including promotion of a healthy body weight, increases in fiber and phytonutrients, food-microbiome interactions, and decreases in saturated fat, advanced glycation endproducts, nitrosamines, and heme iron.

  1. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... fertility, the term “mobile green manures” is used for green-manure crops that are harvested in one field and then moved as a whole and used as fertilizer in other fields. To further investigate mobile-green-manure crops for use as efficient fertilizers, pot and field experiments were conducted...... with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and kale (Brassica oleracea sabellica) supplied with organic matter consisting of a wide range of plant species with varying nutrient concentrations. Further, field experiments were conducted with leek (Allium porrum) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) supplied...

  2. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizeng Jia; Hongjie Li; Xueyong Zhang; Zichao Li; Lijuan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR) or "Genoplasmics" is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  3. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with comparat...

  4. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro; Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor; Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  5. Quantitative assessment of energy and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants based on plant-wide simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I; Garrido, J M; Puig, S; Poch, M; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2017-07-01

    The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective. In order to demonstrate the potential of the library and the need to run simulation analyses, this paper carries out a comparative analysis of WWTPs, from a techno-economic point of view. The selected layouts were (1) a conventional WWTP based on a modified version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2, (2) an upgraded or retrofitted WWTP, and (3) a new Wastewater Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRF) concept denominated as C/N/P decoupling WWTP. The study was based on a preliminary analysis of the organic matter and nutrient energy use and recovery options, a comprehensive mass and energy flux distribution analysis in each configuration in order to compare and identify areas for improvement, and a cost analysis of each plant for different influent COD/TN/TP ratios. Analysing the plants from a standpoint of resources and energy utilization, a low utilization of the energy content of the components could be observed in all configurations. In the conventional plant, the COD used to produce biogas was around 29%, the upgraded plant was around 36%, and 34% in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP. With regard to the self-sufficiency of plants, achieving self-sufficiency was not possible in the conventional plant, in the upgraded plant it depended on the influent C/N ratio, and in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP layout self-sufficiency was feasible for almost all influents

  6. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J. [Duke Engineering and Services, Marlborough, MA (United States); Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  7. Novel 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and carbinols as bifunctional anti-Chagasic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria V.; Bloomer, William D.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Rosenzweig, Howard S.; Kaiser, Marcel; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Wilkinson, Shane R.; Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2015-01-01

    3-Nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-based amides with a linear, rigid core and 3-nitrotriazole-based fluconazole analogs were synthesized as dual functioning antitrypanosomal agents. Such compounds are excellent substrates for type I nitroreductase (NTR) located in the mitochondrion of trypanosomatids and, at the same time, act as inhibitors of the sterol 14α-demethylase (T. cruzi CYP51) enzyme. Because combination treatments against parasites are often superior to monotherapy, we believe that this emerging class of bifunctional compounds may introduce a new generation of antitrypanosomal drugs. In the present work, the synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of such compounds is discussed. PMID:25580906

  8. In-plant reliability data base for nuclear plant components: a feasibility study on human error information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Fragola, J.R.; Schurman, D.L.; Johnson, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the procedure and final results of a feasibility study which examined the usefulness of nuclear plant maintenance work requests in the IPRDS as tools for understanding human error and its influence on component failure and repair. Developed in this study were (1) a set of criteria for judging the quality of a plant maintenance record set for studying human error; (2) a scheme for identifying human errors in the maintenance records; and (3) two taxonomies (engineering-based and psychology-based) for categorizing and coding human error-related events

  9. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  10. Model-based reasoning and the control of process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, Heikki

    1993-02-01

    In addition to feedback control, safe and economic operation of industrial process plants requires discrete-event type logic control like for example automatic control sequences, interlocks, etc. A lot of complex routine reasoning is involved in the design and verification and validation (VandV) of such automatics. Similar reasoning tasks are encountered during plant operation in action planning and fault diagnosis. The low-level part of the required problem solving is so straightforward that it could be accomplished by a computer if only there were plant models which allow versatile mechanised reasoning. Such plant models and corresponding inference algorithms are the main subject of this report. Deep knowledge and qualitative modelling play an essential role in this work. Deep knowledge refers to mechanised reasoning based on the first principles of the phenomena in the problem domain. Qualitative modelling refers to knowledge representation formalism and related reasoning methods which allow solving problems on an abstraction level higher than for example traditional simulation and optimisation. Prolog is a commonly used platform for artificial intelligence (Al) applications. Constraint logic languages like CLP(R) and Prolog-III extend the scope of logic programming to numeric problem solving. In addition they allow a programming style which often reduces the computational complexity significantly. An approach to model-based reasoning implemented in constraint logic programming language CLP(R) is presented. The approach is based on some of the principles of QSIM, an algorithm for qualitative simulation. It is discussed how model-based reasoning can be applied in the design and VandV of plant automatics and in action planning during plant operation. A prototype tool called ISIR is discussed and some initial results obtained during the development of the tool are presented. The results presented originate from preliminary test results of the prototype obtained

  11. Engineered chitosan based nanomaterials: Bioactivities, mechanisms and perspectives in plant protection and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, R V; Kumari, Sarita; Choudhary, Ram Chandra; Pal, Ajay; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Saharan, Vinod

    2018-07-01

    Excessive use of agrochemicals for enhancing crop production and its protection posed environmental and health concern. Integration of advanced technology is required to realize the concept of precision agriculture by minimizing the input of pesticides and fertilizers per unit while improving the crop productivity. Notably, chitosan based biodegradable nanomaterials (NMs) including nanoparticles, nanogels and nanocomposites have eventually proceeded as a key choice in agriculture due to their inimitable properties like antimicrobial and plant growth promoting activities. The foreseeable role of chitosan based NMs in plants might be in achieving sustainable plant growth through boosting the intrinsic potential of plants. In-spite of the fact that chitosan based NMs abode immense biological activities in plants, these materials have not yet been widely adopted in agriculture due to poor understanding of their bioactivity and modes of action towards pathogenic microbes and in plant protection and growth. To expedite the anticipated claims of chitosan based NMs, it is imperative to line up all the possible bioactivities which denote for sustainable agriculture. Herein, we have highlighted, in-depth, various chitosan based NMs which have been used in plant growth and protection mainly against fungi, bacteria and viruses and have also explained their modes of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selbig Joachim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In the Golm Plant Database System, we devised a data management system based on a classical Laboratory Information Management System combined with web-based user interfaces for data entry and retrieval to collect this information in an academic environment. Results The database system contains modules representing the genetic features of the germplasm, the experimental conditions and the sampling details. In the germplasm module, genetically identical lines of biological material are generated by defined workflows, starting with the import workflow, followed by further workflows like genetic modification (transformation, vegetative or sexual reproduction. The latter workflows link lines and thus create pedigrees. For experiments, plant objects are generated from plant lines and united in so-called cultures, to which the cultivation conditions are linked. Materials and methods for each cultivation step are stored in a separate ACCESS database of the plant cultivation unit. For all cultures and thus every plant object, each cultivation site and the culture's arrival time at a site are logged by a barcode-scanner based system. Thus, for each plant object, all site-related parameters, e.g. automatically logged climate data, are available. These life history data and genetic information for the plant objects are linked to analytical results by the sampling module, which links sample components to plant object identifiers. This workflow uses controlled vocabulary for organs and treatments. Unique

  13. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Soret, Sam

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based diets in comparison to diets rich in animal products are more sustainable because they use many fewer natural resources and are less taxing on the environment. Given the global population explosion and increase in wealth, there is an increased demand for foods of animal origin. Environmental data are rapidly accumulating on the unsustainability of current worldwide food consumption practices that are high in meat and dairy products. Natural nonrenewable resources are becoming scarce, and environmental degradation is rapidly increasing. At the current trends of food consumption and environmental changes, food security and food sustainability are on a collision course. Changing course (to avoid the collision) will require extreme downward shifts in meat and dairy consumption by large segments of the world's population. Other approaches such as food waste reduction and precision agriculture and/or other technological advances have to be simultaneously pursued; however, they are insufficient to make the global food system sustainable. For millennia, meatless diets have been advocated on the basis of values, and large segments of the world population have thrived on plant-based diets. "Going back" to plant-based diets worldwide seems to be a reasonable alternative for a sustainable future. Policies in favor of the global adoption of plant-based diets will simultaneously optimize the food supply, health, environmental, and social justice outcomes for the world's population. Implementing such nutrition policy is perhaps one of the most rational and moral paths for a sustainable future of the human race and other living creatures of the biosphere that we share. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Mitochondrial membrane potential-based genome-wide RNAi screen of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verner, Zdeněk; Paris, Zdeněk; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2010), s. 1241-1244 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GENE-FUNCTION * INTERFERENCE * mitochondrion * SUBUNITS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2010

  15. Energy and economic optimization of a membrane-based oxyfuel steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarko, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is one technological option for reducing CO 2 emissions. The oxyfuel process is based on the combustion of fossil fuels in an oxygen-flue gas atmosphere with the subsequent concentration of CO 2 . The oxygen is produced by cryogenic air separation with an energy demand of 245 kWh el /t O2 . The application of ceramic membranes has the potential to reduce the specific energy demand of oxygen supply with consistently high-purity oxygen. This work focuses on - determining the efficiency of an advanced oxyfuel steam power plant that can be constructed today using membranes for oxygen production, - investigating and quantifying the potential for energy optimizing the overall process by changing its flow structure, - assessing the feasibility of individual optimization options based on their investment costs under market conditions. For this work, a method developed by Forschungszentrum Juelich and patented on 25 April 2012 under EP 2214806 is used. The Oxy-Vac-Juel concept is integrated into the oxyfuel steam power plant with simple process management using standardized power plant components. The net efficiency of the base power plant is 36.6 percentage points for an oxygen separation degree of 60 %. This corresponds to a net power loss of 9.3 percentage points compared to the reference power plant without CO 2 capture. The specific electricity demand of this oxygen supply method is 176 kWh el /t O2 . To increase the efficiency, the flow structure of the base power plant is optimized using industrially available components from power plant and process engineering. The 22 analyzed optimization options consist of design optimization of the gas separation process, the modification of the flue gas recirculation and the plant-internal waste heat utilization. The energetic advantage over the base power plant, depending on the optimization option, ranges from 0.05 - 1.00 percentage points. For each optimization option, the size and cost of the power

  16. Do plant-based amendments improve soil physiochemical and microbiological properties and plant growth in dryland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Background Land intensive practices including mining have contributed to the degradation of landscapes globally. Current challenges in post-mine restoration revolve around the use of substrates poor in organic materials (e.g. overburden and waste rock) and lack of original topsoil which may result in poor seedling recruitment and in later stages in soil nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity, decreased microbial activity and high salinity (Bateman et al., 2016; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Despite continuous efforts and advances we have not proportionally advanced our capability to successfully restore these landscapes following mining. Recent attempts to improve plant establishment in arid zone restoration programs have included the application of plant based amendments to soil profiles. This approach usually aims to accelerate soil reconstruction via improvement of soil aggregate stability and increase of soil organic carbon, and water holding capacity. Whilst a significant amount of recent research has focused on the application of such amendments, studies on the potential application of plant based materials to recover soil functionality and re-establish plant communities in post-mined landscapes in arid regions are limited. Here we will discuss our work investigating the application of a plant based amendment on soil substrates commonly used in post mining restoration in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Methodology The study was conducted in a glasshouse facility where environmental conditions were continuously monitored. Using two growth materials (topsoil and waste rock) and a plant based amendment (dry biomass of the most common grass in the Pilbara, Triodia wiseana) five different treatments were tested. Treatments consisted of control soil treatments (topsoil, waste and a mixture of the former soil types (mixture)) and two amended soil treatments (waste amended and mixture amended). Additionally, three different vegetation communities were studies

  17. Applying computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V. de; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana], e-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br, e-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br, e-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br, e-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br; Bruno, Diego S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Engenharia de Controle e Automacao], e-mail: diegosalomonebruno@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Plant operation procedures are used to guide operators in coping with normal, abnormal or emergency situations in a process control system. Historically, the plant procedures have been paper-based (PBP), with the digitalisation trend in these complex systems computer-based procedures (CBPs) are being developed to support procedure use. This work shows briefly the research on CBPs at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The emergency operation procedure EOP-0 of the LABIHS NPP simulator was implemented in the ImPRO CBP system. The ImPRO system was chosen for test because it is available for download in the Internet. A preliminary operation test using the implemented procedure in the CBP system was realized and the results were compared to the operation through PBP use. (author)

  18. Development of the Risk-Based Inspection Techniques and Pilot Plant Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Risk-based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants. System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the probabilistic risk analysis or probabilistic safety analysis developed to meet the individual plant evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for maintenance rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low-risk significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of pilot plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates that safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. The reduction in inspection reduces the person-rem exposure resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publication by the ASME CRTD

  19. Applications of computer based safety systems in Korea nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won Young Yun

    1998-01-01

    With the progress of computer technology, the applications of computer based safety systems in Korea nuclear power plants have increased rapidly in recent decades. The main purpose of this movement is to take advantage of modern computer technology so as to improve the operability and maintainability of the plants. However, in fact there have been a lot of controversies on computer based systems' safety between the regulatory body and nuclear utility in Korea. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), technical support organization for nuclear plant licensing, is currently confronted with the pressure to set up well defined domestic regulatory requirements from this aspect. This paper presents the current status and the regulatory activities related to the applications of computer based safety systems in Korea. (author)

  20. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  1. Plant cell wall sugars: sweeteners for a bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Wouwer, Dorien; Boerjan, Wout; Vanholme, Bartel

    2018-02-12

    Global warming and the consequent climate change is one of the major environmental challenges we are facing today. The driving force behind the rise in temperature is our fossil-based economy, which releases massive amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission, we need to scale down our dependency on fossil resources, implying that we need other sources for energy and chemicals to feed our economy. Here, plants have an important role to play; by means of photosynthesis, plants capture solar energy to split water and fix carbon derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide. A significant fraction of the fixed carbon ends up as polysaccharides in the plant cell wall. Fermentable sugars derived from cell wall polysaccharides form an ideal carbon source for the production of bio-platform molecules. However, a major limiting factor in the use of plant biomass as feedstock for the bio-based economy is the complexity of the plant cell wall and its recalcitrance towards deconstruction. To facilitate the release of fermentable sugars during downstream biomass processing, the composition and structure of the cell wall can be engineered. Different strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance will be described in this review. The ultimate goal is to obtain a tailor-made biomass, derived from plants with a cell wall optimized for particular industrial or agricultural applications, without affecting plant growth and development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Energetic evolution of cellular Transportomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani, Behrooz; Kell, Douglas B.; Borodina, Irina

    2018-01-01

    of the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The transportome analysis also indicated seven bacterial species, including Neorickettsia risticii and Neorickettsia sennetsu, as likely origins of the mitochondrion in eukaryotes, based on the phylogenetically restricted presence therein of clear homologues......) than in primitive eukaryotes (13%), algae and plants (10%) and in fungi and animals (5–6%). This decrease is compensated by an increased occurrence of secondary transporters and ion channels. The share of ion channels is particularly high in animals (ca. 30% of the transportome) and algae and plants...... of modern mitochondrial solute carriers. Conclusions: The results indicate that the transportomes of eukaryotes evolved strongly towards a higher energetic efficiency, as ATP-dependent transporters diminished and secondary transporters and ion channels proliferated. These changes have likely been important...

  3. Relative radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    1983-04-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides. However, low concentrations may become important if large quantities of coal are burnt in thermal power plants. Therefore a study was performed to determine the radioactivity in coal, in fly-ash and slag and assess the importance of radioactive emissions from thermal power plants. The results were compared to the radiological impact of nuclear power stations. Based on these data, theoretical estimates for the population living within 80km from power stations indicate that the collective dose commitments of coal-fired plants are one order of magnitude higher than those for BWR-type nuclear plants. Measurements taken in the vicinity of coal-fired plants were comparable to those for nuclear plants, i.e. within the range of variation of natural background radiation in India

  4. An ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and the mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It comprises an elongate, eleclron-dense nucleus, a single large mitochondrion and a thin layer of cytoplasm. There is no middle piece. The mitochondrion is disposed lateral to the nucleus. Granules (presumably glycogen) occur in the cytoplasm between the nucleus and the mitochondrion. Neither an acrosome nor any ...

  5. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  6. Individual-based ant-plant networks: diurnal-nocturnal structure and species-area relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.

  7. A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, H.; Yamada, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis is proposed in which both event-oriented and function-oriented knowledge are used. For the proposed system to be of practical use, these two types of knowledge are represented by mutually nested four frames, i.e. the component, causality, criteriality, and simulator frames, and production rules. The system provides fast inference capability for use as both a production system and a formal reasoning system, with uncertainty of knowledge taken into account in the former. Event-oriented knowledge is used in both diagnosis and guidance and function-oriented knowledge, in diagnosis only. The inference capability required is forward chaining in the former and resolution in the latter. The causality frame guides in the use of event-oriented knowledge, whereas the criteriality frame does so for function-oriented knowledge. Feedback nature of the plant requires the best first search algorithm that uses histories in the resolution process. The inference program is written in Lisp and the plant simulator and the process I/O control programs in Fortran. Fast data transfer between these two languages is realized by enhancing the memory management capability of Lisp to control the numerical data in the global memory. Simulation applications to a BWR plant demonstrated its diagnostic capability

  8. The sigma-1 receptor: roles in neuronal plasticity and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourrich, Saïd; Su, Tsung-Ping; Fujimoto, Michiko; Bonci, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) have been implicated in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The Sig-1R is an intracellular chaperone that resides specifically at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion interface referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). Here, Sig-1Rs regulate ER-mitochondrion Ca2+ signaling. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Sig-1R functions. Based on this, we suggest that the key cellular mechanism linking Sig-1Rs to neurological disorders involve the translocation of Sig-1Rs from the MAM to other parts of the cell, whereby Sig-1Rs bind and modulate the activities of various ion channels, receptors, or kinases. Thus, Sig-1Rs and their associated ligands may represent new avenues for treating some aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:23102998

  9. The sigma-1 receptor: roles in neuronal plasticity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourrich, Saïd; Su, Tsung-Ping; Fujimoto, Michiko; Bonci, Antonello

    2012-12-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) have been implicated in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. Sig-1Rs are intracellular chaperones that reside specifically at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion interface, referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). Here, Sig-1Rs regulate ER-mitochondrion Ca(2+) signaling. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Sig-1R functions. Based on this, we suggest that the key cellular mechanisms linking Sig-1Rs to neurological disorders involve the translocation of Sig-1Rs from the MAM to other parts of the cell, whereby Sig-1Rs bind and modulate the activities of various ion channels, receptors, or kinases. Thus, Sig-1Rs and their associated ligands may represent new avenues for treating aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H; Hamza, Mervat A; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F; Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Suker, Ragab M; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A; Nemr, Rahma A; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2016-03-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >10(6)-10(8) cfu g(-1) were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium.

  11. Plant diversity to support humans in a CELSS ground based demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, J. M.; Hoff, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) for human habitation in preparation for future long duration space flights is considered. The success of such a system depends upon the feasibility of revitalization of food resources and the human nutritional needs which are to be met by these food resources. Edible higher plants are prime candidates for the photoautotrophic components of this system if nutritionally adequate diets can be derived from these plant sources to support humans. Human nutritional requirements information based on current knowledge are developed for inhabitants envisioned in the CELSS ground based demonstrator. Groups of plant products that can provide the nutrients are identified.

  12. Knowledge base for power plant operation and its application to operation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Toshiaki

    1986-01-01

    The present study is aimed at constructing a knowledge base for supervisory control operation in power plants and developing an operation guidance by using it. Examination is made to provide dignosis procedures on the basis of an existing alarm system. An operation guidance procedure for diagnosis is proposed which is to be followed when several alarms are sounded simultaneously in a power plant, and application of the procedure to an existing plant is examined. The operation manual for the plant includes 75 description items for six alarms. It is shown that the number of items related to these alarms can be reduced by 70 % by rearranging them according to the procedure. Another investigation is conducted to provide an operation manual for diagnosis to be used when one alarm is sounded in a plant. The quality of the manual developed is on nearly the same level with that for the existing plant examined. When a knowledge base is to be constructed from an existing operation manual, the processing operation generally requires a certain level of linguistic comprehension ability, such as for judgment of synonyms. It is demonstrated that the procedure proposed here is able to develop a high-quality knowledge base with standardized terminology. The procedure can also serve to construct operation manuals for plants in other industrial fields. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Tuong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement. This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  14. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-07-29

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  15. Market drivers and challenges for gasification-based power plants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Karg; Frank Hannemann [Siemens Power Generation (PG) (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper begins by examining the present situation and future trends in the power generation market, before discussing existing IGCC plants and present market activities. IGCC plants in which Siemens are involved are given and coal-based IGCC applications are described. Finally improvement potential of IGCC, and technologies towards zero emission plants (including CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration) are discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Plant-based Rasayana drugs from Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma; Kukkupuni, Subrahmanya Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-02-01

    Rasayana tantra is one of the eight specialties of Ayurveda. It is a specialized practice in the form of rejuvenative recipes, dietary regimen, special health promoting behaviour and drugs. Properly administered Rasayana can bestow the human being with several benefits like longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from diseases, youthful age, excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum strength of physique and sense organs, respectability and brilliance. Various types of plant based Rasayana recipes are mentioned in Ayurveda. Review of the current literature available on Rasayanas indicates that anti-oxidant and immunomodulation are the most studied activities of the Rasayana drugs. Querying in Pubmed database on Rasayanas reveals that single plants as well as poly herbal formulations have been researched on. This article reviews the basics of Rasayana therapy and the published research on different Rasayana drugs for specific health conditions. It also provides the possible directions for future research.

  17. The status of RNAi-based transgenic research in plant nematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the understanding of nematode-plant interactions at the molecular level, new avenues for engineering resistance have opened up, with RNA interference being one of them. Induction of RNAi by delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA has been very successful in the model non-parasitic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, while in plant nematodes, dsRNA delivery has been accomplished by soaking nematodes with dsRNA solution mixed with synthetic neurostimulants. The success of in vitro RNAi of target genes has inspired the use of in planta delivery of dsRNA to feeding nematodes. The most convincing success of host-delivered RNAi has been achieved against root-knot nematodes. Plant-mediated RNAi has been shown to lead to the specific down-regulation of target genes in invading nematodes, which had a profound effect on nematode development. RNAi-based transgenics are advantageous as they do not produce any functional foreign proteins and target organisms in a sequence-specific manner. Although the development of RNAi-based transgenics against plant nematodes is still in the preliminary stage, they offer novel management strategy for the future.

  18. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  19. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Design of Ginseng Planting Environment Monitoring System Based on WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of ginseng products industry chain, this paper designs and implements ginseng planting environment monitoring system. The system realized data collection and detection of ginseng planting environment in real time by using wireless sensor, transmission of environmental parameters in real time by using GPRS wireless transmission module, and video monitor and alarm of ginseng land by using unattended machine. It is the foundation of information transformation of ginseng products industry chain based on the Internet of Things. The experiment of ginseng planting base in Fusong indicates the system can offer support of original data for scientific cultivation of ginseng, comprehensive analysis of ginseng products and propaganda of ginseng brand.

  1. Chronic administration of mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31 prevents atherosclerotic development in ApoE knockout mice fed Western diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory factors are deeply involved in progression of atherosclerosis. Mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31, selectively targeting to mitochondrial inner membrane reacting with cardiolipin, has been reported to inhibit ROS generation and mitigate inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate whether SS-31 could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in vivo.Male ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old fed with Western diet were treated with normal saline or SS-31 (1 mg/kg/d or 3 mg/kg/d through subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks. Oil Red O staining was performed to evaluate area and sizes of the plaques. DHE staining and immunohistochemical staining of 8-OHDG was performed to assess the oxidative stress. The aorta ATP contents were assessed by the ATP bioluminescence assay kit. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 and α-SMA and Masson's trichrome staining were performed to evaluate the composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Biochemical assays were performed to determine the protein level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. The levels of CD36, LOX-1 and ABCA1 were immunohistochemically and biochemically determined to evaluate the cholesterol transport in aorta and peritoneal macrophages. Inflammatory factors, including ICAM-1, MCP-1, IL-6 and CRP in serum, were detected through ELISA.SS-31 administration reduced the area and sizes of western diet-induced atherosclerotic plaques and changed the composition of the plaques in ApoE-/- mice. Oxidative stress was suppressed, as evidenced by the reduced DHE stain, down-regulated 8-OHDG expression, and increased SOD activity after chronic SS-31 administration. Moreover, systemic inflammation was ameliorated as seen by decreasing serum ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 levels. Most importantly, SS-31 administration inhibited cholesterol influx by down-regulating expression of CD36 and LOX-1 to prevent lipid accumulation to further suppress the foam cell formation and

  2. Survival and Growth of Cottonwood Clones After Angle Planting and Base Angle Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Randall; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    Presently, commercial cottonwood plantations in the lower Mississippi Valley are established using vertically planted, unrooted cuttings with a flat (90°) base. Neither survival nor first-year growth of a group of six Stoneville clones was improved by angle planting or cutting base angles diagonally. For one clone, survival was significantly better when base angle was...

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Ginna Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, R.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Moffitt, N.E.

    1991-09-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Ginna was selected as the eighth plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Ginna plant. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Next-generation sequencing approaches for improvement of lactic acid bacteria-fermented plant-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Bergsveinson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.

  5. Another Lesson from Plants: The Forward Osmosis-Based Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Argiolas, Alfredo; Puleo, Gian Luigi; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic actuation is a ubiquitous plant-inspired actuation strategy that has a very low power consumption but is capable of generating effective movements in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In light of these features, we aimed to develop a novel, low-power-consumption actuator that is capable of generating suitable forces during a characteristic actuation time on the order of a few minutes. Based on the analysis of plant movements and on osmotic actuation modeling, we designed and fabricated a forward osmosis-based actuator with a typical size of 10 mm and a characteristic time of 2–5 minutes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest osmotic actuator developed so far. Moreover, the achieved timescale can be compared to that of a typical plant cell, thanks to the integrated strategy that we pursued by concurrently addressing and solving design and material issues, as paradigmatically explained by the bioinspired approach. Our osmotic actuator produces forces above 20 N, while containing the power consumption (on the order of 1 mW). Furthermore, based on the agreement between model predictions and experimental observations, we also discuss the actuator performance (including power consumption, maximum force, energy density and thermodynamic efficiency) in relation to existing actuation technologies. In light of the achievements of the present study, the proposed osmotic actuator holds potential for effective exploitation in bioinspired robotics systems. PMID:25020043

  6. Another lesson from plants: the forward osmosis-based actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Argiolas, Alfredo; Puleo, Gian Luigi; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic actuation is a ubiquitous plant-inspired actuation strategy that has a very low power consumption but is capable of generating effective movements in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In light of these features, we aimed to develop a novel, low-power-consumption actuator that is capable of generating suitable forces during a characteristic actuation time on the order of a few minutes. Based on the analysis of plant movements and on osmotic actuation modeling, we designed and fabricated a forward osmosis-based actuator with a typical size of 10 mm and a characteristic time of 2-5 minutes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest osmotic actuator developed so far. Moreover, the achieved timescale can be compared to that of a typical plant cell, thanks to the integrated strategy that we pursued by concurrently addressing and solving design and material issues, as paradigmatically explained by the bioinspired approach. Our osmotic actuator produces forces above 20 N, while containing the power consumption (on the order of 1 mW). Furthermore, based on the agreement between model predictions and experimental observations, we also discuss the actuator performance (including power consumption, maximum force, energy density and thermodynamic efficiency) in relation to existing actuation technologies. In light of the achievements of the present study, the proposed osmotic actuator holds potential for effective exploitation in bioinspired robotics systems.

