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Sample records for plant micronutrients

  1. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populations in a major part of the developing world. Moreover, evidence of the negative impacts of this practice on human health, at least for some vitamins, is accumulating. Biofortification of crop plants-the enhancement of vitamins and minerals through plant biotechnology-is a promising alternative or complement in the battle against micronutrient deficiencies. Owing to a growing knowledge about vitamin metabolism, as well as mineral uptake and reallocation in plants, it is today possible to enhance micronutrient levels in crop plants, offering a sustainable solution to populations with a suboptimal micronutrient intake. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

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    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  3. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants

    OpenAIRE

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Straeten, Dominique Van Der

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populati...

  4. Bioavailability of Micronutrients from Plant Foods: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-26

    Deficiencies of iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A are widespread in the developing countries, poor bioavailability of these micronutrients from plant-based foods being the major reason for their wide prevalence. Diets predominantly vegetarian are composed of components that enhance as well as inhibit mineral bioavailability, the latter being predominant. However, prudent cooking practices and use of ideal combinations of food components can significantly improve micronutrient bioavailability. Household processing such as heat treatment, sprouting, fermentation and malting have been evidenced to enhance the bioavailability of iron and β-carotene from plant foods. Food acidulants amchur and lime are also shown to enhance the bioavailability of not only iron and zinc, but also of β-carotene. Recently indentified newer enhancers of micronutrient bioaccessibility include sulphur compound-rich Allium spices-onion and garlic, which also possess antioxidant properties, β-carotene-rich vegetables-carrot and amaranth, and pungent spices-pepper (both red and black) as well as ginger. Information on the beneficial effect of these dietary compounds on micronutrient bioaccessibility is novel. These food components evidenced to improve the bioavailability of micronutrients are common ingredients of Indian culinary, and probably of other tropical countries. Fruits such as mango and papaya, when consumed in combination with milk, provide significantly higher amounts of bioavailable β-carotene. Awareness of the beneficial influence of these common dietary ingredients on the bioavailability of micronutrients would help in devising dietary strategies to improve the bioavailability of these vital nutrients.

  5. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

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    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  6. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

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    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  7. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  8. Soybean micronutrient content in irrigated plants grown in the Midsouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrients are essential to soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) but required in minute quantities. Concentrations and tissue contents of Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu were determined for two MG IV and one MG V irrigated cultivars grown in twin-rows in the Mississippi Delta on clay and sandy loam soil sites i...

  9. Improving human micronutrient nutrition through biofortification in the soil-plant system: China as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-E; Chen, Wen-Rong; Feng, Ying

    2007-10-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is a major health problem in China. According to a national nutritional survey, approximately 24% of all Chinese children suffer from a serious deficiency of iron (Fe) (anemia), while over 50% show a sub-clinical level of zinc (Zn) deficiency. More than 374 million people in China suffer from goiter disease, which is related to iodine (I) deficiency, and approximately 20% of the Chinese population are affected by selenium (Se) deficiency. Micronutrient malnutrition in humans is derived from deficiencies of these elements in soils and foods. In China, approximately 40% of the total land area is deficient in Fe and Zn. Keshan and Kaschin-Beck diseases always appear in regions where the soil content of Se in low. The soil-plant system is instrumental to human nutrition and forms the basis of the "food chain" in which there is micronutrient cycling, resulting in an ecologically sound and sustainable flow of micronutrients. Soil-plant system strategies that have been adopted to improve human micronutrient nutrition mainly include: (1) exploiting micronutrient-dense crop genotypes by studying the physiology and genetics of micronutrient flow from soils to the edible parts of crops; (2) improving micronutrient bioavailability through a better knowledge of the mechanisms of the enhancers' production and accumulation in edible parts and its regulation through soil-plant system; (3) improving our knowledge of the relationship between the content and bioavailability of micronutrients in soils and those in edible crop products for better human nutrition; (4) developing special micronutrient fertilizers and integrated nutrient management technologies for increasing both the density of the micronutrients in the edible parts of plants and their bioavailability to humans.

  10. Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

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    Bouis, Howarth E

    2003-05-01

    Can commonly-eaten food staple crops be developed that fortify their seeds with essential minerals and vitamins? Can farmers be induced to grow such varieties? If so, would this result in a marked improvement in human nutrition at a lower cost than existing nutrition interventions? An interdisciplinary international effort is underway to breed for mineral- and vitamin-dense varieties of rice, wheat, maize, beans and cassava for release to farmers in developing countries. The biofortification strategy seeks to take advantage of the consistent daily consumption of large amounts of food staples by all family members, including women and children as they are most at risk for micronutrient malnutrition. As a consequence of the predominance of food staples in the diets of the poor, this strategy implicitly targets low-income households. After the one-time investment is made to develop seeds that fortify themselves, recurrent costs are low and germplasm may be shared internationally. It is this multiplier aspect of plant breeding across time and distance that makes it so cost-effective. Once in place, the biofortified crop system is highly sustainable. Nutritionally-improved varieties will continue to be grown and consumed year after year, even if government attention and international funding for micronutrient issues fades. Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas. Biofortification and commercial fortification are, therefore, highly complementary. Breeding for higher trace mineral density in seeds will not incur a yield penalty. Mineral-packed seeds sell themselves to farmers because, as recent research has shown, these trace minerals are essential in helping plants resist disease and other environmental stresses. More seedlings

  11. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  12. Liming and plant aging influence on micronutrient uptake by Brachiaria decumbens forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br; Primavesi, Odo; Primavesi, Ana C. [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pecuaria do Sudeste (CPPSE)], E-mail: odo@cppse.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Brachiaria decumbens is the main forage in pastures of several Brazilian regions. The effects of liming and plant age on micronutrient uptake by the forage of a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture under restoration process, were studied in Sao Carlos - SP, southeastern Brazil, under altitude tropical climate. Experimental design was a random block (100 m{sup 2}), with 6 replications and 3 treatments. Each block received the following treatment: 0 t/ha of limestone with NK; 2 t/ha of limestone applied on soil surface with NK and maintenance of 1 t/ha per annum; 8 t/ha of limestone applied once on soil surface with NK. Forage samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface, each 36 days in the rain season. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the micronutrient content. In some cases, Co Fe, Mn and Zn were negatively affected by increasing limestone doses. The opposite effect was observed for Cl. Decreases of Cl, Co and Mo uptake in forage were enhanced with plant aging. (author)

  13. Micronutrient and Silicon Uptake and Removal by Upland Rice Cultivars with Different Plant Architecture

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    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Upland rice cultivars manifest different nutritional demands. A field study was conducted to quantify the extraction, distribution, and removal of micronutrients and silicon by the upland rice cultivars. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block-split plot design. Plots consisted of three cultivars (Caiapó – traditional, BRS Primavera – intermediate, and Maravilha – modern of upland rice. Split-plots consisted of plant samplings, which occurred at 39, 46, 55, 67, 75, 83, 92, 102, 111, 118, and 125 days after emergence (DAE. Up to the end of tillering (46 DAE, all cultivars exhibited low demand for most micronutrients and Si, and took up less than 24 % of the total B, Cu, and Si, but around 31 % of the total Zn. The period of greatest uptake of micronutrients and Si occurred from 65 to 80 DAE in the Caiapó and BRS Primavera cultivars, and after 80 DAE in the Maravilha cultivar. The Caiapó and BRS Primavera cultivars took up their necessary demand of B, Mn, and Fe in the first 98 DAE and Cu, Zn, and Si up to 105 DAE, but the Maravilha cultivar took up these nutrients for two to three weeks longer. The quantities of micronutrients and Si taken up by cultivars Caiapó, BRS Primavera, and Maravilha did not exhibit large differences, and these cultivars took up between 98-135 g B, 103-110 g Cu, 1,157-1,460 g Fe, 1,278-1,424 g Mn, 240-285 g Zn, and 111-124 kg Si per hectare. The BRS Primavera cultivar showed greater removal of nutrients, with average amounts per hectare of 19.7 g B, 25.8 g Cu, 200 g Fe, 234.2 g Mn, 102.4 g Zn, and 32.6 kg Si, while the other cultivars removed smaller amounts per hectare (14.4 g B, 19.9 g Cu, 160.7 g Fe, 136.3 g Mn, 67 g Zn, and 21.9 kg Si. The BRS Primavera showed a greater removal of nutrients because it has a higher yield and allocates a greater quantity of nutrients to the panicles.

  14. Exploiting genotypic variation in plant nutrient accumulation to alleviate micronutrient deficiency in populations.

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    Genc, Yusuf; Humphries, Julia M; Lyons, Graham H; Graham, Robin D

    2005-01-01

    More than 2 billion people consume diets that are less diverse than 30 years ago, leading to deficiencies in micronutrients, especially iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), iodine (I), and also vitamin A. A strategy that exploits genetic variability to breed staple crops with enhanced ability to fortify themselves with micronutrients (genetic biofortification) offers a sustainable, cost-effective alternative to conventional supplementation and fortification programs. This is more likely to reach those most in need, has the added advantages of requiring no change in current consumer behaviour to be effective, and is transportable to a range of countries. Research by our group, along with studies elsewhere, has demonstrated conclusively that substantial genotypic variation exists in nutrient (e.g. Fe, Zn) and nutrient promotor (e.g. inulin) concentrations in wheat and other staple foods. A rapid screening technique has been developed for lutein content of wheat and triticale, and also for pro-vitamin A carotenoids in bread wheat. This will allow cost-effective screening of a wider range of genotypes that may reveal greater genotypic variation in these traits. Moreover, deeper understanding of genetic control mechanisms and development of molecular markers will facilitate breeding programs. We suggest that a combined strategy utilising plant breeding for higher micronutrient density; maximising the effects of nutritional promoters (e.g. inulin, vitamin C) by promoting favourable dietary combinations, as well as by plant breeding; and agronomic biofortification (e.g. adding iodide or iodate as fertiliser; applying selenate to cereal crops by spraying or adding to fertiliser) is likely to be the most effective way to improve the nutrition of populations. Furthermore, the importance of detecting and exploiting beneficial interactions is illustrated by our discovery that in Fe-deficient chickens, circulating Fe concentrations can be restored to normal levels by lutein

  15. Biofortification: How can we exploit plant science and biotechnology to reduce micronutrient deficiencies?

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    Throughout the developing world, the long-term consequences of insufficient amounts of essential micronutrients in the human diet can be more devastating than low energy intake. Micronutrients are involved in all aspects of development, growth, and physiology of the human body (including from early ...

  16. THE ABILITY OF LEAVES AND RHIZOMES OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO ACCUMULATE MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS

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    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The samples of macrophytes and bottom sediments originated from the littoral zone of the Słupia River were collected in summer 2013. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the accumulation of leaves and rhizomes of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Phalaris arundinacea for macro- and micronutrients. The largest quantities of macroelements were found in the leaves of the examined species, and microelements dominated the rhizomes of most examined macrophytes except for Mn in P.australis and T.latifolia. The obtained results show that N and K dominated in the leaves of P.arundinacea, P and Mg in the leaves of P.australis, and Ca in the leaves of G.maxima. The largest quantities of N, P and K were cumulated in the rhizomes of P.arundinacea, while Mg and Ca in the rhizome of T.latifolia. The leaves of aquatic plants accumulated from 1354.9 mmolc·kg-1 (T.latifolia to 1844.0 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea, and rhizomes from 985.8 mmolc·kg-1 (G.maxima to 1335.2 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea of all the analyzed components. In these species of macrophytes lower accumulated value of the sum of macro- and microelements were found in the rhizomes. The share of nitrogen was 42.4–59.8% of this amount, phosphorus 4.3–8.6%, potassium 22.8–35.1%, calcium from 2,6% to 12.4%, magnesium 3.0–7.5%, and heavy metals were from 0.6% (G.maxima to 1.2% (T.latifolia in leaves and from 2.2% (T.latifolia to 8.7% (G.maxima in rhizomes.

  17. INFLUENCES OF SOIL AND GENOTYPES ON MICRONUTRIENTS STATUS IN MAIZE PLANTS

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    Manda Antunović

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten corn hybrids were grown on two soil types of Drava Valley in Slatina area (alluvial soil and pseudogley during two growing seasons (1998 and 1999. The ear-leaf at the beginning of silking stage was taken for chemical analysis. Micronutrient concentrations in corn leave samples were measured by ICP-AES after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soils was also determined by ICP-AES after their extraction by ammonium acetate-EDTA. In both year of the testing, corn yields on acid soil were about 25% lower in comparison with alluvial soil. Mean concentrations of tested elements in corn leaves found in our investigations (mg kg-1 were 30.4 (Zn, 129.4 (Mn and 190.0 (Fe, respectively. In general, significant influences of growing season, soil type and genotype on Zn, Mn and Fe status in corn were found. For example, in the first year of testing higher Zn and Mn were found, as well as lower Fe concentrations in comparison with the second year. Corn growing on alluvial soil occurred due to lower Zn and Mn as well as higher Fe concentrations in plants compared to growing on pseudogley. However, these findings are not in coincidence with status of mobile fractions of Zn and Mn in the experimental plots. We presume that pH value near to neutral on alluvial soil could be responsible factor because low availability of Zn and Mn for plants occured under these conditions. An important role of heredity factors on Zn, Mn and Fe status in corn was found in our study because differences among the hybrids (mean values for two growing seasons and two soil types under identical environmental conditions were in ranges (mg kg-1 from 26.8 to 36.0 (Zn, from 98.6 to 150.4 (Mn and from 168.2 to 222.4 (Fe, respectively. It is very indicative that the first-ranged hybrid concerning grain yield (OsSK458exp: 12.34 t ha-1 is in the group characterizing low concentrations of Zn, Mn and Fe in leaves.

  18. Micronutrients in cereal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnér, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Seven elements essential for plants are defined as micronutrients: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Deficiency of these nutrients can cause yield losses in crops and impaired crop quality. The overall aim of this thesis work was to increase the knowledge how micronutrients in Swedish cereal crops are affected by nutrient management and soil properties in order to improve crop status and avoid yield losses. Data from long term and s...

  19. Biofabricated zinc oxide nanoparticles coated with phycomolecules as novel micronutrient catalysts for stimulating plant growth of cotton

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    Priyanka, N.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the bioengineering of phycomolecule-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as a novel type of plant-growth-enhancing micronutrient catalyst aimed at increasing crop productivity. The impact of natural engineered phycomolecule-loaded ZnO NPs on plant growth characteristics and biochemical changes in Gossypium hirsutum L. plants was investigated after 21 days of exposure to a wide range of concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg l-l). ZnO NP exposure significantly enhanced growth and biomass by 125.4% and 132.8%, respectively, in the treated plants compared to the untreated control. Interestingly, photosynthetic pigments, namely, chlorophyll a (134.7%), chlorophyll b (132.6%), carotenoids (160.1%), and total soluble protein contents (165.4%) increased significantly, but the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (73.8%) decreased in the ZnO-NP-exposed plants compared to the control. The results showed that there were significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD, 267.8%) and peroxidase (POX, 174.5%) enzyme activity, whereas decreased catalase (CAT, 83.2%) activity was recorded in the NP-treated plants compared to the control. ZnO NP treatment did not show distinct alterations (the presence or absence of DNA) in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding pattern. These results suggest that bioengineered ZnO NPs coated with natural phycochemicals display different biochemical effects associated with enhanced growth and biomass in G. hirsutum. Our results imply that ZnO NPs have tremendous potential in their use as an effective plant-growth-promoting micronutrient catalyst in agriculture.

  20. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

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    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  1. Analysis of gas exchange, stomatal behaviour and micronutrients uncovers dynamic response and adaptation of tomato plants to monochromatic light treatments.

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    O'Carrigan, Andrew; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Thomas, Richard; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Light spectrum affects the yield and quality of greenhouse tomato, especially over a prolonged period of monochromatic light treatments. Physiological and chemical analysis was employed to investigate the influence of light spectral (blue, green and red) changes on growth, photosynthesis, stomatal behaviour, leaf pigment, and micronutrient levels. We found that plants are less affected under blue light treatment, which was evident by the maintenance of higher A, gs, Tr, and stomatal parameters and significantly lower VPD and Tleaf as compared to those plants grown in green and red light treatments. Green and red light treatments led to significantly larger increase in the accumulation of Fe, B, Zn, and Cu than blue light. Moreover, guard cell length, width, and volume all showed highly significant positive correlations to gs, Tr and negative links to VPD. There was negative impact of monochromatic lights-induced accumulation of Mn, Cu, and Zn on photosynthesis, leaf pigments and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the light-induced significant changes of the physiological traits were partially recovered at the end of experiment. A high degree of morphological and physiological plasticity to blue, green and red light treatments suggested that tomato plants may have developed mechanisms to adapt to the light treatments. Thus, understanding the optimization of light spectrum for photosynthesis and growth is one of the key components for greenhouse tomato production.

  2. Micronutrients Status of Bio fuel Plant (Moringa Irrigated By Diluted Seawater As Affected By Silicate And Salicylic Acid

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    Hussein M.M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre to evaluate the effect of salt stress and foliar amendments on mineral status of moringa plants. The treatments of salinity were irrigated by diluted seawater with 2000 and 4000 ppm salts and tap water (285 ppm as a control. The treatments of silicate treatments were 300 ppm SiO2 as potassium silicate and 300 ppm salicylic acid + 300 ppm SiO2 more than distilled water as a control. Significant responses were detected in Zn, Mn and Cu ppm as a result of salt stress but Fe ppm without significant responds to this treatment. The depression effect in nutrients of plants received Si+SA exceeded those induced by Si alone. Generally, the all calculated ratios (Mn with N, P, K and Na lowered by the high salinity level and the reverse were true by the lesser level of salinity. The ratios of macronutrients and micronutrients as affected by salinity, foliar application as well as the interactive effect between them were included.

  3. Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, northeastern Nigeria.

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    Lockett, C T; Calvert, C C; Grivetti, L E

    2000-05-01

    Two rural settled Fulani villages, northeastern Nigeria, were surveyed for dietary practices and use of edible wild plants (n = 100 households). Commonly consumed species of edible wild barks, fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, and tubers were analyzed for protein, fat, and carbohydrate and for minerals. Kuka bark (Adansonia digitata) given to infants to increase weight gain was high in fat, calcium, copper, iron, and zinc. Cediya (Ficus thonningii), dorowa (Parkia biglobosa) and zogale (Moringa oleifera) were good sources of protein and fat and excellent sources of calcium and iron or copper and zinc. Fruits, leaves, and nuts of aduwa (Balanites aegyptiaca) were widely used during the dry season and during drought. Edible wild species available during the wet season generally were inferior in energy and micronutrient mineral content compared to dry season plants. Fruits commonly eaten by children were poor sources of protein and minerals but rich in carbohydrate and fiber. Tsamiya seeds (Tamarindus indica) were good sources of zinc and used to make dawwa (porridge) commonly consumed during pregnancy. Kirya seeds (Prosopos africana) contained the highest zinc concentrations. Shiwaka leaves (Veronia colorate) consumed by pregnant women to increase breastmilk production and to expel intestinal worms, were high in fiber, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and were adequate sources of calcium.