  7. Another lesson from plants: the forward osmosis-based actuator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Sinibaldi

    Full Text Available Osmotic actuation is a ubiquitous plant-inspired actuation strategy that has a very low power consumption but is capable of generating effective movements in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In light of these features, we aimed to develop a novel, low-power-consumption actuator that is capable of generating suitable forces during a characteristic actuation time on the order of a few minutes. Based on the analysis of plant movements and on osmotic actuation modeling, we designed and fabricated a forward osmosis-based actuator with a typical size of 10 mm and a characteristic time of 2-5 minutes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest osmotic actuator developed so far. Moreover, the achieved timescale can be compared to that of a typical plant cell, thanks to the integrated strategy that we pursued by concurrently addressing and solving design and material issues, as paradigmatically explained by the bioinspired approach. Our osmotic actuator produces forces above 20 N, while containing the power consumption (on the order of 1 mW. Furthermore, based on the agreement between model predictions and experimental observations, we also discuss the actuator performance (including power consumption, maximum force, energy density and thermodynamic efficiency in relation to existing actuation technologies. In light of the achievements of the present study, the proposed osmotic actuator holds potential for effective exploitation in bioinspired robotics systems.

  8. Plant-based anti-HIV-1 strategies: vaccine molecules and antiviral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Nunzia; Buonaguro, Luigi; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Cardi, Teodoro; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2010-08-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has drastically changed HIV infection from an acute, very deadly, to a chronic, long-lasting, mild disease. However, this requires continuous care management, which is difficult to implement worldwide, especially in developing countries. Sky-rocketing costs of HIV-positive subjects and the limited success of preventive recommendations mean that a vaccine is urgently needed, which could be the only effective strategy for the real control of the AIDS pandemic. To be effective, vaccination will need to be accessible, affordable and directed against multiple antigens. Plant-based vaccines, which are easy to produce and administer, and require no cold chain for their heat stability are, in principle, suited to such a strategy. More recently, it has been shown that even highly immunogenic, enveloped plant-based vaccines can be produced at a competitive and more efficient rate than conventional strategies. The high variability of HIV epitopes and the need to stimulate both humoral neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity suggest the importance of using the plant system: it offers a wide range of possible strategies, from single-epitope to multicomponent vaccines, modulators of the immune response (adjuvants) and preventive molecules (microbicides), either alone or in association with plant-derived monoclonal antibodies, besides the potential use of the latter as therapeutic agents. Furthermore, plant-based anti-HIV strategies can be administered not only parenterally but also by the more convenient and safer oral route, which is a more suitable approach for possible mass vaccination.

  9. An overview of a knowledge based system for preventive maintenance support of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya; Yokoo, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, much interest has been paid to knowledge engineering techniques for new vehicles of advanced information processing. As a practical application in electric power industry, this report discusses a knowledge based system for supporting preventive maintenance of nuclear power plants. To support preventive maintenance tasks, the system must have facilities to reason failures and accidents of the plants, to evaluate their significance, to predict any possible troubles, and to indentify appropriate preventive countermeasures for them. This report describes the overview of the prototype system from a viewpoint of knowledge engineering. The results of the study are as follows: (1) The knowledge base of the prototype system consists of a data-base on plants and a rule-base derived from experts' knowledge. Using the information in the knowledge base, the system diagnoses the plant without real-time interaction with operational plants. (2) Expert's knowledge in the rule-base is represented in the non-procedural declarative forms. These rules are organized in some hierarchical structure so as to be used efficiently and used in conjunction with the corresponding set of plant information in the data-base. (3) The prototype system is incrementally developed with the rapid prototyping techniques, that is, the processes of design, implementation and evaluation are repeated several times. (author)

  10. Convincing Conversations : Using a Computer-Based Dialogue System to Promote a Plant-Based Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Emma; Mills, Gregory; Hagen, Afke; Huisman, Carlijn; Hoeks, Jacobus

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a computer-based persuasive dialogue system designed to promote a plant-based diet. The production and consumption of meat and dairy has been shown to be a major cause of climate change and a threat to public health, bio-diversity, animal rights and

  11. 3D visualization based customer experiences of nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tienlung; Chou Chinmei; Hung Tamin; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs virtual reality (VR) technology to develop an interactive virtual nuclear plant control room in which the general public could easily walk into the 'red zone' and play with the control buttons. The VR-based approach allows deeper and richer customer experiences that the real nuclear plant control room could not offer. When people know more about the serious process control procedures enforced in the nuclear plant control room, they will appropriate more about the safety efforts imposed by the nuclear plant and become more comfortable about the nuclear plant. The virtual nuclear plant control room is built using a 3D game development tool called Unity3D. The 3D scene is connected to a nuclear plant simulation system through Windows API programs. To evaluate the usability of the virtual control room, an experiment will be conducted to see how much 'immersion' the users could feel when they played with the virtual control room. (author)

  12. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M. [AREVA NP Inc., 7207 IBM Drive, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  13. Situation awareness and trust in computer-based procedures in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throneburg, E. B.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Situation awareness and trust are two issues that need to be addressed in the design of computer-based procedures for nuclear power plants. Situation awareness, in relation to computer-based procedures, concerns the operators' knowledge of the plant's state while following the procedures. Trust concerns the amount of faith that the operators put into the automated procedures, which can affect situation awareness. This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based procedures. It then discusses the known aspects of situation awareness and trust as applied to computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants. An outline of a proposed experiment is then presented that includes methods of measuring situation awareness and trust so that these aspects can be analyzed for further study. (authors)

  14. An information offering system for operation support based on plant functional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga, Yukiharu; Seki, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    A plant information offering system was proposed to support operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation under transient conditions in nuclear power plants. The system features include an automatic selection method for information and a dialog input method. The former selects plant information in response to plant status changes and operators' demands. The selection is performed based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. In the latter, both speech and CRT touch inputs are transformed into words in Japanese to realize an arbitrary input mode combination. The words are analyzed as a sentence before transforming them into a demand for related programs. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator, assuming abnormal transients such as loss of feedwater. The contents of the offered information were checked based on emergency operation guidelines. It was confirmed that appropriate information items are automatically selected in real time. Answers are generated in reply to the operators' demands. They include information added to reflect the plant conditions. As for dialog, simple and quick input is realized by combining speech and CRT touch according to the operating situation. (author)

  15. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  16. Recent Progress on Data-Based Optimization for Mineral Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Ding

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized market environment, increasingly significant economic and environmental factors within complex industrial plants impose importance on the optimization of global production indices; such optimization includes improvements in production efficiency, product quality, and yield, along with reductions of energy and resource usage. This paper briefly overviews recent progress in data-driven hybrid intelligence optimization methods and technologies in improving the performance of global production indices in mineral processing. First, we provide the problem description. Next, we summarize recent progress in data-based optimization for mineral processing plants. This optimization consists of four layers: optimization of the target values for monthly global production indices, optimization of the target values for daily global production indices, optimization of the target values for operational indices, and automation systems for unit processes. We briefly overview recent progress in each of the different layers. Finally, we point out opportunities for future works in data-based optimization for mineral processing plants.

  17. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  18. PATENT ANALYSIS: A LOOK AT THE INNOVATIVE NATURE OF PLANT-BASED COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C. S. César

    Full Text Available The use of plants have become a important trend in cosmetic market, with a crescent number of patent applications. Despite various herbal-based ingredients have been described in scientific literature, most of them are restricted to patent databases. In this work we analyze the innovative use of plants and its derivatives in cosmetic technologies, based on patent analysis. The investigation was conducted using Derwent World Patents Index (Thomson Reuters Scientific, USA from 1995 to 2015. The search was carried out to evaluate the number of patent deposits, the patent depositors profiles, the countries with most patent applications, the International Patent Classification (IPC and the main plant families using in cosmetics. Patent analysis revealed an increase number of applications involving cosmetic containing plants components, with a higher number of deposits related to anti-ageing and whitening skin treatment. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Lilliacae and Apiaceae were the key plant families used in cosmetic formulations for skin care treatment. Comparison between scientific and technological data pointed out divergences between patents deposits and aid-based scientific reports. The use of patent analysis in combination with scientific data opens up wider aspects of knowledge and enables a better rationalization of innovative works.

  19. Advanced digital PWR plant protection system based on optimal estimation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    An advanced plant protection system for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant is described and evaluated. The system, based on a Kalman filter estimator, is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio, and maximum linear heat generation rate. The Kalman filter equations are presented, as is a description of the LOFT plant dynamic model inherent in the filter. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the advanced system

  20. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Curtis

    Full Text Available Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance.We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the 'plant characteristics' information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN, and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size.Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001. The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation.Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts' knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic tolerance, especially for

  1. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  2. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the North Anna nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1992-10-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. North Anna was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the North Anna plant

  3. Assessment of Plant-Probiotic Performance of Novel Endophytic Bacillus sp. in Talc-Based Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Jasim; Ravi, Aswani; Mathew, Jyothis; Krishnankutty, Radhakrishnan Edayileveettil

    2018-01-25

    Endophytic bacteria are considered to have a plethora of plant growth promoting and anti-phytopathogenic traits to live within the plants. Hence, they have immense promises for plant probiotic development. In the current study, plant probiotic endophytic Bacillus sp. CaB5 which has been previously isolated from Capsicum annuum was investigated for its performance in talc-based formulation. For this, CaB5 was made into formulation with sterile talc, calcium carbonate, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The viability analysis of the formulation by standard plate count and fluorescence methods has confirmed the stable microbial count up to 45 days. Plant probiotic performance of the prepared formulation was analyzed on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus). The results showed the formulation treatment to have enhancement effect on seed germination as well as plant growth in both selected plants. The results highlight the potential of CaB5-based formulation for field application to enhance growth of economically important plants.

  4. Chemical Composition and Seasonality of Aromatic Mediterranean Plant Species by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based metabolomic approach has been applied to analyse seven aromatic Mediterranean plant species used in traditional cuisine. Based on the ethnobotanical use of these plants, the approach has been employed in order to study the metabolic changes during different seasons. Primary and secondary metabolites have been detected and quantified. Flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives) and phenylpropanoid derivatives (e.g., chlorogenic and rosmarinic acid) are the main identified polyphenols. The richness in these metabolites could explain the biological properties ascribed to these plant species.

  5. Long-Acting Composite Systems Based on Powdered Medicinal Plants and Nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turov, V.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of water in the powdered plant materials (calendula, hibiscus and their composite systems with A-300 nanosilicas having different bulk density has been studied by low-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy method. The change in bulk density has been found to significantly affect the radius of inner cavities in fibrillar space of plant components. The composite systems based on wetting-drying compaction of nanosilica and plant powder have been showed to form a mix with high interaction energy of heterogeneous particles. This results in the effective retention of plant bioactive complex by composite, which enables the development of long-acting herbal drugs.

  6. Development and evaluation of a plant-based air filter system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated a novel plant-based air filter system for bacterial growth control. The volatile components released from the experimental plant (Cupressus macrocarpa) were used as the basis of the bacterial growth control and inhibition. We monitored the effect of light on the gas exhausted from the system, and we found ...

  7. Trend of computer-based console for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Tsunetaka; Serizawa, Michiya

    1975-01-01

    The amount of informations to be watched by the operators in the central operation room increased with the increase of the capacity of nuclear power generation plants, and the necessity of computer-based consoles, in which the informations are compiled and the rationalization of the interface between the operators and the plants is intended by introducing CRT displays and process computers, became to be recognized. The integrated monitoring and controlling system is explained briefly by taking Dungeness B Nuclear Power Station in Britain as a typical example. This power station comprises two AGRs, and these two plants can be controlled in one central control room, each by one man. Three computers including stand-by one are installed. Each computer has the core memory of 16 K words (24 bits/word), and 4 magnetic drums of 256 K words are installed as the external memory. The peripheral equipments are 12 CRT displays, 6 typewriters, high speed tape reader and tape punch for each plant. The display and record of plant data, the analysis, display and record of alarms, the control of plants including reactors, and post incident record are assigned to the computers. In Hitachi Ltd. in Japan, the introduction of color CRTs, the developments of operating consoles, new data-accessing method, and the consoles for maintenance management are in progress. (Kako, I.)

  8. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  9. Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Topp, Ed; Cox, Eric; Devriendt, Bert; Conrad, Udo; Joensuu, Jussi; Stöger, Eva; Warzecha, Heribert; McAllister, Tim; Potter, Andrew; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher; Menassa, Rima

    2014-12-31

    An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today's market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health Initiative that humans need to reduce the use of antibiotics and turn to alternative, improved means to control disease: vaccination and prophylactics. Besides the intense research focused on novel therapeutic molecules, both these strategies rely heavily on the availability of cost-effective, efficient and scalable production platforms which will allow large-volume manufacturing for vaccines, antibodies and other biopharmaceuticals. Within this context, plant-based platforms for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins offer significant advantages over conventional expression systems, including lack of animal pathogens, low production costs, fast turnaround and response times and rapid, nearly-unlimited scalability. Also, because dried leaves and seeds can be stored at room temperature for lengthy periods without loss of recombinant proteins, plant expression systems have the potential to offer lucrative benefits from the development of edible vaccines and prophylactics, as these would not require "cold chain" storage and transportation, and could be administered in mass volumes with minimal processing. Several biotechnology companies currently have developed and adopted plant-based platforms for commercial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. In this manuscript, we outline the challenges in the process of livestock immunization as well as the current

  10. Chemical Composition and Seasonality of Aromatic Mediterranean Plant Species by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An NMR-based metabolomic approach has been applied to analyse seven aromatic Mediterranean plant species used in traditional cuisine. Based on the ethnobotanical use of these plants, the approach has been employed in order to study the metabolic changes during different seasons. Primary and secondary metabolites have been detected and quantified. Flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives and phenylpropanoid derivatives (e.g., chlorogenic and rosmarinic acid are the main identified polyphenols. The richness in these metabolites could explain the biological properties ascribed to these plant species.

  11. New approach for risk based inspection of H2S based Process Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Sharma, Pavan K.; Santosh, T.V.; Hari Prasad, M.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study looks into improving the consequence evaluation in risk based inspection. • Ways to revise the quantity factors used in qualitative approach. • New approach based on computational fluid dynamics along with probit mathematics. • Demonstrated this methodology along with a suitable case study for the said issue. - Abstract: Recent trend in risk informed and risk based approaches in life management issues have certainly put the focus on developing estimation methods for real risk. Idea of employing risk as an optimising measure for in-service inspection, termed as risk based inspection, was accepted in principle from late 80s. While applying risk based inspection, consequence of failure from each component needs to be assessed. Consequence evaluation in a Process Plant is a crucial task. It may be noted that, in general, the number of components to be considered for life management is very large and hence the consequence evaluation resulting from their failures (individually) is a laborious task. Screening of critical components is usually carried out using simplified qualitative approach, which primarily uses influence factors for categorisation. This necessitates logical formulation of influence factors and their ranges with a suitable technical basis for acceptance from regulators. This paper describes application of risk based inspection for H 2 S based Process Plant along with the approach devised for handling the influence factor related to the quantity of H 2 S released

  12. Genetics-based interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores define arthropod community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Lamit, Louis J; Keith, Arthur R; Newcombe, George; Gehring, Catherine A; Whitham, Thomas G; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-07-01

    Plant resistance to pathogens or insect herbivores is common, but its potential for indirectly influencing plant-associated communities is poorly known. Here, we test whether pathogens' indirect effects on arthropod communities and herbivory depend on plant resistance to pathogens and/or herbivores, and address the overarching interacting foundation species hypothesis that genetics-based interactions among a few highly interactive species can structure a much larger community. In a manipulative field experiment using replicated genotypes of two Populus species and their interspecific hybrids, we found that genetic variation in plant resistance to both pathogens and insect herbivores modulated the strength of pathogens' indirect effects on arthropod communities and insect herbivory. First, due in part to the pathogens' differential impacts on leaf biomass among the two Populus species and the hybrids, the pathogen most strongly impacted arthropod community composition, richness, and abundance on the pathogen-susceptible tree species. Second, we found similar patterns comparing pathogen-susceptible and pathogen-resistant genotypes within species. Third, within a plant species, pathogens caused a fivefold greater reduction in herbivory on insect-herbivore-susceptible plant genotypes than on herbivore-resistant genotypes, demonstrating that the pathogen-herbivore interaction is genotype dependent. We conclude that interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores can structure multitrophic communities, supporting the interacting foundation species hypothesis. Because these interactions are genetically based, evolutionary changes in genetic resistance could result in ecological changes in associated communities, which may in turn feed back to affect plant fitness.

  13. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail.

  14. Plant-Based Lunch at Work: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Environmental Impact and Tastiness—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the environmental impact, nutrient intake, appreciation and tastiness of three buffet-style lunches served at the workplace, consisting of (1 animal-based foods; (2 plant-based foods; and (3 both animal-based and plant-based foods. Employees of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands participated in the study. Participants scored the lunch for appreciation and tastiness (scores from 1 to 10. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and land use associated with foods consumed were calculated using life cycle assessments. Nutrient intake was calculated using food composition data. The results show that both the plant-based and the combination lunch received higher scores for tastiness than the animal-based lunch. GHG emissions and land use were lowest for the plant-based lunch and highest for the animal-based lunch. The combination lunch was associated with increased fiber and decreased saturated fat intake compared to the animal-based lunch, but also lead to increased energy intake. The plant-based lunch did not increase energy intake, while increasing fiber intake and decreasing sodium (salt and saturated fat intakes. These initial results show that plant-based lunches have the potential to improve nutrient intake and tastiness while reducing environmental impact. Additional research in this field is worthwhile.

  15. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S. K.; Anurag, Rahul K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developi...

  16. Initial investigation of dietitian perception of plant-based protein quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Glenna J; Kress, Kathleen S; Armbrecht, Eric S; Mukherjea, Ratna; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    Interest in plant-based diets is increasing, evidenced by scientific and regulatory recommendations, including Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Dietitians provide guidance in dietary protein selection but little is known about how familiar dietitians are with the quality of plant versus animal proteins or methods for measuring protein quality. Likewise, there is a need to explore their beliefs related to dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess dietitians' perceptions of ...

  17. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  18. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  19. Inheritance of the yeast mitochondrial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast......Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast...

  20. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  1. A logic flowgraph-based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The architecture of an automated decision support system for nuclear plant operators is presented and discussed. The system is based on the use of 'logic flowgraph' process models and is designed in a hierarchical fashion. Its functionality spans from 'function oriented' plant status and alternative success path information displayed to the plant operators at its higher access levels to 'process oriented' diagnostic and recovery information deduced and displayed at its lowest. The design basis for this architecture is the 'defense in depth' plant safety concept. The decision support system goal is to provide plant operators, in the presence of an unforeseen transient, with the best and safest alternative between plant stabilization after shutdown and recovery of normal operation based on early diagnosis. Examples of the system capability to interpret and diagnose abnormal plant conditions and of the information that it can supply to the operators at its three access levels are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Update on the EPRI power generation risk-based inservice inspection pilot plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The scope for ASME Section XI ISI programs is largely based on deterministic results contained in design stress reports. These reports are normally very conservative and may not be an accurate representation of failure potential. Service experience has shown that failures are due to either corrosion or fatigue and typically occur in areas not included in the plant's ISI program. Consequently, nuclear plants are devoting significant resources to inspection programs that provide minimum benefit. As an alternative, significant industry attention has been devoted to the application of risked-based selection criteria in order to determine the scope of inservice inspection (ISI) programs at nuclear power plants. Preliminary EPRI studies indicate that the application of these techniques will allow operating nuclear plants to reduce the examination scope of current ISI programs by as much as 60 to 80%, significantly reduce costs, and continue to maintain high nuclear plant safety standards

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Sloan, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Palo Verde was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Palo Verde plants

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant

  5. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Moffitt, N.E.; Bumgardner, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. The information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Maine Yankee was selected as one of a series of plants for study. ne product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Maine Yankee plant

  6. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Vehec, T.A.

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant

  7. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon; Yu, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seong Kun; Ji, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  8. Validation of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The communication network designed to transmit control and processing signals in digital Instrument and Control (I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), should provide a high level of safety and reliability. There are different features between the communication networks of NPPs and other commercial communication networks. Safety and reliability are the most important factors in the communication networks of an NPP rather than efficiency which are important factors of a commercial communication network design. To develop Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant, We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT). And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol(Nuclear power plant Safety Communication Protocol : NSCP) for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications. NSCP is the communication protocol designed for a safety-grade control network in the nuclear power plant. In this report, we had specified NSCP protocol by FDT(Formal Description Technique) and established validation procedures based on the validation methodology. It was confirmed specification error, major function's validity and reachability of NSCP by performing simulation and the validation process using Telelogic Tau tool

  9. A PC-based signal validation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbay, A.S.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Seker, S.

    1998-01-01

    In order to achieve the desired operating configuration in any process, the system conditions must be measured accurately. Examples of measurements are temperature, pressure, flow, level, motor current, vibration, etc. However, in order to operate within desired limits, it is important to know the reliability of plant measurements. Signal validation (SV) deals with this issue, and is defined as the detection, isolation and characterization of faulty signals. Also referred to as fault detection, signal validation checks inconsistencies among redundant measurements and estimates their expected values using other measurements and system models. The benefits of SV are both economic and safety related. Catastrophic signal failure can result in plant shutdown and lost revenue. Pre-catastrophic failure detection would therefore minimize plant downtime and increase plant availability. The control action taken depends primarily upon the information provided by the plant instruments. Thus, increased plant productivity and increased reliability of operator actions, would result from the implementation of such a system. The purpose of this study is to investigate some of the existing signal validation methods by incremental improvements and to develop new modules. Each of the SV modules performs a specific task. The architecture consists of four modules, an information base and a system executive integrated with a graphical user interface (GUI). All the modules are used for validation during both steady-state and transient operating conditions. The entire system was developed in the PC-framework under Microsoft Windows TM . Some improvements were made in the structure of static data-driven models by incorporating one and two-step regression. Kalman filtering is based on the use of a physical model of plant components and was implemented for a steam generator system in a nuclear power plant. This is applicable to both steady-state and transient operations. The system executive

  10. RNAi-based GM plants: food for thought for risk assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Matthew; Devos, Yann; Lanzoni, Anna; Liu, Yi; Gomes, Ana; Gennaro, Andrea; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technology that offers new opportunities for the generation of new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Potential risks associated with RNAi-based GM plants and issues specific to their risk assessment were discussed during an international scientific workshop (June 2014) organized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Selected key outcomes of the workshop are reported here. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw. [Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fock, F. [Ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nygaard, I. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Roskilde (Denmark); Maiga, A.; Kone, B.; Kamissoko, F.; Coulibaly, N.; Ouattara, O.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective is to make a first evaluation regarding if it's technically possible, economically viable, sustainable and recommendable to build a rice straw/hulls fired power plant in Niono in Mali. Based on the available resource of rice straw and the possibilities for connecting to the grid it has been chosen to analyse a 5 MW power plant in the project. For technical reasons the rice straw should be the main fuel, but rice hulls can be used for co-firing. Up to around 20% of the fuel in the plant can be rice hulls instead of rice straw. A number of different biomass power production technologies have been evaluated in the project. This includes: 1) Grate fired boiler. 2) Bubbling fluidised bed. 3) Circulating fluidised bed. 4) Dust fired boiler. 5) Gasification. 6) Stirling engine. 7) Organic Rankine Cycle. Grate firing is the most relevant technology in this case, due to the fuel, the size of the power plant, the demand for electricity only and not heat, the demand for a robust and well proven technology. For a grate fired plant a calculation of the thermodynamic process of the power plant has been carried out in order to determine the electrical efficiency of the plant. The case consists of a 5 MW grate fired power plant with steam turbines and air cooled condenser resulting in an efficiency of 24.6% at full load (20% as yearly average). Investment costs and costs for O and M have been assumed based on experience from Danish power plants but adjusted for local conditions in Mali. The costs for collecting and transporting the rice straw and for the ash disposal have been specifically estimated in this project. The average cost of capital has been estimated based on assumptions on equity, international loans and local loans/bank finance. Based on the investment, the cost of O and M, fuel, ash disposal and the financial assumptions, a cash flow analysis is made in order to calculate the power price resulting in a Net Present Value (NPV) of the

  12. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  13. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  14. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Duchovskis, P [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Bliznikas, Z [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Breive, K [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ulinskaite, R [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Brazaityte, A [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Novickovas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Zukauskas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-09-07

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  15. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamulaitis, G; Duchovskis, P; Bliznikas, Z; Breive, K; Ulinskaite, R; Brazaityte, A; Novickovas, A; Zukauskas, A

    2005-01-01

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated

  16. In-plant reliability data system (IPRDS) - a utility-oriented data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Currently, there are data from six operating units comprising four nuclear power plants in the data base. There are an additional seven units (4 plants) that are ready for data collection and encoding. Overall, approximately 120,000 maintenance records have been reviewed and 24,000 records of corrective maintenance actions have been extracted. The components for which data encoding has been completed include pumps and valves. The pump data base contains 1468 pumps and 3100 maintenance records on these pumps spanning almost 24 reactor-years of commercial operation. An additional 900 pump maintenance records for years prior to commercial operation have also been entered. The valve data base contains 24,825 valve population records and approximately 5800 valve maintenance records

  17. A Community-Based Culture Collection for Targeting Novel Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria from the Sugarcane Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderson Silveira Leite Armanhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-plant ecosystem harbors an immense microbial diversity that challenges investigative approaches to study traits underlying plant-microbe association. Studies solely based on culture-dependent techniques have overlooked most microbial diversity. Here we describe the concomitant use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to target plant-beneficial microbial groups from the sugarcane microbiome. The community-based culture collection (CBC approach was used to access microbes from roots and stalks. The CBC recovered 399 unique bacteria representing 15.9% of the rhizosphere core microbiome and 61.6–65.3% of the endophytic core microbiomes of stalks. By cross-referencing the CBC (culture-dependent with the sugarcane microbiome profile (culture-independent, we designed a synthetic community comprised of naturally occurring highly abundant bacterial groups from roots and stalks, most of which has been poorly explored so far. We then used maize as a model to probe the abundance-based synthetic inoculant. We show that when inoculated in maize plants, members of the synthetic community efficiently colonize plant organs, displace the natural microbiota and dominate at 53.9% of the rhizosphere microbial abundance. As a result, inoculated plants increased biomass by 3.4-fold as compared to uninoculated plants. The results demonstrate that abundance-based synthetic inoculants can be successfully applied to recover beneficial plant microbes from plant microbiota.

  18. Role of land-based prototype plants in propulsion nuclear power plants engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, V.E.; Prokhorov, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype plants provide a powerful tool for accomplishing tasks of development and construction of newly designed new power plants (NPPs). Leaving aside momentary political or economical considerations, one should admit that the use of prototype plants in testing of new NPPs is quite a necessity. To make the most of prototype plant, its commissioning should precede lead plant construction by 2-3 years. To make good use of prototype plants, a set of basic requirements should be fulfilled: greatest possible identity beteen the facility under test and a new series NPP; provision of high performance data acquisitoin, processing and storage firmware and a modelling system using update computer technique; and developed science infrastructure, engineering support and adequate maintenance. Prototype plants should comply with safety requirements to meet environmental protection standards

  19. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  20. Development of knowledge-based operator support system for steam generator water leak events in FBR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Toshio; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kishida, Masako

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge engineering approach to operation support system would be useful in maintaining safe and steady operation in nuclear plants. This paper describes a knowledge-based operation support system which assists the operators during steam generator water leak events in FBR plants. We have developed a real-time expert system. The expert system adopts hierarchical knowledge representation corresponding to the 'plant abnormality model'. A technique of signal validation which uses knowledge of symptom propagation are applied to diagnosis. In order to verify the knowledge base concerning steam generator water leak events in FBR plants, a simulator is linked to the expert system. It is revealed that diagnosis based on 'plant abnormality model' and signal validation using knowledge of symptom propagation could work successfully. Also, it is suggested that the expert system could be useful in supporting FBR plants operations. (author)

  1. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.

  3. Prediction of plant promoters based on hexamers and random triplet pair analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Nasimul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing number of plant genome sequences, it has become important to develop a robust computational method for detecting plant promoters. Although a wide variety of programs are currently available, prediction accuracy of these still requires further improvement. The limitations of these methods can be addressed by selecting appropriate features for distinguishing promoters and non-promoters. Methods In this study, we proposed two feature selection approaches based on hexamer sequences: the Frequency Distribution Analyzed Feature Selection Algorithm (FDAFSA and the Random Triplet Pair Feature Selecting Genetic Algorithm (RTPFSGA. In FDAFSA, adjacent triplet-pairs (hexamer sequences were selected based on the difference in the frequency of hexamers between promoters and non-promoters. In RTPFSGA, random triplet-pairs (RTPs were selected by exploiting a genetic algorithm that distinguishes frequencies of non-adjacent triplet pairs between promoters and non-promoters. Then, a support vector machine (SVM, a nonlinear machine-learning algorithm, was used to classify promoters and non-promoters by combining these two feature selection approaches. We referred to this novel algorithm as PromoBot. Results Promoter sequences were collected from the PlantProm database. Non-promoter sequences were collected from plant mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA of PlantGDB and plant miRNA of miRBase. Then, in order to validate the proposed algorithm, we applied a 5-fold cross validation test. Training data sets were used to select features based on FDAFSA and RTPFSGA, and these features were used to train the SVM. We achieved 89% sensitivity and 86% specificity. Conclusions We compared our PromoBot algorithm to five other algorithms. It was found that the sensitivity and specificity of PromoBot performed well (or even better with the algorithms tested. These results show that the two proposed feature selection methods based on hexamer frequencies

  4. Analysis of requirements for teaching materials based on the course bioinformatics for plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Widodo, Lukiati, Betty; Amin, Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    A way to improve the quality of learning in the course of Plant Metabolism in the Department of Biology, State University of Malang, is to develop teaching materials. This research evaluates the needs of bioinformatics-based teaching material in the course Plant Metabolism by the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) development model. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the students in the Plant Metabolism course of the Department of Biology, University of Malang, and analysis of the plan of lectures semester (RPS). Learning gains of this course show that it is not yet integrated into the field of bioinformatics. All respondents stated that plant metabolism books do not include bioinformatics and fail to explain the metabolism of a chemical compound of a local plant in Indonesia. Respondents thought that bioinformatics can explain examples and metabolism of a secondary metabolite analysis techniques and discuss potential medicinal compounds from local plants. As many as 65% of the respondents said that the existing metabolism book could not be used to understand secondary metabolism in lectures of plant metabolism. Therefore, the development of teaching materials including plant metabolism-based bioinformatics is important to improve the understanding of the lecture material in plant metabolism.

  5. The Effect of Plant Source on the Properties of Lignin-Based Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Lang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work increases our understanding of the effect of plant source on the mechanical and morphological properties of lignin-based polyurethanes (PUs. Lignin is a polymer that is synthesized inside the plant cell wall and can be used as a polyol to synthesize PUs. The specific aromatic structure of the lignin is heavily reliant on the plant source from which it is extracted. These results show that the mechanical properties of lignin-based PUs differ based on lignin’s plant source. The morphology of lignin-based PUs was examined using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical properties of lignin-based PU samples were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis and shore hardness (Type A. The thermal analysis and morphology studies demonstrate that all PUs prepared form a multiphase morphology. In these PUs, better mixing was observed in the wheat straw lignin PU samples leading to higher moduli than in the hardwood lignin and softwood lignin PUs whose morphology was dominated by larger aggregates. Independent of the type of the lignin used, increasing the fraction of lignin increased the rigidity of PU. Among the different types of lignin studied, PU with wheat straw soda lignin exhibited storage moduli ~2-fold higher than those of PUs incorporating other lignins. This study also showed that during synthesis all hydroxyl groups in the lignin are not available to react with isocyanates, which alters the number of cross-links formed within the PU and impacts the mechanical properties of the material.

  6. A concept of a component based system to determine pot-plant shelf-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Oliver; Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti

    2006-01-01

    to calculate the expected keeping quality, or it will be able to apply the system as decision support during plant cultivation. In the latter case, the model-based system can be implemented in a greenhouse climate computer. The concept contains information on climate control strategies, controlled stress......, the keeping quality of a plant after removal from the greenhouse could be estimated. A concept of a system that describes a model based knowledge system aiming at determination of the last selling date for pot plants is presented. The core of the conceptual system is a tool that can either be used......, diseases, nutrient management and substrates....

  7. Data base on nuclear power plant dose reduction research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    Staff at the ALARA Center of Brookhaven National Laboratory have established a data base of information about current research that is likely to result in lower radiation doses to workers. The data base, concerned primarily with nuclear power generation, is part of a project that the ALARA Center is carrying out for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes its current status. A substantial amount of research on reducing occupational exposure is being done in the US and abroad. This research is beginning to have an impact on the collective dose expenditures at nuclear power plants. The collective radiation doses in Europe, Japan, and North America all show downward trends. A large part of the research in the US is either sponsored by the nuclear industry through joint industry organizations such as EPRI and ESEERCO or is done by individual corporations. There is also significant participation by smaller companies. The main emphasis of the research on dose reduction is on engineering approaches aimed at reducing radiation fields or keeping people out of high-exposure areas by using robotics. Effective ALARA programs are also underway at a large number of nuclear plants. Additional attention should be given to non-engineering approaches to dose reduction, which are potentially very useful and cost effective but require quantitative study and analysis based on data from nuclear power plants. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Plant iTRAQ-based proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handakumbura, Pubudu; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Georg C.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana

    2017-06-21

    We present a simple one-­pot extraction protocol, which rapidly isolates hydrophyllic metabolites, lipids, and proteins from the same pulverized plant sample. Also detailed is a global plant proteomics sample preparation method utilizing iTRAQ multiplexing reagents that enables deep proteome coverage due to the use of HPLC fractionation of the peptides prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We have successfully used this protocol on several different plant tissues (e.g., roots, stems, leaves) from different plants (e.g., sorghum, poplar, Arabidopsis, soybean), and have been able to successfully detect and quantify thousands of proteins. Multiplexing strategies such as iTRAQ and the bioinformatics strategy outlined here, ultimately provide insight into which proteins are significantly changed in abundance between two or more groups (e.g., control, perturbation). Our bioinformatics strategy yields z-­score values, which normalize the expression data into a format that can easily be cross-­compared with other expression data (i.e., metabolomics, transcriptomics) obtained from different analytical methods and instrumentation.

  9. Research of nuclear power plant in-service maintenance based on virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Kuang Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of constructing nuclear power plant in-service maintenance virtual simulation scene and virtual maintenance process. Taking air baffles dismantling process of CAP1400(China Advanced Passive 1400) nuclear power plant as an instance, this paper discusses ergonomics, space analysis, time assessment based on virtual reality in the process of in-service maintenance. It demonstrates the advantage of using VR technology to design and verify in-service maintenance process of nuclear power plant compared to the conventional way. (author)

  10. Validation and implementation of model based control strategies at an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demey, D; Vanderhaegen, B; Vanhooren, H; Liessens, J; Van Eyck, L; Hopkins, L; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the practical implementation and validation of advanced control strategies, designed using model based techniques, at an industrial wastewater treatment plant is demonstrated. The plant under study is treating the wastewater of a large pharmaceutical production facility. The process characteristics of the wastewater treatment were quantified by means of tracer tests, intensive measurement campaigns and the use of on-line sensors. In parallel, a dynamical model of the complete wastewater plant was developed according to the specific kinetic characteristics of the sludge and the highly varying composition of the industrial wastewater. Based on real-time data and dynamic models, control strategies for the equalisation system, the polymer dosing and phosphorus addition were established. The control strategies are being integrated in the existing SCADA system combining traditional PLC technology with robust PC based control calculations. The use of intelligent control in wastewater treatment offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to upgrade existing plants, to increase the capacity of the plant and to eliminate peaks. This can result in a more stable and secure overall performance and, finally, in cost savings. The use of on-line sensors has a potential not only for monitoring concentrations, but also for manipulating flows and concentrations. This way the performance of the plant can be secured.

  11. Design of the robust synchronous generator stator voltage regulator based on the interval plant model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel method for the stator voltage regulator of a synchronous generator based on the interval plant mode, is presented. Namely, it is shown in the literature that, in order to design a controller for the first-order compensator, the limited number of interval plants needs to be examined. Consequently, the intervals of the plant model parameter variations used to calculate the four extreme interval plants required for the sequential PI controller design are determined. The controller is designed using frequency-domain-based techniques, while its robust performance is examined using simulation tests.

  12. Plant-based raw material: Improved food quality for better nutrition via plant genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants form the basis of the human food chain. Characteristics of plants are therefore crucial to the quantity and quality of human food. In this review, it is discussed how technological developments in the area of plant genomics and plant genetics help to mobilise the potential of plants to

  13. Impact of a plant-based diet on behavioural and physiological traits in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Benhaim, David; Begout, Marie-laure; Pean, Samuel; Manca, Michael; Prunet, Patrick; Chatain, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Replacing aquaculture feeds based on fisheries-derived resources with plant-based diets could be a relevant strategy to improve the sustainability of aquaculture. Recent studies on sea bass have shown that the total and early replacement of marine products by plant products would have a moderate effect on fish growth and body lipid content. Whether a plant-based diet impacts behavioural and physiological traits possibly linked to fish welfare, is not known, however. Here, we studied the effec...

  14. Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strict vegetarians may even forego honey made by bees. But vegetarians also tend to miss out on ... that account for other factors. One of the world’s largest studies of plant-based diets is now ...

  15. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant

  16. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Garner, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant

  17. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the J.M. Farley Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, T.V.; Pugh, R.; Gore, B.F.; Harrison, D.G.

    1990-10-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment(PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. J. M. Farley was selected as the second plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important at the J. M. Farley plant. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Occurrence of urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors from the plants in the order Brassicales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Kitamura

    Full Text Available Recently, dibenzylurea-based potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH inhibitors were identified in Pentadiplandra brazzeana, a plant in the order Brassicales. In an effort to generalize the concept, we hypothesized that plants that produce benzyl glucosinolates and corresponding isothiocyanates also produce these dibenzylurea derivatives. Our overall aim here was to examine the occurrence of urea derivatives in Brassicales, hoping to find biologically active urea derivatives from plants. First, plants in the order Brassicales were analyzed for the presence of 1, 3-dibenzylurea (compound 1, showing that three additional plants in the order Brassicales produce the urea derivatives. Based on the hypothesis, three dibenzylurea derivatives with sEH inhibitory activity were isolated from maca (Lepidium meyenii roots. Topical application of one of the identified compounds (compound 3, human sEH IC50 = 222 nM effectively reduced pain in rat inflammatory pain model, and this compound was bioavailable after oral administration in mice. The biosynthetic pathway of these urea derivatives was investigated using papaya (Carica papaya seed as a model system. Finally, a small collection of plants from the Brassicales order was grown, collected, extracted and screened for sEH inhibitory activity. Results show that several plants of the Brassicales order could be potential sources of urea-based sEH inhibitors.

  19. Web-based online system for recording and examing of events in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyd Farshi, S.; Dehghani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence of events in power plants could results in serious drawbacks in generation of power. This suggests high degree of importance for online recording and examing of events. In this paper an online web-based system is introduced, which records and examines events in power plants. Throughout the paper, procedures for design and implementation of this system, its features and results gained are explained. this system provides predefined level of online access to all data of events for all its users in power plants, dispatching, regional utilities and top-level managers. By implementation of electric power industry intranet, an expandable modular system to be used in different sectors of industry is offered. Web-based online recording and examing system for events offers the following advantages: - Online recording of events in power plants. - Examing of events in regional utilities. - Access to event' data. - Preparing managerial reports

  20. Complex programmable logic device based alarm sequencer for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedkar, Ravindra; Solomon, J. Selva; KrishnaKumar, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex Programmable Logic Device based Alarm Sequencer is an instrument, which detects alarms, memorizes them and displays the sequences of occurrence of alarms. It caters to sixteen alarm signals and distinguishes the sequence among any two alarms with a time resolution of 1 ms. The system described has been designed for continuous operation in process plants, nuclear power plants etc. The system has been tested and found to be working satisfactorily. (author)

  1. PSA based plant modifications and back-fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of Principal Working Group No. 5 - Risk Assessment states that 'The group should deal with the technology and methods for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance, and appropriate exchanges of information on current research'. Since being formulated in 1982, along with this mandate, the group has also endeavored to develop a common understanding of the different approaches taken in risk assessment. The focus of this report is to provide knowledge to experts on the role Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has had in safety decision making. PSA is a powerful tool for improving Nuclear Power Plant safety by identifying weaknesses in design or operation and setting priorities for plant modifications and back-fits. While the use is well recognised, it is also true that any safety decision is generally based on several elements, both probabilistic and deterministic. This document provides a general overview of insights gained from the representative set of examples collected from Member countries (Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States). The report starts with basic types of plant modifications which were carried out (e.g. hardware or software, important or minor, etc.) and the characteristics of the PSAs used in the examples (e.g. level and scope, specific or generic, on-going or terminated, etc.). The insights gained from this small collection are then reviewed. The appendix gives a full text version of the Member country contributions

  2. Development of knowledge acquisition methods for knowledge base construction for autonomous plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sasajima, M.; Kitamura, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Mizoguchi, R.

    1993-03-01

    In order to enhance safety and reliability of nuclear plant operation, it is strongly desired to construct diagnostic knowledge base without lacking, contradiction, and description inconsistency. Nowadays, an advanced method Knowledge Compiler` has been studied to acquire diagnostic knowledge, mainly based on qualitative reasoning technique, without accumulating heuristics by interviews. Until now, 2 methods to suppress the ambiguity observed when qualitative reasoning mechanism were applied to heat transport systems of nuclear power plants: In the first method, qualitative values are allocated to the system variables along with the causality direction, avoiding contradictions among plural variables in each qualitative constraint describing knowledge of deviation propagation, heat balance, or energy conservation. In the second method, all the qualitative information is represented as a set of simultaneous qualitative equations. And, an appropriate subset is selected so that the qualitative solutions of unknowns in this subset can be derived independently of the remaining part. A contrary method is applied for the selected subset to derive local solutions. Then the problem size is reduced by substituting solutions of the subset, in a recursive manner. In the previous report on this research project, complete computer softwares have been constructed based on these methods, and applied to a 2-loop heat transport system of a nuclear power plant. The detailed results are discussed in this report. In addition, an integrated configuration of diagnostic knowledge generation system of nuclear power plants is proposed, based upon the results and new foundings obtained through the research activities so far, and the future works to overcome remaining problems are also identified. (author)

  3. ANN-GA based optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, M.V.J.J.; Reddy, K.S.; Kolar, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Neuro-genetic power plant optimization is found to be an efficient methodology. → Advantage of neuro-genetic algorithm is the possibility of on-line optimization. → Exergy loss in combustor indicates the effect of coal composition on efficiency. -- Abstract: The efficiency of coal-fired power plant depends on various operating parameters such as main steam/reheat steam pressures and temperatures, turbine extraction pressures, and excess air ratio for a given fuel. However, simultaneous optimization of all these operating parameters to achieve the maximum plant efficiency is a challenging task. This study deals with the coupled ANN and GA based (neuro-genetic) optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant in Indian climatic condition to determine the maximum possible plant efficiency. The power plant simulation data obtained from a flow-sheet program, 'Cycle-Tempo' is used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy input through fuel (coal). The optimum set of various operating parameters that result in the minimum energy input to the power plant is then determined by coupling the trained ANN model as a fitness function with the genetic algorithm (GA). A unit size of 800 MWe currently under development in India is considered to carry out the thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy. Apart from optimizing the design parameters, the developed model can also be used for on-line optimization when quick response is required. Furthermore, the effect of various coals on the thermodynamic performance of the optimized power plant is also determined.

  4. A simulation-based expert system for nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Lee, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosing operational transients in a nuclear power plant is discussed. Hypothesis and test is used as the problem-solving strategy with hypotheses generated by an expert system that monitors the plant for patterns of data symptomatic of known failure modes. Fuzzy logic is employed as the inferencing mechanism with two complementary implication schemes to handle scenarios involving competing failures. Hypothesis testing is performed. An artificial intelligence framework based on a critical functions approach is used to deal with the complexity of a nuclear plant. A prototype system for diagnosing transients in the reactor coolant system of a pressurized water reactor has been developed to test the algorithms described here. Results are presented for the diagnosis of data from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 loss-of-feedwater/small-break loss-of-collant accident

  5. Medicinal Plants Based Products Tested on Pathogens Isolated from Mastitis Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pașca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis a major disease that is commonly associated with bacterial infection. The common treatment is with antibiotics administered intramammary into infected quarters of the udder. The excessive use of antibiotics leads to multidrug resistance and associated risks for human health. In this context, the search for alternative drugs based on plants has become a priority in livestock medicine. These products have a low manufacturing cost and no reports of antimicrobial resistance to these have been documented. In this context, the main objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of extracts and products of several indigenous, or acclimatized plants on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis. A total of eleven plant alcoholic extracts and eight plant-derived products were tested against 32 microorganisms isolated from milk. The obtained results have shown an inhibition of bacterial growth for all tested plants, with better results for Evernia prunastri, Artemisia absinthium, and Lavandula angustifolia. Moreover, E. prunastri, Populus nigra, and L. angustifolia presented small averages of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. Among the plant-derived products, three out of eight have shown a strong anti-microbial effect comparable with the effect of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, and better than individual plant extracts possibly due to synergism. These results suggest an important anti-microbial effect of these products on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis with a possible applicability in this disease.

  6. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Byron and Braidwood nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-07-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Byron and Braidwood were selected for the fourth study in this program. The produce of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plants and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Byron/Braidwood plants. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lv

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation.

  8. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiwan, C.; Yitao, W.; Yanfang, Z.; Xinsheng, P.; Jingjing, H.; Ping, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  9. Application of condition based maintenance to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Nakano, Tomohito; Shimizu, Shunichi; Iida, Jun; Atomura, Masakazu; Abe, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Device Karte management system which supports application of condition based maintenance to nuclear power plants has been developed. The purpose of this system is to support maintenance personnel in device inspection scheduling based on operating condition monitoring and maintenance histories. There are four functions: field database, degradation estimation, inspection time decision and maintenance planning. The authors have been applying this system to dozens of devices of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 1 for one year. This paper represents the system concept and its application experiences. (author)

  10. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na +/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Kaneko, T.

    2005-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) in the embryonic yolk-sac membrane. Triple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs into four types: type I, showing only basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase staining; type II, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and apical NKCC; type III, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and basolateral NKCC; type IV, basolateral Na +/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. In freshwater, type-I, type-II and type-III cells were observed. Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, type-IV cells appeared at 12 h and showed a remarkable increase in number between 24 h and 48 h, whereas type-III cells disappeared. When transferred from seawater back to freshwater, type-IV cells decreased and disappeared at 48 h, type-III cells increased, and type-II cells, which were not found in seawater, appeared at 12 h and increased in number thereafter. Type-I cells existed consistently irrespective of salinity changes. These results suggest that type I is an immature MRC, type II is a freshwater-type ion absorptive cell, type III is a dormant type-IV cell and/or an ion absorptive cell (with a different mechanism from type II), and type IV is a seawater-type ion secretory cell. The intracellular localization of the three ion transport proteins in type-IV cells is completely consistent with a widely accepted model for ion secretion by MRCs. A new model for ion absorption is proposed based on type-II cells possessing apical NKCC.

  11. "Founder crops" v. wild plants: Assessing the plant-based diet of the last hunter-gatherers in southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; González Carretero, Lara; Roe, Joe; Richter, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The Natufian culture (c. 14.6-11.5 ka cal. BP) represents the last hunter-gatherer society that inhabited southwest Asia before the development of plant food production. It has long been suggested that Natufians based their economy on the exploitation of the wild ancestors of the Neolithic "founder crops", and that these hunter-gatherers were therefore on the "threshold to agriculture". In this work we review the available data on Natufian plant exploitation and we report new archaeobotanical evidence from Shubayqa 1, a Natufian site located in northeastern Jordan (14.6-11.5 ka cal. BP). Shubayqa 1 has produced an exceptionally large plant assemblage, including direct evidence for the continuous exploitation of club-rush tubers (often regarded as "missing foods") and other wild plants, which were probably used as food, fuel and building materials. Taking together this data we evaluate the composition of archaeobotanical assemblages (plant macroremains) from the Natufian to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (EPPNB). Natufian assemblages comprise large proportions of non-founder plant species (>90% on average), amongst which sedges, small-seeded grasses and legumes, and fruits and nuts predominate. During the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, in particular the EPPNB, the presence of "founder crops" increases dramatically and constitute up to c. 42% of the archaeobotanical assemblages on average. Our results suggest that plant exploitation strategies during the Natufian were very different from those attested during subsequent Neolithic periods. We argue that historically driven interpretations of the archaeological record have over-emphasized the role of the wild ancestors of domesticated crops previous to the emergence of agriculture.

  12. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  13. Advanced ecological and economical power plant technology based on CFB combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, G.; Hirschfelder, H.

    1993-01-01

    The scenario of the power plant industry is worldwide affected by one important issue, namely the stringent and steadily increasing environment regulations. Fluidized bed boilers, based on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technology with in-situ emission control, and improved economics as well as with proven record of high efficiency and reliability meets the ecological, economical and technical requirements. It should be noted that in addition to their attractive performance, regarding efficiency and pollution control, coal fired CFB boilers have been successfully introduced not only in power plant industry, but also in other industrial units such as chemical plants, automobile industry, paper mills, cement, etc. The experience gained to date confirms the advantages and also the reliability of this technology. (author)

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01742-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value EU124719_11( EU124719 |pid:none) Friesea grisea mitoch...ondrion, com... 33 3.1 >EU124719_11( EU124719 |pid:none) Friesea grisea mitochondrion, complete genome. Leng

  15. RIMAP demonstration project. Risk-based life management of piping system in power plant Heilbronn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Buck, P.; Matschecko, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Balos, D.; Perunicic, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of EU project RIMAP [Risk Based Inspection and Maintenance Procedures for European Industry (2000)] a new European Guideline for optimized risk based maintenance and inspection planning of industrial plants (RBLM, Risk Based Life Management) is being developed. The RIMAP project consists of the three clustered projects: - development (RTD); - demonstration (DEMO): - thematic network (TN). Current work and future, planned work in RIMAP demonstration project on applications of the RIMAP methodology in power plants are presented briefly in the first part of the paper. Also presented in the paper are the results of a preliminary analysis of piping system in power plant Heilbronn using the concept of risk-based monitoring as part of overall concept of risk-based life management. Shortly the following issues are discussed in the paper: - identification of critical components; - application of a multilevel risk analysis (...from 'screening' to 'detailed analysis'); - determination of PoF (Probability of Failure); - determination of CoF (Consequence of Failure); - optimation of inspection and maintenance plan. From our experience with the application of the RIMAP methodology the following conclusions can be drawn: The use of risk-based methods in inspection and maintenance of piping systems in power plants gives transparency to the decision making process and gives an optimized maintenance policy based on current state of the components. The results of the work clearly show the power of the proposed method for concentration on critical items: out of 64 monitored components 5 were selected for intermediate analysis and only 1 for the detailed analysis (probabilistic high temperature fracture mechanics)

  16. Experience-based innovations in management of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.L.; Bradbury, R.B.; Freeman, D.V.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    During 45 years of nuclear technology development and experience, Stone and Webster (S and W) has developed and successfully applied various innovative techniques to numerous nuclear projects. These techniques, developed primarily in response to the increasing scope and complexity of nuclear power plants, have been used and refined to provide efficient management of the two major nuclear project acticities-design and construction. For this paper, these techniques have been divided into: 1) engineering-based innovations, 2) construction-based innovations, and 3) management-based innovations. (author)

  17. Experience-based innovations in management of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.L.; Bradbury, R.B.; Freeman, D.V.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    During 45 years of nuclear technology development and experience, Stone and Webster (S and W) has developed and successfully applied various innovative techniques to numerous nuclear projects. These techniques, developed primarily in response to the increasing scope and complexity of nuclear power plants, have been used and refined to provide efficient management of the two major nuclear project activities - design and construction. For this paper, these techniques have been divided into: (1) engineering-based innovations, (2) construction-based innovations, and (3) management-based innovations

  18. Optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fulin

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests the method of optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures. This method is based on dynamic analysis, shaking table tests for a 1/4 scale model, and a great number of low cycle fatigue failure tests for energy dissipating elements. A set of calculation formulas for optimal design of structures with base isolation and energy dissipation system were introduced, which are able to be used in engineering design for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures or other kinds of structures. (author)

  19. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    million MEDLINE abstracts for information thatlinks plant-based foods with their small moleculecomponents and human disease phenotypes. Nu-triChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals,and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751diseases. In addition......,there is currently no exhaustive resource on thehealth benefits associated to specific dietary inter-ventions, or a resource covering the broad molecu-lar content of food. Here we present the first releaseof NutriChem, available athttp://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text miningof 21...

  20. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Han Yih; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care di...

  1. If you build it, will they eat it? Consumer preferences for plant-based and cultured meat burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In a hypothetical choice experiment consumers were given the option of purchasing burgers that were made from beef, plant-based protein, or cultured meat. Willingness to purchase plant-based and cultured meat burgers is linked to age, sex, views of other food technologies, and attitudes towards the environment and agriculture. Although consumers were told that all burgers tasted the same, there was a marked preference for beef burgers. A mixed-logit model predicts that, if prices were equal, 65% of consumers would purchase the beef burger, 21% would purchase the plant-based burger, 11% would purchase the cultured meat burger, and 4% would make no purchase. Preferences for plant-based and cultured meat burgers are found to be highly, but not perfectly, correlated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of common ailments by plant-based remedies among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication deals with the common diseases treated by plant based remedies such as abdominal pain and worms, asthma, cough and bronchitis, cold, flu, influenza, diabetes, diarrheoa, dysentery, digestive disorders, ear infections and eye complaints. 25 species belonging to 25 genera were used for ...