  4. Effect of genotype, Cr(III and Cr(VI on plant growth and micronutrient status in Silene vulgaris (Moench

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    A. E. Pradas-del-Real

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium released into the environment from industrial activities has become an important environmental concern. Silene vulgaris has been proven to be tolerant to many heavy metals, so it is considered an interesting species in the revegetation and restoration of polluted soils, but no information is available about its response to Cr. The objective of this work was to study uptake and influence on plant growth of Cr(III and Cr(VI in six genotypes (four hermaphrodites and two females of S. vulgaris from different sites of Madrid (Spain. Plants were treated for 12 days with 60 µM of Cr(III or Cr(VI in semihydroponics. Dry weights, soil-plant analysis development values (SPAD reading with chlorophylls and micronutrient and total Cr concentrations were determined. Metal uptake was higher in presence of Cr(VI than of Cr(III and poorly translocated to the shoots. In both cases S. vulgaris did not show visual toxicity symptoms, biomass reduction, or differences among SPAD values as consequence of Cr additions. However genotypes SV36 and SV38 showed Fe and Mn imbalance. This is the first report on the relatively good performance of hermaphrodite and female S. vulgaris genotypes in Cr uptake and physiological traits, but further studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which the gender may influence these variables. S. vulgaris presented high diversity at genotypic level; the treatment with hexavalent Cr increased the differences among genotypes so the use of cuttings from an homogeneous genotype seems to be an adequate method for the study of this species.

  5. Prospecting plant growth promoting bacteria and cyanobacteria as options for enrichment of macro- and micronutrients in grains in rice–wheat cropping sequence

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    Anuj Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and cyanobacteria, alone and in combination, was investigated on micronutrient enrichment and yield in rice–wheat sequence, over a period of two years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in both crops indicated significant differences in soil dehydrogenase activity and micronutrient enrichment in grains (Fe, Zn in rice, and Cu, Mn in wheat. The combined inoculation of Anabaena oscillarioides CR3, Brevundimonas diminuta PR7, and Ochrobactrum anthropi PR10 (T6 significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK content and improved rice yield by 21.2%, as compared to the application of recommended dose of NPK fertilizers (T2. The treatment T5 (Providencia sp. PR3 + B. diminuta PR7 + O. anthropi PR10 recorded an enhancement of 13–16% in Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations, respectively, in rice grains. In wheat, Providencia sp. PW5 (T6 recorded the highest yield (5.23 Mg ha−1 and significantly higher enrichment of Fe and Cu (44–45% in the grains. This study highlighted the promise of combinations of cyanobacteria/bacteria and their synergistic action in biofortification and providing savings of 40–60 kg N ha−1. Future focus needs to be towards integrating such promising environment-friendly and environmentally sustainable options in nutrient management strategies for this cropping sequence.

  6. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  7. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems. Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants. As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants. Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels

  8. EFFECT OF PLANTING MEDIA (RICE HUSK AND COCO PEAT ON THE UPTAKE OF CADMIUM AND SOME MICRONUTRIENTS IN CHILLI (CAPSICUM ANNUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. Alzrog

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecological effects of heavy metals or trace elements in soils are closely related to their contents and speciation in the soil. They play a significant role in the metabolic pathways throughout the growth and development of plants when presented in required concentration. In this study the effect of rice husk and coco peat media on the cadmium uptake by chilli plant (Capsicum annuum L was investigated. The experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design (RBD comprising of three replications. Various concentrations of Cd were dosed to the media once after one week of transplantation. All the required agricultural practices were applied uniformly until harvesting. Cd accumulation in roots, shoots and fruits were analyzed during vegetative, flowering and maturity stages, using atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS. Results showed that both planting media exhibited higher accumulation of Cd in roots and shoots at the vegetative stage. The accumulated amount was found significantly dependent on the Cd dose injected to the media. Consequently, micronutrients contents and plant growth were also affected. The accumulated Cd in fruits was found slightly less in rice husk than coco peat media and above the prescribed safety limits recommended by FAO and WHO. Rice husk has higher impact on the microneutrients absorption than coco peat media. In this study, root length, plant hight, dry weight and fruits showed small differences among growing media.

  9. Antioxidant nutrition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr and post-smolt, fed diets with high inclusion of plant ingredients and graded levels of micronutrients and selected amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Hamre; Sissener, Nini H.; Erik-Jan Lock; Olsvik, Pål A; Marit Espe; Bente E Torstensen; Joana Silva; Johan Johansen; Rune Waagbø; Gro-Ingunn Hemre

    2016-01-01

    The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antiox...

  10. Solubilisation of Phosphate and Micronutrients by Trichoderma harzianum and Its Relationship with the Promotion of Tomato Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Xia; Cai, Feng; Pang, Guan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Li, Rong; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 is a biocontrol agent that has been shown to enhance the uptake of nutrients (macro- and microelements) by plants in fields. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of SQR-T037 to P and microelement (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) nutrition in tomato plants grown in soil and in hydroponic conditions. Inoculation with SQR-T037 significantly improved the biomass and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings grown in a nutrient-limiting soil. So we investigated the capability of SQR-T037 to solubilise sparingly soluble minerals in vitro via four known mechanisms: acidification by organic acids, chelation by siderophores, redox by ferric reductase and hydrolysis by phytase. SQR-T037 was able to solubilise phytate, Fe2O3, CuO, and metallic Zn but not Ca3(PO4)2 or MnO2. Organic acids, including lactic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and succinic acid, were detected by HPLC and LC/MS in two Trichoderma cultures. Additionally, we inoculated tomato seedlings with SQR-T037 using a hydroponic system with specific nutrient deficiencies (i.e., nutrient solutions deficient in P, Fe, Cu or Zn and supplemented with their corresponding solid minerals) to better study the effects of Trichoderma inoculation on plant growth and nutrition. Inoculated seedlings grown in Cu-deficient hydroponic conditions exhibited increases in dry plant biomass (92%) and Cu uptake (42%) relative to control plants. However, we did not observe a significant effect on seedling biomass in plants grown in the Fe- and Zn-deficient hydroponic conditions; by contrast, the biomass decreased by 82% in the P-deficient hydroponic condition. Thus, we demonstrated that Trichoderma SQR-T037 competed for P (phytate) and Zn with tomato seedlings by suppressing root development, releasing phytase and/or chelating minerals. The results of this study suggest that the induction of increased or suppressed plant growth occurs through the direct effect of T. harzianum on root

  11. Solubilisation of Phosphate and Micronutrients by Trichoderma harzianum and Its Relationship with the Promotion of Tomato Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xia Li

    Full Text Available Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 is a biocontrol agent that has been shown to enhance the uptake of nutrients (macro- and microelements by plants in fields. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of SQR-T037 to P and microelement (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn nutrition in tomato plants grown in soil and in hydroponic conditions. Inoculation with SQR-T037 significantly improved the biomass and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings grown in a nutrient-limiting soil. So we investigated the capability of SQR-T037 to solubilise sparingly soluble minerals in vitro via four known mechanisms: acidification by organic acids, chelation by siderophores, redox by ferric reductase and hydrolysis by phytase. SQR-T037 was able to solubilise phytate, Fe2O3, CuO, and metallic Zn but not Ca3(PO42 or MnO2. Organic acids, including lactic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and succinic acid, were detected by HPLC and LC/MS in two Trichoderma cultures. Additionally, we inoculated tomato seedlings with SQR-T037 using a hydroponic system with specific nutrient deficiencies (i.e., nutrient solutions deficient in P, Fe, Cu or Zn and supplemented with their corresponding solid minerals to better study the effects of Trichoderma inoculation on plant growth and nutrition. Inoculated seedlings grown in Cu-deficient hydroponic conditions exhibited increases in dry plant biomass (92% and Cu uptake (42% relative to control plants. However, we did not observe a significant effect on seedling biomass in plants grown in the Fe- and Zn-deficient hydroponic conditions; by contrast, the biomass decreased by 82% in the P-deficient hydroponic condition. Thus, we demonstrated that Trichoderma SQR-T037 competed for P (phytate and Zn with tomato seedlings by suppressing root development, releasing phytase and/or chelating minerals. The results of this study suggest that the induction of increased or suppressed plant growth occurs through the direct effect of T. harzianum

  12. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  13. [Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness.

  14. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  15. Solubilization of phosphates and micronutrients by the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum rifai 1295-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare; Norvell; Bjorkman; Harman

    1999-07-01

    We investigated the capability of the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai 1295-22 (T-22) to solubilize in vitro some insoluble or sparingly soluble minerals via three possible mechanisms: acidification of the medium, production of chelating metabolites, and redox activity. T-22 was able to solubilize MnO2, metallic zinc, and rock phosphate (mostly calcium phosphate) in a liquid sucrose-yeast extract medium, as determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Acidification was not the major mechanism of solubilization since the pH of cultures never fell below 5.0 and in cultures containing MnO2 the pH rose from 6.8 to 7.4. Organic acids were not detected by high-performance thin-layer chromatography in the culture filtrates. Fe2O3, MnO2, Zn, and rock phosphate were also solubilized by cell-free culture filtrates. The chelating activity of T-22 culture filtrates was determined by a method based on measurement of the equilibrium concentration of the chrome azurol S complex in the presence of other chelating substances. A size exclusion chromatographic separation of the components of the culture filtrates indicated the presence of a complexed form of Fe but no chelation of Mn. In liquid culture, T. harzianum T-22 also produced diffusible metabolites capable of reducing Fe(III) and Cu(II), as determined by the formation of Fe(II)-Na2-bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid and Cu(I)-Na2-2, 9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid complexes. This is the first report of the ability of a Trichoderma strain to solubilize insoluble or sparingly soluble minerals. This activity may explain, at least partially, the ability of T-22 to increase plant growth. Solubilization of metal oxides by Trichoderma involves both chelation and reduction. Both of these mechanisms also play a role in biocontrol of plant pathogens, and they may be part of a multiple-component action exerted by T-22 to achieve effective biocontrol

  16. Correlations among hydrocarbon microseepage, soil chemistry, and uptake of micronutrients by plants, Bell Creek oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeming, S.S.; Donovan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Chelate-extractable iron and manganese concentrations in soils over and around the Bell Creek oil field suggest that compared to low average background values, there are moderate amounts of these elements directly over the production area and higher concentrations distributed in an aureole pattern around the periphery of the field. Adsorbed and organically bound iron and manganese appear to be readily taken up by plants resulting in anomalously high levels of these elements in leaves and needles over the oil field and suggesting correlation with corresponding low concentrations in soils. Iron and manganese appear to have bypassed the soil formation process where, under normal oxidizing conditions, they would have ultimately precipitated as insoluble oxides and hydroxides. ?? 1985.

  17. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  18. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  19. Perspectives on parenteral micronutrient shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtallo, Jay M

    2015-02-01

    Micronutrients are essential components of parenteral nutrition (PN). Problems related to deficiency and toxicity occur during routine practice, which could be related to the content of commercial sources, inadequate prescribed doses, and the high frequency of at-risk patients receiving PN. Shortages of commercial products result in increased risk of deficiency. Even though there are recommendations to conserve supplies for those at highest risk, practices that provide no micronutrients or doses less than desired are not safe. This article reviews the evidence describing patients at risk for micronutrient deficiency, the rationale for micronutrient product reformulation, and characteristics of deficiency observed during shortages of micronutrient products.

  20. Enrichment of tropical peat with micronutrients for agricultural applications: evaluation of adsorption and desorption processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Camila de A.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre H., E-mail: ahrosa@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Goveia, Danielle [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption and desorption of micronutrients in tropical peats, from the perspective of potential agricultural applications. Adsorption experiments were performed at different pH values, using solutions containing individual and multiple metal ions. Maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.0, and the order of affinity was Cu > Fe > Co > Ni > Zn = Mn. Release of the micronutrients was evaluated at different pH values, using an aqueous medium as well as soil and plants. Release of the micronutrients was most efficient at pH 6.0, and followed the order: Fe > Zn > Mn > Co = Ni > Cu. Micronutrient release to the soil was accompanied by uptake by the plant. The use of tropical peat enriched with micronutrients could contribute to improved agricultural productivity, since the release profile of the micronutrients can effectively stimulate plant growth. (author)

  1. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  2. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To achieve the nutritional goals stipulated by micronutrient recommendations, greater attention must be paid to the behavioural routes to such nutritional outcomes. Coopting stakeholders and consumers into decisions regarding micronutrient recommendations is an important step...... towards achieving a greater link between micronutrient recommendations and behaviour. This study aims to examine the rationale and processes associated with consumer and stakeholder involvement in setting micronutrient recommendations across Europe. Subjects/Methods: Using the contacts established through...... the Eurreca network of excellence (commissioned by the European Commission), the research involved in-depth desk research of key documents and communication channels linked to the process of setting micronutrient recommendations across seven countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain...

  3. Extração de substratos para obtenção da concentração de micronutrientes disponíveis para a rúcula Extracting procedures to assess micronutrients availability for arugula plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ferreira de Abreu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários desequilíbrios fisiológicos freqüentemente ocorrem em plantas cultivadas em substratos sem solo, causados pela falta ou excesso de micronutrientes, até o momento, não existe um método de rotina adequado para avaliar a disponibilidade deles para as plantas. Portanto, neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos que utilizam extratos em água (1:1,5 e o extrato de saturação, e o extrato com solução de DTPA/CaCl2 para avaliar a concentração disponível de micronutrientes disponíveis para a Eruca sativa L. (rúcula cultivada em substratos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3X4, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de tipos de substratos (casca de pinus, fibra de coco e turfa e quatro concentrações de micronutrientes. Os substratos foram saturados e incubados com as soluções nutritivas até estabilizar a condutividade elétrica. Após, o substrato de cada parcela foi dividido, sendo uma parte para determinar os níveis do B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn pelos métodos 1:1,5, extrato de saturação e DTPA/CaCl2; a outra parte foi utilizada para cultivo da rúcula por 45 dias. De maneira geral, os métodos testados foram ineficientes em avaliar a disponibilidade de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn para a rúcula. Por outro lado, houve correlação positiva entre as concentrações de B nos extratos obtidos pelos diversos métodos e a concentração de B na parte aérea da rúcula, com r>0,98**, independentemente do substrato utilizado. Todos os métodos podem ser utilizados na determinação do teor disponível de B às plantas, destacando-se o extrato de saturação com os melhores resultados.Physiological unbalances caused by micronutrient excess or deficiency are frequent in plants grown in soilless substrates and there exist no adequate routine method of analysis to assess micronutrient availability in the substrates. Therefore, the efficacy of

  4. Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator-dependent micronutrient production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Dombeck, Emily; Gerber, James; Knuth, Katherine A.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Mueller, Megan; Ziv, Guy; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pollinators contribute around 10% of the economic value of crop production globally, but the contribution of these pollinators to human nutrition is potentially much higher. Crops vary in the degree to which they benefit from pollinators, and many of the most pollinator-dependent crops are also among the richest in micronutrients essential to human health. This study examines regional differences in the pollinator dependence of crop micronutrient content and reveals overlaps between this dependency and the severity of micronutrient deficiency in people around the world. As much as 50% of the production of plant-derived sources of vitamin A requires pollination throughout much of Southeast Asia, whereas other essential micronutrients such as iron and folate have lower dependencies, scattered throughout Africa, Asia and Central America. Micronutrient deficiencies are three times as likely to occur in areas of highest pollination dependence for vitamin A and iron, suggesting that disruptions in pollination could have serious implications for the accessibility of micronutrients for public health. These regions of high nutritional vulnerability are understudied in the pollination literature, and should be priority areas for research related to ecosystem services and human well-being. PMID:25232140

  5. Helicobacterpy loriinfection and micronutrient deficiencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javed Yakoob; Wasim Jafri; Shahab Abid

    2003-01-01

    It is known that deficiencies of micronutrients due to infections increase morbidity and mortality. This phenomenon depicts itself conspicuously in developing countries.Deficiencies of iron, vitamins A, E, C, B12, etc are widely prevalent among populations living in the third world countries. Helicobacterpylori (Hpylori) infection has a high prevalence throughout the world. Deficiencies of several micronutrients due to Hpylori infection may be concomitantly present and vary from subtle sub-clinical states to severe clinical disorders. These essential trace elementsl micronutrients are involved in host defense mechanisms,maintaining epithelial cell integrity, glycoprotein synthesis,transport mechanisms, myocardial contractility, brain development, cholesterol and glucose metabolism. In this paper Hpyloriinfection in associaed with various micronutrients deficiencies is briefly reviewed.

  6. Resposta do arroz em casa de vegetação a fontes de micronutrientes de diferentes granulometria e solubilidade Response of greenhouse grown rice plant to sources of micronutrients with different granulometry and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Ferreira de Moraes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A granulometria e a solubilidade do fertilizante podem resultar em maior ou menor efeito da adubação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito de um produto comercial granulado e moído de micronutrientes, com uma mistura de igual composição feita com materiais pró-análise. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, utilizando três produtos com micronutrientes e quatro doses de cada mistura (0, 14, 28 e 56 mg dm-3, com quatro repetições. A maior produção de grãos é obtida com a aplicação do produto comercial em pó. A melhor correlação entre os materiais e teor na planta ocorre em razão do zinco.Both granulometry and solubility could affect the response of a crop to fertilizer application. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of a commercial source of micronutrients, in granular and powder form, with a mixture of pro analyse products. A completely randomized design, with three products, four replicates and four rates (0, 14, 28 and 56 mg dm-3 of soil were used. The highest grain yield was due to the commercial product in powder form. Positive correlation was found between plant Zn and its content in the products.

  7. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and

  8. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and ma

  9. MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF BREAST MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that in exclusively breast - fed infants , breast milk is the sole source of the nutrition for the first few months of life , it is important to have accurate data on its composition. Various studies have been done on factors affecting the concentration of microelements in breast milk. Through this article we tried to address the iron , zinc , copper content of breast milk wh ich is most essential micronutrients for growth of infant. A wide range of values for iron in the breast milk (0.1 – 1.6 mg/l , Zn and Cu were 625 (475 - 889 microgram/l and 239 (200 - 296 microgram/l respectively have been reported in the literature in all s tages of lactation. Concentration of micronutrients is high in colostrum and decreases during the lactation period. Maternal serum levels of microelements have no correlation with those in breast milk. Various studies have shown mineral , multivitamin , supp lementation or maternal diet does not affect breast milk micronutrient concentration. Mother’s age , parity , anthropometry , smoking habits , socioeconomic status , residing area(rural/urban , environment , use of oral contraceptive do not have an influence on the micronutrient content of the mother’s milk .

  10. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient solution under the missing element technique. The omission of the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn affect negatively the height, diameter, and dry matter yield of the Australian Red Cedar plants. The micronutrient which affected the relative growth of the plants the most was B. Australian Red Cedar plants deficient in micronutrients present several visual symptoms characteristic of the metabolism disorders. The perception of the deficiencies through the visual diagnosis can be useful in the nutrient management of the culture of the Australian Red Cedar.

  11. Essential and Nonessential Micronutrients and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M.; Serra, Monica C.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of micronutrients in sport. Attention is given to the function of micronutrients in the body, examples of quality dietary sources of each micronutrient, and an assessment of the literature examining how the recommended daily intake of a micronutrient may or may not change with exercise. The discussion includes plausible biological mechanisms of proposed performance enhancement and current research to support or negate these claims. Water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals, and select microminerals are discussed in detail, and a comprehensive table reviewing all micronutrients recommendations for the athlete is provided. Practical applications for professionals working with athletes conclude the chapter.

  12. Chronic heart failure and micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K K; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G

    2001-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with weight loss, and cachexia is a well-recognized complication. Patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and lose muscle bulk early in the course of the disease. Basal metabolic rate is increased in HF, but general malnutrition may play a part in the development of cachexia, particularly in an elderly population. There is evidence for a possible role for micronutrient deficiency in HF. Selective deficiency of selenium, calcium and thiamine can directly lead to the HF syndrome. Other nutrients, particularly vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, are antioxidants and may have a protective effect on the vasculature. Vitamins B6, B12 and folate all tend to reduce levels of homocysteine, which is associated with increased oxidative stress. Carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and creatine supplementation have resulted in improved exercise capacity in patients with HF in some studies. In this article, we review the relation between micronutrients and HF. Chronic HF is characterized by high mortality and morbidity, and research effort has centered on pharmacological management, with the successful introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-adrenergic antagonists into routine practice. There is sufficient evidence to support a large-scale trial of dietary micronutrient supplementation in HF.

  13. Antioxidant nutrition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar parr and post-smolt, fed diets with high inclusion of plant ingredients and graded levels of micronutrients and selected amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Hamre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP, containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se, and effects on tissue redox status. The feed ingredients appeared to contain sufficient levels of vitamin E and Se to cover the requirements to prevent clinical deficiency symptoms. The body levels of α-tocopherol (TOH in parr and that of Se in parr and post-smolt showed a linear relationship with dietary concentration, while α-TOH in post-smolt seemed to be saturable with a breakpoint near 140 mg kg−1. Ascorbic acid (Asc concentration in the basal feed was below the expected minimum requirement, but the experimental period was probably too short for the fish to develop visible deficiency symptoms. Asc was saturable in both parr and post-smolt whole body at dietary concentrations of 190 and 63–89 mg kg−1, respectively. Maximum whole body Asc concentration was approximately 40 mg kg−1 in parr and 14 mg kg−1 in post-smolt. Retention ranged from 41 to 10% in parr and from −206 to 12% in post-smolt with increasing NP supplementation. This indicates that the post-smolts had an extraordinarily high consumption of Asc. Analyses of glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulphide (GSSG concentrations and the calculated GSH based redox potentials in liver and muscle tissue, indicated only minor effects of diets on redox regulation. However, the post-smolt were more oxidized than the parr. This was supported by the high consumption of Asc and high expression of gpx1 and gpx3 in liver. Based on the present trials

  14. EFFECT OF POLYMER SEED COATING WITH MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOYBEANS IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Wiatrak

    2013-01-01

    Polymer seed coating with micronutrients may affect soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) growth and yields under dryland conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two seed application rates (265 and 395 mL 100 kg seeds-1) of polymer based mixture of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) micronutrients on dryland soybeans near Blackville, SC from 2011 to 2012. Soybeans were evaluated for plant Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), pla...

  15. The Micronutrient Genomics Project: A community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; El-Sohemy, A.; Hesketh, J.; Kaput, J.; Fenech, M.; Evelo, C.T.; McArdle, H.J.; Bouwman, J.; Lietz, G.; Mathers, J.C.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Kranen, H. van; Elliott, R.; Wopereis, S.; Ferguson, L.R.; Méplan, C.; Perozzi, G.; Allen, L.; Rivero, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it

  16. The Micronutrient Genomics Project: A community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; El-Sohemy, A.; Hesketh, J.; Kaput, J.; Fenech, M.; Evelo, C.T.; McArdle, H.J.; Bouwman, J.; Lietz, G.; Mathers, J.C.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Kranen, H. van; Elliott, R.; Wopereis, S.; Ferguson, L.R.; Méplan, C.; Perozzi, G.; Allen, L.; Rivero, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it

  17. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  18. Sweet pepper seed responses to inoculation with microorganisms and coating with micronutrients, aminoacids and plant growth regulators Tratamento de sementes de pimentão com microrganismos, micronutrientes, aminoácidos e reguladores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Almeida Diniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized seeds, such as the horticultural species, have limited quantities of reserves that can be balanced by coating then with essential nutrients for their initial development. In addition, inoculation of the seeds with microorganisms may protect the plants against phytopathogens, thus enhancing their growth. The present work had the objective of evaluate the physiological quality and seedling development of sweet pepper seeds and seedlings coated with several kind of films. Seeds were first coated with polymers and then with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma polysporhum, Trichoderma stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, mycorrhizas, aminoacids, micronutrients and plant growth regulators. Evaluation was performed for percentage of germination and for seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, number of plants, dry mass of the aerial and root parts and height of the seedlings. Inoculation with Trichoderma viride increased the percentage and rate of the seedlings emergence Inoculation with Trichoderma viride, Metarhizium anisopliae and mycorrhizas promote better seedling development; seed microbiolization with microorganisms Trichoderma viride, T. polysporhum, T. stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae. Mycorrhizas mixture negatively affected seeds and seedling quality. Seed covering with plant growht regulator, at a 5 mL kg-1 dose increased the roots dry matter.Em sementes pequenas, como as de espécies hortícolas, as limitadas quantidades de reservas podem ser equilibradas por meio do seu recobrimento com nutrientes essenciais para o seu desenvolvimento inicial. Além disso, a inoculação dessas sementes com microrganismos, além de proteger as plantas contra fitopatógenos, pode promover o seu crescimento. Assim, objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tipos de revestimentos na qualidade de sementes e mudas de pimentão (Capsicum annum. Para tanto, as

  19. Macro and micronutrients deficiency symptoms of hybrid corn plants BRS 1010 = Sintomas de deficiência de macro e micronutrientes de plantas de milho híbrido BRS 1010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna Maria Macedo Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional deficiencies on corn culture contribute significantly to the fall in productivity and, consequently, of the farmer gain. It is important to identify the nutritional deficiencies at the beginning of the plant cycle so that providences can be taken in at time to save the harvest. Thus, this objective of this study was to identify the deficiency symptoms of the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, boron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, and copper in hybrid corn BRS 1010. The experimental design was entirely randomized with thirteen treatments and three repetitions, consisting of a total of thirty nine experimental parcels. Each parcel was represented by a Leonard vase contained two plants. The ‘complete’ treatment was represented by plants that received, through of nutrition solution, everybody the essential nutrients to growth and development. The other treatments were formed by subtraction of every one of the essential nutrients, with the others supplied normally. The deficiency symptoms of each macro and micronutrients were recorded during all periods of the experiment. The diagnosis method by subtraction showed to be very efficient to visually evaluate the symptoms of nutritional deficiency in corn. = As deficiências nutricionais na cultura do milho contribuem significativamente para a queda da produtividade e, consequentemente, do lucro do produtor. Dessa forma, é importante que pesquisas sejam conduzidas no sentido de identificá-las no início do ciclo da planta para que as devidas providências sejam tomadas a tempo de de não prejudicar a colheita. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com esse trabalho identificar a sintomatologia de deficiência dos nutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, boro, manganês, zinco, molibdênio e cobre no milho híbrido BRS 1010. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação pertencente ao Departamento de Solos e

  20. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  1. Effects of micronutrients deficiency and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chelator exudation by tomato root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shirmohammadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can affect their host plants growth through nutrient uptake enhancement. Determination of chelators (siderophores and phytosiderophores in root leachates is of importance in order to account for the effects of AMF on nutrient uptake by plants. In this study, tomato plants were inoculated with either Glomus intraradices or Glomus etunicatum or left un-inoculated as non-mycorrhizal control, in pots containing sterile and acid washed perlite. Rorison’s nutrient solution harbouring three levels of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (full strength, half strength and without micronutrients was applied to the pots during three month- growth period. Root leachates were collected and total chelator concentration was quantified by titration with DTPA. Plant roots showed lower mycorrhizal colonization in this condition. The amounts of chelators produced by roots were significantly different in AMF species. In plants inoculated with G. intraradices, the highest chelator production occurred in the absence of micronutrients and in its half strength as well, but the micronutrient levels had no significant effect on chelator production in plants inoculated with G. etunicatum. In the absence of micronutrients, chelator production was higher in G.intraradices inoculated plants compared to the G. etunicatum ones.

  2. The Queuine Micronutrient: Charting a Course from Microbe to Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fergus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients from the diet and gut microbiota are essential to human health and wellbeing. Arguably, among the most intriguing and enigmatic of these micronutrients is queuine, an elaborate 7-deazaguanine derivative made exclusively by eubacteria and salvaged by animal, plant and fungal species. In eubacteria and eukaryotes, queuine is found as the sugar nucleotide queuosine within the anticodon loop of transfer RNA isoacceptors for the amino acids tyrosine, asparagine, aspartic acid and histidine. The physiological requirement for the ancient queuine molecule and queuosine modified transfer RNA has been the subject of varied scientific interrogations for over four decades, establishing relationships to development, proliferation, metabolism, cancer, and tyrosine biosynthesis in eukaryotes and to invasion and proliferation in pathogenic bacteria, in addition to ribosomal frameshifting in viruses. These varied effects may be rationalized by an important, if ill-defined, contribution to protein translation or may manifest from other presently unidentified mechanisms. This article will examine the current understanding of queuine uptake, tRNA incorporation and salvage by eukaryotic organisms and consider some of the physiological consequence arising from deficiency in this elusive and lesser-recognized micronutrient.

  3. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative......, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country....

  4. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  5. The Importance of Antioxidant Micronutrients in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Williams, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies. PMID:21918714

  6. EURRECA—Framework for Aligning Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Grammatikaki, E.; Matthys, C.; Raats, M.M.; Contor, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no standard approach for deriving micronutrient recommendations, and large variations exist across Europe, causing confusion among consumers, food producers, and policy makers. More aligned information could influence dietary behaviors and potentially lead to a healthier populatio

  7. The Importance of Antioxidant Micronutrients in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiten D. Mistry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies.

  8. Effects of micronutrients on metal toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Peraza, M A; Ayala-Fierro, F; Barber, D S; Casarez, E; Rael, L T

    1998-01-01

    There is growing evidence that micronutrient intake has a significant effect on the toxicity and carcinogenesis caused by various chemicals. This paper examines the effect of micronutrient status on the toxicity of four nonessential metals: cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic. Unfortunately, few studies have directly examined the effect of dietary deficiency or supplementation on metal toxicity. More commonly, the effect of dietary alteration must be deduced from the results of mechanistic st...

  9. Adverse metabolic consequences of nutritional support: micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husami, T; Abumrad, N N

    1986-10-01

    The role of total parenteral nutrition in cancer patients is still a matter of controversy. Over the last decade there has been a heightened interest in the interaction of micronutrients with tumor cells. A review of the literature reveals that the question of feeding or suppressing the tumor by supplementing micronutrients remains unanswered. Prospective studies are needed to define the requirements of vitamins and trace elements in the cancer patient.

  10. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. Objectives To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women). Search methods We performed literature searches from January 2010 to 18 November 2016 for new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplements since the previous review included all trials identified from searches prior to 2010. We searched the CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), Embase, and PubMed databases. Also we checked the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers. We also checked the reference lists of all new included trials. Selection criteria We included RCTs that compared supplements that contained either single, dual, or multiple micronutrients with placebo, no treatment, or other supplements. We excluded studies that were primarily designed to investigate the role of micronutrients for the treatment of HIV-positive participants with metabolic morbidity related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, morbidity, and disease progression. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and appraised trial quality for risk of bias. Where possible, we presented results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, as hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event data, and as mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Since we were often unable to pool the outcome

  11. Transcriptomic profiling of Arabidopsis gene expression in response to varying micronutrient zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Herlânder; Azinheiro, Sarah Gaspar; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is a widespread condition in agricultural soils, causing a negative impact on crop quality and yield. Nevertheless, there is an insufficient knowledge on the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the plant response to inadequate zinc nutrition [1...

  12. Adsorption and release of micronutrients by humin extracted from peat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goveia, Danielle; Melo, Camila de A.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Rocha, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre Henrique, E-mail: ahrosa@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental; Dias Filho, Newton Luiz [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this work was to investigate the adsorption of micronutrients in humin and to verify the ability to release these elements in water. The first step was to determine the adsorption capacity of humin for several essential plant micronutrients and check the kinetic parameters. The order of adsorption was Zn < Ni < Co < Mn < Mo < Cu < Fe, whereas Zn showed maximum values of ca. 2.5 mg g-1 and Fe values of ca. 0.5 mg g-1 for systems containing 1 g of humin. Iron presented higher percentages of release (ca. 100%) and Co the lowest percentages (0.14%). The findings suggested that the use of humin enriched with micronutrients can be a promising alternative for the fertilization of agricultural soils, with the additional benefit of incorporating organic matter present in the form of humic substances into the soil and improving the agricultural productivity. (author)

  13. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  14. EURRECA—Evidence-Based Methodology for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Bouwman, J.; Brown, K.A.; Cavelaars, A.E.J.M.; Collings, R.; Grammatikaki, E.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Gurinovic, M.; Harvey, L.J.; Hermoso, M.; Hurst, R.; Kremer, S.H.A.; Ngo, J.; Novakovic, R.; Raats, M.M.; Rollin, F.; Serra-Majem, L.; Souverein, O.W.; Timotijevic, L.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence explored the process of setting micronutrient recommendations to address the variance in recommendations across Europe. Work centered upon the transparent assessment of nutritional requirements via a series of systema

  15. EURRECA—Principles and Future for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.; Contor, L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.; Groot, L.C.P.Q.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.; Gurinovic, M.; Koletzko, B.; Ommen, B. van; Raats, M.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for settingmicronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference Va

  16. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients...... and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p ...

  17. Micronutrient Fortification of Food: Issues for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    More than 2 billion individuals globally suffer some degree of deficiency of one or more micronutrients, with the largest numbers in Africa and Asia. Fortification of foods with vitamins and minerals is a proven public health intervention. In Asia, salt iodization, fortified flour and condiments such as fish sauce and soy sauce are reaching hundreds of millions. However, many individuals still do not have adequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, and better fortification strategies and practices will help to alleviate these deficiencies. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has supported research and scientific dialog about technical and health issues related to micronutrients. Recent studies have indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency among children in SE Asia, and in India. A new trial shows the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk in addressing deficiencies, which may have applicability in school feeding programs in India and other parts of Asia. Infant nutrition is also critical, and complementary foods can play an important role after exclusive breastfeeding in providing critical nutrients. A formulation developed in China, Ying Yang Bao, has shown significant reduction of anemia and improved growth in infants. Fortification in Asia has the potential to greatly reduce micronutrient deficiencies and improve health, but more structured efforts are needed to achieve these goals.

  18. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  19. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group.

  20. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  1. Examining the fixation kinetics of chelated and non-chelated copper micronutrient and the applications to micronutrient management in semi-arid alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, T. K.; Eichmann, M. B.; Menkiti, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between the deficiency of a nutrient in plants and its total concentration in the soil is complex. This study examined and compared the fixation and fixation kinetics of copper (Cu) in chelated (Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, EDTA) and non-chelated mixed systems of micronutrients in the semi-arid soils of the Southern High Plains, US using findings from Cu extraction studies and kinetic models. Approximately, 22 % more Cu was fixed in the non-chelated system within the first 14 days with only 7 % difference between the two systems by day 90. Findings suggest a decrease in the effectiveness of chelated micronutrient over time, highlighting the significance of timing even when chelated micronutrients are applied. The strengths of the relationship of change in available Cu with respect to other micronutrients [iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn)] were higher in the non-chelated system (R2: 0.68-0.94), compared to the chelated (R2: 0.42-0.81) with slopes of 0.40 (Cu-Fe), 0.31 (Cu-Mn), and 1.04 (Cu-Zn) in the non-chelated system and 0.26 (Cu-Fe), 0.22 (Cu-Mn), and 0.90 (Cu-Zn) in the chelated. Reduction in the amount of available Cu was best described by the power function model (R2 = 0.91, SE = 0.081) in the non-chelated system and second order model (R2 = 0.95, SE = 0.010) in the chelated system. The applications generated from this study could be used as tools for improved micronutrient management and also provide baseline data for future work in other semi-arid/arid alkaline soils of the world. Findings are also more applicable to field settings, an improvement over related previous studies.

  2. The Influence of salinity and nitrogen on tomato fruit quality and micronutrients concentration in hydroponic culture

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    S. Safarzadeh Shirazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays an important role in the reduction of tomato growth, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Nitrogen (N may increase tomato tolerance to salt stress by increasing plant growth. In order to investigate the interaction effect of salinity and nitrogen on tomato growth, fruit quality, and micronutrient concentration in tomato plants, a hydroponic experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included 3 salinity levels (0, 30 and 60 mM, and 3 nitrogen rates (0, 1.5, and 3 mM. Results indicated that salinity decreased tomato height, shoot and fruit fresh weight, and increased citric acid in tomato fruit and consequently caused blossom-end rot in tomato fruit. However, salinity improved fruit quality (flavor. The use of N increased plant height, shoot, and fruit fresh weight compared to control. By application of N to saline nutrient solution, plant height increased. Salinity increased concentration of iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and copper (Cu in roots, as`well as Fe and Cu in fruit. Increasing N rates in nutrient solution increased micronutrients concentration in tomato roots. Interaction of 60 mM salinity and N decreased micronutrients concentration in root, compared to control. Our tentative conclusion shows that the addition of N to the nutrient solution may decrease detrimental effect of salinity on the growth of tomato plants.

  3. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Brown, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants...... in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting: Questionnaire-based data were collected across thirty-five European countries. The FA fortification case study was conducted in the UK, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Czech...... of expertise and the terms of reference for the SAC are determined by the government. Where there is no dedicated SAC, the impetus for the development of micronutrient recommendations and the associated policies comes from interested specialists in the area. This is typically linked with an ad hoc selection...

  4. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Brown, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants...... Republic and Hungary. Results: Varied bodies are responsible for setting micronutrient recommendations, each with different statutory and legal models of operation. Transparency is highest where there are standing scientific advisory committees (SAC). Where the standing SAC is created, the range...... of a problem area to consider, lack of openness and transparency in the decisions and over-reliance on international recommendations. Conclusions: Even when there is consensus about the science behind micronutrient recommendations, there is a range of other influences that will affect decisions about...

  5. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy. PMID:22291722

  6. Micronutrient deficiencies in maternity and child health: a review of environmental and social context and implications for Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Natalie; Macpherson, Gordon; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Atkinson, John

    2009-04-01

    It is well documented that micronutrient malnutrition is of increasing concern in the developing world, resulting in poor health and high rates of mortality and morbidity. During pregnancy, deficiency of iron and zinc can produce cognitive and growth impairment of the foetus, which may continue into infancy. Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for both plant growth and human nutrition. Despite significant work in the areas of soil fertility, crop biofortification and dietary interventions, the problems of micronutrient deficiencies persist in Africa. There is a need to examine why communities have not embraced intervention strategies which may offer health benefits. Bottom-up, interdisciplinary approaches are required to effectively study the relationships between local communities and their environment, and to assess the impact their behaviour has on the cycling of micronutrients within the soil-plant-human system. From a detailed consideration of diverse influencing factors, a methodological model is suggested for studying the barriers to improving micronutrient uptake within rural communities. It combines environmental understanding with health and social factors, emphasising the need for and potential benefits of understanding and coherence in true interdisciplinary working.