  3. Design of XML-based plant data model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preetha M.; Padmini, S.; Gaur, Swati; Diwakar, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    XML has emerged as an open standard for exchanging structured data on various platforms to handle rich, nested, complex data structures. XML with its flexible tree-like data structure allows a more natural representation as compared to traditional databases. In this paper we present data model for plant data acquisition systems captured using XML technologies. Plant data acquisition systems in a typical Nuclear Power Plant consists of embedded nodes at the first tier and operator consoles at the second tier for operator operation, interaction and display of Plant parameters. This paper discusses a generic data model that was designed to capture process, network architecture, communication/interface protocol and diagnostics aspects required for a Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  4. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R ampersand D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ''strawman'' or ''point-of-departure'' plant layout that resulted from this study

  5. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  6. Monitoring the Environmental Impact of TiO2 Nanoparticles Using a Plant-Based Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C.; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Burris, Jason N.; Stewart, C. Neal; Parker, Lynne E.; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    The increased manufacturing of nanoparticles for use in cosmetics, foods, and clothing necessitates the need for an effective system to monitor and evaluate the potential environmental impact of these nanoparticles. The goal of this research was to develop a plant-based sensor network for characterizing, monitoring, and understanding the environmental impact of TiO2 nanoparticles. The network consisted of potted Arabidopsis thaliana with a surrounding water supply, which was monitored by cameras attached to a laptop computer running a machine learning algorithm. Using the proposed plant sensor network, we were able to examine the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in two systems: algae and terrestrial plants. Increased terrestrial plant growth was observed upon introduction of the nanoparticles, whereas algal growth decreased significantly. The proposed system can be further automated for high-throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity in the environment at multiple trophic levels. The proposed plant-based sensor network could be used for more accurate characterization of the environmental impact of nanomaterials. PMID:28458617

  7. Thermal performance of gas turbine power plant based on exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Thamir K.; Basrawi, Firdaus; Awad, Omar I.; Abdullah, Ahmed N.; Najafi, G.; Mamat, Rizlman; Hagos, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the Gas turbine. • Investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the energy and exergy performance. • The maximum exergy loss occurs in the gas turbine components. - Abstract: This study is about energy and exergy analysis of gas turbine power plant. Energy analysis is more quantitatively while exergy analysis is about the same but with the addition of qualitatively. The lack quality of the thermodynamic process in the system leads to waste of potential energy, also known as exergy destruction which affects the efficiency of the power plant. By using the first and second law of thermodynamics, the model for the gas turbine power plant is built. Each component in the thermal system which is an air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine play roles in affecting the efficiency of the gas turbine power plant. The exergy flow rate for the compressor (AC), the combustion chamber (CC) and the gas turbine (GT) inlet and outlet are calculated based on the physical exergy and chemical exergy. The exergy destruction calculation based on the difference between the exergy flow in and exergy flow out of the component. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction. The air compressor has 94.9% and 92% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. The combustion chamber has 67.5% and 61.8% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively while gas turbine has 92% and 82% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. For the overall efficiency, the plant has 32.4% and 34.3% exergy and energy efficiency respectively. To enhance the efficiency, the intake air temperature should be reduced, modify the combustion chamber to have the better air-fuel ratio and increase the capability of the gas turbine to receive high inlet temperature.

  8. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  9. Plant traits and trait-based vegetation modeling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Sevanto, S.; Iversen, C. M.; Salmon, V. G.; Rogers, A.; Wullschleger, S.; Wilson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic tundra environments are characterized by extremely cold temperatures, strong winds, short growing season and thin, nutrient-poor soil layer impacted by permafrost. To survive in this environment vascular plants have developed traits that simultaneously promote high productivity under favorable environments, and survival in harsh conditions. To improve representation of Arctic tundra vegetation in Earth System Models we surveyed plant trait data bases for key trait parameters that influence modeled ecosystem carbon balance, and compared the traits within plant families occurring in the boreal, temperate and arctic zones. The parameters include photosynthetic carbon uptake efficiency (Vcmax and Jmax), root:shoot ratio, and root and leaf nitrogen content, and we focused on woody shrubs. Our results suggest that root nitrogen content in non-nitrogen fixing tundra shrubs is lower than in representatives of the same families in the boreal or temperate zone. High tissue nitrogen concentrations have been related to high vulnerability to drought. The low root nitrogen concentrations in tundra shrubs may thus be an indication of acclimation to shallow soils, and frequent freezing that has a similar impact on the plant conductive tissue as drought. With current nitrogen availability, nitrogen limitation reduces the benefits of increased temperatures and longer growing seasons to the tundra ecosystem carbon balance. Thawing of permafrost will increase nitrogen availability, and promote plant growth and carbon uptake, but it could also make the shrubs more vulnerable to freeze-thaw cycles, with the overall result of reduced shrub coverage. The final outcome of warming temperatures and thawing of permafrost on tundra shrubs will thus depend on the relative speed of warming and plant acclimation.

  10. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the removal performance of PPCPs in CW systems. • Investigation of the mechanisms and pathways contributing to PPCP removal in CWs. • Investigation of the effect of CW design parameters on PPCP removal. • Investigation of the correlation between physico-chemical parameters and PPCP removal. -- This review gives an overview of the present state of research on the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products by means of constructed wetlands

  11. [Design of plant leaf bionic camouflage materials based on spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Bi-Ru; Wu, Wen-Jian

    2011-06-01

    The influence of structure parameters and contents of plant leaves on their reflectance spectra was analyzed using the PROSPECT model. The result showed that the bionic camouflage materials should be provided with coarse surface and spongy inner structure, the refractive index of main content must be close to that of plant leaves, the contents of materials should contain chlorophyll and water, and the content of C-H bond must be strictly controlled. Based on the analysis above, a novel camouflage material, which was constituted by coarse transparent waterproof surface, chlorophyll, water and spongy material, was designed. The result of verifiable experiment showed that the reflectance spectra of camouflage material exhibited the same characteristics as those of plant leaves. The similarity coefficient of reflectance spectrum of the camouflage material and camphor leaves was 0.988 1, and the characteristics of camouflage material did not change after sunlight treatment for three months. The bionic camouflage material, who exhibited a high spectral similarity with plant leaves and a good weather resistance, will be an available method for reconnaissance of hyperspectral imaging hopefully.

  12. A decision support system based on hybrid knowledge approach for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. Frames and rules are adopted to represent the various knowledge types. Rule-based deduction and abduction are used for shallow and deep knowledge based reasoning respectively. The event-based operational guidelines are provided to the operator according to the diagnosed results

  13. Implementation strategies and tools for condition based monitoring at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    There is now an acute need to optimize maintenance to improve both reliability and competitiveness of nuclear power plant operation. There is an increasing tendency to move from the preventive (time based) maintenance concept to one dependent on plant and component conditions. In this context, various on-line and off-line condition monitoring and diagnostics, nondestructive inspection techniques and surveillance are used. Component selection for condition based maintenance, parameter selection for monitoring condition, evaluation of condition monitoring results are issues influencing the effectiveness of condition based maintenance. All these selections of components and parameters to be monitored, monitoring and diagnostics techniques to be used, acceptance criteria and trending for condition evaluation, and the economic aspect of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring should be incorporated into an integrated, effective condition based maintenance programme, which is part of the plant's overall maintenance optimization programme. This publication collects and analyses proven condition based maintenance strategies and techniques (engineering and organizational) in Member States. It includes selected papers on maintenance optimization presented during its preparation. This report was prepared under IAEA project on integrated NPP life cycle management including decommissioning. The main objective of an integrated life cycle management programme is to enable NPP's to compete, without compromising safety, successfully in the changing energy markets throughout their service life and to facilitate life extension and eventual decommissioning through improved engineering, technological, economic and managerial actions. The technical working group on NPP life management and other advisory groups nominated by the Member States provide recommendations on high priority needs of Member States in this area

  14. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Sagar, Ambuj D.; Abhyankar, Nikit; Sreekumar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

  15. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  16. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  17. Characterization of Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. Plant Collection of Cibinong Plant Germplasm Garden Based on Phenotypic and Genetic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Priadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as a rich biodiversity country has many superior fruit plant germplasms such as sweet star fruit or carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.. Some varieties of carambola which collected at the Germplasm Garden of Research Center for Biotechnology-LIPI have been used for parent trees of fruit plant production. Therefore, they have to be characterized both phenotypically and genetically. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between eight varieties of carambola i.e. Malaysia, Penang, Rawasari, Bangkok, Sembiring, Dewabaru, Demak and Dewimurni at the germplasm garden based on phenotypic and genetic characters. Phenotypic characters were observed directly in the field, whereas genetic characters were observed with RAPD markers using 10 primers. Phylogenetic analysis was done using NT-SYS software showed that there were three clusters of carambola varieties. Meanwhile, Malaysia and Penang varieties have closed relationships (96% compared with the other varieties. The result of the study would be dedicated to updating and completing the existing fruit plant collection database of Plants Germplasm Garden. 

  18. Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.

  19. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  20. Effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an important crop in Pakistan. It is affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. Among these, Cucumber mosaic virus is the important disease with economic losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means to control the ...

  1. A new approach to sperm preservation based on bioenergetic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P; Feltmann, A J

    2010-04-01

    To date, attempts to preserve chicken sperm have been based on a trial-and-error experimental approach. The present work outlines the development of an alternative approach based on empiricism and bioenergetic theory. In previous work, we found fowl sperm motility to be dependent on mitochondrial calcium cycling, phospholipase A(2), and long-chain fatty acids as an endogenous energy source. It is noteworthy that fowl sperm reside within the sperm storage tubules (SST) of the oviduct over an interval of days to weeks after insemination. In this regard, a model for in vivo sperm storage was developed and tested in additional previous research. Sperm penetration of the SST, sperm residence within the SST, and sperm egress from the SST can be explained in terms mitochondrial function. Understanding sperm function and longevity in terms of bioenergetics presented the possibility that sperm could be inactivated by disrupting mitochondrial calcium cycling and could thereby be preserved. However, this possibility also posed a problem: maintenance of the inner membrane potential of the mitochondrion within inactivated sperm. This report describes a series of experiments in which fowl sperm were inactivated by treatment with the calcium chelator tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and then reactivated by treatment with calcium ions. The effect of tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid on mitochondrial calcium cycling was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. When treated sperm were cooled to 10 degrees C, inactivated sperm could be reactivated throughout a 5-h storage interval. When stored sperm were held for 3 h before reactivation and insemination, fertility was 88% of the control. Storage did not affect hatchability. In summary, short-term storage was realized by manipulating mitochondrial function. We propose that 1) complex V consumes ATP within inactivated sperm and, by doing so, maintains

  2. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  3. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  4. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  5. Whole plant based treatment of hypercholesterolemia with Crataegus laevigata in a zebrafish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littleton Robert M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumers are increasingly turning to plant-based complementary and alternative medicines to treat hypercholesterolemia. Many of these treatments are untested and their efficacy is unknown. This multitude of potential remedies necessitates a model system amenable to testing large numbers of organisms that maintains similarity to humans in both mode of drug administration and overall physiology. Here we develop the larval zebrafish (4–30 days post fertilization as a vertebrate model of dietary plant-based treatment of hypercholesterolemia and test the effects of Crataegus laevigata in this model. Methods Larval zebrafish were fed high cholesterol diets infused with fluorescent sterols and phytomedicines. Plants were ground with mortar and pestle into a fine powder before addition to food. Fluorescent sterols were utilized to optically quantify relative difference in intravascular cholesterol levels between groups of fish. We utilized the Zeiss 7-Live Duo high-speed confocal platform in order to both quantify intravascular sterol fluorescence and to capture video of the heart beat for determination of cardiac output. Results In this investigation we developed and utilized a larval zebrafish model to investigate dietary plant-based intervention of the pathophysiology of hypercholesterolemia. We found BODIPY-cholesterol effectively labels diet-introduced intravascular cholesterol levels (P t-test. We also established that zebrafish cardiac output declines as cholesterol dose increases (difference between 0.1% and 8% (w/w high cholesterol diet-treated cardiac output significant at P  Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that the larval zebrafish has the potential to become a powerful model to test plant based dietary intervention of hypercholesterolemia. Using this model we have shown that hawthorn leaves and flowers have the potential to affect cardiac output as well as intravascular cholesterol levels

  6. Assessment of inhalation risk due to radioactivity released from coal-based thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In India, the coal based thermal power plants have been the major source of power generation in the past and would continue for decades to come. As the coal contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides the burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants will result in the emission of a variety of natural radioactive elements into the environment in the vicinity of thermal power plants. In this paper we have used two different methods for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk to the general public around 10 Kms radius in the neighborhood of a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  7. Structure and signaling at hydroid polyp-stolon junctions, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Harmata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gastrovascular system of colonial hydroids is central to homeostasis, yet its functional biology remains poorly understood. A probe (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate for reactive oxygen species (ROS identified fluorescent objects at polyp-stolon junctions that emit high levels of ROS. A nuclear probe (Hoechst 33342 does not co-localize with these objects, while a mitochondrial probe (rhodamine 123 does. We interpret these objects as mitochondrion-rich cells. Confocal microscopy showed that this fluorescence is situated in large columnar cells. Treatment with an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol diminished the ROS levels of these cells relative to background fluorescence, as did removing the stolons connecting to a polyp-stolon junction. These observations support the hypothesis that the ROS emanate from mitochondrion-rich cells, which function by pulling open a valve at the base of the polyp. The open valve allows gastrovascular fluid from the polyp to enter the stolons and vice versa. The uncoupler shifts the mitochondrial redox state in the direction of oxidation, lowering ROS levels. By removing the stolons, the valve is not pulled open, metabolic demand is lowered, and the mitochondrion-rich cells slowly regress. Transmission electron microscopy identified mitochondrion-rich cells adjacent to a thick layer of mesoglea at polyp-stolon junctions. The myonemes of these myoepithelial cells extend from the thickened mesoglea to the rigid perisarc on the outside of the colony. The perisarc thus anchors the myoepithelial cells and allows them to pull against the mesoglea and open the lumen of the polyp-stolon junction, while relaxation of these cells closes the lumen.

  8. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  9. Quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live single cells using a microfluidic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Wada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live cells is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA because single mitochondrion transfer to a mtDNA-less (ρ0 cell potentially leads to homoplasmy of mtDNA. In this paper, we describe a method for quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live single cells. For this purpose, we fabricated novel microfluidic devices having cell paring structures with a 4.1, 5.6 or 10.0 μm-length microtunnel. When cells were fused through a microtunnel using the Sendai virus envelope-based method, a strictured cytoplasmic connection was achieved with a length corresponding to that of the microtunnel. Elongation of the cytoplasmic connection led to a decrease in mitochondria transfer to the fusion partner. Moreover, some cell pairs that fused through a 10.0 μm-length microtunnel showed single mitochondrion transfer. Fused cells were spontaneously disconnected from each other when they were recovered in a normal culture medium. These results suggest that our cell fusion method can perform quantitative control of mitochondria transfer that includes a single mitochondrion transfer.

  10. Conference on the exploitation, maintenance and resale of ground-based photovoltaic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven; Christmann, Ralf; Bozonnat, Cedric; Le Pivert, Xavier; Vaassen, Willi; Dumoulin, Cedric; Kiefer, Klaus; Semmel, Andreas; Doose, Eckhard; Bion, Alain; Sanches, Frederico; Daval, Xavier; Pampouille, Antoine; Goetze, Holger; Stahl, Wolf-Ruediger; Merere, Karine

    2017-11-01

    This document gathers contributions and debate contents of a conference. A first set of contributions addressed the situation and recent developments of ground-based photovoltaic power plants in France and in Germany with presentations of legal frameworks in these both countries. The second set addressed the optimisation of such power plants: meteorological prediction and follow-up at the service of production, risks to which these power plants are exposed during operation, and the issue of right price and good practices for maintenance contracts for these plants. A round table addressed the issue of the balance between optimisation and established practices in a new economic framework. The next set of contributions addressed reasons for and effects of the resale of photovoltaic fleet during their exploitation: actors and financing solutions, value components, point of attention and legal view on re-financing contracts. A round table discussed trends and success factors for the re-financing of photovoltaic projects

  11. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  12. Passivity Enhancement in Renewable Energy Source Based Power Plant With Paralleled Grid-Connected VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Harmonic instability is threatening the operation of renewable energy based power plants where multiple gridconnected VSIs are connected in parallel. To analyze and improve the stability of the grid-connected VSIs, the real part of the output admittance of the VSIs is first investigated......-connected VSIs can improve the stability of the renewable power plant....

  13. End user interface and knowledge base editing system of CSPAR: a knowledge-based consultation system for preventive maintenance in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinohara, Yasusi; Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya

    1988-01-01

    Consultation System for Prevention of Abnormal-event Recurrence (CSPAR) is a knowledge-based system to analyze the same kind of events to a given fault reported on a nuclear power plant and to give users some informations for effective measures preventing them. This report discusses the interfaces of CSPAR for both end-users and knowledge-base editors. The interfaces are highly interactive and multi-window oriented. The features are as follows: (1) The end-user interfaces has Japanese language processing facility, which enables the users to consult CSPAR with various synonims and related terms for knowledge-base handling; (2) The knowledge-base editing system is used by knowledge-base editors for maintaining the knowledge on both plants' equipments and abnormal events sequences. It has facilities for easy maintenance of knowledge-bases, which includes a graphic oriented browser, a knowledge-base retriever, and a knowledge-base checker. (author)

  14. Reviewing PSA-based analyses to modify technical specifications at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Vesely, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    Changes to Technical Specifications (TSs) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) require review and approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Currently, many requests for changes to TSs use analyses that are based on a plant's probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). This report presents an approach to reviewing such PSA-based submittals for changes to TSs. We discuss the basic objectives of reviewing a PSA-based submittal to modify NPP TSs; the methodology of reviewing a TS submittal, and the differing roles of a PSA review, a PSA Computer Code review, and a review of a TS submittal. To illustrate this approach, we discuss our review of changes to allowed outage time (AOT) and surveillance test interval (STI) in the TS for the South Texas Project Nuclear Generating Station. Based on this experience gained, a check-list of items is given for future reviewers; it can be used to verify that the submittal contains sufficient information, and also that the review has addressed the relevant issues. Finally, recommended steps in the review process and the expected findings of each step are discussed

  15. [Microfungicid--a preparation based on trichoderma viride for plant diseases control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolombet, L V; Zhigletsova, S K; Derbyshev, V V; Ezhov, D V; Kosareva, N I; Bystrova, E V

    2001-01-01

    A technology was designed for manufacturing a preparation based on Trichoderma viride Pers ex S.F. Gray that strongly suppresses the development of causative agents of certain plant diseases and displays a growth-stimulating activity. Cultivation of the strain in a liquid medium for 18-24 h produced up to 60 g dry biomass per liter nutrient medium. A marketable form created in this work conserves the activity of the mycelial preparation for six months. The preparation is compatible with insecticides (carbofos, vismetrin, talstar, and applaud) and certain fungicides (such as baitan). Tests performed with the liquid form of Mycofungicid (seeds were treated with this preparation at a dose of 20-30 g per metric ton before sowing) showed its high efficiency in protecting cereal crops from plant pathogens. The incidence of plant diseases decreased by 65%, and crop yields increased by 15-20%.

  16. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  17. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13035-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntis NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1... 46 0.37 1 ( AJ505593 ) Alcis repandata mitochondrion 16S rRNA gene... (part... 46 0.37 1 ( AJ438725 ) Alcis repandata mitochondrion nd1 gene (partial),... 46 0.37 1 ( AJ416938 ) Alcis repanda

  19. Extraction of Plant-based Capsules for Microencapsulation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potroz, Michael G; Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Park, Jae Hyeon; Tan, Ee-Lin; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-11-09

    Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs. The current SEC isolation procedure has been recently optimized to significantly reduce the processing requirements which are conventionally used in SEC isolation, and to ensure the production of intact microcapsules. Natural L. clavatum spores are defatted with acetone, treated with phosphoric acid, and extensively washed to remove sporoplasmic contents. After acetone defatting, a single processing step using 85% phosphoric acid has been shown to remove all sporoplasmic contents. By limiting the acid processing time to 30 hr, it is possible to isolate clean SECs and avoid SEC fracturing, which has been shown to occur with prolonged processing time. Extensive washing with water, dilute acids, dilute bases, and solvents ensures that all sporoplasmic material and chemical residues are adequately removed. The vacuum loading technique is utilized to load a model protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) as a representative hydrophilic compound. Vacuum loading provides a simple technique to load various compounds without the need for harsh solvents or undesirable chemicals which are often required in other microencapsulation protocols. Based on these isolation and loading protocols, SECs provide a promising material for use in a diverse range of microencapsulation applications, such as, therapeutics, foods, cosmetics, and personal care products.

  20. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GAS TREATMENT PLANT BASED ON AN EJECTOR SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article executed the feasibility study of various options for gas treatment. Rapid development of industry and transport worldwide in recent times raises the problem in the protection of habitat environment from harmful waste. In solving problems of flue gas treatment great attention is given to the economic characteristics and recycling techniques for capturing emissions and disposal must also meet the sanitary health requirements: flue gas treatment plants should not cause air or water pollution. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage wet treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. Projected plant can be used in enterprises for processing of solid domestic and industrial waste, where there are steam and hot water boilers, whose operations result in contaminated gases emissions obtained with high temperatures. In particular, this installation can be applied at a cement plant in which a large amount of waste gases containing sulfur oxides is emitted. Assessment of market potential for the plant designed to treat waste gases in the cement factory is performed through a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis results indicate the possibility of the treatment of exhaust gases without a high cost and with high gas treatment efficiency. Plant competitive analysis was done using an expert method in comparison with market competitors. Technical and economic indicators of the plant are presented. Return on investments is 46% and payback period of capital investments - 2.7 years.

  1. Verifying Identities of Plant-Based Multivitamins Using Phytochemical Fingerprinting in Combination with Multiple Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeni; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Yoo, Jae Keun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2017-09-01

    Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities. In addition, multiple bioassays were performed to determine total antioxidant capacity. A statistical computation model was then used to measure contributions of phytochemicals and vitamins to antioxidant activities. Fifteen multivitamins were purchased from the local markets in Seoul, Korea and classified into three groups according to the number of plant ingredients. Pearson correlation analysis among antioxidant capacities, amount phenols, and number of plant ingredients revealed that ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results had the highest correlation with total phenol content. This suggests that FRAP and DPPH assays are useful for characterizing plant-derived multivitamins. Furthermore, net effect linear regression analysis confirmed that the contribution of phytochemicals to total antioxidant capacities was always relatively higher than that of vitamins. Taken together, the results suggest that phytochemical fingerprinting in combination with multiple bioassays could be used as a strategy to determine whether plant-derived multivitamins could provide additional health benefits beyond their nutritional value.

  2. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors.

  3. Aequorin-based measurements of intracellular Ca2+-signatures in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithöfer Axel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the involvement of calcium as a main second messenger in the plant signaling pathway, increasing interest has been focused on the calcium signatures supposed to be involved in the patterning of the specific response associated to a given stimulus. In order to follow these signatures we described here the practical approach to use the non-invasive method based on the aequorin technology. Besides reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of this method we report on results showing the usefulness of aequorin to study the calcium response to biotic (elicitors and abiotic stimuli (osmotic shocks in various compartments of plant cells such as cytosol and nucleus.

  4. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  5. Portable plant chlorophyll fluorimeter based on blue LED rapid induced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Mi, Ting; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Fluorimeter is an effective device for detecting chlorophyll a content in plants. In order to realize real-time nondestructive detection of plant blades, a camera based fluorescence instrument based on two color mirrors has been developed. The blue light LED is used as the excitation light source, and the lens is used for shaping and focusing the excitation light to ensure the excitation intensity and uniform illumination of the light source. The device uses a 45 degree two color mirror to separate the chlorophyll a excited light path and the fluorescence receiving light path. Finally, the fluorescent signal is collected by the silicon photocell, and the signal is processed by the circuit to transmit the digital information to the display. Through the analysis of the experimental data, the device has the advantages of small size, easy to carry, fast induction, etc., and can be widely applied in outdoor teaching and field investigation.

  6. CHIP: Commodity based Hazard Identification Protocol for emerging diseases in plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.; Swanenburg, M.; Galen, van M.A.; Hoek, Maarten; Rau, M.L.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Benninga, J.; Ge, L.; Breukers, M.L.H.

    2012-01-01

    This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systematic review of pest and pathogen

  7. Model-based fault detection and isolation of a PWR nuclear power plant using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, R.R.; Davilu, H.; Lucas, C.

    2008-01-01

    The proper and timely fault detection and isolation of industrial plant is of premier importance to guarantee the safe and reliable operation of industrial plants. The paper presents application of a neural networks-based scheme for fault detection and isolation, for the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant. The scheme is constituted by 2 components: residual generation and fault isolation. The first component generates residuals via the discrepancy between measurements coming from the plant and a nominal model. The neutral network estimator is trained with healthy data collected from a full-scale simulator. For the second component detection thresholds are used to encode the residuals as bipolar vectors which represent fault patterns. These patterns are stored in an associative memory based on a recurrent neutral network. The proposed fault diagnosis tool is evaluated on-line via a full-scale simulator detected and isolate the main faults appearing in the pressurizer of a PWR. (orig.)

  8. Experimental study on the plant state estimation for the condition-based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, J. I.; Takahashi, M.; Kitamura, M.; Wakabayashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    A framework of maintenance support system based on the plant state estimation using diverse methods has been proposed and the validity of the plant state estimation methods has been experimentally evaluated. The focus has been set on the construction of the BN for the objective system with the scale and complexity as same as real world systems. Another focus has been set on the other functions for maintenance support system such as signal processing tool and similarity matching. The validity of the proposed inference method has been confirmed through numerical experiments. (authors)

  9. Methodology for risk-based configuration control of nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Antonio Torres; Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero

    2012-01-01

    The hazardous configurations control in Nuclear Power Plants is an application of a previous Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). A more complete option would be the risk monitoring for the online detection of these configurations but expert personnel would be required to deal with the complexities of PSA and risk monitor. The paper presents a simpler but effective approach: a method of configuration control, based on dependencies matrixes. The algorithm is included in a computer code called SECURE A-Z. The configuration control is carried out in a qualitative way, without previous PSA results and not using a Risk Monitor. The simplicity of the method warrants its application to facilities where these tools have not been developed, allowing the detection of hazardous configurations during operation and increasing plant safety. This configuration control system was implemented in the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Argentina. The paper shows the application of the algorithm to the analysis of a simplified safety system. (author)

  10. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 2. Appendix C : Facilities Planning Baseline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  11. Deep machine learning provides state-of-the-art performance in image-based plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Townsend, Alexandra J; Wilson, Michael H; Griffiths, Marcus; Jackson, Aaron S; Bulat, Adrian; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Wells, Darren M; Murchie, Erik H; Pridmore, Tony P; French, Andrew P

    2017-10-01

    In plant phenotyping, it has become important to be able to measure many features on large image sets in order to aid genetic discovery. The size of the datasets, now often captured robotically, often precludes manual inspection, hence the motivation for finding a fully automated approach. Deep learning is an emerging field that promises unparalleled results on many data analysis problems. Building on artificial neural networks, deep approaches have many more hidden layers in the network, and hence have greater discriminative and predictive power. We demonstrate the use of such approaches as part of a plant phenotyping pipeline. We show the success offered by such techniques when applied to the challenging problem of image-based plant phenotyping and demonstrate state-of-the-art results (>97% accuracy) for root and shoot feature identification and localization. We use fully automated trait identification using deep learning to identify quantitative trait loci in root architecture datasets. The majority (12 out of 14) of manually identified quantitative trait loci were also discovered using our automated approach based on deep learning detection to locate plant features. We have shown deep learning-based phenotyping to have very good detection and localization accuracy in validation and testing image sets. We have shown that such features can be used to derive meaningful biological traits, which in turn can be used in quantitative trait loci discovery pipelines. This process can be completely automated. We predict a paradigm shift in image-based phenotyping bought about by such deep learning approaches, given sufficient training sets. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Membrane Bioreactor-Based Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia: Reduction of Viral Diversity, Load, and Infectious Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad

    2017-07-18

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia was assessed over a nine-month period for virus removal efficiency. Viral diversity was detected using omics-based approaches. Log reduction values (LRV) of Adenoviruses (AdV) and Enteroviruses (EV) were enumerated using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and assessed for infectivity using fluorescence-based infection assays. MBR treatment was successful in reducing viral diversity. Plant viruses remained abundant in the treated effluent. Human enteric viruses were present in lower abundance than plant viruses, and were reduced by MBR at varying LRV. AdV copy numbers were reduced by 3.7-log. Infectious AdV was not detected in the effluent. EV copy numbers were reduced by 1.7-log post MBR and infectious EV decreased by an average of 2.0-log. Infectious EV was detected in the chlorinated effluent, occasionally in concentrations that approximate to its 50% infectious dose. Overall, results indicated that a MBR-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effectively reduces viral diversity, viral load, and infectious capacity by up to 4-logs. These findings suggest potential concerns associated with plant and human enteric viruses for reuse events in this country. Local guidelines for assessment of treated water quality should take into consideration both infectious viral concentration and LRV.