  7. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans

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    Calton Jayson B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown micronutrient deficiency to be scientifically linked to a higher risk of overweight/obesity and other dangerous and debilitating diseases. With more than two-thirds of the U.S. population overweight or obese, and research showing that one-third are on a diet at any given time, a need existed to determine whether current popular diet plans could protect followers from micronutrient deficiency by providing the minimum levels of 27 micronutrients, as determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDA Reference Daily Intake (RDI guidelines. Methods Suggested daily menus from four popular diet plans (Atkins for Life diet, The South Beach Diet, the DASH diet, the DASH diet were evaluated. Calorie and micronutrient content of each ingredient, in each meal, were determined by using food composition data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. The results were evaluated for sufficiency and total calories and deficient micronutrients were identified. The diet plans that did not meet 100% sufficiency by RDI guidelines for each of the 27 micronutrients were re-analyzed; (1 to identify a micronutrient sufficient calorie intake for all 27 micronutrients, and (2 to identify a second micronutrient sufficient calorie intake when consistently low or nonexistent micronutrients were removed from the sufficiency requirement. Results Analysis determined that each of the four popular diet plans failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all 27 micronutrients analyzed. The four diet plans, on average, were found to be RDI sufficient in (11.75 ± 2.02; mean ± SEM of the analyzed 27 micronutrients and contain (1748.25 ± 209.57 kcal. Further analysis of the four diets found that an average calorie intake of (27,575 ± 4660.72 would be required to achieve sufficiency in all 27 micronutrients. Six micronutrients (vitamin B7, vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine and molybdenum were

  8. Liberação de micronutrientes de uma escória aplicada em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo cultivado com mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. Micronutrients released from one basic slag applied a ultisol cultivated with guava plants (Psidium guajava L.

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    RENATO DE MELLO PRADO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Os micronutrientes são importantes na nutrição das plantas, especialmente em solos tropicais com baixa concentração devido ao intemperismo. Como fonte alternativa de micronutrientes, tem-se a escória, resíduo da indústria de produção de ferro-gusa e aço. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a escória como fonte de micronutrientes para mudas de goiabeira. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. As doses de escória foram aplicadas objetivando elevar em meia, uma vez, uma vez e meia, duas vezes e duas vezes e meia a saturação por bases do solo igual a 70%, correspondendo a 1,68; 3,36; 5,04; 6,72 e 8,40 g por vaso, além da testemunha sem aplicação. Após 90 dias de incubação da escória com o Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivaram-se mudas de goiabeira (cv. Paluma por 110 dias em vasos com 2,8 dm-3 de substrato, em viveiro telado, em Taquaritinga-SP, no período de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. A escória promoveu um efeito favorável na reação do solo e na disponibilidades de Zn, Cu, Mn e B do solo. Houve efeitos quadráticos nas concentrações de Zn, Cu e Mn do solo, que, por sua vez, estiveram associadas às doses de escória superiores a 5,8; 6,3 e 7,5 g por vaso, respectivamente, enquanto, para o B, esse efeito foi linear. A saturação por bases do solo, entre 51 e 55%, resultou em maior disponibilidade dos micronutrientes Zn, Cu e Mn no solo, ao passo que, para o B, esse valor foi de 65%. Da mesma forma que ocorreu no solo, a aplicação da escória apresentou efeitos quadráticos nos teores de Zn, Cu e Mn da parte aérea e das raízes das mudas de goiabeira, enquanto, para o B, esse efeito foi linear. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a escória se comportou como material corretivo da acidez e como fonte de micronutrientes.The micronutrients are important in the nutrition of the plants, especially in tropical ground with low concentration of these nutrients. As alternative source of

  9. Revalorization of a two-phase olive mill waste extract into a micronutrient fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Hernández, Diana; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-01-27

    Micronutrient deficiencies in plants may be treated using metal complexes. A modified two-phase olive mill waste (OMWm) was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. A study was also made of micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) complexation and the stability of complexes. An evaluation was then made of the effectiveness of Fe(III)OMWm to supply Fe to soybean (Glycine max. cv Stine 0480) chlorotic plants through nutrient solution and foliar application. The OMWm presented structural similarities with the fulvic fraction of raw OMW containing abundant phenolic-hydroxyl and carboxyl groups able to form complexes. The OMWm could complex Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, although the stabilities of the complexes under agronomic conditions were low. In dealing with Fe chlorosis, Fe(III)-OMWm improved the Fe nutritional status of soybean chlorotic plants when applied to the nutrient solution, while only regreening of leaves was observed in foliar applications. Hence, OMWm complexes constitute a promising eco-compatible and cheap alternative to synthetic chelates in dealing with micronutrient deficiencies when applied foliarly or to the nutrient solution, although further research is necessary to improve the stability and effectiveness of the complexes.

  10. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and initial development of physic nut without micronutrient fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Ferreira dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in Brazil have addressed the need for micronutrients of physic nut focusing on physiological responses, especially in terms of photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of omission of boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn on Jatropha curcas L.. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments were complete solution (control and solution without B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. We evaluated the chlorophyll content (SPAD units, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and accumulation of micronutrients in plants, resulting from different treatments. The first signs of deficiency were observed for Fe and B, followed by Mn and Zn, while no symptoms were observed for Cu deficiency. The micronutrient omission reduced the dry matter yield, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the plants differently for each omitted nutrient. It was, however, the omission of Fe that most affected the development of this species in all parameters evaluated. The treatments negatively affected the chlorophyll content, evaluated in SPAD units, and the photosynthetic rate, except for the omission of B. However this result was probably due to the concentration effect, since there was a significant reduction in the dry matter production of B-deficient plants.

  11. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  12. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

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    Caroline M. Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study (n = 991. We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements, along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  13. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Schulze, Kerry J; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-05-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring.

  14. Micronutrients in women's reproductive health: I. Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontic-Vucinic, Olivera; Sulovic, Nenad; Radunovic, Nebojsa

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutritional status of women before, during, and after pregnancy is an important element of reproductive health. It maintains maternal health and reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, birth defects and chronic disease in children later in postnatal life. Pregnancy creates a special metabolic demand for high-quality nutrients. With careful food selection, it is possible to obtain most of the recommended levels of nutrients. Apart from the dietary intake, nutrition is highly dependant on economic status, social and cultural environment, and personal habits of the mother. Nutritional imbalance could cause detrimental effects to the pregnant woman, influence pregnancy outcome, and impair breast milk composition. Despite the extensive research, we still do not have a complete understanding how nutritional status of the mother influences her health as well as fetal growth and development. It is well known that fetal growth and development is strongly linked with maternal supply of essential nutrients, e.g. vitamins. The exact role of the variety of micronutrients in fetal growth and development has yet to be explored in detail. It is estimated that up to 30% of pregnant women suffer from a vitamin deficiency. Without supplementation, about 75% would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Moreover, multivitamin deficit combinations often co-exist, and subclinical depletations are probably common; consequences could be severe. Studies carried on in developing countries have shown that improving micronutrient intake in deficient women can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Also, proper maternal intake of important micronutrients directly enhances the quality of breast milk. To meet the increasing demands during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period women should not be dependent only upon the dietary intake: adequate reserve is essential for the successful pregnancy outcome.

  15. Micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L; Beulens, Joline W J; Flanagan, Declan W; Adler, Amanda I

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, may interfere with pathologic mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and potentially alter its risk. We conducted a search of epidemiologic literature in PubMed and Embase from 1988 to May 2008, using keywords for exposures, including magnesium, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and antioxidants, and outcomes, including diabetic retinopathy. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The overall quality of evidence was graded as I (highest), II, or III (lowest). Of the 766 studies identified, we reviewed 15 studies, comprising 4094 individuals. For vitamin C, hospital-based studies reported an inverse association between plasma levels with retinopathy, whereas population-based studies showed no association between dietary intake and retinopathy. For vitamin E, there was no association with dietary intake or plasma levels and retinopathy. For magnesium, a single prospective analysis showed an association between low levels in plasma and progression of retinopathy, but cross-sectional studies reported inconsistent results. In the assessment of quality, population-based studies had higher ratings than hospital-based studies. The evidence suggests that dietary intake or plasma levels of vitamins C and E and magnesium do not seem to be associated with diabetic retinopathy. Because of differences in study designs and measurement of micronutrients, incomplete ascertainment of retinopathy, and residual confounding, these findings require confirmation. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  16. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are widespread, most likely due to excessive consumption of energy-rich, micronutrient-poor, refined food. Inadequate intakes may result in chronic metabolic disruption, including mitochondrial decay. Deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks, in cultured human cells or in vivo. Some of these deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late onset diseases such as cancer. I propose DNA damage and late onset disease are consequences of a triage allocation response to micronutrient scarcity. Episodic shortages of micronutrients were common during evolution. Natural selection favors short-term survival at the expense of long-term health. I hypothesize that short-term survival was achieved by allocating scarce micronutrients by triage, in part through an adjustment of the binding affinity of proteins for required micronutrients. If this hypothesis is correct, micronutrient deficiencies that trigger the triage response would accelerate cancer, aging, and neural decay but would leave critical metabolic functions, such as ATP production, intact. Evidence that micronutrient malnutrition increases late onset diseases, such as cancer, is discussed. A multivitamin-mineral supplement is one low-cost way to ensure intake of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients throughout life. PMID:17101959

  17. Natural genetic variation of seed micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana grown in zinc-deficient and zinc-amended soil

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    Xiaochao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn and iron (Fe seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn, in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3, located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions.

  18. Natural Genetic Variation of Seed Micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Amended Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochao; Yuan, Lixing; Ludewig, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn), in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3), located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe, and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions. PMID:27507976

  19. The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; West, Keith P; Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are essential to sustain life and for optimal physiological function. Widespread global micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) exist, with pregnant women and their children under 5 years at the highest risk. Iron, iodine, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies are the most widespread MNDs, and all these MNDs are common contributors to poor growth, intellectual impairments, perinatal complications, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is the most common MND worldwide and leads to microcytic anemia, decreased capacity for work, as well as impaired immune and endocrine function. Iodine deficiency disorder is also widespread and results in goiter, mental retardation, or reduced cognitive function. Adequate zinc is necessary for optimal immune function, and deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections, major causes of death in those diversification. It is widely accepted that intervention in the first 1,000 days is critical to break the cycle of malnutrition; however, a coordinated, sustainable commitment to scaling up nutrition at the global level is still needed. Understanding the epidemiology of MNDs is critical to understand what intervention strategies will work best under different conditions.

  20. Antioxidant Micronutrients: Therapeutic Counter Measures for Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-2-0007 1 Mar 2010 - 28 Feb 2011Annual01-03-2011 Antioxidant Micronutrients : Therapeutic Counter Measures for Chemical...Agents Kedar Prasad, Ph.D. Premier Micronutrient Corporation Novato, CA 94949 The results of the first phase of HD study suggested that exposure to

  1. HEAVY METALS AND MICRONUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL AND GRAPEVINE UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils under natural conditions have heavy metals in variable concentrations and there may be an increase in these elements as a result of the agricultural practices adopted. Transport of heavy metals in soil mainly occurs in forms dissolved in the soil solution or associated with solid particles, water being their main means of transport. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metal and micronutrient content in the soil and in the grapevine plant and fruit under different irrigation strategies. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three irrigation strategies: full irrigation (FI, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, and deficit irrigation (DI. During the period of grape maturation, soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-80 cm. In addition, leaves were collected at the time of ripening of the bunches, and berries were collected at harvest. Thus, the heavy metal and micronutrient contents were determined in the soil, leaves, and berries. The heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the soil showed a stochastic pattern in relation to the different irrigation strategies. The different irrigation strategies did not affect the heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the vine leaves, and they were below the contents considered toxic to the plant. In contrast, the greater availability of water in the FI treatment favored a greater Cu content in the grape, which may be a risk to vines, causing instability and turbidity. Thus, adoption of deficit irrigation is recommended so as to avoid compromising the stability of tropical wines of the Brazilian Northeast.

  2. The effects of selenium and other micronutrients on the antioxidant activities and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Nour Ali; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Madani, Hamid; Naderi, Ahmad; Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    The effects of selenium (Se) on plant growth under drought stress and in the presence of micronutrients are yet to be investigated. Hence, in a field experiment in 2007 the effects of Se and micronutrients including iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), boron (B) and molybdenum (Mo) were evaluated on corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield under drought stress. Main- and sub-plots were devoted to irrigation (control and water stressed at the eight-leaf, blister and grain filling stages) and micronutrients treatments, respectively. Micronutrients were foliarly applied at 2 l ha(-1) at the six-leaf stage, one week before tasseling, using a corn fertilizer, called biomin containing (on the basis of dry weight percentage) Fe (2.6), Zn (4.1), Cu (1.5), Mn (2.6), B (1.5), Mo (0.5) and Mg (4.1). Se was used as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), at the rate of 20 g ha(-1) two weeks before treating the plants with drought stress. Effects of drought stress on plant growth were determined based on the activity or level of antioxidants. With increasing the stress level, addition of Se or micronutrients significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity and level as well as corn grain yield. The interaction effects between Se and micronutrients adversely affected antioxidant activity as well as corn grain yield. Se addition at the grain filling stage resulted in the highest grain yield under drought stress. The single but not the combined use of Se or micronutrients can alleviate the unfavorable effects of drought stress on corn yield by affecting plant metabolism including antioxidant activity.

  3. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  4. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  5. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  6. Combating micronutrient deficiency disorders amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients (MN are the nutrients that are needed by the body in small quantities which play leading roles in the production of enzymes, hormones and other substances that help to regulate growth activity, development and functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Children, adolescent boys & girls and expectant mothers form a vulnerable group in developing countries where economic stress and food security are issues of concern. MNs deficiencies, which have been considered as major risk factors in child survival are the leading cause of mental retardation, preventable blindness, morbidity, birth defects, morbidity and mortality. Micronutrient malnutrition has many adverse effects on human health, not all of which are clinically evident. Even moderate levels of deficiency (which can be detected by biochemical or clinical measurements can have serious detrimental effects on human function. Thus, in addition to the obvious and direct health effects, the existence of MN deficiency has profound implications for economic development and productivity, particularly in terms of the potentially huge public health costs and the loss of human capital formation.According to WHO mortality data, around 0.8 million deaths (1.5% of the total can be attributed to iron deficiency each year, and a similar number to vitamin A deficiency. In terms of the loss of healthy life, expressed in  disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, iron-deficiency anaemia results in  25 million DALYs lost (or 2.4% of the global total, vitamin A deficiency  in 18 million DALYs lost (or 1.8% of the global total and iodine deficiency  in 2.5 million DALYs lost (or 0.2% of the global total [1].A child belonging to low socio-economic families residing in poor environmental and sanitation settings consume low quantity of foods which deficient not only in 2-3 MNs Deficiencies but also in macronutrients. These children also suffer from recurrent episodes of morbidities which

  7. Lipophilic Micronutrients and Adipose Tissue Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Tourniaire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic micronutrients (LM constitute a large family of molecules including several vitamins (A, D, E, K and carotenoids. Their ability to regulate gene expression is becoming increasingly clear and constitutes an important part of nutrigenomics. Interestingly, adipose tissue is not only a main storage site for these molecules within the body, but it is also subjected to the regulatory effects of LM. Indeed, several gene regulations have been described in adipose tissue that could strongly impact its biology with respect to the modulation of adipogenesis, inflammatory status, or energy homeostasis and metabolism, among others. The repercussions in terms of health effects of such regulations in the context of obesity and associated pathologies represent an exciting and emerging field of research. The present review will focus on the regulatory effects of vitamin A, D, E and K as well as carotenoids on adipose tissue biology and physiology, notably in the context of obesity and associated disorders.

  8. Micronutrient Antioxidants and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanliang; Ni, Yinhua; Nagata, Naoto; Xu, Liang; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2016-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin.

  9. Micronutrient deficiency and treatment adherence in a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in ART-naive persons with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Balfour

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The MAINTAIN study is an on-going RCT comparing high-dose micronutrient and anti-oxidant supplementation versus recommended daily allowance (RDA vitamins in slowing HIV immune deficiency progression in ART-naïve people with HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: We planned analysis of the first 127 participants to determine the baseline prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies and correlates, as well as tolerance and adherence to study interventions. METHODS: Participants receive eight capsules twice daily of 1 high-dose or 2 RDA supplements for two years and are followed-up quarterly for measures of immune deficiency progression, safety and tolerability. Regression analysis was used to identify correlates of micronutrient levels at baseline. Adherence was measured by residual pill count, self-report using the General Treatment Scale (GTS and short-term recall HIV Adherence Treatment Scale (HATS. RESULTS: Prior micronutrient supplementation (within 30 days was 27% at screening and 10% of study population, and was not correlated with baseline micronutrient levels. Low levels were frequent for carotene (24%80% in 75% of participants. CONCLUSION: Micronutrient levels in asymptomatic HIV+ persons are in keeping with population norms, but micronutrient deficiencies are frequent. Adherence levels are high, and will permit a valid evaluation of treatment effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00798772.

  10. Depth distribution of available micronutrients in cultivated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Ivana Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the profile distribution of available micronutrients Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn and radionuclide 137Cs in cultivated soil at the experimental field "Radmilovac" (property of Agricultural Faculty, Belgrade University in the vicinity of Vinĉa Institute of Nuclear Sciences. The soil belongs to the anthrosol class of anthropogenic soils according to FAO (2006. At first, the deep plowing was performed while preparing soil for planting peach trees followed by cultivation of soil for 12 years. All agricultural treatments at the experimental field ceased for three years. After that period, soil sampling was carried out. Contents of DTPA-extracted Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were in the range of (mg kg-1: 5.8-41.6; 9.2-34.2; 1-7.6 and 0.2-1.3, respectively. Detected activity concentration (Bq kg-1 for 137Cs ranged from 1.8 to 35. It was noticed that distribution patterns of 137Cs radionuclide and available Cu and Zn along soil depth were very similar and they were analyzed by simple linear regression; mutual affinity for the soil organic matter might affect their distribution in soil. Contents of available Fe and Mn exhibited different, more constant distribution within a soil horizon.

  11. Determining Factors of Lipophilic Micronutrient Bioaccessibility in Several Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwichai, Wichien; Berger, Jacques; Picq, Christian; Avallone, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are still a public health issue in least developed countries. Promoting diet diversification is a promising strategy. Numerous fruits and vegetables are rich in micronutrients, but some of these compounds are poorly bioaccessible. The objective of this study was to identify the biochemical determinants of the micronutrient bioaccessibility in leaves. The contents in cell walls, pectins, tannins, and proteins of the leafy vegetables were assessed, and correlations with the micronutrient bioaccessibitity were explored. The leafy vegetables have interesting nutritional profiles with noticeable amounts in protein, provitamin A (β-carotene), and α-tocopherol for some species. Their cell wall contents greatly varied from 3.4 to 8.7 g/100 g as well as their pectin percentages. Only the perilla and drumstick leaves contained condensed tannins. In fresh leaves, the contents in bioaccessible carotenoids were low. The correlation study highlighted that the carotenoid bioaccessibility was negatively correlated to the pectin contents of the leaves.

  12. Status of micronutrient nutrition in Zimbabwe: A review | Gadaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. More than 65% of the Zimbabwean population live in the rural areas and are food ... malnutrition including vitamin and mineral malnutrition. ... micronutrient deficiencies such as the B-group vitamins, fortification of staple foods,

  13. The role of biofortification in the reduction of micronutrient food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... micronutrient food insecurity in developing countries. Uchendu Florence .... Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Paraguay, India, South. Africa ..... Fortified Cassava. www.globalissues.org/news/2011/12/30/12339. Accessed ...

  14. the role of industry in micronutrient intervention programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global control of micronutrient deficiencies is a realistic goal, notwithstanding the ... Roche Products (Pty) Ltd, Chloorkop, Gauteng. ·Ronnie Pankhurst, BSc ... Food quality should be regulated through legislation and effectively enforced.

  15. Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-02

    Nov 2, 2010 ... Vitamin A deficiency disorders and iron-deficiency anaemia remain a public health ... are a major risk factor for micronutrient malnutrition. As a key .... Iodine. Identifying iodinated salt. Using unrefined rock salt. Whenever ...

  16. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damms-Machado Antje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32 underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC, zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient

  17. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective1234

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, β-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad f...

  18. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies

  19. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these

  20. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies, food co

  1. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    ., 1981) and increasing ion ... competitive interactions or by affecting the ion selectivity ..... contents wheat and rice varieties under salt stress. Turk. J. Agric. .... different organs of green bean genotypes grown under salt stress.

  2. Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin

    2005-06-01

    Approximately 70% of the world's malnourished children live in Asia, giving that region the highest concentration of childhood malnutrition worldwide. Prevalence of stunting and underweight are high especially in south Asia where one in every two preschool children is stunted. Iron-deficiency anemia affects 40%-50% of preschool and primary schoolchildren. Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in the world occurs in south and southeast Asia. Iodine deficiency disorders have resulted in high goiter rates in India, Pakistan, and parts of Indonesia. Compared with other developing countries in Asia, the nutrition situation in Malaysia is considerably better, owing to rapid economic and socioeconomic development that has occurred since Malaysia gained its independence in 1957. Prevalence of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency is markedly lower in Malaysian children. Nonetheless, undernutrition in the form of underweight, stunting, and anemia can be found in poor communities throughout the country. A prevalence of 25% underweight and 35% stunting is reported among young children from poor rural households. Anemia and subclinical forms of vitamin A deficiency were reported in children under 5 years old. Typical of a country in nutrition transition, Malaysia faces the dual burden of malnutrition in children, with the persistence of under-nutrition problems especially among the poor and the emerging overweight problem especially in urban areas. Since 1996, nutrition programs of the government sector are coordinated under the National Plan of Action for Nutrition. These activities and other nutrition intervention efforts by other agencies are discussed in this paper.

  3. Effect of Mannure on Distribution of Micronutrients in Rhizosphere of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKE; YANGYU-AI; 等

    1994-01-01

    A rhizolbox system was used to determine the distribution of micronutrients(Fe,Mn,Cu and Zn) across the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum).The available contents of Fe and Mn is the rhizosphere were raised by addition of manure or chemical fertilizer combined with manure,ut those of Cu and Zn were hardly affected ,which might be an important reason why manure addition could improve the Fe and Mn nutrition status of plants,Several possible mechanisms for the increase of the availbilities of Fe and Mn in the rhizosphere due to manuring are discussed as well.

  4. Determination of soil micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, B) extracted by Mehlich 3 using MP-AES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    The total concentration of micronutrients in soils is not a good predictor of its bioavailability and solubility. Therefore, during the decades several methods for the determination of plant availability and extractable fraction of micro- and macronutrients in soil were developed. Among several methods Mehlich 3 is the most appropriate due to its suitability for extracting soil micro- and macronutrients simultaneously. The AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods are widely used for the analysis of microelements today. In 2011 the third method was added to this list with the appearance of the microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MP-AES). This multielemental analytical equipment has a high potential in the soil analysis. Up to now there have been made some experiments for the use of MP-AES in soil and geological material analysis. But there is no information about the analysis of soil micronutrients extracted according to Mehlich 3 method and determined with the MP-AES. Due to the differences in atomization conditions the different emission and absorption lines are used in different instrumental methods. Therefore it is very important to choose the most suitable emission lines and the best atomization conditions. From the analytical viewpoint it is important to get coincidental results with other instrumental methods and from the agronomical point of view it is important to know the difference between AAS and ICP methods. For the experiment 51 soil samples were used. The samples were collected from A horizons of agricultural lands. The pH range was from 4.7 to 7.5 and organic matter content from 1.4 to 7.8%. The content of Mehlich 3 extractable micronutrients was determined using ICP and MP instrumental methods. The micronutrient contents ranged as follows: Fe - from 170 to 470 mg kg-1, Mn - from 5 to 190 mg kg-1, Cu - from 0.3 to 4.5 mg kg-1, B - from 0.2 to 2.1 mg kg-1. The optimal instrumental settings for iron

  5. Dietary micronutrient intake and atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdudoss, C; Elkan, A-C; Hafström, I; Jogestrand, T; Gustafsson, T; van Vollenhoven, R; Frostegård, J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary micronutrient intake in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study included 111 SLE patients and 118 age and gender-matched controls. Data on diet (food frequency questionnaires) were linked with data on Systemic Lupus Activity Measure, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and carotid atherosclerotic/echolucent plaque (B-mode ultrasound). Dietary micronutrient intake were compared between SLE patients and controls and in relation to lupus activity and atherosclerosis in SLE. Associations between micronutrient intake and plaque were analyzed through logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Micronutrient intake did not differ between patients and controls, and between lower and higher lupus activity, apart from the fact that phosphorus was associated with SLEDAI > 6. In SLE patients, some micronutrients were associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side. Lower intake of riboflavin and phosphorus was associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (odds ratio (OR) 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-8.40 and OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.53-12.39, respectively). Higher intake of selenium and thiamin was inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.89 and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.80, respectively). In addition, higher intake of thiamin was inversely associated with echolucent plaque, left side (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.84). Lower intake of folate was inversely associated with bilateral echolucent plaque (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.99). SLE patients did not have different dietary micronutrient intake compared to controls. Phosphorus was associated with lupus activity. Riboflavin, phosphorus, selenium and thiamin were inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side in SLE patients, but not in controls. Dietary micronutrients may play a role in atherosclerosis in SLE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Evaluation of micronutrient in soil treated with organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Antonio Pasqualini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of organic fertilizer for use in agriculture, may have beneficial effects for supplying organic matter and nutrients to the soil. The tested organic fertilizer is produced in a system of thermophilic composting of sewage sludge, the process by which it is mixed with chopped pruning urban, the crushed sugar cane and eucalyptus bark, and the mixture is subjected to aeration process revolving mechanical and oxidation promoted by an intense activity of microorganisms. The same is also additived with gypsum (Ca2SO4 in order to reduce the losses of ammonia from the process, helping to prevent odors and also attraction of vectors, besides enriching the material with calcium and sulfur, two macronutrients in plants. On the other hand the application of such compounds should be carefully monitored in order to prevent environmental risks from its use. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of rates of organic fertilizer (OF, in the Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, in a Typic Acrudox soil, pHCaCl2= 4.9, cultivated with Aries grass (Panicum maximum, Jacq., without liming and focused in soil micronutrients contents. Treatments involved four rates of OF application: 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 t ha-1, mixed with soil before sowing the grass. The experimental design was a randomized blocks, with five replications, in pots (3.34 dm3. Soil samples were collected prior to the experiment (original soil and after cultivation of the Aries grass. Were air dried and passed through sieves with mesh size of 2 mm and analyzed chemically. The micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe and Zn – mg dm-3 were determined by atomic absorption, after extraction with a solution of DTPA, pH 7.3 (RAIJ et al., 2001. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative treatments were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative treatment were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits

  7. Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  8. Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Darnton-Hill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures

  9. Micronutrients in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C

    2015-03-10

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world's pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  10. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  11. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  12. Role of public-private partnership in micronutrient food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannar, M G Venkatesh; van Ameringen, Marc

    2003-12-01

    Iron, iodine, and vitamin A deficiencies prevent 30% of the world's population from reaching full physical and mental potential. Fortification of commonly eaten foods with micronutrients offers a cost-effective solution that can reach large populations. Effective and sustainable fortification will be possible only if the public sector (which has the mandate and responsibility to improve the health of the population), the private sector (which has experience and expertise in food production and marketing), and the social sector (which has grass-roots contact with the consumer) collaborate to develop, produce, and promote micronutrient-fortified foods. Food fortification efforts must be integrated within the context of a country's public health and nutrition situation as part of an overall micronutrient strategy that utilizes other interventions as well. Identifying a set of priority actions and initiating a continuous dialogue between the various sectors to catalyze the implementation of schemes that will permanently eliminate micronutrient malnutrition are urgently needed. The partners of such a national alliance must collaborate closely on specific issues relating to the production, promotion, distribution, and consumption of fortified foods. Such collaboration could benefit all sectors: National governments could reap national health, economic, and political benefits; food companies could gain a competitive advantage in an expanding consumer marketplace; the scientific, development, and donor communities could make an impact by achieving global goals for eliminating micronutrient malnutrition; and by demanding fortified foods, consumers empower themselves to achieve their full social and economic potential.

  13. Using commercial advertising agencies in micronutrient promotion: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M P

    1998-01-01

    Lack of knowledge, beliefs about food, customs, and poverty are the main factors preventing millions of people from eating enough micronutrient-rich foods. Globally, more than 2 billion people are at risk of iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiencies. Opportunities for Micronutrient Intervention (OMNI), a 5-year project funded by the Office of Health and Nutrition, US Agency for International Development, is dedicated to preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. OMNI's general approaches to reducing micronutrient deficiencies include fortification, supplementation, and dietary diversification. For all of those approaches, the project has stressed a social marketing methodology to define and motivate feasible behavior changes which will benefit maternal and child health and nutrition. The Manoff Group, the OMNI partner most responsible for behavior change, has had many positive experiences using social marketing to address micronutrient malnutrition, breast-feeding, and child feeding in many countries. Focusing mainly upon supplementation and dietary diversification, OMNI's experience to date in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Ecuador, and Bolivia is summarized.

  14. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  15. Global burden of maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Sanin, Kazi Istiaque

    2012-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately half of the world's population. These conditions include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight, protein-energy malnutrition, chronic energy deficit of women, and micronutrient deficiencies. Although the rates of stunting or chronic protein-energy malnutrition are increasing in Africa, the absolute numbers of stunted children are much higher in Asia. The four common micronutrient deficiencies include those of iron, iodine, vitamin A, and zinc. All these conditions are responsible directly or indirectly for more than 50% of all under-5 deaths globally. According to more recent estimates, IUGR, stunting and severe wasting are responsible for one third of under-5 mortality. About 12% of deaths among under-5 children are attributed to the deficiency of the four common micronutrients. Despite tremendous progress in different disciplines and unprecedented improvement with many health indicators, persistently high undernutrition rates are a shame to the society. Human development is not possible without taking care to control undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Poverty, food insecurity, ignorance, lack of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices, heavy burden of infectious illnesses, and poor hygiene and sanitation are factors responsible for the high levels of maternal and child undernutrition in developing countries. These factors can be controlled or removed by scaling up direct nutrition interventions and eliminating the root conditions including female illiteracy, lack of livelihoods, lack of women's empowerment, and poor hygiene and sanitation.

  16. Efficacy and cost of micronutrient treatment of childhood psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Megan; Vance, Annette; Watters, Amany; Lee, Helen; Bos, Elske; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2012-01-01

    Psychosis is difficult to treat effectively with conventional pharmaceuticals, many of which have adverse long-term health consequences. In contrast, there are promising reports from several research groups of micronutrient treatment (vitamins, minerals, amino acids and essential fatty acids) of mood, anxiety and psychosis symptoms using a complex formula that appears to be safe and tolerable. We review previous studies using this formula to treat mental symptoms, and present an 11-year-old boy with a 3-year history of mental illness whose parents chose to transition him from medication to micronutrients. Symptom severity was monitored in three clusters: anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and psychosis. Complete remission of psychosis occurred, and severity of anxiety and obsessional symptoms decreased significantly (pmicronutrient treatment was micronutrient treatment is warranted. PMID:23144350

  17. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  18. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambidge, K Michael

    2010-05-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad factors that affect bioavailability. Special emphasis is given to giving greater and specific attention to factors involved in the maintenance of homeostasis. These factors, it is argued, are best considered separately from even a broad definition of bioavailability and have the potential to provide new insights into some micronutrient requirements.

  19. Micronutrients in Chilean Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients: Crosssectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Ibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD patients often present with nutritional disorders that affect both macronutrient and micronutrient levels. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are typically more frequent in Crohn's disease (CD patients than other IBD patients. However, some studies have shown that these deficiencies can also be present in ulcerative colitis (UC patients, even in those in remission. Aims To describe the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in patients diagnosed with IBD and to correlate these micronutrient deficiencies with demographic, clinical and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients in the IBD program who were 18 years and older was completed. Clinical characteristics and disease activity indexes were assessed. Body Mass Index (BMI, haematocrit, serum albumin, serum iron profile, serum 25(OH D, vitamin B12, folate, zinc and copper were measured. Results Ninety-one patients with IBD were included: 46 patients (50.5 per cent with UC and 45 patients (49.5 per cent with CD. At least one micronutrient deficiency was found in 39.5 per cent of patients, 35.1 per cent had two deficiencies, and 12 per cent had three or more deficiencies. Iron, zinc, copper, and vitamin B12 deficiencies were found in 33 per cent, 22 per cent, 11 per cent and 10 per cent of patients, respectively. No folate deficiencies were found. Low levels of serum 25(OH D were detected in 76 per cent of patients. The mean BMI was 24.3 (SD 3.4, and the mean serum albumin level was 4.0g/l (SD 0.4. Conclusion Micronutrient deficiencies were frequent in our study cohort and did not correlate with macronutrient status. Measurement of macronutrients and micronutrients should become a routine assessment in IBD patients to improve patient care and to avoid negative repercussions on disease activity

  20. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake in elderly people: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Andrellucchi, A.; Sanzech-Villegas, A.; Doreste-Alonso, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    The European micronutrient recommendations aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence seeks to establish clear guidelines for assessing the validity of reported micronutrient intakes among vulnerable population groups. A systematic literature review identified studies validating the methodology used in

  1. Evaluation of dietary diversity scores for assessment of micronutrient intake and food security in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition and food insecurity are widespread global public health problems. Micronutrient deficiencies affect one-third of the global population. Household food insecurity, often results in monotonous diets, a contributing factor to malnutrition. Consuming a varied diet comprised of

  2. Response of polar front phytoplankton and bacterial community to micronutrient amendments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Meena, R.M.; Naik, R.K.; Gomes, J.; Bandekar, M.; Bhat, M.; Mesquita, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    , to examine the responses of phytoplankton as well as bacterial community (BC) to these micronutrient amendments. Total chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration increased significantly (P<0.01) in all micronutrient-enriched microcosms (MEM), with the incubation...

  3. EURRECA: development of tools to improve the alignment of micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, C.; Bucchini, L.; Busstra, M.C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Eleftheriou, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Gurinovic, M.; Ommen, van B.; Contor, L.

    2010-01-01

    Approaches through which reference values for micronutrients are derived, as well as the reference values themselves, vary considerably across countries. Harmonisation is needed to improve nutrition policy and public health strategies. The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned, htt

  4. Micronutrient density and stability in West African pearl millet – potential for biofortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürger, Anna; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Gondah, Jadah

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is one of the most important cereals in West and Central Africa (WCA). Human populations in WCA are strongly affected by micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification, the development of pearl millet varieties with enhanced micronutrient levels...

  5. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia.

  6. Deficiency symptoms and uptake of micronutrients by castor bean grown in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lavres Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean is a nutrient-demanding species, but there is still little information on its micronutrient requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of levels of B (2.5, 12.5 and 25.0 µmol L-1, Cu (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 µmol L-1, Mn (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol L-1 and Zn (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol L-1 in a nutrient solution on plant B, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations and uptake, vegetative growth and fruit yield of castor bean "Iris", grown in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. The first deficiency symptoms were observed for B, followed by Zn, Cu and Mn. The main changes in the cell ultrastructure due to lack of B were thickening of the cell walls and middle lamellae, distorted chloroplasts and tightly stacked thylakoids, besides the absence of starch grains. The Mn, Zn and Cu deficiencies led to disruption of chloroplasts, disintegration of thylakoids and absence of amyloplasts. The concentration and uptake of B, Cu, Mn, and Zn in castor bean plants increased with micronutrient supply in the solution. Fruit yield was drastically reduced by B and Mn deficiencies. On the other hand, the dry matter yield of the shoot and root of castor bean plants was not. In the treatment with full nutrient solution, the leaves accumulated 56 and 48 % of the total B and Mn taken up by the plants, respectively, and the seeds and roots 85 and 61 % of the total Cu and Zn taken up, respectively. This shows the high demand of castor bean Iris for B and Mn for fruit yield.

  7. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European count

  8. Variability of micronutrient content in enriched dairy and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Adam, S.G.N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate measures of micronutrient levels in newly developed enriched foods are indispensable for valid labelling, for determination of ultimate levels for possible claimed health effects and for safety. To date, only a limited amount of public literature is available on the reproducibility of labor

  9. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European count

  10. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise healt

  11. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise

  12. The gastric sleeve: losing weight as fast as micronutrients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.O.; Janssen, I.M.; Berends, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become popular as a single-stage procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and its co-morbidities. However, the incidence of micronutrient deficiencies after LSG have hardly been researched. METHODS: From January 2005 to October

  13. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise healt

  14. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  15. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in peatmoss substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of a steel slag product for supplying micronutrients to container-grown floriculture crops. Geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum 'Maverick Red') and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon 'Megabite') were grown in 11.4 cm containers with a substrate ...