  13. Trait-based representation of hydrological functional properties of plants in weather and ecosystem models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Matheny

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models and dynamic global vegetation models typically represent vegetation through coarse plant functional type groupings based on leaf form, phenology, and bioclimatic limits. Although these groupings were both feasible and functional for early model generations, in light of the pace at which our knowledge of functional ecology, ecosystem demographics, and vegetation-climate feedbacks has advanced and the ever growing demand for enhanced model performance, these groupings have become antiquated and are identified as a key source of model uncertainty. The newest wave of model development is centered on shifting the vegetation paradigm away from plant functional types (PFTs and towards flexible trait-based representations. These models seek to improve errors in ecosystem fluxes that result from information loss due to over-aggregation of dissimilar species into the same functional class. We advocate the importance of the inclusion of plant hydraulic trait representation within the new paradigm through a framework of the whole-plant hydraulic strategy. Plant hydraulic strategy is known to play a critical role in the regulation of stomatal conductance and thus transpiration and latent heat flux. It is typical that coexisting plants employ opposing hydraulic strategies, and therefore have disparate patterns of water acquisition and use. Hydraulic traits are deterministic of drought resilience, response to disturbance, and other demographic processes. The addition of plant hydraulic properties in models may not only improve the simulation of carbon and water fluxes but also vegetation population distributions.

  14. MPT0B169, a New Antitubulin Agent, Inhibits Bcr-Abl Expression and Induces Mitochondrion-Mediated Apoptosis in Nonresistant and Imatinib-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuit-Mun Wong

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that is caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Clinical resistance to the Bcr-Abl inhibitor imatinib is a critical problem in treating CML. This study investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of MPT0B169, a new antitubulin agent, in K562 CML cells and their derived imatinib-resistant cells, IMR2 and IMR3. IMR2 and IMR3 cells showed complete resistance to imatinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Resistance involved ERK1/2 overactivation and MDR1 overexpression. MPT0B169 inhibited the growth of K562, IMR2, and IMR3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MPT0B169 substantially inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl, followed by its downstream pathways including Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in these cells. MPT0B169 treatment resulted in a decrease in the polymer form of tubulin according to Western blot analysis. It triggered cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase before apoptosis, which was related to the upregulation of the mitotic marker MPM2 and the cyclin B1 level, and a change in the phosphorylation of Cdk1. MPT0B169 induced apoptosis in nonresistant and imatinib-resistant cells via a mitochondrion-mediated caspase pathway. Further study showed that the agent led to a decrease in the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 and an increase in the apoptotic protein Bax. Taken together, our results suggest that MPT0B169 might be a promising agent for overcoming imatinib resistance in CML cells.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  16. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C.; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud regi...

  17. Development of maintenance tools based on tribology for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yoshiro; Honda, Tomomi; Yoshinaga, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many tribological problems occur in the maintenance of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we introduced our developed maintenance tools based on tribology such as a particle counter and wear sensors. Their principals were shown briefly and their usefulness was clarified by the experiments on monitoring of wear. (author)

  18. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using ...

  19. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  20. A Comparison of Growth and Survival of Aquacultured Juvenile Florida Pompano fed Fishmeal and Plant-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the growth and survival of aquacultured juvenile Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed two different diets. Pompano (initial weight 7.7 g /fish) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: Zeigler pellets (fishmeal; 35% protein, 5% lipid) and a plant-based Repashy Soilent Green algae gel (plant-based; 35% protein, 6% lipid). Fish were fed rations of 5% body weight twice daily for eight weeks. Despite nearly equivalent proximate compositions for the two feeds, survival rates were significantly affected by diet. All fish fed the Zeigler diet survived; however, mortality was observed in 92% of the fish fed the Repashy diet. At the end of the trial, mean weight gain of surviving pompano was highest in fish fed Zeigler pellets. Mean specific growth rate (SGR) for fish fed the Zeigler diet (0.24% per day) was higher than for fish fed Repashy (-2.44%).While plant-based feeds have been successfully used with the species, these results suggest that the plant-based Repashy diet is not suitable for survival or growth of aquacultured Florida pompano.

  1. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  2. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  3. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanty, N.A.M.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Miskandar, M.S.; Bockstaele, F. Van; Dewettinck, K.; Nusantoro, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD) in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF) with palm stearin (PS) in a 99:1 (w/w) ratio; avocado fat (Avo) with PS and cocoa butter (CB) in a 84:7:9 (w/w) ratio; palm oil (PO) with PS, soybean oil (SBO) and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w) ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure. [es

  4. Welding Metallurgy of Nickel-Based Superalloys for Power Plant Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, David C.

    Increasing the steam temperature and pressure in coal-fired power plants is a perpetual goal driven by the pursuit of increasing thermal cycle efficiency and reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The next target steam operating conditions, which are 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi) are known as Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC), and can reduce CO2 emissions up to 13% but this cannot be achieved with traditional power plant construction materials. The use of precipitation-strengthened Nickel-based alloys (superalloys) is required for components which will experience the highest operating temperatures. The leading candidate superalloys for power plant construction are alloys 740H, 282, and 617. Superalloys have excellent elevated temperature properties due to careful microstructural design which is achieved through very specific heat treatments, often requiring solution annealing or homogenization at temperatures of 1100 °C or higher. A series of postweld heat treatments was investigated and it was found that homogenization steps before aging had no noticeable effect on weld metal microhardness, however; there were clear improvements in weld metal homogeneity. The full abstract can be viewed in the document itself.

  5. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content...

  6. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S K; Anurag, Rahul K

    2016-09-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow's milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.

  7. Deep Neural Networks Based Recognition of Plant Diseases by Leaf Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Sladojevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs has achieved impressive results in the field of image classification. This paper is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. The developed model is able to recognize 13 different types of plant diseases out of healthy leaves, with the ability to distinguish plant leaves from their surroundings. According to our knowledge, this method for plant disease recognition has been proposed for the first time. All essential steps required for implementing this disease recognition model are fully described throughout the paper, starting from gathering images in order to create a database, assessed by agricultural experts. Caffe, a deep learning framework developed by Berkley Vision and Learning Centre, was used to perform the deep CNN training. The experimental results on the developed model achieved precision between 91% and 98%, for separate class tests, on average 96.3%.

  8. RIMAP demonstration project. Pat. 1: Risk based life management of piping system in power plant Heilbronn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Puck, P.; Matschecko, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Balos, D.; Perunicic

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of EU project RIMAP [1] a new European Guideline for optimized risk based maintenance and inspection planning of industrial plants (RBLM - Risk Based Life Management) is being developed. The RIMAP project consists of the three clustered projects: development (RTD), demonstration (DEMO) and thematic network (TN). Current work and future, planned work in RIMAP demonstration project on applications of the RIMAP methodology in power plants are presented briefly in the first part of the paper. Also presented in the paper are the results of a preliminary analysis of piping system in power plant Heilbronn using the concept of risk-based monitoring as part of overall concept of risk-based life management. Shortly the following issues are discussed in the paper: identification of critical components, application of a multilevel risk analysis (..from ''screening'' to ''detailed analysis''), determination of PoF - Probability of Failure, determination of COF - Consequence of Failure and optimation of inspection and maintenance plan. (orig.)

  9. The knowledge-based off-site emergency response system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.W.; Loa, W.W.; Wang, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based expert system for a nuclear power plant off-site emergency response system is described. The system incorporates the knowledge about the nuclear power plant behaviours, site environment and site geographic factors, etc. The system is developed using Chinshan nuclear power station of Taipower Company, Taiwan, ROC as a representative model. The objectives of developing this system are to provide an automated intelligent system with functions of accident simulation, prediction and with learning capabilities to supplement the actions of the emergency planners and accident managers in order to protect the plant personnel and the surrounding population, and prevent or mitigate property damages resulting from the plant accident. The system is capable of providing local and national authorities with rapid retrieval data from the site characteristics and accident progression. The system can also provide the framework for allocation of available resources and can handle the uncertainties in data and models

  10. 3D Maize Plant Reconstruction Based on Georeferenced Overlapping LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D crop reconstruction with a high temporal resolution and by the use of non-destructive measuring technologies can support the automation of plant phenotyping processes. Thereby, the availability of such 3D data can give valuable information about the plant development and the interaction of the plant genotype with the environment. This article presents a new methodology for georeferenced 3D reconstruction of maize plant structure. For this purpose a total station, an IMU, and several 2D LiDARs with different orientations were mounted on an autonomous vehicle. By the multistep methodology presented, based on the application of the ICP algorithm for point cloud fusion, it was possible to perform the georeferenced point clouds overlapping. The overlapping point cloud algorithm showed that the aerial points (corresponding mainly to plant parts were reduced to 1.5%–9% of the total registered data. The remaining were redundant or ground points. Through the inclusion of different LiDAR point of views of the scene, a more realistic representation of the surrounding is obtained by the incorporation of new useful information but also of noise. The use of georeferenced 3D maize plant reconstruction at different growth stages, combined with the total station accuracy could be highly useful when performing precision agriculture at the crop plant level.

  11. Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from Basella alba. (Indian spinach) and ... solution, which change colour immediately after the equivalence point has .... The pH ranges over which the dyes change colour were ...

  12. Tracking fungal community responses to maize plants by DNA- and RNA-based pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko E Kuramae

    Full Text Available We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1 = 47 days and t2 = 104 days of plant age in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA. The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most "active" fungi (as recovered via RNA. Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production. Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time.

  13. Development of Web-Based Common Cause Failure (CCF) Database Module for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Hwang, Seok-Won; Shin, Tae-young [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been used to identify risk vulnerabilities and derive the safety improvement measures from construction to operation stages of nuclear power plants. In addition, risk insights from PSA can be applied to improve the designs and operation requirements of plants. However, reliability analysis methods for quantitative PSA evaluation have essentially inherent uncertainties, and it may create a distorted risk profiles because of the differences among the PSA models, plant designs, and operation status. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the PSA model so that analysts identify design vulnerabilities and utilize risk information. Especially, the common cause failure (CCF) has been pointed out as one of major issues to be able to cause the uncertainty related to the PSA analysis methods and data because CCF has a large influence on the PSA results. Organization for economic cooperation and development /nuclear energy agent (OECD/NEA) has implemented an international common cause failure data exchange (ICDE) project for the CCF quality assurance through the development of the detailed analysis methodologies and data sharing. However, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power company (KHNP) does not have the basis for the data gathering and analysis for CCF analyses. In case of methodology, the Alpha Factor parameter estimation, which can analyze uncertainties and estimate an interface factor (Impact Vector) with an ease, is ready to be applied rather than the Multi Greek Letter (MGL) method. This article summarizes the development of the plant-specific CCF database (DB) module considering the raw data collection and the analysis procedure based on the CCF parameter calculation method of ICDE. Although the portion affected by CCF in the PSA model is quite a large, the development efforts of the tools to collect and analyze data were insufficient. Currently, KHNP intends to improve PSA quality and ensure CCF data reliability by

  14. Development of Web-Based Common Cause Failure (CCF) Database Module for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Hwang, Seok-Won; Shin, Tae-young

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been used to identify risk vulnerabilities and derive the safety improvement measures from construction to operation stages of nuclear power plants. In addition, risk insights from PSA can be applied to improve the designs and operation requirements of plants. However, reliability analysis methods for quantitative PSA evaluation have essentially inherent uncertainties, and it may create a distorted risk profiles because of the differences among the PSA models, plant designs, and operation status. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the PSA model so that analysts identify design vulnerabilities and utilize risk information. Especially, the common cause failure (CCF) has been pointed out as one of major issues to be able to cause the uncertainty related to the PSA analysis methods and data because CCF has a large influence on the PSA results. Organization for economic cooperation and development /nuclear energy agent (OECD/NEA) has implemented an international common cause failure data exchange (ICDE) project for the CCF quality assurance through the development of the detailed analysis methodologies and data sharing. However, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power company (KHNP) does not have the basis for the data gathering and analysis for CCF analyses. In case of methodology, the Alpha Factor parameter estimation, which can analyze uncertainties and estimate an interface factor (Impact Vector) with an ease, is ready to be applied rather than the Multi Greek Letter (MGL) method. This article summarizes the development of the plant-specific CCF database (DB) module considering the raw data collection and the analysis procedure based on the CCF parameter calculation method of ICDE. Although the portion affected by CCF in the PSA model is quite a large, the development efforts of the tools to collect and analyze data were insufficient. Currently, KHNP intends to improve PSA quality and ensure CCF data reliability by

  15. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on bioactive compounds in Mediterranean plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2009-05-01

    Novel non-thermal processing technologies such as high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments may be applied to pasteurize plant-based liquid foods as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in HIPEF as a way of preserving and extending the shelf-life of liquid products without the quality damage caused by heat treatments. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of HIPEF on minor constituents of these products, namely bioactive compounds. This review is a state-of-the-art update on the effects of HIPEF treatments on health-related compounds in plants of the Mediterranean diet such as fruit juices, and Spanish gazpacho. The relevance of HIPEF-processing parameters on retaining plant-based bioactive compounds will be discussed.

  16. Sonication reduces the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michelle S F; Rahman, Sadequr; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting. The attachment of sonicated S. Typhimurium cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material (potato, apple, lettuce) was then evaluated. Varying concentrations of pectin and/or xyloglucan were used to produce a range of bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. As compared to the non-sonicated controls, sonicated S. Typhimurium cells attached in significantly lower numbers (between 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/cm 2 ) to all surfaces except to the bacterial cellulose-only composite without pectin and xyloglucan. Since attachment of S. Typhimurium to the bacterial cellulose-only composite was not affected by sonication, this suggests that bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, could have specific interactions with pectin and xyloglucan. This study indicates that sonication may have potential applications for reducing Salmonella attachment during the processing of fresh produce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  18. A logic flowgraph based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the US the evolution of automated decision support tools for plant operators has spanned from ''event-oriented'' diagnostic systems to ''symptom-oriented'' computer-based emergency operating procedures. A problem common to both kind of systems is in the initial level of effort required for development of the associated models and software. In the following we will discuss some of the general issues that arise in the development and application of these decision-support systems. We will also propose and discuss an approach founded on the application of an event diagnosis and plant stabilization philosophy. This approach is based on the use of logic flowgraph process-oriented models - arranged in a modular architecture and developed with the aid of an expert-system model builder - as a possible means of achieving the development of an automated and integrated plant management system. This approach should allow the developer to achieve a high process recovery and management capability with a focused and controlled expenditure of development time and resources

  19. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  20. Exchange of availability/performance data on base-load gas turbine and combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesuthasan, D.K.; Kaupang, B.M. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the recommendations developed to facilitate the international exchange of availability performance data on base-load gas turbines and combined cycle plant. Standardized formats for the collection of plant availability statistics, recognizing the inherent characteristics of gas turbines in simple and combined cycle plants are presented. The formats also allow for a logical expansion of the data collection detail as that becomes desirable. To assist developing countries in particular, the approach includes basic formats for data collection needed for international reporting. In addition, the participating utilities will have a meaningful database for internal use. As experience is gained with this data colletion system, it is expected that additional detail may be accommodated to enable further in-depth performance analysis on the plant and on the utility level. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 apps.

  1. EPRI compact analyzer: A compact, interactive and color-graphics based simulator for power plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Chen, H.; Colley, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP2395-2) for design and development of an interactive, and color graphics based simulator for power plant analysis. The system is called Compact Analyzer and can be applied to engineering and training applications in the utility industry. The Compact Analyzer's software and system design are described. Results of two demonstration system for a nuclear plant, and a fossil plant are presented, and the applications of the Compact Analyzer to operating procedures evaluation are discussed

  2. Neutron dosimetry inside the containment building of Spanish nuclear power plants with PADC based dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fuste, M.J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Departament de Fisica. Edifici C. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, C., E-mail: carles.domingo@uab.ca [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Departament de Fisica. Edifici C. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Amgarou, K.; Bouassoule, T.; Castelo, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Departament de Fisica. Edifici C. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN) recommends performing neutron individual dose assignments at workplaces based on ambient dose equivalent measurements using area monitors and by estimating the amount of time that workers spend in the different monitored environments. In addition, some Spanish nuclear power plants estimate the neutron dose equivalent using albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD). In the period 2004-2006, our group, together with other research centers, participated in a project, funded by the CSN, with the support of the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Association (UNESA), to investigate in situ which could be the best practical procedure for individual neutron dose monitoring in nuclear power plants. As part of this survey, several units of the UAB PADC based neutron dosemeter were exposed, on a methacrylate phantom simulating a human body, at four different places inside the containment building of the Asco I nuclear power plant. The influence of different types of calibration neutron fields is analysed and the dose equivalent for each point is estimated.

  3. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant Operator Advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Group in the Nuclear Engineering Program has designed and built an Operator Advisor (OA), an AI system to monitor nuclear power plant parameters, detect component and system malfunctions, dispose their causes, and provide the plant operators with the correct procedures for mitigating the consequences of the malfunctions. It then monitors performance of the procedures, and provides backup steps when specific operator actions fail. The OA has been implemented on Sun 4 workstations in Common Lisp, and has been interfaced to run in real time on the Perry Nuclear Power Plant full-function simulator in the plant training department. The eventual goal for a fully functioning Operator Advisor would be to have reactor operators receive direction for all plant operations. Such a goal requires considerable testing of the system within limited malfunction boundaries, an extensive Verification ampersand Validation (V ampersand V) effort, a large knowledge base development effort, and development of tools as part of the system to automate its maintenance. Clearly, these efforts are beyond the scope of the feasibility effort expended during this project period. However, as a result of this project, we have an AI based platform upon which a complete system can be built

  4. A real option-based simulation model to evaluate investments in pump storage plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muche, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Investments in pump storage plants are expected to grow especially due to their ability to store an excess of supply from wind power plants. In order to evaluate these investments correctly the peculiarities of pump storage plants and the characteristics of liberalized power markets have to be considered. The main characteristics of power markets are the strong power price volatility and the occurrence of prices spikes. In this article a valuation model is developed capturing these aspects using power price simulation, optimization of unit commitment and capital market theory. This valuation model is able to value a future price-based unit commitment planning that corresponds to future scope of actions also called real options. The resulting real option value for the pump storage plant is compared with the traditional net present value approach. Because this approach is not able to evaluate scope of actions correctly it results in strongly smaller investment values and forces wrong investment decisions.

  5. Evaluation of possible use of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Martinez Mira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation of food contact surfaces has been a contributing factor in food borne disease outbreaks, especially those involving Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. Determine the efficiency of a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in suspension in a closed system in a dairy plant. 2. Evaluate the possibility of disinfection of working surfaces with a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide. In order to determine the germicidal effect of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide by suspension test (BSEN 1276:1997; the following test organisms were used: Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide were tested by IDF 077:1977 standard. The efficacy of this disinfectant was investigated in a closed system in a dairy plant. Results indicated a 100% reduction of >108 cfu/ml L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, viable count after 1 minute of exposure to 100 ppm of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide and 400 ppm for Bacillus cereus. In the presence of 2% skim milk and 4 % skim milk concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm resulted in 100% reduction in numbers of the five of six test microorganisms, respectively. The spore former, Bacillus cereus is less susceptible to the disinfectant. Therefore, the efficient concentration for 100% reduction in viable count after 1 minute exposure was 500 ppm. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant were not determined. In the case of closed system disinfection in a dairy plant, reduction in viable count after 15 minute exposure to 100 ppm of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide ranged from 80 to 100%.

  6. Development of a web-based fatigue life evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyong Won; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Sung Nam; Jang, Ki Sang; Hong, Sung Yull

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including regular in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage the integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based fatigue life evaluation system for primary components in nuclear power plant is proposed. This system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant

  7. Assessment of job stress factors and organizational personality types for procedure-based jobs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear power plants, we identified the job contents and characteristics through the analyses of job assignments that appeared in the organizational chart and the results of an activity-based costing. By using questionnaire surveys and structured interviews with the plant personnel and expert panels, we assessed 70 jobs among the 777 jobs managed officially in accordance with the procedures. They consist of the representative jobs of each department and are directly related to safety. We utilized the organizational personality type indicators to characterize the personality types of each organization in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Vehec, T.A.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Rossbach, L.W.; Sena, P.P. III

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2 were selected as two of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2

  10. Structural health monitoring of power plant components based on a local temperature measurement concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Bergholz, S.; Hilpert, R.; Jouan, B.; Goetz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The fatigue assessment of power plant components based on fatigue monitoring approaches is an essential part of the integrity concept and modern lifetime management. It is comparable to structural health monitoring approaches in other engineering fields. The methods of fatigue evaluation of nuclear power plant components based on realistic thermal load data measured on the plant are addressed. In this context the Fast Fatigue Evaluation (FFE) and Detailed Fatigue Calculation (DFC) of nuclear power plant components are parts of the three staged approach to lifetime assessment and lifetime management of the AREVA Fatigue Concept (AFC). The three stages Simplified Fatigue Estimation (SFE), Fast Fatigue Evaluation (FFE) and Detailed Fatigue Calculation (DFC) are characterized by increasing calculation effort and decreasing degree of conservatism. Their application is case dependent. The quality of the fatigue lifetime assessment essentially depends on one hand on the fatigue model assumptions and on the other hand on the load data as the basic input. In the case of nuclear power plant components thermal transient loading is most fatigue relevant. Usual global fatigue monitoring approaches rely on measured data from plant instrumentation. As an extension, the application of a local fatigue monitoring strategy (to be described in detail within the scope of this paper) paves the way of delivering continuously (nowadays at a frequency of 1 Hz) realistic load data at the fatigue relevant locations. Methods of qualified processing of these data are discussed in detail. Particularly, the processing of arbitrary operational load sequences and the derivation of representative model transients is discussed. This approach related to realistic load-time histories is principally applicable for all fatigue relevant components and ensures a realistic fatigue evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Genome BLAST distance phylogenies inferred from whole plastid and whole mitochondrion genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Barbara R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic methods which do not rely on multiple sequence alignments are important tools in inferring trees directly from completely sequenced genomes. Here, we extend the recently described Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP strategy to compute phylogenetic trees from all completely sequenced plastid genomes currently available and from a selection of mitochondrial genomes representing the major eukaryotic lineages. BLASTN, TBLASTX, or combinations of both are used to locate high-scoring segment pairs (HSPs between two sequences from which pairwise similarities and distances are computed in different ways resulting in a total of 96 GBDP variants. The suitability of these distance formulae for phylogeny reconstruction is directly estimated by computing a recently described measure of "treelikeness", the so-called δ value, from the respective distance matrices. Additionally, we compare the trees inferred from these matrices using UPGMA, NJ, BIONJ, FastME, or STC, respectively, with the NCBI taxonomy tree of the taxa under study. Results Our results indicate that, at this taxonomic level, plastid genomes are much more valuable for inferring phylogenies than are mitochondrial genomes, and that distances based on breakpoints are of little use. Distances based on the proportion of "matched" HSP length to average genome length were best for tree estimation. Additionally we found that using TBLASTX instead of BLASTN and, particularly, combining TBLASTX and BLASTN leads to a small but significant increase in accuracy. Other factors do not significantly affect the phylogenetic outcome. The BIONJ algorithm results in phylogenies most in accordance with the current NCBI taxonomy, with NJ and FastME performing insignificantly worse, and STC performing as well if applied to high quality distance matrices. δ values are found to be a reliable predictor of phylogenetic accuracy. Conclusion Using the most treelike distance matrices, as

  12. Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Satija

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based diets have been recommended to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial. We examined the association of an overall plant-based diet and hypothesized healthful and unhealthful versions of a plant-based diet with T2D incidence in three prospective cohort studies in the US.We included 69,949 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012, 90,239 women from the Nurses' Health Study 2 (1991-2011, and 40,539 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010, free of chronic diseases at baseline. Dietary data were collected every 2-4 y using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using these data, we created an overall plant-based diet index (PDI, where plant foods received positive scores, while animal foods (animal fats, dairy, eggs, fish/seafood, poultry/red meat, miscellaneous animal-based foods received reverse scores. We also created a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI, where healthy plant foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, tea/coffee received positive scores, while less healthy plant foods (fruit juices, sweetened beverages, refined grains, potatoes, sweets/desserts and animal foods received reverse scores. Lastly, we created an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI by assigning positive scores to less healthy plant foods and reverse scores to healthy plant foods and animal foods. We documented 16,162 incident T2D cases during 4,102,369 person-years of follow-up. In pooled multivariable-adjusted analysis, both PDI and hPDI were inversely associated with T2D (PDI: hazard ratio [HR] for extreme deciles 0.51, 95% CI 0.47-0.55, p trend < 0.001; hPDI: HR for extreme deciles 0.55, 95% CI 0.51-0.59, p trend < 0.001. The association of T2D with PDI was considerably attenuated when we additionally adjusted for body mass index (BMI categories (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, p trend < 0.001, while that with hPDI remained

  13. Bringing plant-based veterinary vaccines to market: Managing regulatory and commercial hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima

    2015-12-01

    The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Replacement of the control and instrumentation system with the microprocessor based systems in Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.

    1998-01-01

    In Ohi Units 3 and 4, Ikata Unit 3, and Genkai Units 3 and 4, the latest of PWR plants now under operation in Japan, the reactor control system and turbine control system employ the microprocessor base digital control systems with a view to improving reliability, operability and maintainability. In the next stage plants, another application of such digital system is also planned for the instrumentation rack for the reactor protection system for further improvement. On the other hand, in Mihama Unit 1, the first of domestic PWR plants, and later plants except for the latest 5 plants, analog control systems are employed for the instrumentation racks. For the analog control systems of these plants, FOXBORO H-Line instruments, equivalent domestic box type instruments or WH7300 Series card type instruments were initially employed, and later replaced with domestic card type control systems after 10-15 year operation. However, 8-12 years have passed since these replacements, so the 15th year generally quoted as an interval for replacing C and I systems is near at hand. This is the time to consider next replacement. This replacement will be based on the latest digital technology. However, it is not practical way for the existing plants to apply the same integrated digital C and I system configuration for the next stage plants, because it requires the drastic change of the C and I system configuration and significant cost-up. Therefore, we must investigate the optimum digital C and I system configuration for the existing system. (author)

  15. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Torres-Pacheco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant transpiration is considered one of the most important physiological functions because it constitutes the plants evolving adaptation to exchange moisture with a dry atmosphere which can dehydrate or eventually kill the plant. Due to the importance of transpiration, accurate measurement methods are required; therefore, a smart sensor that fuses five primary sensors is proposed which can measure air temperature, leaf temperature, air relative humidity, plant out relative humidity and ambient light. A field programmable gate array based unit is used to perform signal processing algorithms as average decimation and infinite impulse response filters to the primary sensor readings in order to reduce the signal noise and improve its quality. Once the primary sensor readings are filtered, transpiration dynamics such as: transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf-air-temperature-difference and vapor pressure deficit are calculated in real time by the smart sensor. This permits the user to observe different primary and calculated measurements at the same time and the relationship between these which is very useful in precision agriculture in the detection of abnormal conditions. Finally, transpiration related stress conditions can be detected in real time because of the use of online processing and embedded communications capabilities.

  16. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon Gerardo; Contreras-Medina, Luis Miguel; Carrillo-Serrano, Roberto Valentin; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Duarte-Galvan, Carlos; Rios-Alcaraz, Miguel Angel; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

    2010-01-01

    Plant transpiration is considered one of the most important physiological functions because it constitutes the plants evolving adaptation to exchange moisture with a dry atmosphere which can dehydrate or eventually kill the plant. Due to the importance of transpiration, accurate measurement methods are required; therefore, a smart sensor that fuses five primary sensors is proposed which can measure air temperature, leaf temperature, air relative humidity, plant out relative humidity and ambient light. A field programmable gate array based unit is used to perform signal processing algorithms as average decimation and infinite impulse response filters to the primary sensor readings in order to reduce the signal noise and improve its quality. Once the primary sensor readings are filtered, transpiration dynamics such as: transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf-air-temperature-difference and vapor pressure deficit are calculated in real time by the smart sensor. This permits the user to observe different primary and calculated measurements at the same time and the relationship between these which is very useful in precision agriculture in the detection of abnormal conditions. Finally, transpiration related stress conditions can be detected in real time because of the use of online processing and embedded communications capabilities. PMID:22163656

  17. Plants, plant pathogens, and microgravity--a deadly trio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J. E.; Ryba-White, M.; Sun, Q.; Wu, C. J.; Hilaire, E.; Gartner, C.; Nedukha, O.; Kordyum, E.; Keck, M.; Leung, H.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment.

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  19. L-Py: an L-System simulation framework for modeling plant development based on a dynamic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBoudon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e. languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: i by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, ii by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead iii allowing a high level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models iv and by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  20. Developments of integrity evaluation technology for pressurized components in nuclear power plant and IT based integrity evaluation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Shim, Do Jun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient evaluation technology and to investigate applicability of newly-developed technology, such as internet-based cyber platform, to operating power plants. Development of efficient evaluation systems for Nuclear Power Plant components, based on structural integrity assessment techniques, are increasingly demanded for safe operation with the increasing operating period of Nuclear Power Plants. The following five topics are covered in this project: development of assessment method for wall-thinned nuclear piping based on pipe test; development of structural integrity program for steam generator tubes with cracks of various shape; development of fatigue life evaluation system for mam components of NPP; development of internet-based cyber platform and integrity program for primary components of NPP; effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T.; Holtz, Barry R.; Erwin, Robert L.; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new “greenfield” biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization. PMID:27559626

  2. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T; Holtz, Barry R; Erwin, Robert L; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A

    Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new "greenfield" biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization.

  3. Web-based turbine cycle performance analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Lee, Sung Jin; Chang, Soon Heung; Choi, Seong Soo

    2000-01-01

    As an approach to improve the economical efficiency of operating nuclear power plants, a thermal performance analysis tool for steam turbine cycle has been developed. For the validation and the prediction of the signals used in thermal performance analysis, a few statistical signal processing techniques are integrated. The developed tool provides predicted performance calculation capability that is steady-state wet steam turbine cycle simulation, and measurement performance calculation capability which determines component- and cycle-level performance indexes. Web-based interface with all performance analysis is implemented, so even remote users can achieve performance analysis. Comparing to ASME PTC6 (Performance Test Code 6), the focusing point of the developed tool is historical performance analysis rather than single accurate performance test. The proposed signal processing techniques are validated using actual plant signals, and turbine cycle models are tested by benchmarking with a commercial thermal analysis tool

  4. Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing

    In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.

  5. ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype based on PXIe platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Sanz, D.; López, J.M.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Nieto, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.; Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Implementation of Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. ► Efficient data acquisition and data movement using EPICS. ► Performance of PCIe technologies in the implementation of FPSC. - Abstract: The ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) is based on embedded technologies. The FPSC will be devoted to both data acquisition tasks (sampling rates higher than 1 kHz) and control purposes (feedback loop actuators). Some of the essential requirements of these systems are: (a) data acquisition and data preprocessing; (b) interfacing with different networks and high speed links (Plant Operation Network, timing network based on IEEE1588, synchronous data transference and streaming/archiving networks); and (c) system setup and operation using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) process variables. CIEMAT and UPM have implemented a prototype of FPSC using a PXIe (PCI eXtension for Instrumentation) form factor in a R and D project developed in two phases. The paper presents the main features of the two prototypes developed that have been named alpha and beta. The former was implemented using LabVIEW development tools as it was focused on modeling the FPSC software modules, using the graphical features of LabVIEW applications, and measuring the basic performance in the system. The alpha version prototype implements data acquisition with time-stamping, EPICS monitoring using waveform process variables (PVs), and archiving. The beta version prototype is a complete IOC implemented using EPICS with different software functional blocks. These functional blocks are integrated and managed using an ASYN driver solution and provide the basic functionalities required by ITER FPSC such as data acquisition, data archiving, data pre-processing (using both CPU and GPU) and streaming.

  6. Evaluation of an Extremum Seeking Control Based Optimization and Sequencing Strategy for a Chilled-water Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhongfan; Li, Yaoyu; Mu, Baojie; Salsbury, Timothy I.; House, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Chilled-water plants with multiple chillers account for a significant fraction of energy use in large commercial buildings. Real-time optimization and sequencing of such plants is thus critical for building energy efficiency. Due to the cost and complexity associated with calibrating a chiller plant model to field operation, model-free control has become an attractive solution. Recently, Mu et al. (2015) proposed a model-free real-time optimization and sequencing strategy based on extremum se...

  7. Study on large scale knowledge base with real time operation for autonomous nuclear power plant. 1. Basic concept and expecting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Suda, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1996-04-01

    Since it is desired to enhance availability and safety of nuclear power plants operation and maintenance by removing human factor, there are many researches and developments for intelligent operation or diagnosis using artificial intelligence (AI) technique. We have been developing an autonomous operation and maintenance system for nuclear power plants by substituting AI's and intelligent robots. It is indispensable to use various and large scale knowledge relative to plant design, operation, and maintenance, that is, whole life cycle data of the plant for the autonomous nuclear power plant. These knowledge must be given to AI system or intelligent robots adequately and opportunely. Moreover, it is necessary to insure real time operation using the large scale knowledge base for plant control and diagnosis performance. We have been studying on the large scale and real time knowledge base system for autonomous plant. In the report, we would like to present the basic concept and expecting performance of the knowledge base for autonomous plant, especially, autonomous control and diagnosis system. (author)

  8. Advanced nuclear power plant regulation using risk-informed and performance-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and discusses implications of a largely probabilistic regulatory framework using best-estimate, goal-driven, risk-informed, and performance-based methods. This framework relies on continuous probabilistic assessment of performance of a set of time-dependent, safety-critical systems, structures, components, and procedures that assure attainment of a broad set of overarching technology-neutral protective, mitigative, and preventive goals under all phases of plant operations. In this framework acceptable levels of performance are set through formal apportionment so that they are commensurate with the overarching goals. Regulatory acceptance would be the based on the confidence level with which the plant conforms to these goals and performance objectives. The proposed framework uses the traditional defense-in-depth design and operation regulatory philosophy when uncertainty in conforming to specific goals and objectives is high. Finally, the paper discusses the steps needed to develop a corresponding technology-neutral regulatory approach from the proposed framework

  9. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 4. Appendix E : Medium and Heavy Truck Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  10. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  11. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-09-04

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), which for the purpose of this work are called "deep learning meta-architectures". We combine each of these meta-architectures with "deep feature extractors" such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet). We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant's surrounding area.

  12. Development of web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.M.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, J.B.; Kim, Y.J. [SAFE Research Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea); Choi, S.N.; Jang, K.S.; Hong, S.Y. [Korea Electronic Power Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including periodical in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant is proposed. The proposed system, which is named as WEBIES (web-based integrity evaluation system), has been developed in the form of 3-tier system architecture. The system consists of three servers; application program server, user interface program server and data warehouse server. The application program server includes the defect acceptance analysis module and the fracture mechanics analysis module which are programmed on the basis of ASME sec. XI, appendix A. The data warehouse server provides data for the integrity evaluation including material properties, geometry information, inspection data and stress data. The user interface program server provides information to all co- workers in the field of integrity evaluation. The developed system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  13. Development of web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Choi, S.N.; Jang, K.S.; Hong, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including periodical in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based integrity evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant is proposed. The proposed system, which is named as WEBIES (web-based integrity evaluation system), has been developed in the form of 3-tier system architecture. The system consists of three servers; application program server, user interface program server and data warehouse server. The application program server includes the defect acceptance analysis module and the fracture mechanics analysis module which are programmed on the basis of ASME sec. XI, appendix A. The data warehouse server provides data for the integrity evaluation including material properties, geometry information, inspection data and stress data. The user interface program server provides information to all co- workers in the field of integrity evaluation. The developed system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  14. Piping support load data base for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Station Modifications are continuous through the life of a Nuclear Power Plant. The NSM often impacts an existing piping system and its supports. Prior to implementation of the NSM, the modified piping system is qualified and the qualification documented. This manual review process is tedious and an obvious bottleneck to engineering productivity. Collectively, over 100,000 piping supports exist at Duke Power Company's Nuclear Stations. Engineering support must maintain proper documentation of all data for each support. Duke Power Company has designed and developed a mainframe based system that: directly uses Support Load Summary data generated by a piping analysis computer program; streamlines the pipe support evaluation process; easily retrieves As-Built and NSM information for any pipe support from an NSM or AS-BUILT data base; and generated documentation for easy traceability of data to the information source. This paper discusses the design considerations for development of Support Loads Database System (SLDB) and reviews the program functionality through the user menus

  15. Effect of the waste of a steel plant in granular bases and sub bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Ortiz, Oscar J; Camacho Tauta, Javier Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the objective, methodology, analysis and conclusions of several experimental studies carried out in the laboratories of the University Military New Granada to determine the viability of the use of the waste of high oven generated by the steel plant of Boyaca in the improvement of the mechanical properties of the bases and sub bases granular used for the construction of a structure of pavements, by means of the execution of the standard essays and modified proctor and C.B.R. of laboratory. The methodology used for the development of the investigations was made in first phase with of the optimal percentages of humidity and resistance of the virgin material and with substitution, concluding with the analyses and conclusions

  16. Development and evaluation of a plant-based air filter system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Y. Choi

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... plant based filter system on bacterial growth in aqueous media, the compressed air was fed to the system at a rate of 200 mL/min, and the exhaust gas from the system was supplied to a bacterial culture. In this experiment, we attempted to verify the inhibition activity of the gas on bacterial growth in aqueous ...

  17. Survey of past base isolation applications in nuclear power plants and challenges to industry/regulatory acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malushte, S.R.; Whittaker, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic base isolation provides many benefits that can facilitate the standardization of future nuclear power plant structures and equipment while reducing the initial/life-cycle cost and construction schedule. This paper presents a survey of past seismic base isolation applications and studies related to nuclear applications and provides a discussion of the challenges that need to be overcome to gain industry and regulatory acceptance for deployment in future US nuclear power plants. Issues related to design, codes/standards/regulations, procurement, and construction, have been identified. (authors)

  18. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  19. Drivers of choice for fluid milk versus plant-based alternatives: What are consumer perceptions of fluid milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Parker, M; Ameerally, A; Drake, S L; Drake, M A

    2017-08-01

    Fluid milk consumption has declined for decades while consumption of nondairy alternatives has increased. A better understanding of why consumers purchase fluid milk or nondairy alternatives is needed to assist increased sales of milk or maintain sales without further decline. The objective of this study was to determine the extrinsic attributes that drive purchase within each product category. The second objective was to determine the personal values behind the purchase of each beverage type to give further understanding why particular attributes are important. An online conjoint survey was launched with 702 dairy consumers, 172 nondairy consumers, and 125 consumers of both beverages. Individual means-end chain interviews were conducted with fluid milk consumers (n = 75), plant-based alternative consumers (n = 68), and consumers of both beverages (n = 78). Fat content was the most important attribute for dairy milk followed by package size and label claims. Consumers of fluid milk preferred 1 or 2% fat content, gallon, or half-gallon packaging, conventionally pasteurized store-brand milk. Sugar level was the most important attribute for plant-based beverages, followed by plant source and package size. Almond milk was the most desirable plant source, and half-gallon packaging was the most preferred packaging. Means-end chain interviews results suggested that maintaining a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle was important to all consumer groups. Lactose free was an important attribute for plant-based alternative consumers and consumers of both dairy and nondairy. A distinguishing characteristic of those who only drank nondairy plant-based alternatives was that plant-based beverages contributed to a goal to consume less animal products, beliefs about animal mistreatment, and perceived lesser effect on the environment than fluid milk. Unique to fluid milk consumers was that fluid milk was perceived as a staple food item. These results suggest that the dairy industry

  20. Development and Implementation of a Condition Based Maintenance Program for Geothermal Power Plants; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve Miller; Jim Eddy; Murray Grande; Shawn Bratt; Manuchehr Shirmohamadi

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of the RCM team, identifying plant assets and developing an asset hierarchy, the development of sample Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEAs), identifying and prioritizing plant systems and components for RCM analysis, and identifying RCM/CBM software/hardware vendors. It also includes the Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) for all Class I Systems, Maintenance Task Assignments, use of Conditioned Based Maintenance (CBM) Tools and Displays of the RCM software System Development to date

  1. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 3, Revision 1: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  2. Promoter-Based Integration in Plant Defense Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Gaudinier, Allison; Tang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A key unanswered question in plant biology is how a plant regulates metabolism to maximize performance across an array of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. In this study, we addressed the potential breadth of transcriptional regulation that can alter accumulation of the defensive...... glucosinolate metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A systematic yeast one-hybrid study was used to identify hundreds of unique potential regulatory interactions with a nearly complete complement of 21 promoters for the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. Conducting high-throughput phenotypic...... validation, we showed that >75% of tested transcription factor (TF) mutants significantly altered the accumulation of the defensive glucosinolates. These glucosinolate phenotypes were conditional upon the environment and tissue type, suggesting that these TFs may allow the plant to tune its defenses...

  3. Large Scale Proteomic Data and Network-Based Systems Biology Approaches to Explore the Plant World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvestre, Dario; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Bellini, Edoardo; Mauri, PierLuigi

    2018-06-03

    The investigation of plant organisms by means of data-derived systems biology approaches based on network modeling is mainly characterized by genomic data, while the potential of proteomics is largely unexplored. This delay is mainly caused by the paucity of plant genomic/proteomic sequences and annotations which are fundamental to perform mass-spectrometry (MS) data interpretation. However, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques are contributing to filling this gap and an increasing number of studies are focusing on plant proteome profiling and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) identification. Interesting results were obtained by evaluating the topology of PPI networks in the context of organ-associated biological processes as well as plant-pathogen relationships. These examples foreshadow well the benefits that these approaches may provide to plant research. Thus, in addition to providing an overview of the main-omic technologies recently used on plant organisms, we will focus on studies that rely on concepts of module, hub and shortest path, and how they can contribute to the plant discovery processes. In this scenario, we will also consider gene co-expression networks, and some examples of integration with metabolomic data and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to select candidate genes will be mentioned.

  4. Modeling and performance simulation of 100 MW PTC based solar thermal power plant in Udaipur India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bishoyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a key renewable energy source and the most abundant energy source on the globe. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of photovoltaic (PV conversion and the thermodynamic cycles. Concentrated solar power (CSP is viewed as one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Lifetime and efficiency of PV system are very less compared to the CSP technology. A 100 MW parabolic trough solar thermal power plant with 6 h of thermal energy storage has been evaluated in terms of design and thermal performance, based on the System Advisor Model (SAM. A location receiving an annual DNI of 2248.17 kW h/m2 in Rajasthan is chosen for the technical feasibility of hypothetical CSP plant. The plant design consists of 194 solar collector loops with each loop comprising of 8 parabolic trough collectors. HITEC solar salt is chosen as an HTF due to its excellent thermodynamic properties. The designed plant can generate annual electricity of 285,288,352 kW h with the plant efficiency of 21%. The proposed design of PTC based solar thermal power plant and its performance analysis encourages further innovation and development of solar thermal power plants in India.

  5. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  6. Open system architecture for condition based maintenance applied to a hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E.J.; Alvares, A.J. [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Mechanical and Mechatronic Dept.], Emails: eamaya@unb.br, alvares@AlvaresTech.com; Gudwin, R.R. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation Dept.], E-mail: gudwin@dca.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant of Balbina is implementing a condition based maintenance system applying an open, modular and scalable integrated architecture to provide comprehensive solutions and support to the end users like operational and maintenance team. The system called SIMPREBAL (Predictive Maintenance System of Balbina) is advocate of open standards, in particular through collaborative research programmers. In the developing is clearly understands the need for both, industry standards and a simple to use software development tool chain, supporting the development of complex condition based maintenance systems with multiple partners. The Open System Architecture for Condition Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM) is a standard that consider seven hierarchic layers that represent a logic transition or performed data flow from the data acquisition layer, through the intermediates layers as signal processing, condition monitor, health assessment, prognostics and decision support, to arrive to the presentation layer. SIMPREBAL is being implementing as an OSA-CBM software framework and tool set that allows the creation of truly integrated, comprehensive maintenance solutions through the internet. This paper identifies specific benefits of the application of the OSA-CBM in comprehensive solutions of condition based maintenance for a hydroelectric power plant. (author)

  7. Plant-based food and feed protein structure changes induced by gene-transformation, heating and bio-ethanol processing: a synchrotron-based molecular structure and nutrition research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-11-01

    Unlike traditional "wet" analytical methods which during processing for analysis often result in destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures, advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and nondestructive and bioanalytical technique. This cutting-edge synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology, taking advantages of synchrotron light brightness (million times brighter than sun), is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry or structure of a biological tissue without destruction inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions. In this article, a novel approach is introduced to show the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to study plant-based food or feed protein molecular structure in relation to nutrient utilization and availability. Recent progress was reported on using synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to detect the effects of gene-transformation (Application 1), autoclaving (Application 2), and bio-ethanol processing (Application 3) on plant-based food and feed protein structure changes on a molecular basis. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for plant-based protein structure research at ultra-spatial resolutions at cellular and molecular levels.

  8. NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Agarwal, Subhash M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC(50)/ED(50)/EC(50)/GI(50)), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients' Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI(50) data.

  9. NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Agarwal, Subhash M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC50/ED50/EC50/GI50), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients’ Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI50 data. PMID:23203877

  10. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  11. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  12. An assay for secologanin in plant tissues based on enzymatic conversion into strictosidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallard, Didier; van der Heijden, Robert; Contin, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    strictosidine, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme strictosidine synthase (STR; E.C. 4.3.3.2). Subsequently, the formation of strictosidine is quantified by HPLC. STR was isolated from transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cells expressing a cDNA-derived gene coding for STR from Catharanthus roseus. The high specificity......The secoiridoid glucoside secologanin is the terpenoid building block in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. A method for its determination in plant tissues and cell suspension cultures has been developed. This assay is based on the condensation of secologanin with tryptamine, yielding...... of STR for secologanin, in combination with a sensitive and selective HPLC system, allows a simple extraction of secologanin from plant tissue. The detection limit of this methos is 15 ng secologanin. Using this assay, secologanin contents were determined in tissues of various plant species; Lonicera...

  13. Plant Identification Based on Leaf Midrib Cross-Section Images Using Fractal Descriptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Rosa da Silva

    Full Text Available The correct identification of plants is a common necessity not only to researchers but also to the lay public. Recently, computational methods have been employed to facilitate this task, however, there are few studies front of the wide diversity of plants occurring in the world. This study proposes to analyse images obtained from cross-sections of leaf midrib using fractal descriptors. These descriptors are obtained from the fractal dimension of the object computed at a range of scales. In this way, they provide rich information regarding the spatial distribution of the analysed structure and, as a consequence, they measure the multiscale morphology of the object of interest. In Biology, such morphology is of great importance because it is related to evolutionary aspects and is successfully employed to characterize and discriminate among different biological structures. Here, the fractal descriptors are used to identify the species of plants based on the image of their leaves. A large number of samples are examined, being 606 leaf samples of 50 species from Brazilian flora. The results are compared to other imaging methods in the literature and demonstrate that fractal descriptors are precise and reliable in the taxonomic process of plant species identification.

  14. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  15. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  16. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Solantausta, Y; Wilen, C

    1996-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  17. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W.; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E.

    2004-01-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  18. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E

    2004-06-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  19. Searching for an Accurate Marker-Based Prediction of an Individual Quantitative Trait in Molecular Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Yang, Mo-Hua; Zeng, Fangqin; Biligetu, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST) SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding.

  20. MeRy-B, a metabolomic database and knowledge base for exploring plant primary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Plant primary metabolites are organic compounds that are common to all or most plant species and are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. They are intermediates and products of metabolism involved in photosynthesis and other biosynthetic processes. Primary metabolites belong to different compound families, mainly carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, steroids, or lipids. Until recently, unlike the Human Metabolome Database ( http://www.hmdb.ca ) dedicated to human metabolism, there was no centralized database or repository dedicated exclusively to the plant kingdom that contained information on metabolites and their concentrations in a detailed experimental context. MeRy-B is the first platform for plant (1)H-NMR metabolomic profiles (MeRy-B, http://bit.ly/meryb ), designed to provide a knowledge base of curated plant profiles and metabolites obtained by NMR, together with the corresponding experimental and analytical metadata. MeRy-B contains lists of plant metabolites, mostly primary metabolites and unknown compounds, with information about experimental conditions, the factors studied, and metabolite concentrations for 19 different plant species (Arabidopsis, broccoli, daphne, grape, maize, barrel clover, melon, Ostreococcus tauri, palm date, palm tree, peach, pine tree, eucalyptus, plantain rice, strawberry, sugar beet, tomato, vanilla), compiled from more than 2,300 annotated NMR profiles for various organs or tissues deposited by 30 different private or public contributors in September 2013. Currently, about half of the data deposited in MeRy-B is publicly available. In this chapter, readers will be shown how to (1) navigate through and retrieve data of publicly available projects on MeRy-B website; (2) visualize lists of experimentally identified metabolites and their concentrations in all plant species present in MeRy-B; (3) get primary metabolite list for a particular plant species in MeRy-B; and for a

  1. Direct energy balance based active disturbance rejection control for coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Qingsong; Li, Donghai; Pan, Lei; Xue, Yali; Lee, Kwang Y

    2017-09-01

    The conventional direct energy balance (DEB) based PI control can fulfill the fundamental tracking requirements of the coal-fired power plant. However, it is challenging to deal with the cases when the coal quality variation is present. To this end, this paper introduces the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the DEB structure, where the coal quality variation is deemed as a kind of unknown disturbance that can be estimated and mitigated promptly. Firstly, the nonlinearity of a recent power plant model is analyzed based on the gap metric, which provides guidance on how to set the pressure set-point in line with the power demand. Secondly, the approximate decoupling effect of the DEB structure is analyzed based on the relative gain analysis in frequency domain. Finally, the synthesis of the DEB based ADRC control system is carried out based on multi-objective optimization. The optimized ADRC results show that the integrated absolute error (IAE) indices of the tracking performances in both loops can be simultaneously improved, in comparison with the DEB based PI control and H ∞ control system. The regulation performance in the presence of the coal quality variation is significantly improved under the ADRC control scheme. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed strategy is shown comparable with the H ∞ control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Calculation of risk-based detection limits for radionuclides in the liquid effluents from Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2017-01-01

    In order to review if present detection limits of radionuclides in liquid effluent from nuclear power plants are effective enough to warrant compliance with regulatory discharge limits, a risk-based approach is developed to derive a new detection limit for each radionuclide based on radiological criteria. Equations and adjustment factors are also proposed to discriminate the validity of the detection limits for multiple radionuclides in the liquid effluent with or without consideration of the nuclide composition. From case studies to three nuclear power plants in Korea with actual operation data from 2006 to 2015, the present detection limits have turned out to be effective for Hanul Unit 1 but may not be sensitive enough for Kori Unit 1 (8 out of 14 radionuclides) and Wolsong Unit 1 (9 out of 42 radionuclides). However, it is shown that the present detection limits for the latter two nuclear power plants can be justified, if credit is given to the radionuclide composition. Otherwise, consideration should be given to adjustment of the present detection limits. The risk-based approach of this study can be used to determine the validity of established detection limits of a specific nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Pathosphere.org: Pathogen Detection and Characterization Through a Web-based, Open-source Informatics Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-29

    human), Homo sapiens chromosome (human), Mus_musculus ( rodent ), Sus scrofa (pig), mitochondrion genome, and Xenopus laevis (frog) . The taxonomy... Amazon Web Services. PLoS Comput Biol 2011, 7:e1002147. 10. Briese T, Paweska JT, McMullan LK, Hutchison SK, Street C, Palacios G, Khristova ML...human enterovirus C genotypes found in respiratory samples from Peru . J Gen Virol 2013, 94(Pt 1):120–7. 54. Jacob ST, Crozier I, Schieffelin JS

  4. Definition, analysis and experimental investigation of operation modes in hydrogen-renewable-based power plants incorporating hybrid energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, L.; Pino, F.J.; Guerra, J.; Rosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conceptual analysis of operation modes in energy storage plants is presented. • Key Performance Indicators to select operation modes are provided. • The approach has been applied to a laboratory hybrid power plant. • The methodology provides guidance for the operation of hybrid power plants. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with Operating Modes in hybrid renewable energy-based power plants with hydrogen as the intermediate energy storage medium. Six operation modes are defined according to plant topology and the possibility of operating electrolyzer and fuel cell at steady-power or partial load. A methodology for the evaluation of plant performance is presented throughout this paper. The approach includes a set of simulations over a fully validated model, which are run in order to compare the proposed operation modes in various weather conditions. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation stage using a set of Key Performance Indicators defined in this paper. This analysis yields the conclusion that certain modes are more appropriate from technical and practical standpoints when they are implemented in a real plant. From the results of the simulation assessment, selected operating modes are applied to an experimental hydrogen-based pilot plant to illustrate and validate the performance of the proposed operation modes. Experimental results confirmed the simulation study, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode in terms of performance and equipment durability.