  16. A meta-analysis of pica and micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Diana; Young, Sera L; Golden, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Pica is the craving for and consumption of nonfood items, including the ingestion of earth (geophagy), raw starch (amylophagy), and ice (pagophagy). Pica has long been associated with micronutrient deficiencies, but the strength of this relationship is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between pica behavior and the risk of being anemic or having low hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), or plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations. We systematically reviewed studies in which micronutrient levels were reported by pica status. We calculated the pooled odds ratio for anemia or weighted mean difference in Hb, Hct, or Zn concentrations between groups practicing or not practicing pica behaviors. Forty-three studies including 6,407 individuals with pica behaviors and 10,277 controls were identified. Pica was associated with 2.35 times greater odds of anemia (95% CI: 1.94-2.85, P < 0.001), lower Hb concentration (-0.65 g/dl, 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.48 g/dl, P < 0.001), lower Hct concentration (-1.15%, 95% CI: -1.61 to -0.70%, P < 0.001), and lower Zn concentration (-34.3 μg/dl, 95% CI: -59.58 to -9.02 μg/dl, P = 0.008). Statistical significance persisted after excluding outliers and in subgroup analyses by pica type and life stage. Pica is significantly associated with increased risk for anemia and low Hb, Hct, and plasma Zn. Although the direction of the causal relationship between pica and micronutrient deficiency is unknown, the magnitude of these relationships is comparable to other well-recognized causes of micronutrient deficiencies. Pica warrants greater public health attention; specifically the potential physiological mechanisms underpinning the relationship between pica and micronutrient deficiencies merit further study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  18. The influence of micronutrients on oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present clinical pilot study was to examine the influence of a combination of micronutrients on individuals with high stress experience. Methods 40 healthy students (28 female, 12 male with a mean age of 27.1 ± 3.0 years, experiencing high examination stress, were chosen. After approval of the ethics commission, one group of students (n = 19 took a combination of micronutrients (Orthomol vital m/f for three months, whereas other students (n = 21 served as control group. All participants underwent at the beginning and at the end of the trial a dental examination, a determination of 10 periodontal pathogens, a salivary and a blood analysis. In addition, the participants filled in a questionnaire on nutrition, quality of life and degree of stress experienced during their final examinations. Results The evaluation of the results, obtained at the end of the trial period, showed that for all students a slight worsening of oral hygiene and an increased consumption of unhealthy food could be observed. The intake of the micronutrients led to a slight improvement of the degree of gingival inflammation in comparison to the control group. The blood analysis showed an increase in vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc concentrations, and a lower increase in CRP. In the male subjects, a decrease in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (p = 0.073 and LDL (p = 0.048 was observed. Conclusions This pilot study shows that micronutrients, taken during periods of high stress experience, had a beneficial effect on inflammatory processes and helped reduce the level of some of the plasma lipids in males, and thus can be recommended for supplementing the diet. However, additional studies with a higher number of subjects, also suffering from periodontal disease, are necessary to show the effect of a micronutrient supplementation more clearly.

  19. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  20. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Ickowitz

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies, food consumption patterns and appetite in infants is essential in planning micronutrient fortification intervention studies. In this thesis four studies are described, two of which studied the pr...

  2. Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyong; Zhao, Jianhua; Sun, Jianhao; Xue, Yanfang; Eagling, Tristan; Bao, Xingguo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Long

    2013-09-01

    Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is

  3. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with either zinc alone, micronutrients without zinc, micronutrients in combination with zinc, or a placebo. Main outcomes were weight gain and an improvement in a chest X-ray (CXR) lesion assessed at 6 mo of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 403 children were enrolled and randomly assigned. A microbiological...... diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in 179 children (44.4%). The median (95% CI) increase in weight-for-age z score at 6 mo was not significantly different between subjects who received micronutrients [0.75 (0.66, 0.84)] and those who did not receive micronutrients [0.76 (0.67, 0.85)] and between...

  4. 不同用量微肥对马铃薯产量及农艺性状的影响%Effects of Yield and Agronomic Traits on Potato with Different Dosage of Micronutrient Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢淑君; 魏红; 陈磊; 张晓霞

    2014-01-01

    Using different dosage gradient test of micronutrient fertilizer, the effect of micronutrient fertilizer on potato yield and agronomic traits was studied, the results showed that with the micronutrient fertilizer dosage increased, potato number of per plant, big potato number of per plant, yield of per plant, yield of 667m2 were all increased, when micronutrient fertilizer dosage of 600 g/600 m2, the above index all reached maximum; increased more micronutrient fertilizer dosage, the all parameter values were showed declined trend.%采用微肥不同用量梯度试验,研究微肥对马铃薯产量及农艺性状的影响,结果表明随着微肥用量的增加,马铃薯单株结薯数、单株大薯个数、单株大薯重量、单株产量及667m2产量均呈增加的变化趋势,当微肥用量达到600g/667m2时,上述各指标值均达到最大;再增加微肥用量,上述各指标值呈降低的变化趋势。

  5. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...

  6. MACRO AND MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY IN MATURE SEEDLINGS OF KHAYA IVORENSIS STUDIED IN NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciella Corcioli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis is a high value forest species and of great potential to replace the brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla. Currently, little is known about the nutritional requirements of African mahogany. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the growth and mineral composition K. ivorensis plants submitted to the omission of macro and micronutrients. For this, we carried out a experiment with nutrient solution with the following treatments: T1-Complete Solution; T2-omission of nitrogen; T3-omission of phosphorus; T4-omission of potassium; T5-omission of calcium; T6-omission of magnesium; T7-omission of sulfur; T8-omission of iron; T9-omission of boron; T10-omission of copper; T11-omission of manganese; T12-omission of zinc; T13-omission of molybdenum; and T14-deionized water. The evaluations were carried out based on commercial seedlings ready for planting, which remained in a greenhouse, irrigated only with deionized water. After fifteen days, the plants started to receive 200 ml of nutrient solution daily. The experimental design used was completely randomized with fourteen treatments and ten replications. The dendrological data were collected every fifteen days until they became well defined. The plants had their growth affected only by the omission of N, showing smaller contents of the element in the leaves. The omissions of the other nutrients only slightly affected the growth of plants.

  7. Micronutrient Contents of Citrus Orchard Soils in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the micronutrient contents,of major citrus orchard soils (involving seven soil great groups in 8 provinces and an autonomous region of southern China),and an evaluation on the abundance and deficiency of available micronutrients in these soils was made in this paper.In southern China,citrus orchard soils derived from sandstone,sandy shale,Quaternary red clay,diluvial deposit,granite gneiss and neritic deposit were deficient in available Mo and B and low in Zn.Those developed on purple sandy shale,limestone and slope deposit were all in short supply of available Zn,B and Mo.Coastal solonchak was fairly abundant in B,but its available Fe,Zn and Mo contents were rather low.

  8. Milk and Dairy Products : A Unique Micronutrient Combination

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and unde...

  9. Micronutrients and Leptospirosis: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Heather S.; Mehta, Saurabh; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses and represents a major threat to human health. Due to the high burden of disease, limitations in diagnostics, and limited coverage and availability of effective human and veterinary vaccines, leptospirosis remains an important neglected zoonotic disease. Improved surveillance and identification of modifiable risk factors for leptospirosis are urgently needed to inform preventive interventions and reduce the risk and severity of Leptospira infection. Methodology/Principal Findings This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links micronutrient status and Leptospira infection. A total of 56 studies were included in this review: 28 in vitro, 17 animal, and 11 observational human studies. Findings indicated that Leptospira infection is associated with higher iron and calcium concentrations and hypomagnesemia. Conclusions/Significance Few prospective studies and no randomized trials have been conducted to date to examine the potential role of micronutrients in Leptospira infection. The limited literature in this area constrains our ability to make specific recommendations; however, the roles of iron, calcium, and magnesium in leptospirosis represent important areas for future research. The role of micronutrients in leptospirosis risk and severity needs to be elucidated in larger prospective human studies to inform public health interventions. PMID:27387046

  10. Nutrition in oncology: the case of micronutrients (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Zänker, Kurt; Hahn, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    In the course of cancer disease, many oncological patients develop tumor-associated malnutrition characterized by an insufficient supply of macro- and micronutrients. The inadequate nutritional status and the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to it are clinically relevant, as the response to antineoplastic measures, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is diminished, their side effects aggravated and the patient's quality of life and prognosis negatively affected. Therefore, the supportive nutrition care of oncological patients is of central importance. In this context, vitamins, minerals and long-chain omega -3 fatty acids are becoming more and more relevant in oncology although the benefit of such supplements is discussed controversially. Starting from a description of the etiopathogenesis and the pathophysiological consequences of cancer-associated malnutrition, the present study provides an overview of the importance of micronutrients for oncological patients. In the case of reduced food intake and/or inappropriate food choice the use of a multi-vitamin-multimineral supplement administered in physiological doses, i.e. nutrient quantities approximately corresponding to the recommended daily allowances, can be generally recommended. However, to enhance postoperative wound healing, it seems that cancer patients require higher amounts of micronutrients than healthy individuals. Because vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in oncological patients, improvement of vitamin D status is of special interest.

  11. School feeding contributes to micronutrient adequacy of Ghanaian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Buxton, Christiana; Kwara, Lugutuah; Mensah-Homiah, Joseph; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Brouwer, Inge D

    2014-09-28

    Without gains in nutritional outcomes, it is unlikely that school feeding programmes (SFP) could improve cognition and academic performance of schoolchildren despite the improvements in school enrolment. We compared the nutrient intake adequacy and Fe and nutritional status of SFP and non-SFP participants in a cross-sectional survey involving 383 schoolchildren (aged 5-13 years). Quantitative 24 h recalls and weighed food records, repeated in 20% subsample, were used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes adjusted for day-to-day variations. The probability of adequacy (PA) was calculated for selected micronutrients and the mean of all PA (MPA) was calculated. The concentrations of Hb, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and anthropometric measurements were used to determine Fe and nutritional status. Energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies were significantly higher among SFP participants (Pnutritional status indicators. The results also indicate an important role for micronutrient-dense foods in the achievement of micronutrient adequacy within SFP.

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of Arabidopsis gene expression in response to varying micronutrient zinc supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlânder Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is a widespread condition in agricultural soils, causing a negative impact on crop quality and yield. Nevertheless, there is an insufficient knowledge on the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the plant response to inadequate zinc nutrition [1]. This information should contribute to the development of plant-based solutions with improved nutrient-use-efficiency traits in crops. Previously, the transcription factors bZIP19 and bZIP23 were identified as essential regulators of the response to zinc deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana [2]. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression between roots of wild-type and the mutant bzip19 bzip23, exposed to zinc deficiency, led to the identification of differentially expressed genes related with zinc homeostasis, namely its transport and plant internal translocation [2]. Here, we provide the detailed methodology, bioinformatics analysis and quality controls related to the microarray gene expression profiling published by Assunção and co-workers [2]. Most significantly, the present dataset comprises new experimental variables, including analysis of shoot tissue, and zinc sufficiency and excess supply. Thus, it expands from 8 to 42 microarrays hybridizations, which have been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under the accession number GSE77286. Overall, it provides a resource for research on the molecular basis and regulatory events of the plant response to zinc supply, emphasizing the importance of Arabidopsis bZIP19 and bZIP23 transcription factors.

  13. RELATIONS AMONG SIX MICRONUTRIENTS IN GRAIN DETERMINED IN A MAIZE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Šimić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited results are published about the relations among micronutrients in cereal grains, although micronutrients play important physiological roles in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine relations among boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn concentrations in grain of 297 genotypes of a maize population measured by inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in two years. Correlation coefficients showed generally weak, though positive associations between individual micronutrient concentrations in both years. Principal component analysis revealed not the same relations among the micronutrients across two years, indicating the importance of environment. Still, close relations between Cu and Fe, and to lesser extent between B and Mo were observed in both years. Mn was consistently one of the least related micronutrients to others. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve density of various micronutrients in maize grain simultaneously, although the progress would be very slow.

  14. Knowledge Attitude and Practice Regarding Micronutrient in Secondary School Student of Tribal Area in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Bhavesh, Patel Prakash, Sutariya Shailesh, Dave Paresh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important micronutrients in global public health terms; their lack represents a major threat to the health and development of populations the world over, particularly children in low-income countries. To combat the deficiency of micronutrients, awareness of their importance and their source plays vital role. Objective: to assess knowledge regarding important micronutrients in tribal students. Methodology: It is a cross sectional study conducted in 348 secondary school students of tribal area. Observations: Questionnaire regarding knowledge revealed that 83 (23.9% student had never heard of vitamin A, while 103 (29.6% and 72 (20.7% student had never heard of Iron and Iodine respectively. Gender wise analysis revealed that overall knowledge of micronutrients is comparatively higher among the girls. Recommendations: School children should be specially targeted in IEC campaign to decrease burden of micronutrient deficiency. Micronutrients should be included in school syllabus.

  15. The Effect of Nitroxin Biofertilizer and Foliar Applicatin of Micronutrients Time Consumption on Yield and Yield Components of New Wheat Cultivars under Khorramabad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to study the effects of Nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients time consumption on yield and yield components of new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum & T. durum under Khorramabad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm khorramabad during growing season of 2012-2013. Considering the positive effect of inoculation with bio-fertilizer and foliar Nitroxin micronutrients and reaction of cultivars to this type of fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers and the importance of wheat as one of the main crops, this study aims to determine the most appropriate time for foliar and Nitroxin application of micronutrients at the different stages of plant growth and bio-fertilizer application on yield and yield components. Materials and Methods The first factor was considered in six levels: N0: The lack of the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and without the foliar application of micronutrients (control, N1: the seed inoculation with the nitroxin biofertilizer, N2: the foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N3: the foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage, N4: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N5: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage. The second factor was considered at two levels, consisting: V1: Parsi cultivar and V2: Dena cultivar. MSTATC Software was used for data analysis and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion In this experiment the grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000- grain weight, spike number per m-2, grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike of wheat were studied. The results of the data variance analysis has

  16. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  17. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased prevalence of anemia and improved micronutrient status and effectiveness of deworming in rural Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Furr, Harold; Wieringa, Frank T

    2009-05-01

    Concurrent micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent among Vietnamese school children. A school-based program providing food fortified with multiple micronutrients could be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve health and cognitive function of school children. However, the efficacy of such an intervention may be compromised by the high prevalence of parasitic infestation. To evaluate the efficacy of school-based intervention using multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits with or without deworming on anemia and micronutrient status in Vietnamese schoolchildren, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 510 primary schoolchildren, aged 6-8 y, in rural Vietnam. Albendazole (Alb) (400 mg) or placebo was given at baseline. Nonfortified or multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits including iron (6 mg), zinc (5.6 mg), iodine (35 microg), and vitamin A (300 microg retinol equivalents) were given 5 d/wk for 4 mo. Multi-micronutrient fortification significantly improved the concentrations of hemoglobin (+1.87 g/L; 95% CI: 0.78, 2.96), plasma ferritin (+7.5 microg/L; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.6), body iron (+0.56 mg/kg body weight; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84), plasma zinc (+0.61 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.95), plasma retinol (+0.041 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.08), and urinary iodine (+22.49 micromol/L; 95% CI: 7.68, 37.31). Fortification reduced the risk of anemia and deficiencies of zinc and iodine by >40%. Parasitic infestation did not affect fortification efficacy, whereas fortification significantly enhanced deworming efficacy, with the lowest reinfection rates in children receiving both micronutrients and Alb. Multi-micronutrient fortification of biscuits is an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of Vietnamese schoolchildren and enhances effectiveness of deworming.

  18. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Sardar; Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Aamir, Muhammad; Qamar, Zahir; Ur Rehman, Zahir; Perveen, Sajida

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Cd-Pb mix) on bioaccumulation of different nutrients. Three plant species including potato, tomato and lettuce were grown in pots containing soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb mix at four different levels. The edible portions of each plant were analysed for Cd, Pb and different macro- and micro-nutrients including protein, vitamin C, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Results indicated significant variations in selected elemental concentrations in all the three plants grown in different treatments. The projected daily dietary intake values of selected metals were significant (P < 0.001) for Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg but not significant for protein, vitamin C, N and P. The elemental contribution to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was significant for Mn. Similarly, Fe and Mg also showed substantial contribution to RDA, while Ca, N, P, K, protein and vitamin C showed the minimal contribution for different age groups. This study suggests that vegetables cultivated on Cd and Pb contaminated soil may significantly affect their quality, and the consumption of such vegetables may result in substantial negative effects on nutritional composition of the consumer body. Long term and continuous use of contaminated vegetables may result in malnutrition.

  19. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay, MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography, cell invasion (through Matrigel and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase. In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and

  20. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra, E-mail: a.niedz@drrath.com; Rath, Matthias [Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  1. Fruit size and quality of pineapples cv. Vitória in response to micronutrient doses and way of application and to soil covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiala Vieira Amorim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of foundation and leaf fertilization with micronutrients on fruit size and quality of pineapple cv. Vitória under the environmental conditions of the Baixo Acaraú irrigated perimeter in Northern Ceará State, Brazil, under two covers (bagana and black plastic of the sandy soil of low fertility. The experimental design was a randomized split blocks one with four levels of soil dressing and four levels of foliar fertilization, with five replications. Micronutrient soil dressing was studied as FTE-12 at doses of 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The four levels of foliar fertilization were: LF0 (without fertilizer, LF 1 (15 leaf fertilization, using the amount of 1158.75 g Fe ha-1, 844.65 g Mn ha-1, 391.5 g ha-1 Zn, 322.65 g ha-1 Cu and 216 g ha-1 B, LF2 (15 leaf fertilization, using twice the quantities of level LF1 and LF3 (15 leaf fertilization, using three times the amount of level LF1. At 13 months after planting the micropropagated plantlets was carried out the floral induction treatment and five months later the fruit harvest determining the following variables: fruit weight and median diameter, soluble solids content (SS and titratable acidity (TA. Both fruit weight and diameter increased with increasing doses of micronutrients applied to the soil and to the leaves, of plants grown both on bagana soil cover and plastic mulch. On the other hand fruit pulp quality was little affected by the treatments studied. There were a small increase of SS contents for plants grown on bagana soil cover and a small decrease of titratable acidity for those grown on plastic mulch, in both cases just in response to micronutrient foliar application.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiency: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesham, M S; Edariah, A B; Norhayati, M

    2004-06-01

    Malnutrition including vitamin A and iron deficiency and parasitic diseases have a strikingly similar geographical distribution with the same people experiencing both insults together for much of their lives. Parasitic infections are thought to contribute to child malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency through subtle reduction in digestion and absorption, chronic inflammation and loss of nutrients. Parasites may affect the intake of food; it's subsequent digestion and absorption, metabolism and the maintenance of nutrient pools. The most important parasites related to nutritional status are intestinal parasites especially soil transmitted helminthes, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, followed by other parasites such as the coccidia, Schistosoma sp. and malarial parasites.

  3. Effects of Micronutrient Niacin on Treatment Efficiency of Textile Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei; HU Hongying; GU Xin; CHE Yuling; WANG Hui; GUO Yufeng; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Textile wastewater is well known as one of the wastewaters to be most difficultly treated. The effects of niacin on textile wastewater niacin, the physical and chemical indexes of the water samples, such as COD, ammonia and dehydrogenase activities, were analyzed every day with standard methods, and obvious improvement in wastewater treatcould improve the COD removal efficiency signifcantly with removal rates mental condition, addition of niacin had almost no effect on the removal of ase by 130%. It proved that the biological treatment performance of textile wastewater treatment system probably could be optimized through micronutrient niacin supplement.