  5. Research on the Application of Risk-based Inspection for the Boiler System in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-12-01

    Power plant boiler is one of the three main equipment of coal-fired power plants, is very tall to the requirement of the safe and stable operation, in a significant role in the whole system of thermal power generation, a risk-based inspection is a kind of pursuit of security and economy of unified system management idea and method, can effectively evaluate equipment risk and reduce the operational cost.

  6. Hypertext-based integration for nuclear plant maintenance and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.H.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented that uses fuzzy graphs in the emerging paradigm of hypertext for the purpose of integrating data, information and multifaceted knowledge resources abounding in power plant operations and maintenance. A hypertext system is viewed as a set of nodes and links where with each link we associate membership functions embodying context-dependent criteria for navigating large information spaces. A general framework for navigation is outlined and graph-theory navigational tools are developed. A numerical example and a HyperCard-based prototype for monitoring special material in the MHTGR-NPR are included. 10 refs., 12 figs

  7. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  8. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  9. Data warehouse based decision support system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadinic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important element in business decision making processes in nuclear power plants. Information about component reliability, structures and systems, data recorded during the nuclear power plant's operation and outage periods, as well as experiences from other power plants are located in different database systems throughout the power plant. It would be possible to create a decision support system which would collect data, transform it into a standardized form and store it in a single location in a format more suitable for analyses and knowledge discovery. This single location where the data would be stored would be a data warehouse. Such data warehouse based decision support system could help make decision making processes more efficient by providing more information about business processes and predicting possible consequences of different decisions. Two main functionalities in this decision support system would be an OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) and a data mining system. An OLAP system would enable the users to perform fast, simple and efficient multidimensional analysis of existing data and identify trends. Data mining techniques and algorithms would help discover new, previously unknown information from the data as well as hidden dependencies between various parameters. Data mining would also enable analysts to create relevant prediction models that could predict behaviour of different systems during operation and inspection results during outages. The basic characteristics and theoretical foundations of such decision support system are described and the reasons for choosing a data warehouse as the underlying structure are explained. The article analyzes obvious business benefits of such system as well as potential uses of OLAP and data mining technologies. Possible implementation methodologies and problems that may arise, especially in the field of data integration, are discussed and analyzed.(author)

  10. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to influence this process. We aimed to discover novel compounds that are able to induce flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis. For this purpose we developed a plant-based screening platform that can be used in a chemical genomics study. Here we describe the set-up of the screening platform and various issues and pitfalls that need to be addressed in order to perform a chemical genomics screening on Arabidopsis plantlets. We describe the choice for a molecular marker, in combination with a sensitive reporter that's active in plants and is sufficiently sensitive for detection. In this particular screen, the firefly Luciferase marker was used, fused to the regulatory sequences of the floral meristem identity gene APETALA1 (AP1) , which is an early marker for flowering. Using this screening platform almost 9000 compounds were screened, in triplicate, in 96-well plates at a concentration of 25 µM. One of the identified potential flowering inducing compounds was studied in more detail and named Flowering1 (F1). F1 turned out to be an analogue of the plant hormone Salicylic acid (SA) and appeared to be more potent than SA in the induction of flowering. The effect could be confirmed by watering Arabidopsis plants with SA or F1, in which F1 gave a significant reduction in time to flowering in comparison to SA treatment or the control. In this study a chemical genomics screening platform was developed to discover compounds that can induce flowering in Arabidopsis. This platform was used successfully, to identify a compound that can speed-up flowering in Arabidopsis.

  11. V-Model based Configuration Management Program for New-Build Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Kyungik [PartDB Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon Sang [KHNP Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Freeland, Kent R. [Industrial Analysts Incorporated, New Hampshire (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As NPP operators undertook design basis reconstitution efforts, they began to realize that the design basis is a foundation for Configuration Management (CM). This realization was made evident in the magnitude of the problems that were being observed. This experience also raised serious questions about how the information being developed to produce the design basis documents would be kept up to date in the future. A process to reconstitute the design basis is likely to be ineffective if CM controls are not in place. The right IT solution for CM depends upon a number of factors, including the nuclear power plant culture, budget, target technology, and the nuclear power plant owner/operator's standards, requirements and limitations for its generating fleet. Comprehensive CM Program for NPP is the single greatest strategy to meet the commitment to nuclear excellence. The safety and viability of nuclear power, particularly at the fleet level, depends upon the development of positive design control and design basis to better understanding plant operating dynamics and margin management, along with technology to control the realization of such design in the physical plant. However the most of plant facilities are modified many times, often without suitable support needed to confirm with their design base and to update their engineering data, maintenance rules and operating procedures. This lack of equilibrium between the requirements, design information and physical plant still remains a important issue. This study focuses on how to manage the configuration information of NPP using systems engineering V-model approach, and proposes data model to manage the configuration information in relation to manage their life cycle. Comprehensive CM Program and IMS for NPP life cycle support is the greatest strategy to meet the commitment to nuclear safety.

  12. Knowledge-based framework for procedure synthesis and its application to the emergency response in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    In this dissertation a nuclear power plant operator is viewed as a knowledge based problem solver. It is shown that, in responding to an abnormal situation, an operator typically solves several problems, for example, plant status monitoring, diagnosis, sensor data validation, consequence prediction, and procedure synthesis. It is proposed that, in order to respond to unexpected situations and handle procedure failures the capability to synthesize and modify procedures dynamically or in runtime is required. A knowledge based framework for dynamically synthesizing procedures (DPS), a knowledge representation language to apply DPS framework for real problems (DPSRL), and a framework for emergency procedure synthesis (FEPS) for nuclear power plants based on DPS are developed. The DPS framework views the task of synthesis as a process of selecting predefined procedures to match the needs of the dynamically changing plant conditions. The DPSRL language provides knowledge organization and representation primitives required to support the DPS framework. Specifically, it provides mechanisms to build various plant libraries and procedures to access information from them. The capabilities and the use of DPS, DPSRL, and FEPS are demonstrated by developing an experimental expert system for a typical boiling water reactor and analyzing its performance for various selected abnormal incidents

  13. Knowledge-based object recognition for different morphological classes of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Thorsten; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1995-01-01

    Micropropagation of plants is done by cutting juvenile plants and placing them into special container-boxes with nutrient-solution where the pieces can grow up and be cut again several times. To produce high amounts of biomass it is necessary to do plant micropropagation by a robotic syshoot. In this paper we describe parts of the vision syshoot that recognizes plants and their particular cutting points. Therefore, it is necessary to extract elements of the plants and relations between these elements (for example root, shoot, leaf). Different species vary in their morphological appearance, variation is also immanent in plants of the same species. Therefore, we introduce several morphological classes of plants from that we expect same recognition methods. As a result of our work we present rules which help users to create specific algorithms for object recognition of plant species.

  14. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  15. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  16. L-py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  17. A Differential-Algebraic Model for the Once-Through Steam Generator of MHTGR-Based Multimodular Nuclear Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs are those fission reactors whose electrical output power is no more than 300 MWe. SMRs usually have the inherent safety feature that can be applicable to power plants of any desired power rating by applying the multimodular operation scheme. Due to its strong inherent safety feature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR, which uses helium as coolant and graphite as moderator and structural material, is a typical SMR for building the next generation of nuclear plants (NGNPs. The once-through steam generator (OTSG is the basis of realizing the multimodular scheme, and modeling of the OTSG is meaningful to study the dynamic behavior of the multimodular plants and to design the operation and control strategy. In this paper, based upon the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum, a new differential-algebraic model for the OTSGs of the MHTGR-based multimodular nuclear plants is given. This newly-built model can describe the dynamic behavior of the OTSG in both the cases of providing superheated steam and generating saturated steam. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility and satisfactory performance of this model. Moreover, this model has been applied to develop the real-time simulation software for the operation and regulation features of the world first underconstructed MHTGR-based commercial nuclear plant—HTR-PM.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Yang Yongping; Lu Shiyuan; Li Le; Song Xiaona

    2011-01-01

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO x , NO x , and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: → We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. → The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). → The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). → The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. → The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg2008@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Yang Yongping, E-mail: yyp@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Shiyuan; Li Le [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Song Xiaona [Electromechanical Practice Center, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: {yields} We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. {yields} The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). {yields} The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). {yields} The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. {yields} The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE VIRTUAL PLANT BRANCHING STRUCTURE BASED ON TERRESTRIAL LIDAR TECHNOLOGIES AND L-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  1. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Virtual Plant Branching Structure Based on Terrestrial LIDAR Technologies and L-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2018-04-01

    For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  2. Nano-cellulose biopolymer based nano-biofilm biomaterial using plant biomass: An innovative plant biomaterial dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials. Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3−−, Cl−, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobiofilm, Nanobioplastic, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  3. Toward a drone-based EL and PL inspection tool for PV power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Nicholas; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2017-01-01

    of image detail and qualitative insight compared to IR thermography. Furthermore, detection and identification of incipient or severe faults in PV panels is more straightforward.This project proposes for the first time a fast and accurate automatic drone-based inspection method for large PV plants...

  4. Composting plant conversion for the production of bio based products; Konversion eines Kompostwerkes zur Herstellung biobasierter Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Marc [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Stabsstelle Umweltschutz

    2013-03-15

    The intention behind this paper is to explore the potential of extracting bio based products such as lactic acid and further organic acid compounds during a successful composting process, by inserting an additional pre-treatment level into the existing process. The fundamental idea of extracting bio based products and biogas is based on the extension of a composting plant with an anaerobic intermediate level of maceration and a bypass reactor as a potential bio-refinery. For the extraction of carboxylic acid out of the macerated substance the principle of electrodialysis on a laboratory scale can be successfully verified by means of concentration of free acids. The concluding assessment of the composting plant Darmstadt-Kranichstein with regards to its potential shows that further examination on a large scale for the extraction of biobased products using biowaste is deemed to be appropriate on material and energetic consideration. The study demonstrates the potential for a combined aerobic/anaerobic plant with composting, renewable energy and secondary raw materials generation. (orig.)

  5. Production of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Antigens in Plants Using Bamboo Mosaic Virus-Based Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is among the major threats to public health in Asia. For disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against JEV is in urgent need. In this study, we produced a plant-made JEV vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (CVP strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV for epitope presentation. The chimeric virus, designated BJ2A, was constructed by fusing JEV envelope protein domain III (EDIII at the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein, with an insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide to facilitate the production of both unfused and epitope-presenting for efficient assembly of the CVP vaccine candidate. The strategy allowed stable maintenance of the fusion construct over long-term serial passages in plants. Immuno-electron microscopy examination and immunization assays revealed that BJ2A is able to present the EDIII epitope on the surface of the CVPs, which stimulated effective neutralizing antibodies against JEV infection in mice. This study demonstrates the efficient production of an effective CVP vaccine candidate against JEV in plants by the BaMV-based epitope presentation system.

  6. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  7. Energy and economic optimization of a membrane-based oxyfuel steam power plant; Energetische und wirtschaftliche Optimierung eines membranbasierten Oxyfuel-Dampfkraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarko, Yevgeniy

    2015-07-01

    Carbon capture and storage is one technological option for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The oxyfuel process is based on the combustion of fossil fuels in an oxygen-flue gas atmosphere with the subsequent concentration of CO{sub 2}. The oxygen is produced by cryogenic air separation with an energy demand of 245 kWh{sub el}/t{sub O2}. The application of ceramic membranes has the potential to reduce the specific energy demand of oxygen supply with consistently high-purity oxygen. This work focuses on - determining the efficiency of an advanced oxyfuel steam power plant that can be constructed today using membranes for oxygen production, - investigating and quantifying the potential for energy optimizing the overall process by changing its flow structure, - assessing the feasibility of individual optimization options based on their investment costs under market conditions. For this work, a method developed by Forschungszentrum Juelich and patented on 25 April 2012 under EP 2214806 is used. The Oxy-Vac-Juel concept is integrated into the oxyfuel steam power plant with simple process management using standardized power plant components. The net efficiency of the base power plant is 36.6 percentage points for an oxygen separation degree of 60 %. This corresponds to a net power loss of 9.3 percentage points compared to the reference power plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The specific electricity demand of this oxygen supply method is 176 kWh{sub el}/t{sub O2}. To increase the efficiency, the flow structure of the base power plant is optimized using industrially available components from power plant and process engineering. The 22 analyzed optimization options consist of design optimization of the gas separation process, the modification of the flue gas recirculation and the plant-internal waste heat utilization. The energetic advantage over the base power plant, depending on the optimization option, ranges from 0.05 - 1.00 percentage points. For each optimization option

  8. Building and application of the plant condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the stable operation of nuclear power plants, we developed the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. This system has adopted the heat balance model based on the actual plant data to find the symptoms of the disorder of the equipment by heat balance changes in the turbine system. (author)

  9. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  10. Prognostics and health management system for hydropower plant based on fog computing and docker container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Mingqiang; Tian, Haiping; Huang, Bo; Fu, Wenlong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel prognostics and health management system architecture for hydropower plant equipment was proposed based on fog computing and Docker container. We employed the fog node to improve the real-time processing ability of improving the cloud architecture-based prognostics and health management system and overcome the problems of long delay time, network congestion and so on. Then Storm-based stream processing of fog node was present and could calculate the health index in the edge of network. Moreover, the distributed micros-service and Docker container architecture of hydropower plants equipment prognostics and health management was also proposed. Using the micro service architecture proposed in this paper, the hydropower unit can achieve the goal of the business intercommunication and seamless integration of different equipment and different manufacturers. Finally a real application case is given in this paper.

  11. A Denoising Based Autoassociative Model for Robust Sensor Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shaheryar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensors health monitoring is essentially important for reliable functioning of safety-critical chemical and nuclear power plants. Autoassociative neural network (AANN based empirical sensor models have widely been reported for sensor calibration monitoring. However, such ill-posed data driven models may result in poor generalization and robustness. To address above-mentioned issues, several regularization heuristics such as training with jitter, weight decay, and cross-validation are suggested in literature. Apart from these regularization heuristics, traditional error gradient based supervised learning algorithms for multilayered AANN models are highly susceptible of being trapped in local optimum. In order to address poor regularization and robust learning issues, here, we propose a denoised autoassociative sensor model (DAASM based on deep learning framework. Proposed DAASM model comprises multiple hidden layers which are pretrained greedily in an unsupervised fashion under denoising autoencoder architecture. In order to improve robustness, dropout heuristic and domain specific data corruption processes are exercised during unsupervised pretraining phase. The proposed sensor model is trained and tested on sensor data from a PWR type nuclear power plant. Accuracy, autosensitivity, spillover, and sequential probability ratio test (SPRT based fault detectability metrics are used for performance assessment and comparison with extensively reported five-layer AANN model by Kramer.

  12. An efficient somatic embryogenesis based plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2010-03-05

    Mar 5, 2010 ... Fang Yuan, Quan Wang, Qifang Pan, Guofeng Wang, Jingya Zhao, Yuesheng Tian and. Kexuan Tang*. Plant Biotechnology Research Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology. R&D Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

  13. Genetically based differentiation in growth of multiple non-native plant species along a steep environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sylvia; Kueffer, Christoph; Edwards, Peter J; Alexander, Jake M

    2012-09-01

    A non-native plant species spreading along an environmental gradient may need to adjust its growth to the prevailing conditions that it encounters by a combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. There have been several studies of how non-native species respond to changing environmental conditions along latitudinal gradients, but much less is known about elevational gradients. We conducted a climate chamber experiment to investigate plastic and genetically based growth responses of 13 herbaceous non-native plants along an elevational gradient from 100 to 2,000 m a.s.l. in Tenerife. Conditions in the field ranged from high anthropogenic disturbance but generally favourable temperatures for plant growth in the lower half of the gradient, to low disturbance but much cooler conditions in the upper half. We collected seed from low, mid and high elevations and grew them in climate chambers under the characteristic temperatures at these three elevations. Growth of all species was reduced under lower temperatures along both halves of the gradient. We found consistent genetically based differences in growth over the upper elevational gradient, with plants from high-elevation sites growing more slowly than those from mid-elevation ones, while the pattern in the lower part of the gradient was more mixed. Our data suggest that many non-native plants might respond to climate along elevational gradients by genetically based changes in key traits, especially at higher elevations where low temperatures probably impose a stronger selection pressure. At lower elevations, where anthropogenic influences are greater, higher gene flow and frequent disturbance might favour genotypes with broad ecological amplitudes. Thus the importance of evolutionary processes for invasion success is likely to be context-dependent.

  14. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization on the Physicochemical Properties of Natural Plant-based Model Emulsion Applicable for Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Min, Sang-Gi; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In the dairy industry, natural plant-based powders are widely used to develop flavor and functionality. However, most of these ingredients are water-insoluble; therefore, emulsification is essential. In this study, the efficacy of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on natural plant (chocolate or vanilla)-based model emulsions was investigated. The particle size, electrical conductivity, Brix, pH, and color were analyzed after HPH. HPH significantly decreased the particle size of chocolate-based emulsions as a function of elevated pressures (20-100 MPa). HPH decreased the mean particle size of chocolate-based emulsions from 29.01 μm to 5.12 μm, and that of vanilla-based emulsions from 4.18 μm to 2.44 μm. Electrical conductivity increased as a function of the elevated pressures after HPH, for both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions. HPH at 100 MPa increased the electrical conductivity of chocolate-based model emulsions from 0.570 S/m to 0.680 S/m, and that of vanilla-based model emulsions from 0.573 S/m to 0.601 S/m. Increased electrical conductivity would be attributed to colloidal phase modification and dispersion of oil globules. Brix of both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions gradually increased as a function of the HPH pressure. Thus, HPH increased the solubility of plant-based powders by decreasing the particle size. This study demonstrated the potential use of HPH for enhancing the emulsification process and stability of the natural plant powders for applications with dairy products. PMID:26761891

  15. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E; Boeglin, N; Houillon, G; Osset, Ph; Vial, E; Leguern, Y; Gosse, G; Gabrielle, B; Dohy, M; Bewa, H; Rigal, L; Guilbert, St; Cesar, G; Pandard, P; Oster, D; Normand, N; Piccardi, M; Garoux, V; Arnaud, L; Barbier, J; Mougin, G; Krausz, P; Pluquet, V; Massacrier, L; Dussaud, J

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  16. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    2006-03-01

    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  17. Cycle water chemistry based on film forming amines at power plants: evaluation of technical guidance documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, F. V.; Petrova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    Efficiency and reliability of the equipment in fossil power plants as well as in combined cycle power plants depend on the corrosion processes and deposit formation in steam/water circuit. In order to decrease these processes different water chemistries are used. Today the great attention is being attracted to the application of film forming amines and film forming amine products. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) consolidated the information from all over the World, and based on the research studies and operating experience of researchers and engineers from 21 countries, developed and authorized the Technical Guidance Document: “Application of Film Forming Amines in Fossil, Combined Cycle, and Biomass Power Plants” in 2016. This article describe Russian and International technical guidance documents for the cycle water chemistries based on film forming amines at fossil and combined cycle power plants.

  18. Model validation of solar PV plant with hybrid data dynamic simulation based on fast-responding generator method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant number of large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV plants have been put into operation or been under planning around the world. The model accuracy of solar PV plant is the key factor to investigate the mutual influences between solar PV plants and a power grid. However, this problem has not been well solved, especially in how to apply the real measurements to validate the models of the solar PV plants. Taking fast-responding generator method as an example, this paper presents a model validation methodology for solar PV plant via the hybrid data dynamic simulation. First, the implementation scheme of hybrid data dynamic simulation suitable for DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is proposed, and then an analysis model of solar PV plant integration based on IEEE 9 system is established. At last, model validation of solar PV plant is achieved by employing hybrid data dynamic simulation. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in solar PV plant model validation.

  19. Location of Bioelectricity Plants in the Madrid Community Based on Triticale Crop: A Multicriteria Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a work whose objective is, first, to quantify the potential of the triticale biomass existing in each of the agricultural regions in the Madrid Community through a crop simulation model based on regression techniques and multiple correlation. Second, a methodology for defining which area has the best conditions for the installation of electricity plants from biomass has been described and applied. The study used a methodology based on compromise programming in a discrete multicriteria decision method (MDM context. To make a ranking, the following criteria were taken into account: biomass potential, electric power infrastructure, road networks, protected spaces, and urban nuclei surfaces. The results indicate that, in the case of the Madrid Community, the Campiña region is the most suitable for setting up plants powered by biomass. A minimum of 17,339.9 tons of triticale will be needed to satisfy the requirements of a 2.2 MW power plant. The minimum range of action for obtaining the biomass necessary in Campiña region would be 6.6 km around the municipality of Algete, based on Geographic Information Systems. The total biomass which could be made available in considering this range in this region would be 18,430.68 t.

  20. Simulation-based valuation of project finance investments. Crucial aspects of power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietz, Matthaeus

    2010-12-15

    The liberalization of electricity markets transformed a regulated and stable market to a market with former unknown price volatility. This results in a high uncertainty which is mainly due to the, from an economic point of view, lack of storability of the commodity electricity. Thus investments in power plants are highly risky. This dissertation analyzes crucial aspects within the valuation of a power plant financed via project finance, a popular financing method for projects with high capital requirements. Starting with the development of a valuation model based on stochastic modelling of the future cash flows the focus of the analysis is on the impact of model complexity and electricity prices. (orig.)

  1. Standard technical specifications: Babcock and Wilcox plants. Volume 3, Revision 1: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Babcock and Wilcox Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  2. Searching for an Accurate Marker-Based Prediction of an Individual Quantitative Trait in Molecular Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding.

  3. Searching for an Accurate Marker-Based Prediction of an Individual Quantitative Trait in Molecular Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Yang, Mo-Hua; Zeng, Fangqin; Biligetu, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST) SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding. PMID:28729875

  4. Stem parasitic plant Cuscuta australis (dodder) transfers herbivory-induced signals among plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Li, Juan; Zhuang, Huifu; Sun, Huanhuan; Xu, Yuxing; Qi, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jingxiong; Lei, Yunting; Qin, Yan; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-08-08

    Cuscuta spp. (i.e., dodders) are stem parasites that naturally graft to their host plants to extract water and nutrients; multiple adjacent hosts are often parasitized by one or more Cuscuta plants simultaneously, forming connected plant clusters. Metabolites, proteins, and mRNAs are known to be transferred from hosts to Cuscuta , and Cuscuta bridges even facilitate host-to-host virus movement. Whether Cuscuta bridges transmit ecologically meaningful signals remains unknown. Here we show that, when host plants are connected by Cuscuta bridges, systemic herbivory signals are transmitted from attacked plants to unattacked plants, as revealed by the large transcriptomic changes in the attacked local leaves, undamaged systemic leaves of the attacked plants, and leaves of unattacked but connected hosts. The interplant signaling is largely dependent on the jasmonic acid pathway of the damaged local plants, and can be found among conspecific or heterospecific hosts of different families. Importantly, herbivore attack of one host plant elevates defensive metabolites in the other systemic Cuscuta bridge-connected hosts, resulting in enhanced resistance against insects even in several consecutively Cuscuta -connected host plants over long distances (> 100 cm). By facilitating plant-to-plant signaling, Cuscuta provides an information-based means of countering the resource-based fitness costs to their hosts.

  5. Risk-based analysis methods applied to nuclear power plant technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer-aided methodology and practical applications of risk-based evaluation of technical specifications are described. The methodology, developed for use by the utility industry, is a part of the overall process of improving nuclear power plant technical specifications. The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a probabilistic risk assessment or a system-level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at the plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns and decreasing labor requirements for test and maintenance activities, with no adverse impacts on risk. The methodology and the SOCRATES computer program have been used extensively toe valuate several actual technical specifications in case studies demonstrating the methods. Summaries of these applications demonstrate the types of results achieved and the usefulness of the risk-based evaluation in improving the technical specifications

  6. Risk based optimization of technical specifications for operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The objective of the report is to present an overview of the risk and reliability based approaches (using a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA)) for improving nuclear power plant technical specifications (TS). In that case, it will provide an information base to the Member States in seeking PSA based applications to enhance the effectiveness of their technical specifications. To achieve this objective, the report discusses the basic objectives and reasons for seeking TS changes, the methods, data requirements and uses of different types of applications, and an overview of different applications that have been completed, including detailed descriptions of selected applications. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Maintenance planning support method for nuclear power plants based on collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Shoji; Takaoka, Kazushi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Fukutomi, Shigeki

    1992-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance planning in nuclear power plants is conducted by decision making based on experts' collective consensus. However, since a great deal of time and effort is required to reach a consensus among expert judgments, the establishment of effective decision making methods is necessary. Therefore, the authors developed a method for supporting collective decision making, based on a combination of three types of decision making methods; the Characteristic Diagram method, Interpretative Structural Modeling method, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The proposed method enables us to determine the evaluation criteria systematically for collective decision making, and also allows extracting collective decisions using simplified questionnaires. The proposed method can support reaching a consensus of groups effectively through the evaluation of collective decision structural models and their characteristics. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated through its application to the decision making problem concerning whether or not the improved ultrasonic testing equipment should be adopted at nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Power-Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) Test of VSC-based HVDC connection for Offshore Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test for an offshore wind power plant (WPP) interconnected to the onshore grid by a VSC-based HVDC connection. The intention of the PHIL test is to verify the control coordination between the plant side converter of the HVDC connection...... the successful control coordination between the WPP and the plant side VSC converter of the HVDC connection of the WPP....

  9. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Ohresser, Sylvia; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    One of the major global challenges of the present time is the reduction of CO2 emissions. Provisions for integration of a CO2 capture plant are already required today in new power plant construction projects in order to enable current plants to also benefit from the possibilities of carbon capture systems to be developed in the future. These provisions for integration should account for the fact that the scrubbing processes are still in the optimization phase. Requisite process parameters may still change in the future. In the development of a plant interface, the paper describes a concept developed by Siemens which ensures maximum flexibility with simultaneous optimization of the plant for the capture process. Emphasis was placed on the following points in the development of this interface and the associated connection concepts: Maximum plant efficiency before and after modification; Maximum flexibility with regard to future process parameters; Optimization of customer investment cash flow; and, Applicability also to existing plants. According to the paper, Siemens can offer a concept which enables future conversion in accordance with the specified criteria. This concept requires no compromises with regard to plant efficiency in process optimization for either current power plant operation without carbon capture or for future operation with carbon capture. The concept also enables retrofitting of existing plants which are not yet capture-ready. However, retrofitting of power plants which are not prepared for operation with carbon capture is considerably more elaborate in most cases, as corridors must frequently still be cleared for the connecting piping.

  10. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant

  11. Development and application of the plant condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the stable operation of nuclear power plants, we developed the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. In this system, it is a significant feature to adopt the sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data to find the symptoms of anomalies in the turbine system from heat balance changes. (author)

  12. Modelling the influence of thermal effects induced by radio frequency electric field on the dynamics of the ATPase nano-biomolecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrasebi, A; Mohamadi, S; Fadaie, S; Rafii-Tabar, H

    2012-07-01

    We model the dynamics of the F(0) component of the F(0)F(1)-ATPase mitochondrion-based nano-motor operating in a stochastically-fluctuating medium that represents the intracellular environment. The stochastic dynamics are modeled via Langevin equation of motion wherein fluctuations are treated as white noise. We have investigated the influence of an applied alternating electric field on the rotary motion of the F(0) rotor in such an environment. The exposure to the field induces a temperature rise in the mitochondrion's membrane, within which the F(0) is embedded. The external field also induces an electric potential that promotes a change in the mitochondrion's transmembrane potential (TMP). Both the induced temperature and the change in TMP contribute to a change in the dynamics of the F(0). We have found that for external fields in the radio frequency (RF) range, normally present in the environment and encountered by biological systems, the contribution of the induced thermal effects, relative to that of the induced TMP, to the dynamics of the F(0) is more significant. The changes in the dynamics of the F(0) part affect the frequency of the rotary motion of the F(0)F(1)-ATPase protein motor which, in turn, affects the production rate of the ATP molecules. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Involvement of thiol-based mechanisms in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhier, Nicolas; Cerveau, Delphine; Couturier, Jérémy; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Rey, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Increasing knowledge has been recently gained regarding the redox regulation of plant developmental stages. The current state of knowledge concerning the involvement of glutathione, glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in plant development is reviewed. The control of the thiol redox status is mainly ensured by glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide and by reductases sharing redox-active cysteines, glutaredoxins (GRXs) and thioredoxins (TRXs). Indeed, thiol groups present in many regulatory proteins and metabolic enzymes are prone to oxidation, ultimately leading to post-translational modifications such as disulfide bond formation or glutathionylation. This review focuses on the involvement of GSH, GRXs and TRXs in plant development. Recent studies showed that the proper functioning of root and shoot apical meristems depends on glutathione content and redox status, which regulate, among others, cell cycle and hormone-related processes. A critical role of GRXs in the formation of floral organs has been uncovered, likely through the redox regulation of TGA transcription factor activity. TRXs fulfill many functions in plant development via the regulation of embryo formation, the control of cell-to-cell communication, the mobilization of seed reserves, the biogenesis of chloroplastic structures, the metabolism of carbon and the maintenance of cell redox homeostasis. This review also highlights the tight relationships between thiols, hormones and carbon metabolism, allowing a proper development of plants in relation with the varying environment and the energy availability. GSH, GRXs and TRXs play key roles during the whole plant developmental cycle via their antioxidant functions and the redox-regulation of signaling pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A pattern recognition approach based on DTW for automatic transient identification in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbally, Javier; Galbally, David

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel transient identification method for NPPs. • Low-complexity. • Low training data requirements. • High accuracy. • Fully reproducible protocol carried out on a real benchmark. - Abstract: Automatic identification of transients in nuclear power plants (NPPs) allows monitoring the fatigue damage accumulated by critical components during plant operation, and is therefore of great importance for ensuring that usage factors remain within the original design bases postulated by the plant designer. Although several schemes to address this important issue have been explored in the literature, there is still no definitive solution available. In the present work, a new method for automatic transient identification is proposed, based on the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm, largely used in other related areas such as signature or speech recognition. The novel transient identification system is evaluated on real operational data following a rigorous pattern recognition protocol. Results show the high accuracy of the proposed approach, which is combined with other interesting features such as its low complexity and its very limited requirements of training data

  15. A contribution to the study of plant development evolution based on gene co-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Romero-Campero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic eukaryotes are among the most successful organisms on Earth due to their unparalleled efficiency at capturing light energy and fixing carbon dioxide to produce organic molecules. A conserved and efficient network of light-dependent regulatory modules could be at the bases of this success. This regulatory system conferred early advantages to phototrophic eukaryotes that allowed for specialization, complex developmental processes and modern plant characteristics. We have studied light-dependent gene regulatory modules from algae to plants employing integrative-omics approaches based on gene co-expression networks. Our study reveals some remarkably conserved ways in which eukaryotic phototrophs deal with day length and light signaling. Here we describe how a family of Arabidopsis transcription factors involved in photoperiod response has evolved from a single algal gene according to the innovation, amplification and divergence theory of gene evolution by duplication. These modifications of the gene co-expression networks from the ancient unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to the modern brassica Arabidopsis thaliana may hint on the evolution and specialization of plants and other organisms.

  16. Flexible dynamic operation of solar-integrated power plant with solvent based post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, Abdul; Sharma, Manish; Parvareh, Forough; Khalilpour, Rajab; Abbas, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible operation of power and PCC plant may significantly increase operational revenue. • Higher optimal carbon capture rates observed with solar thermal energy input. • Solar thermal repowering of the power plant provides highest net revenue. • Constant optimal capture rate observed for one of the flexible operation cases. • Up to 42% higher revenue generation observed between two cases with solar input. - Abstract: This paper examines flexible operation of solvent-based post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) for the reduction of power plant carbon emissions while minimizing revenue loss due to the reduced power plant electricity output. The study is conducted using a model superstructure enveloping three plants; a power plant, a PCC plant and a solar thermal field where the power plant and PCC plant are operated flexibly under the influence of hourly electricity market and weather conditions. Reduced (surrogate) models for the reboiler duty and auxiliary power requirement for the carbon capture plant are generated and applied to simulate and compare four cases, (A) power plant with PCC, (B) power plant with solar assisted PCC, (C) power plant with PCC and solar repowering – variable net electricity output and (D) power plant with PCC and solar repowering – fixed net electricity output. Such analyses are conducted under dynamic conditions including power plant part-load operation while varying the capture rate to optimize the revenue of the power plant. Each case was simulated with a lower carbon price of $25/tonne-CO 2 and a higher price of $50/tonne-CO 2 . The comparison of cases B–D found that optimal revenue generation for case C can be up to 42% higher than that of solar-assisted PCC (case B). Case C is found to be the most profitable with the lowest carbon emissions intensity and is found to exhibit a constant capture rate for both carbon prices. The optimal revenue for case D is slightly lower than case C for the lower carbon

  17. Towards a sustainable bio-based economy: Redirecting primary metabolism to new products with plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patrick M

    2018-08-01

    Humans have domesticated many plant species as indispensable sources of food, materials, and medicines. The dawning era of synthetic biology represents a means to further refine, redesign, and engineer crops to meet various societal and industrial needs. Current and future endeavors will utilize plants as the foundation of a bio-based economy through the photosynthetic production of carbohydrate feedstocks for the microbial fermentation of biofuels and bioproducts, with the end goal of decreasing our dependence on petrochemicals. As our technological capabilities improve, metabolic engineering efforts may expand the utility of plants beyond sugar feedstocks through the direct production of target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, renewable fuels, and commodity chemicals. However, relatively little work has been done to fully realize the potential in redirecting central carbon metabolism in plants for the engineering of novel bioproducts. Although our ability to rationally engineer and manipulate plant metabolism is in its infancy, I highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in applying synthetic biology towards engineering plant primary metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum albumin 'camouflage' of plant virus based nanoparticles prevents their antibody recognition and enhances pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitek, Andrzej S; Jameson, Slater A; Veliz, Frank A; Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Plant virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) are a novel class of nanocarriers with unique potential for biomedical applications. VNPs have many advantageous properties such as ease of manufacture and high degree of quality control. Their biocompatibility and biodegradability make them an attractive alternative to synthetic nanoparticles (NPs). Nevertheless, as with synthetic NPs, to be successful in drug delivery or imaging, the carriers need to overcome several biological barriers including innate immune recognition. Plasma opsonization can tag (V)NPs for clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), resulting in shortened circulation half lives and non-specific sequestration in non-targeted organs. PEG coatings have been traditionally used to 'shield' nanocarriers from immune surveillance. However, due to broad use of PEG in cosmetics and other industries, the prevalence of anti-PEG antibodies has been reported, which may limit the utility of PEGylation in nanomedicine. Alternative strategies are needed to tailor the in vivo properties of (plant virus-based) nanocarriers. We demonstrate the use of serum albumin (SA) as a viable alternative. SA conjugation to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based nanocarriers results in a 'camouflage' effect more effective than PEG coatings. SA-'camouflaged' TMV particles exhibit decreased antibody recognition, as well as enhanced pharmacokinetics in a Balb/C mouse model. Therefore, SA-coatings may provide an alternative and improved coating technique to yield (plant virus-based) NPs with improved in vivo properties enhancing drug delivery and molecular imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  20. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  2. Development of module-based simulation system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1990-01-01

    Module-based Simulation System (MSS) has been developed to realize a new software environment enabling versatile dynamic simulation of a complex nuclear power plant system flexibly. Described in the paper are (i) fundamental methods utilized in MMS and its software systemization, (ii) development of human interface system to help users in generating integrated simulation programs automatically, and (iii) development of an intelligent user support system for helping users in the two phases of automatical semantic diagnosis and consultation to automatic input data setup for the MSS-generated programs

  3. PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOSAL VACCINES AGAINST DANGEROUS INFECTIONS ON THE BASE OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tretyakova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccines created on the base of transgenic plants reacting with mucosal layers of the intestines and other organs are considered to be the perspective method of the vaccination. These vaccines induce both mucosal and general humoral immunogenicity after the peroral administration. The folding of antigenic proteins synthesizing in plants occurs via eukaryotic type and has advantages before yeast and prokaryotic platforms. This feature results to more adequate synthesis of antibodies against pathogens and to the interaction with effector molecules of complement. Earlier we together with The State Scientific Center “Vector”, Institute of chemical biology and fundamental medicine SB RAS and Dr R.Hammond from Laboratory of Plant Pathology (Maryland, USA created two candidate vaccines : one of them against AIDS (HIV-1 and hepatitis B on the base of the chimeric gene TBI-HBS, encoding simultaneously 9 antigenic determinants of HIV-1 and the main surface antigen of hepatitis B (HBsAg. The second candidate vaccine was created against hepatitis B on the base of the genetic construct with the gene preS2-S encoding the synthesis of two subunits of the main surface antigen of hepatitis B and the signal peptide HDEL which directed antigens for the accumulation on ER. Both vaccines were tested on mice and confirmed their immunogenicity as the pronounced antibodies response. Twice vaccinated mice maintained the antibodies response during 11 months after there was little tendency to lowering. It was established that transgenic plants – vaccines (tomato kept the capability to the synthesis of antigenic determinants in seven seed generations during 7 years. The results of the development of the mucosal vaccine against cervical carcinoma (carcinoma of uterine cervix evoked by human papillomaviruses of high oncogenic risks were presented in this report. We created the genetic construct consisting of 35S CaMV promoter, Ώ (omega leader of TMV, the

  4. Antimicrobial thin films based on ayurvedic plants extracts embedded in a bioactive glass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floroian, L.; Ristoscu, C.; Candiani, G.; Pastori, N.; Moscatelli, M.; Mihailescu, N.; Negut, I.; Badea, M.; Gilca, M.; Chiesa, R.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Ayurvedic medicine is one of the oldest medical systems. It is an example of a coherent traditional system which has a time-tested and precise algorithm for medicinal plant selection, based on several ethnopharmacophore descriptors which knowledge endows the user to adequately choose the optimal plant for the treatment of certain pathology. This work aims for linking traditional knowledge with biomedical science by using traditional ayurvedic plants extracts with antimicrobial effect in form of thin films for implant protection. We report on the transfer of novel composites from bioactive glass mixed with antimicrobial plants extracts and polymer by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation into uniform thin layers onto stainless steel implant-like surfaces. The comprehensive characterization of the deposited films was performed by complementary analyses: Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and antimicrobial tests. The results emphasize upon the multifunctionality of these coatings which allow to halt the leakage of metal and metal oxides into the biological fluids and eventually to inner organs (by polymer use), to speed up the osseointegration (due to the bioactive glass use), to exert antimicrobial effects (by ayurvedic plants extracts use) and to decrease the implant price (by cheaper stainless steel use).

  5. Private investment for building a small hydropower plant at Zetea dam base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Florica; Paraschivescu, Adina; Vladescu, Aurelia; Popa, Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    Zetea lake grading project comprises an earthen dam, made out of local materials, having as main purposes water supply, flood control and protection against flooding. The paper analyzes the possibility of building a small hydropower plant at the base of the dam, using private investment resources, in order to put to good use the water flow evacuated from the storage lake. (authors)

  6. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost.

  7. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Bong Mei; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Sulong, Ghazali; Baker, Thar; Tully, David

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost. PMID:29420568

  8. The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurden, I.; Borchert, P.; Balasubramanian, M.N.; Schrama, J.W.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Quillet, E.; Kaushik, S.J.; Panserat, S.; Médale, F.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional

  9. Awareness and Perception of Plant-Based Diets for the Treatment and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Education Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess awareness, barriers, and promoters of plant-based diet use for management of type 2 diabetes (T2D for the development of an appropriate educational program. Design. Cross-sectional study of patients and healthcare providers. Setting. Regional Diabetes Education Centre in ON, Canada. Participants. n=98 patients attending the Diabetes Education Centre and n=25 healthcare providers. Variables Measures. Patient questionnaires addressed demographics, health history, and eating patterns, as well as current knowledge, confidence levels, barriers to, promoters of, and interests in plant-based diets. Staff questionnaires addressed attitudes and current practice with respect to plant-based diets. Analysis. Mean values, frequency counts, and logistic regression (alpha = 0.05. Results. Few respondents (9% currently followed a plant-based diet, but 66% indicated willingness to follow one for 3 weeks. Family eating preferences and meal planning skills were common barriers to diet change. 72% of healthcare providers reported knowledge of plant-based diets for diabetes management but low levels of practice. Conclusions and Implications. Patient awareness of the benefits of a plant-based diet for the management of diabetes remains suboptimal and may be influenced by perception of diabetes educators and clinicians. Given the reported willingness to try (but low current use of plant-based diets, educational interventions targeting patient and provider level knowledge are warranted.

  10. Exploitation of FTA cartridges for the sampling, long-term storage, and DNA-based analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Martin; Zouhar, Miloslav; Douda, Ondřej; Maňasová, Marie; Ryšánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The use of DNA-based analyses in molecular plant nematology research has dramatically increased over recent decades. Therefore, the development and adaptation of simple, robust, and cost-effective DNA purification procedures are required to address these contemporary challenges. The solid-phase-based approach developed by Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) has been shown to be a powerful technology for the preparation of DNA from different biological materials, including blood, saliva, plant tissues, and various human and plant microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that this FTA-based technology is a valuable, low-cost, and time-saving approach for the sampling, long-term archiving, and molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Despite the complex structure and anatomical organization of the multicellular bodies of nematodes, we report the successful and reliable DNA-based analysis of nematode high-copy and low-copy genes using the FTA technology. This was achieved by applying nematodes to the FTA cards either in the form of a suspension of individuals, as intact or pestle-crushed nematodes, or by the direct mechanical printing of nematode-infested plant tissues. We further demonstrate that the FTA method is also suitable for the so-called "one-nematode-assay", in which the target DNA is typically analyzed from a single individual nematode. More surprisingly, a time-course experiment showed that nematode DNA can be detected specifically in the FTA-captured samples many years after initial sampling occurs. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrate the applicability and the robustness of this FTA-based approach for molecular research and diagnostics concerning phytonematodes; this research includes economically important species such as the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), the sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii), and the Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla).

  11. Assessment of parameters of gas centrifuge and separation cascade basing on integral characteristics of separation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisevich, Valentin, E-mail: VDBorisevich@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Borshchevskiy, Michael, E-mail: Michael_mephi@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Andronov, Igor, E-mail: andronov@imp.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Senchenkov, Sergey, E-mail: senchenkov@imp.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed the calculation method to assess a feed flow rate into a gas centrifuge. • It is based on the knowledge of the integral characteristics of a separation plant. • Our method is verified by comparison with the results of the independent one. • The method also allows to specify other features of the separation cascade work. - Abstract: A calculation technique to assess a feed flow rate into a single GC, a total number of centrifuges in a separation cascade and to determine its likely configurations basing on the known integral characteristics of a centrifugal plant is developed. Evaluation of characteristics of the industrial gas centrifuge TC-12 and separation cascades of the NEF plant performed by two independent calculation techniques demonstrates their satisfactory agreement. This methodology would help to some extent the nuclear inspectors in evaluating and assessing the capability of an enrichment facility, and discovering any use for undeclared purposes.

  12. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fuentes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN, Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN, and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD, which for the purpose of this work are called “deep learning meta-architectures”. We combine each of these meta-architectures with “deep feature extractors” such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet. We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant’s surrounding area.

  13. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John

    2004-01-01

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  14. A simple method for normalization of DNA extraction to improve the quantitative detection of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Ishiguro, Y; Kageyama, K; Zhu, Z

    2015-08-01

    Most of the current research into the quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes lacks determination of DNA extraction efficiency, probably leading to an incorrect estimation of DNA quantity. In this study, we developed a convenient method by using a 100 bp artificially synthesized DNA sequence derived from the mitochondrion NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene of Thunnus thynnus as a control to determine the DNA extraction efficiency. The control DNA was added to soils and then co-extracted along with soil genomic DNA. DNA extraction efficiency was determined by the control DNA. Two different DNA extraction methods were compared and evaluated using different types of soils, and the commercial kit was proved to give more consistent results. We used the control DNA combined with real-time PCR to quantify the oomycete DNAs from 12 naturally infested soils. Detectable target DNA concentrations were three to five times higher after normalization. Our tests also showed that the extraction efficiencies varied on a sample-to-sample basis and were simple and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes. Oomycetes include many important plant pathogens. Accurate quantification of these pathogens is essential in the management of diseases. This study reports an easy method utilizing an external DNA control for the normalization of DNA extraction by real-time PCR. By combining two different efficient soil DNA extraction methods, the developed quantification method dramatically improved the results. This study also proves that the developed normalization method is necessary and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. A knowledge based method for nuclear plant loading pattern determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauboin, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a knowledge based system for solving an industrial problem which occurs in nuclear fuel management. The problem lies in determining satisfactory loading patterns for nuclear plants. Its primary feature consists in the huge search space involved. Conventional resolution processes are formally defined and analyzed: there is no general algorithm which guarantees to always provide a reasonable solution in each situation. We propose a new approach to solve this constrained search problem using domain-specific knowledge and general constraint-based heuristics. During a preprocessing step, a problem dependent search algorithm is designed. This procedure is then automatically implemented in FORTRAN. The generated routines have proved to be very efficient finding solutions which could not have been provided using logic programming. A prototype expert system has already been applied to actual reload pattern searches. While combining efficiency and flexibility, this knowledge based system enables human experts to rapidly match new constraints and requirements

  16. Ergonomic requirements on computer-based information- and handling engineering in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This project provides regulatory authorities with a set of criteria for evaluating hybrid man-machine interfaces in nuclear power plant control rooms from a human factors point of view. Such standards are necessary for two reasons: (1) More and more computerised information and control systems have been and will be introduced in nuclear power plant control rooms. One possible result of this trend will be the creation of hybrid man machine interfaces which will provide both conventional and computer-based display and control devices. (2) Available rules and regulations do not contain detailed requirements on how to integrate both types of interface in such a way that plant operation by means of hybrid interfaces will be performed at least as reliably and safely as by means of conventional ones. To fill this gap, criteria and methods were developed which support practical checks of requirements to be applied to hybrid control rooms. This approach is based on state of the art methods and criteria in ergonomics. It makes it possible to analyse and to describe personnel's actions in a consistent and structured way in order to provide the information which is necessary for evaluating human reliability of task performance. Reliability can be evaluated with respect to - accuracy of required information on displays, - networking of tasks, - possibilities of interrupting and cancelling measures which have already been initiated, - possibility to carry out required manuel actions, - level of mental work-strain, - workload level, - probability of erroneous actions. This method is part of a catalogue of recommendations for evaluating hybrid nuclear power plant control rooms. The catalogue also contains recommendations for the design of computerised parts of the man-machine-interface. Application of these design recommendations will help create favourable conditions for an acceptable level of work-strain and for reliable task performance. (orig.) [de

  17. Heat integration of fractionating systems in para-xylene plants based on column optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of xylene fractionation and disproportionation units in a para-xylene plant is performed through a new method for systematic design based on GCC (grand composite curve) and CGCC (column grand composite curve). The distillation columns are retrofitted by CGCC firstly. Heat Integration between the columns and the background xylene separation process are then explored by GCC. We found that potential retrofits for columns suggested by CGCC provide better possibilities for further Heat Integration. The effectiveness of the retrofits is finally evaluated by means of thermodynamics and economic analysis. The results show that energy consumption of the retrofitted fractionating columns decreases by 7.13 MW. With the improved thermodynamic efficiencies, all columns operate with less energy requirements. Coupled with Heat Integration, the energy input of the para-xylene plant is reduced by 30.90 MW, and the energy outputs are increased by 17 MW and 58 MW for generation of the 3.5 MPa and 2.5 MPa steams. The energy requirement after the Heat Integration is reduced by 12% compared to the original unit. The retrofits required a fixed capital cost of 6268.91 × 10 3  $ and saved about 24790.74 × 10 3  $/year worth of steam. The payback time is approximately 0.26 year for the retrofits. - Highlights: • A new method for systematic design is proposed to improve energy saving of the PX plant in retrofit scenarios. • An optimization approach is developed to identify maximum heat recovery in distillation columns. • An efficient Heat Integration procedure of the PX plant is addressed based on the optimal retrofitted distillation columns. • The energy consumption is reduced by 12% after improvement to an industrial case

  18. Enhanced-safety underground nuclear power plants based on the use of proven ship-building equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashin, V.M.; Petrov, E.L.; Khazov, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations performed in the last few years by the State Science Center of the Russian Federation - Academician A. N. Krylov Central Scientific-Research Institute, together with specialized enterprises of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation, Sudprom, and other agencies of Russia, have shown the promise of marine nuclear power plants for producing underground nuclear power plants with a higher degree of protection from external and internal actions of different intensity. The concept was developed on the basis of an analysis of the energy supply in different regions of Russia and the near-abroad using fossil fuels (lignite, oil, natural gas). The change in the international environment, which makes it possible to convert the military technology, frees the industrial potential and skilled workers in Russia for development of products for the national economy. Stricter international standards and rules for increased safety and protection of nuclear power plants made it necessary to develop a new generation of reactors for ground-based power plants, which under the modern economic conditions cannot be implemented within the time periods acceptable for economics for most of the countries surrounding Russia. In the development of a new generation of ground-based nuclear power plants, the intense improvement of the aviation and space technology must be taken into account. This is connected with the increase in the catastrophes and the threat they present to the safety of unprotected power plants. This article is an abstract of the entire report

  19. Mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection based on collecting and utilizing environment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Nobuyasu; Asama, Hajime; Kita, Nobuyuki; Yang, Hai-quan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes about development of a mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection. In our system, the robot is an agent for collecting the environment data and is also teleoperated by the operator utilizing such accumulated environment data which is displayed on the operation interface. The robot equips many sensors for detecting the state of the robot and the environment. Such redundant sensory system can be also utilized to collect the working environment data on-site while the robot is patrolling. Here, proposed system introduces the framework of collecting and utilizing environment data for adaptive plant inspection using the teleoperated robot. A view simulator is primarily aiming to facilitate evaluation of the visual sensors and algorithms and is also extended as the Environment Server, which is the core technology of the digital maintenance field for the plant inspection. In order to construct detailed seamless digital maintenance field mobile robotic technology is utilized to supply environment data to the server. The sensory system on the robot collect the environment data on-site and such collected data is uploaded to the Environment Server for compiling accurate digital environment data base. The robot operator also can utilize accumulated environment data by referring to the Environment Server. In this paper, we explain the concept of our teleoperation system based on collecting and utilizing environment data. Using developed system, inspection patrol experiments were attempted in the plant mock-up. Experimental results are shown by using an omnidirectional mobile robot with sensory system and the Environment Server. (author)

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHL778 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rtial cds. 46 0.29 1 AJ505593 |AJ505593.1 Alcis repandata mitochondrion 16S rRNA ...gene (partial), tRNA-Leu gene and nd1 gene (partial), isolate 00372. 46 0.29 1 AJ438725 |AJ438725.1 Alcis repanda...6 0.29 1 AJ416938 |AJ416938.1 Alcis repandata mitochondrion nd1 gene (partial), tRNA-Leu gene and 16S rRNA g

  1. Planning for rate base treatment of large power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses two related areas of planning for inclusion in rate base of large generating stations. First, the paper discusses the range of options available as to how the plant is to go into rate base, e.g., phase-in plans. In this connection the process of generating the entire range of options that may be available is described and examined. Second, the paper examines innovative ways of using procedures (e.g., accounting proceedings, settlement procedures, cost caps, and other ideas short of a full-blown rate case) and the resources available in the ratemaking arena, to obtain, in the least painful way possible, the necessary ratemaking orders. The thesis is that there must be better alternatives to the many proceedings that have either begun as, or seem to be leading to, endless retrospective examinations of multiple questions (from load forecasting to construction management to continuation-of-construction decisions) under the label of prudence inquiries

  2. Selection and impedance based model of a lithium ion battery technology for integration with virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is to integrate lithium-ion batteries into virtual power plants; thus, the power system stability and the energy quality can be increased. The selection of the best lithium-ion battery candidate for integration with wind power plants is a key aspect for the economic feasibility of the virtual power plant...... investment. This paper presents a methodology for selection, between three candidates, of a Li-ion battery which offers long cycle lifetime at partial charge/discharge (required by many grid support applications) while providing a low cost per cycle also. For the selected Li-ion battery an impedance......-based diagnostic tool for lifetime estimation was developed and verified. This diagnostic tool can be extended into an impedance-based lifetime model that will be able to predict the remaining useful lifetime of Li-ion batteries for specific grid support applications....

  3. Predictive based monitoring of nuclear plant component degradation using support vector regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are large installations comprised of many active and passive assets. Degradation monitoring of all these assets is expensive (labor cost) and highly demanding task. In this paper a framework based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) for online surveillance of critical parameter degradation of NPP components is proposed. In this case, on time replacement or maintenance of components will prevent potential plant malfunctions, and reduce the overall operational cost. In the current work, we apply SVR equipped with a Gaussian kernel function to monitor components. Monitoring includes the one-step-ahead prediction of the component's respective operational quantity using the SVR model, while the SVR model is trained using a set of previous recorded degradation histories of similar components. Predictive capability of the model is evaluated upon arrival of a sensor measurement, which is compared to the component failure threshold. A maintenance decision is based on a fuzzy inference system that utilizes three parameters: (i) prediction evaluation in the previous steps, (ii) predicted value of the current step, (iii) and difference of current predicted value with components failure thresholds. The proposed framework will be tested on turbine blade degradation data.

  4. Mapping of unknown industrial plant using ROS-based navigation mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyandoko, G.; Ming, T. Y.; Achmad, M. S. H.

    2017-10-01

    This research examines how humans work with teleoperated unmanned mobile robot inspection in industrial plant area resulting 2D/3D map for further critical evaluation. This experiment focuses on two parts, the way human-robot doing remote interactions using robust method and the way robot perceives the environment surround as a 2D/3D perspective map. ROS (robot operating system) as a tool was utilized in the development and implementation during the research which comes up with robust data communication method in the form of messages and topics. RGBD SLAM performs the visual mapping function to construct 2D/3D map using Kinect sensor. The results showed that the mobile robot-based teleoperated system are successful to extend human perspective in term of remote surveillance in large area of industrial plant. It was concluded that the proposed work is robust solution for large mapping within an unknown construction building.

  5. Determination of mycotoxins in plant-based beverages using QuEChERS and liquid chro