  4. ECONOMICAL BASIS TO ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been called by economists at the World Bank as the “non-human face” of poverty,1 Adults who were malnourished as children earn at least 20% less on average than those who weren’t , 2.Malnutrition is often caused by underlying economics, i.e. the lack of money. Economics is very important in regards to malnutrition; it allows an individual to purchase nutrients. In many places around the world, a lack of money prevents the purchase of a variety of foods. The lack in variety usually leads to micronutrient malnutrition. Economics also decides the production of food in all countries around the world and the ability of a country to overcome difficult times. Thus economics affects ALL people at ALL levels of society, 3.Micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. It is estimated half of anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency , 4.  Almost half of children in low- and middle-income countries – 47% of under-fives are affected by anaemia, impairing cognitive and physical development,5. Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Coincidently,  the number of countries in which iodine-deficiency disorders were considered a public health concern reduced by 43% between 1993 and 2007,6.  Zinc deficiency affects children’s health and physical growth; it is also essential for mothers during pregnancy. It is estimated to cause 4% of deaths in pre-school aged children in lower-income countries. 7 . The Global Burden of Disease estimates showed that among the 26 major risk factors of the global burden of disease,8 iron deficiency ranks ninth overall, zinc deficiency is eleventh, and vitamin A deficiency, is thirteenth. Annually each developing country of the world are losing over millions or billions US $ in Gross Domestic Product (GDP to vitamins and minerals deficiencies. But scaling up core

  5. Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies—An Important Component of Poverty Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MANRTINW.BLOEM; REGINGMOENCH-PFANNER; 等

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1990s,the international development banks and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) convened to outline seven International Development Goals(IDGs) to reduce poverty by 2015,These goals incorporated both the economic and social dimensions of poverty.A two-thirds reduction of child mortality and a three-fourths reduction of maternal mortality from rates in 1990 by 2015 are two of these seven IDGs,There is a need for better combinations of cost-effective strategies to resch these challenging goals by the year 2015,This paper discusses the potential usefulness of micronutrient deficiency control programs for this purpose.

  6. Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies—An Important Component of Poverty Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the international development banks and theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) convened to outline seven International Development Goals (IDGs) to reduce poverty by 2015. These goals incorporated both the economic and social dimensions of poverty. A two-thirds reduction of child mortality and a three-fourths reduction of maternal mortality from rates in 1990 by 2015 are two of these seven IDGs. There is a need for better combinations of cost-effective strategies to reach these challenging goals by the year 2015. This paper discusses the potential usefulness of micronutrient deficiency control programs for this purpose.

  7. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  8. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress.

  9. Nutrition meets the microbiome: micronutrients and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that food is an important factor that influences and shapes the composition and configuration of the gut microbiota. Most studies have focused on macronutrients (fat, carbohydrate, protein) in particular and their effects on the gut microbiota. Although the microbiota can synthesize different water-soluble vitamins, the effects of vitamins synthesized within the microbiota on systemic vitamin status are unclear. Few studies exist on the shuttling of vitamins between the microbiota and intestine and the impact of luminal vitamins on the microbiota. Studying the interactions between vitamins and the microbiota may help to understand the effects of vitamins on the barrier function and immune system of the intestinal tract. Furthermore, understanding the impact of malnutrition, particularly low micronutrient supply, on microbiota development, composition, and metabolism may help in implementing new strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of malnutrition on child development. This article reviews data on the synthesis of different micronutrients and their effects on the human microbiota, and further discusses the consequences of malnutrition on microbiota composition.

  10. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Wiltgren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306 were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (28%. A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001. Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them.

  11. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  12. Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal preg

  13. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  14. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  15. Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal

  16. EURRECA/WHO Workshop report: "Deriving micronutrient recommendations: updating best practices"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Heseker, H.; Grammatikaki, E.; Benetou, V.; Gregoric, M.; Margaritis, I.; Raats, M.M.; Wijnhoven, T.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the outcome of the workshop ‘Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations: Updating Best Practices’ which took place in Brussels in April 2012. The workshop was organised jointly by the European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence and the World Health

  17. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  18. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  19. Symposium report: Effective and safe micronutrient interventions, weighing the risks against the benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient fortification of staple foods can be an effective strategy to combat micronutrient malnutrition. When planning on fortification, challenges faced include the collection of essential information on population food and nutrient intake patterns, as well as the use of this information in a...

  20. Tulimbe Nutrition Project: a community-based dietary intervention to combat micronutrient malnutrition in rural southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes the community-based nutrition intervention in rural southern Malawi. The program aims to reverse micronutrient deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and zinc in a society where staple diets are plant-based and contain high levels of anti-nutrients. Anti-nutrients, such as polyphenols, dietary fiber, and phytates, inhibit absorption of iron and zinc. This population's diet was also low in dairy and meat products. The Tulimbe Nutrition Project aimed to modify and diversify diets rather than to supplement or fortify diets. This approach was more culturally acceptable and economically feasible. The approach required changing food selection patterns and methods of preparing and processing indigenous foods. The new diets aimed to enhance the availability, access, and use of micronutrient-rich foods throughout the year. The project was initiated in 1995 in two communities among 300 families with children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years. A baseline assessment with interviews and focus groups was conducted. The assessment for children included a 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurement, and other clinical measurement. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were repeated at 6 and 12 months. New cultivars and technologies were introduced, such as soybeans, short-duration pigeon peas, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, and papaya seedlings. The Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Center built and installed solar dryers, seed oil presses, and ovens in each community. People were encouraged to include soaked and fermented maize flour and germinated cereal flours in infant and child porridges. Parents were educated about micronutrient-rich foods, meal frequencies, portion sizes, and food combinations. Information was provided through demonstrations, home visits, plays, songs, and booklets. The program evaluation is in progress.

  1. The potential of various foods to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification, data from remote areas in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melse-Boonstra, A; Pee, S; Martini, E; Halati, S; Sari, M; Kosen, S; Muhilal; Bloem, M

    2000-11-01

    To estimate the potential of various industrially produced foods, to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification based on the frequency of their consumption in different socio-economic strata; to determine the role of fortified instant noodles as a source of micronutrients; to assess the contribution of plant foods, animal foods and fortified foods to vitamin A intake. A survey was conducted in rural South Sulawesi and urban South Kalimantan between November 1996 and January 1997. Households (1500 in South Sulawesi; 2112 in South Kalimantan) were selected randomly by multi-stage cluster sampling. From each household, data were collected from the mother and her youngest child (0-5 y). Mothers were interviewed on various topics, including socio-economic status, food consumption, receipt of high-dose vitamin A capsules, health and nutritional status. Monosodium glutamate and salt were consumed daily in almost all households in both areas, and consumption was not associated with socio-economic status. Instant noodles were consumed in nearly all households in both areas, but consumption of fortified noodles was related to socio-economic status; it was highest among households of government employees and private investors, and lowest among farmers and share-croppers. Vegetables were the most important source of vitamin A in rural South Sulawesi, while foods of animal origin were the most important source in urban South Kalimantan. The results support double or triple fortification of salt and/or monosodium glutamate with iodine, vitamin A and/or iron. Efforts to overcome associated technical and logistical difficulties are urgently needed. Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions (OMNI); United States Agency for International Development (USAID). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 822-827

  2. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

  3. Slow-Release Fertilizers For Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic mineral provides growing plants with nutrients, including micronutrients. Dissolves slowly in moist soil or in hydroponic solution, releasing constituents. Mineral synthetic apatite into which nutrients calcium, phosphorous, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, and sulfur incorporated in form of various salts. Each pellet has homogeneous inorganic composition. Composition readily adjusted to meet precise needs of plant.

  4. Species-specific associations between soil-transmitted helminths and micronutrients in Vietnamese schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among low-income populations. We studied the association between infections with specific STH species and micronutrient status in rural Vietnamese schoolchildren. Children (N = 510) aged...... and multiple infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm with micronutrient status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, and urinary iodine) were estimated by multiple regression analysis. Ascaris infections showed a specific and intensity-dependent negative association...... and micronutrient status in children. The different life cycles of STH species might have specific effects on the absorption or loss of specific micronutrients. Tailor-made combinations of deworming and nutritional interventions may be needed to improve child health and nutrition....

  5. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Micronutrients may protect against prostate cancer. However, few studies have had high-quality assessment of both dietary and supplemental consumption of micronutrients, rendering possible different source-specific effects difficult to discern. This study evaluates associations between...... with questionnaire-based information on diet, supplements, and lifestyle. Hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer associated with micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results: During follow-up (1993-2010), 1,571 prostate cancer cases were identified. Supplemental folic acid...... folate or for the other studied micronutrients, regardless of source. We found no significant effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI in relation to any micronutrient. Conclusion: Our study may indicate an inverse association between folic acid and prostate cancer; however, the inverse association...

  6. Estimation of the macro- and micronutrient status of raspberries grown in the Lublin region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresler Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring was conducted in the Lublin region in 2009-2012 aimed at the assessment of the supply of several macro- and micronutrients in raspberries plants. The plantations studied were located in eight main regions for the growing of raspberries (Bełżyce, Chodel, Godziszów, Kraśnik, Lublin, Międzyrzec Podlaski, Opole Lubelskie and Urzędów. The contents of nitrogen (N, potassium (K, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and boron (B were determined in raspberry leaves. Furthermore, the impact of select soil properties on the content of essential elements in the leaves was assessed. The results obtained revealed the suitable N, P, K, Mg, B, Zn and Cu supplies in the plants. However, the mean content of Mn greatly exceeded the optimal level recommended for this species. Also, the content of Fe in some regions was above the optimal value. The calculated correlation coefficients between soil properties and the content of the elements in raspberry leaves suggest that these variables were interdependent in only a few cases.

  7. Autophagy as a possible mechanism for micronutrient remobilization from leaves to seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu ePottier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed formation is an important step of plant development which depends on nutrient allocation. Uptake from soil is an obvious source of nutrients which mainly occurs during vegetative stage. Because seed filling and leaf senescence are synchronized, subsequent mobilization of nutrients from vegetative organs also play an essential role in nutrient use efficiency, providing source-sink relationships. However, nutrient accumulation during the formation of seeds may be limited by their availability in source tissues. While several mechanisms contributing to make leaf macronutrients available were already described, little is known regarding micronutrients such as metals. Autophagy, which is involved in nutrient recycling, was already shown to play a critical role in nitrogen remobilization to seeds during leaf senescence. Because it is a non specific mechanism, it could also control remobilization of metals. This article reviews actors and processes involved in metal remobilization with emphasis on autophagy and methodology to study metal fluxes inside the plant. A better understanding of metal remobilization is needed to improve metal use efficiency in the context of biofortification.

  8. Effects of raw and diluted municipal sewage effluent with micronutrient foliar sprays on the growth and nutrient concentration of foxtail millet in southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharipour, Mohammad Reza; Reza Azizmoghaddam, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the effect of irrigation with raw or diluted municipal sewage effluent accompanied by foliar micronutrient fertilizer sprays was examined on the growth, dry matter accumulation, grain yield, and mineral nutrients in foxtail millet plants. The experimental design was a split plot with three irrigation sources: raw sewage, 50% diluted sewage, and well water comprising the main treatments, and four combinations of Mn and Zn foliar sprays as sub-treatments that were applied with four replications. The experiment was conducted in 2009 at the Zabol University research farm in Zabol, south Iran. The applied municipal sewage effluent contained higher levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and exhibited greater degrees of electrical conductivity compared to well water. Because of the small scale of industrial activities in Zabol, the amount of heavy metals in the sewage was negligible (below the limits set for irrigation water in agricultural lands); these contaminants would not be severely detrimental to crop growth. The experimental results indicated that irrigation of plants with raw or diluted sewage stimulates the measured growth and productivity parameters of foxtail millet plants. The concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients were also positively affected. These stimulations were attributed to the presence of high levels of such essential nutrients as N, P, and organic matter in wastewater. Supplied in sewage water alone, Mn and Zn were not able to raise the productivity of millet to the level obtained using fertilizers at the recommended values; this by itself indicated that additional nutrients from fertilizers are required to obtain higher levels of millet productivity with sewage farming. Despite the differences in nutrient concentrations among the different irrigation water sources, the micronutrient foliar sprays did not affect the concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients in foxtail millet plants. These results suggested

  9. Effects of compost fertilization in organic farming on micronutrients and heavy metals in soil and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Sager, Manfred; Bonell, Marion; Fuchs, Katrin; Haas, Dieter; Ableidinger, Christoph; Hartl, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    For organic stockless and vegetable farms using biowaste compost is a way to sustain soil humus content. At the same time compost use in agriculture closes local nutrient cycles. Besides organic matter and main nutrients, biowaste compost also imports micronutrients and heavy metals in amounts determined by the compost input material. The aim of this work was to assess total and plant-available contents of micronutrients B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn, beneficial elements Co and Se and heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb in the soil and in crops after 20 years of fertilization with compost produced from source-separated organic waste. Topsoil and wheat grain samples were collected from the long-term field experiment 'STIKO' situated near Vienna on a Molli-gleyic Fluvisol. Between 1992 and 2012 the organic treatments C1, C2 and C3 had received 5, 10 and 14 t ha-1 yr-1 (wet wt.) biowaste compost on average. They were compared with the unfertilized organic control treatment and with three mineral fertilization treatments, which had received 20, 32 and 44 kg N ha-1 yr 1, respectively, plus 40 kg P and 68 kg K ha-1 yr-1 on average. Total soil element contents of B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were measured in aqua regia digestion. Immediately water-soluble elements were analysed in soil saturation extract, elements in exchangeable form in LiCl extract following Husz (2001), and long-term available elements in 0.5 N HCl extract. Wheat grains were dehulled, milled and subjected to microwave digestion with HNO3 and H2O2. Wheat was analyzed for Cd and Pb with ICP-MS. All other elements in wheat and all soil extracts were analyzed using ICP-AES. Total soil concentrations of micronutrients, heavy metals and beneficial elements were in the range of usual soil contents and lower than the Austrian background values for arable land with comparable pH and carbonate concentration (Schwarz and Freudenschuss, 2004) in all treatments (all mg kg-1: B 14-19, Fe 16000-18000, Mn

  10. Micronutrients and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherzai, Ayesha Z; Tagliati, Michele; Park, Katherine; Pezeshkian, Shant; Sherzai, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although the precise pathogenetic mechanisms of PD remain undetermined, there appears to be both genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the risk of developing PD. With regard to environmental risk factors, there has been significant interest related to the role of diet, nutrition, and nutrients on the onset and progression of PD. As the current treatments are predominantly focused on symptomatic management, efforts must be directed toward prevention of the PD and identification of potentially modifiable risk and preventive factors. This comprehensive review gives an overview of studies examining the role of micronutrients in PD, and provides guidance on the value of the reported outcomes.

  11. Solubilidade de micronutrientes contidos em formulações de fertilizantes, em extratores químicos Micronutrient solubility in fertilizer mixtures by chemical extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Alcarde

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira adota o teor total para a garantia dos micronutrientes em fertilizantes. Isso permite a utilização de subprodutos de várias origens, baratos, mas que nem sempre apresentam os micronutrientes em formas disponíveis às plantas. Estudou-se a solubilidade dos micronutrientes em formulações de fertilizantes, utilizando os extratores água e soluções de ácido cítrico 20 g L-1 e citrato neutro de amônio (1 + 9, já usados na avaliação de matérias-primas. Os resultados foram semelhantes, tanto na avaliação das formulações como de matérias-primas, isto é, a solução de ácido cítrico a 20 g L-1 possibilita avaliar, com mais segurança, o conteúdo de micronutrientes em formulações de fertilizantes, representando uma alternativa para o teor total, que não é um critério adequado, do ponto de vista agronômico, para avaliar os micronutrientes contidos em fertilizantes.In Brazilian legislation, the control for micronutrient concentrations in mineral fertilizers considers the total content. As a consequence, low-cost by-products and even industrial residues are generally used as a source for micronutrients, despite their low availability to plants. To evaluate fertilizer solubilities, water, citric acid 20 g L-1, and neutral ammonium citrate (1 + 9 extracting solutions were applied to mixtures containing micronutrients. The same study was realized for micronutrient sources. Results were similar for both sources and mixtures. Citric acid solution 20 g L-1 was the most promising option to evaluate micronutrient contents in fertilizer mixtures. From the agronomic point of view, the total content is an inadequate criterion for the determination of micronutrient contents in chemical fertilizers.

  12. Program experience with micronutrient powders and current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; dePee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Steiger, Georg; Bloem, Martin W; Spiegel, Paul; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of micronutrient powders (MNP) in the treatment of anemia in moderately anemic children aged 6-24 mo has been clearly demonstrated. The evidence of the effectiveness of MNP in large-scale programs, however, is scarce. This article describes the program experience and findings of large-scale MNP distribution in refugee camps and in an emergency context in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Kenya. The MNP contained 15-16 micronutrients as per the WHO/World Food Programme/UNICEF joint statement, whereas the iron content was reduced to 2.5 mg from NaFeEDTA in a malaria-endemic area in Kenya. Hundreds of thousands of children aged 6-59 mo and pregnant and lactating women were targeted to consume MNP either daily or every other day over an extended period of time. Extensive social marketing campaigns were undertaken to promote regular use of the product. A number of studies were embedded in the programs to assess the impact of MNP on the nutritional status of target beneficiaries. Some improvements in anemia prevalence estimates were observed in particular subgroups, but other results did not show significant improvements. A significant decrease in the prevalence of stunting was observed in Nepal and Kenya but not in Bangladesh. Diarrhea episodes decreased significantly among children receiving MNP in Nepal. A key challenge is to ensure high MNP acceptance and adherence among beneficiaries. Investigation of non-nutritional causes of anemia is warranted in settings with high compliance but no improvement in hemoglobin status. Further investigation into the most appropriate manner to use MNP in malaria endemic settings is warranted.

  13. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  14. Obesity during pregnancy alters maternal oxidant balance and micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Iyer, C; Meydani, S N

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of obesity on inflammatory status in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and micronutrient status in obese pregnant women and their infants compared with lean controls (Lc). This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 15 obese (Ob; body mass index (BMI) >30 kg m(-2)) and 15 lean (BMI 18-25 kg m(-2)) women were recruited based on prepregnancy BMI. Vitamins A, B6, C, E and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), zinc, red blood cell (RBC) folate, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α and oxidized and reduced glutathione were measured from maternal blood between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Vitamins A, B6, C and E, 25(OH)D, zinc, red blood cell folate, CRP and IL-6 were measured from cord blood at delivery. Ob pregnant women have statistically significantly lower levels of vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, RBC folate, higher CRP and IL-6 levels and higher ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione compared with Lc pregnant women. Infants born to Ob mothers did not have statistically significantly higher measures of inflammation or oxidative stress. There were no differences in micronutrient concentrations between Lc and Ob infants, but folate, vitamin B6 and zinc levels correlated strongly between mother and infant. There was no statistically significant difference in any parameter between Ob and Lc cord blood. Ob pregnant women have increased inflammation and oxidative stress, and lower levels of nutritional antioxidant defenses compared with Lc pregnant women. We speculate that lower antioxidant defenses combined with increased oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy in Ob women.

  15. Control of micronutrient deficiencies in India: obstacles and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K

    2002-05-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and iodine continue to be of public health significance in India. The government of India initiated national programs to prevent, control and combat these deficiencies and their serious consequences. The interventions involved (1) distribution of iodized salt in the endemic areas, (2) administration of semiannual massive dose of vitamin A to young children, and (3) distribution of iron-folic acid tablets to the vulnerable groups. Evaluations revealed that the biologic impact of these interventions was unsatisfactory. Inadequate allocation of funds (10% of the actual needs) necessary to cover the enormous number of beneficiaries was one of the important obstacles. Consequently, the allocation of supplies to different provinces was far short of the requirements (10-30%). As a result of poor orientation, the functionaries were not adhering to the guidelines, leading to woefully inadequate (1-20%) and irregular coverage. There was no proper monitoring or supervision to make midcourse corrections to improve the functioning. The community was not informed of the purpose and details of each intervention. Hence, it did not utilize the resources completely and remained passive recipients. The community was not aware of the dietary approaches to prevent micronutrient disorders owing to absence of nutrition education. With the adoption of National Nutrition Policy by the government of India, a concerted and focused approach should be adopted. The future strategies should include a mix of short-term supplementation and food-based strategy encompassing food fortification and home gardening. Innovative approaches in information, education, and communication (such as social marketing strategy) for making the interventions sustainable should be adopted.

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Micronutrient Concentrations in Two Recombinant Inbred Wheat Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Zhi-en; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang; YU Ma; HE Qiu-yi; CHEN Guo-yue; WANG Ji-rui; LIU Ya-xi; JIANG Qian-tao; LI Wei; DAI Shou-fen

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects over three billion people worldwide, especially women and children in developing countries. Increasing the bioavailable concentrations of essential elements in the edible portions of crops is an effective resolution to address this issue. To determine the genetic factors controlling micronutrient concentration in wheat, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium concentrations in two recombinant inbred line populations was performed. In all, 39 QTLs for ifve micronutrient concentrations were identiifed in this study. Of these, 22 alleles from synthetic wheat SHW-L1 and seven alleles from the progeny line of the synthetic wheat Chuanmai 42 showed an increase in micronutrient concentrations. Five QTLs on chromosomes 2A, 3D, 4D, and 5B found in both the populations showed signiifcant phenotypic variation for 2-3 micronutrient concentrations. Our results might help understand the genetic control of micronutrient concentration and allow the utilization of genetic resources of synthetic hexaploid wheat for improving micronutrient efifciency of cultivated wheat by using molecular marker-assisted selection.

  17. Minerals and trace elements in the soil-plant-animal continuum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minerals and trace elements in the soil-plant-animal continuum in Ethiopia: a review. ... The prevention and control of micronutrient deficiency disorders require a ... tailored solutions in areas such as nutrition education, improved methods of ...

  18. Potential foliar fertilizers with copper and zinc dual micronutrients in nanocrystal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Li; Du, Yumei; Hampton, Marc A.; Nguyen, Anh V.; Huang, Longbin; Rudolph, Victor; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-11-01

    Control preparation, aqueous stability, and ion release of several Cu-Zn-containing crystals in suspensions have been investigated as potential dual micronutrient foliar fertilizers. These crystals were prepared by quick co-precipitation through simultaneously adding potassium hydroxide and copper salt solutions into zinc salt solution, and characterized in structure and composition with XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and ICP in detail. As-prepared Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide nitrate was identified as a two-phase mixture while Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide sulfate as a single-phase compound. These crystals are all sheet-like in morphology and stable in aqueous solutions with pH 5-9. No phase change was detected after the samples were kept in shelf for >3 months, suggesting that these crystals have long shelf lives. In terms of ion release, Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide nitrate and Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide sulfate can afford 4 and 1 mg L-1 of Cu2+, respectively, which could be suitable for different levels of copper deficiency in plants. Moreover, both compounds can provide 38-39 mg L-1 of Zn2+ in aqueous suspensions. Thus, our findings suggest that as-prepared compounds can be potentially applied as long-term foliar fertilizers to simultaneously correct deficiencies of copper and zinc in various crops.

  19. [Seasonal micronutrients concentration in leaves of four forest species from Parque Chaqueño, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Juan; Fernández López, Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Nutrients cycling is a fundamental component in the functioning of forest ecosystems. Leaves of different forest species observe specific chemical composition, and some seasonal differences in biomass production, may be related to climate fluctuations and/or changes in plant phenology and the variation on nutrient contents. The objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variability ofFe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in leaves of Gleditsia amorphoides (Ga); Patagonula americana (Pa); Maclura tinctoria (Mt) and Astronium balansae (Ab) from Colonia Benitez Strict Nature Reserve (Chaco, Argentina). The leaves of each forest species were collected monthly, dried at 70 degrees C and their weight by tree species were recorded. Samples for analytical determinations were prepared by humid oxidation of organic substances from vegetal nets, using oxidant acids such as ternary mixture of HNO3-H2SO4-HClO4. After digestion, total micronutrients leaves concentrations were determined by atomic absortion spectrophotometry. Leaves Fe highest values were detected during fall in Mt (76.1mg/kg), Pa (75.2mg/kg), Ab (59.5mg/kg) and Ga (45.3mg/kg). Highest foliar concentrations of Mn were detected in Pa (54.0mg/kg), Ga (50.0mg/kg), Mt (48.0mg/kg), and Ab with the lower Mn concentration (39.7mg/ kg). No significant differences were found for Cu between the different forest species, standing for Pa (11.3mg/ kg), Ga and Mt (11.0mg/kg) and Ab (10.4mg/kg). With regard to leaves Zn, highest concentrations were found in Mt (347.4mg/kg), Ga (319.9mg/kg), Pa (280.2mg/kg) and Ab (255.7mg/kg). Generally, a marked seasonal variation was observed for Mn and Cu concentrations (except in Ga) and Zn (except in Pa), with no statistical differences for Fe. In the species studied, the concentration of micronutrients analyzed showed a marked and erratic seasonal variation, attributed to the relationship established between the native species, and the strong influence of the environment over a long

  20. Myocardial energetics and the role of micronutrients in heart failure: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ang-Peng; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a multifactorial disease with poor prognosis. There are many hypotheses regarding the cause of heart failure. Leading among them are the hemodynamic and the neuro-hormonal hypotheses. Although the energy depletion hypothesis has been fairly recent, there is evidence suggesting that declining bioenergy plays a major role in heart failure. This review explored the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis from the role of micronutrients in correcting and alleviating symptoms of heart failure. Even though focus was on key nutrients such as coenzyme Q10, thiamine, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and taurine, emphasis was on the combined effect of multiple micronutrients as a whole. Search from databases from 2000 to 2015 produced four clinical studies using multiple micronutrients on heart failure. Evidence from the studies show that using high doses of multiple micronutrients may have positive effects on heart failure and simultaneously support the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis. PMID:27679743

  1. Multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving cognitive performance in children: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, A.; Gera, T.; Sachdev, H.S.; Transler, C.; Knaap, van der H.; Kok, F.J.; Osendarp, S.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although multiple micronutrient interventions have been shown to benefit children's intellectual development, a thorough evaluation of the totality of evidence is currently lacking to direct public health policy. Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the present literature

  2. Sunflower micronutrient uptake curves Curva de absorção de micronutrientes na cultura do girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most studies in the literature regarding the uptake of micronutrients [zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and boron (B accumulation] by sunflower are old. For this reason, this work is aimed to establish curves of sunflower micronutrient accumulation in tropical edaphoclimatic conditions. The experiment was conducted in field on Rhodic Eutrudox, located at the experimental farm of Embrapa Soja in Londrina-PR, using the commercial hybrid BRS 191. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. The experimental units consisted of 14 lines with a spacing of 0.70 meter between lines and 25.0 meters in length, with final density of 42,858 plants per hectare. Plants samples were collected every 14 days after emergence. After each collection, plants were divided into petiole, leaf, stem, capitulum and achenes. They were dried until reaching constant weight. Then, dry matter was weighed and the concentrations of Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, and B were determined in the vegetal tissue. Micronutrient uptake occurred faster in the phase initiated 42 days after emergence (DAE. Iron was the most absorbed micronutrient, accumulating higher amounts in the achenes as well as in relation to the total absorbed. Fe, Mn, Zn, B and Cu concentrations were 38.06, 19.68, 9.20, 8,62 and 4.27 mg plant-1, respectively.Devido ao fato de a maioria dos trabalhos encontrados na literatura a respeito do acúmulo dos micronutrientes [zinco (Zn, manganês (Mn, ferro (Fe, cobre (Cu e boro (B] no girassol serem antigos, objetiva-se, com este trabalho estabelecer curvas de acúmulo de micronutrientes em um híbrido de girassol na condição edafoclimática dos trópicos. O experimento foi instalado no campo sobre Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura argilosa, localizado na fazenda experimental da Embrapa Soja, em Londrina-PR, utilizando o híbrido comercial BRS 191. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro

  3. Vitamin D: a critical and essential micronutrient for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eBendik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g. in wintertime is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Base on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7 % of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3 % are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to

  4. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Methods Hair mineral analyses were performed in...

  5. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive development. Multiple micronutrient interventions have shown to benefit mental performance of children, but a systematic evaluation of the evidence is currently lacking. The omega-3 fatty acid, -li...

  6. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and micronutrients against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii

    OpenAIRE

    Goc, A; A. Niedzwiecki(University of Lodz, Poland); RATH, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims Little is known about the effects of phytochemicals against Borrelia sp. causing Lyme disease. Current therapeutic approach to this disease is limited to antibiotics. This study examined the anti‐borreliae efficacy of several plant‐derived compounds and micronutrients. Methods and Results We tested the efficacy of 15 phytochemicals and micronutrients against three morphological forms of Borrelia burgdoferi and Borrelia garinii: spirochetes, latent rounded forms and biofilm. The ...

  7. The influence of micronutrients in cell culture: a reflection on viability and genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigony, Ana Lúcia Vargas; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Machado, Miriana; Bordin, Diana Lilian; Bergter, Lothar; Prá, Daniel; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5-10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed.

  8. The Influence of Micronutrients in Cell Culture: A Reflection on Viability and Genomic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigony, Ana Lúcia Vargas; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Bordin, Diana Lilian; Prá, Daniel; Pêgas Henriques, João Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5–10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed. PMID:23781504

  9. The Influence of Micronutrients in Cell Culture: A Reflection on Viability and Genomic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Vargas Arigony

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS, which contributes to only 5–10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed.

  10. Dietary diversity scores: an indicator of micronutrient inadequacy instead of obesity for Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Yu, Kai; Tan, Shengjie; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-05-12

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the well-being of both adults and children. Dietary diversity score (DDS) is a useful evaluation index with a relatively well-developed guideline by FAO. It's meaningful to assess and predict inadequate micronutrient intakes using DDS in Chinese children, after ruling out the risk of obesity coming with more dietary diversity. Data for evaluation were extracted from the Nutrition Study of Preschool Children and School Children, which is a cross-sectional study covering 8 cities of China, including 1694 children in kindergartens and primary schools. This study applied DDS to Chinese children to test the validity for micronutrient inadequacy, and then explored the relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. It reveals that dietary diversity varied with age and place of residence; the older ones and the ones living in rural areas tend to have poorer dietary diversity. Another discovery is that DDS is positively correlated with indicators of micronutrient adequacy, with a score of 6-8 indicating the lowest risk of micronutrient inadequacy in different groups of children. In our study population, dietary diversity is not related with obesity. Dietary diversity score is a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient inadequacy in Chinese children, though there is still room for improvement of the method. Besides, the relationship between increase of dietary diversity and risk of obesity should be treated circumspectly.

  11. Micronutrients and pregnancy; effect of supplementation on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerfu Taddese Alemu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Every year more than 20 million infants are born with low birth weight worldwide. About 3.6 million infants die during the neonatal period. More than one third of child deaths are thought to be attributable to maternal and child under nutrition. Objectives To systematically review the effect of supplementing various combinations and types of micronutrients on the course and outcomes of pregnancy. Methods Electronic search of Medline, Pub Med, Health Internetwork access to Research Initiative, and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight, small size for gestational age, prenatal mortality and neonatal mortality. After exclusion of irrelevant /incomplete ones, 17 out of 115 articles were considered for the final analysis. Findings Majority of the articles reviewed favored the supplementation of micronutrients to pregnant mother. Some studies suggested calcium supplementation is associated with a significant protective benefit in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. The remaining articles reviewed, showed significant benefit of Multiple Micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing low birth weight, small for Gestational Age births as compared to the usual iron-folate supplements. Conclusions Supplying micronutrients, mainly multiple micronutrients have beneficial effect in reducing the risk of low birth weight and other complications. Further studies at various combination and doses of micronutrient supplements are recommended.

  12. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  13. Micronutrient status and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogden, J D; Baker, H; Frank, O; Perez, G; Kemp, F; Bruening, K; Louria, D

    1990-01-01

    This study surveyed serum concentrations of vitamins, electrolytes, and trace elements in subjects seropositive for HIV-1 by ELISA and confirmatory Western blot. Thirty subjects (26 males, 4 females) were recruited at a hospital clinic. Seventeen were classified as having mild or severe ARC (AIDS-related complex), 7 had AIDS, and 6 were asymptomatic. Eight had experienced weight loss of 10 pounds or more in the past 6 months. Most (93%) were anergic to skin test antigens. Percentages of subjects with below normal plasma concentrations include: zinc-30%, calcium-27%, magnesium-30%, carotenes-31%, total choline-50%, and ascorbate-27%. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had at least one abnormally low value. Percentages with above normal values include: folate-37% and carnitine-37%. Some subjects with above normal values for plasma vitamins reported self-supplementation, usually with large doses. The results suggest that one or more abnormally low concentrations of the plasma micronutrients studied here are likely to be present in the majority of HIV seropositive patients.

  14. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  15. Volume 10 No. 8 August 2010 2901 MINERAL MICRONUTRIENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... Kenya has over 400 marginalized indigenous fruit species. A majority found in ... clusters did not show a one-to-one soil-to-plant element matching between plant and soil mineral ...... production, use, and Philippine research.

  16. Micronutrient Availability in Relation to Selected Soil Properties and landscape Position in Calcareous Soils of Golpayegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2017-02-01

    . Significant relationships were also found between DTPA-extractable Fe, organic matter (OM and calcium carbonate. The results indicated that organic matter (OM is the most influential soil characteristics that predict Fe availability. DTPA-extractable Mn in the soils ranged from 1.8 to 19.8 mg kg-1 (mean 7 mg kg-1. There were also no relationship between available Mn and soil properties. It has been reported that Mn availability in soils is mainly influenced by oxidation-reduction rather than other factors. Available Zn in the studied soils ranged from 0 to 2.4 mg kg-1 (mean 0.8 mg kg-1 and had significant correlations with particle size and OM contents. This result showed the importance of soil exchanger phase (clay and OM in Zn availability in calcareous soils, and was in agreement with the findings of Wu et al. (2006 in soils of North Dakota. DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 0.2 to 2.4 mg kg-1 (mean 0.9 mg kg-1. According to the report of Lindsay and Norvell (1978, 90% of soils had sufficient Cu. However, there were variations among soils in available Cu as a function of physiographic position. The highest values were found in the soils developed on piedmont plains. Significant relationships between available Cu and some major soils properties such as sand, clay, OM, and calcium carbonate were also found. This result was in agreement with findings of Wu et al. (2010 who concluded that soil properties influencing the spatial distribution of Cu availability. Conclusions: Nutrient availability is one of the most critical concerns of plant production in calcareous soils of Golpayegan . Different pedogenic processes, variable deposition and transport, and different weathering regimes affect micronutrient content, distribution, and availability. Results indicated that Fe deficiencies followed by Mn and Zn in the studied soils are more critical than Cu deficiencies. In fact, 90% of soils had sufficient Cu. Mainly micronutrient availability in the studied soils was related to soil

  17. The impact of micronutrient status on health: correlation network analysis to understand the role of micronutrients in metabolic-inflammatory processes regulating homeostasis and phenotypic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Tim J; Kremer, Bas H A; Marcondes Rezende, Marisa; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Weber, Peter; Hoeller, Ulrich; van Ommen, Ben; Wopereis, Suzan

    2017-01-01

    Vitamins and carotenoids are key micronutrients facilitating the maintenance of health, as evidenced by the increased risk of disease with low intake. Optimal phenotypic flexibility, i.e., the ability to respond to a physiological challenge, is an essential indicator of health status. Therefore, health can be measured by applying a challenge test and monitoring the response of relevant phenotypic processes. In this study, we assessed the correlation of three fat-soluble vitamins, (i.e., vitamin A or retinol, vitamin D3, two homologues of vitamin E) and four carotenoids (i.e., α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene), with characteristics of metabolic and inflammatory parameters at baseline and in response to a nutritional challenge test (NCT) in a group of 36 overweight and obese male subjects, using proteomics and metabolomics platforms. The phenotypic flexibility concept implies that health can be measured by the ability to adapt to a NCT, which may offer a more sensitive way to assess changes in health status of healthy subjects. Correlation analyses of results after overnight fasting revealed a rather evenly distributed network in a number of relatively strong correlations per micronutrient, with minor overlap between correlation profiles of each compound. Correlation analyses of challenge response profiles for metabolite and protein parameters with micronutrient status revealed a network that is more skewed towards α-carotene and γ-tocopherol suggesting a more prominent role for these micronutrients in the maintenance of phenotypic flexibility. Comparison of the networks revealed that there is merely overlap of two parameters (inositol and oleic acid (C18:1)) affirming that there is a specific biomarker response profile upon NCT. Our study shows that applying the challenge test concept is able to reveal previously unidentified correlations between specific micronutrients and health-related processes, with potential relevance for maintenance

  18. Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in

  19. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    Full Text Available Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation.To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren.A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506. Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330, fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation.Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%.Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%, and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin.Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of micronutrient deficiencies and local

  20. Micronutrient recommendations and policies in Spain: the cases of iodine, folic acid and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brito Garrfa

    Full Text Available Introducción: As part of the work carried out within the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA Network of Excellence in Spain, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with decision makers and relevant scientific institutions in the field of nutrition and public health. The information gathered was collated with national relevant official and unofficial documents and subsequently analysed. Aim: To describe the current situation about nutrition policy in Spain, with special focus on the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and the development of subsequent policies. 3 cases will be detailed: iodine, folic acid and vitamin D. Methods: Information from 9 interviews was contrasted with the available official and unofficial documents on micronutrients recommendations setting and subsequent policy applications to help the population to achieve their requirements. Results and discussion: Common topics and themes were identified in the interviews and desk research. They describe a heterogenic picture of isolated initiatives and timid measures regarding micronutrients recommendations and subsequent policy instruments. Several recommendations coexist but none of them is the result of an official request by the government or competent authority. Iodine, folic acid and vitamin D represent the past, the present and the future of public health policy measures on micronutrients in Spain. Despite of some examples, there exist a need for action. Conclusions: Current nutrition strategies are focused on obesity, with little room for micronutrients national measures despite of the opinion of many experts. Regardless of the several nutrients recommendations coexisting nowadays in Spain, there exist the need for a coordinated action in the field of micronutrients recommendations, fostered by the health and nutrition official authorities with financial support and clear terms of reference.

  1. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses dairy products are important sources of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se. The vitamin fraction of milk and dairy products is composed of lipophilic (A, D, E, and K) and hydrophilic (B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(8), B(9), B(12), and C) vitamins. Because of their hydrophobic properties, the lipophilic vitamins are mainly in the milk fat fraction (cream, butter). The hydrophilic vitamins are in the aqueous phase of milk. For one part of these vitamins, the concentrations described in the literature are not always homogenous and sometimes not in accordance between them; these discrepancies are due to the difficulty of the sample preparation and the use of appropriate methods for their quantification. However, there is no

  2. Requerimientos de macronutrientes y micronutrientes Requeriments of macronutrients and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ortiz Leyba

    2005-06-01

    between 25-30 Kcal/Kg/min is adequate for most critically ill patients. Carbohydrates intake must be of 5 g/kg/day maximum. Glucose plasma levels must be controlled in order to avoid hyperglycemia. With regards to fat intake, the maximum limit should be 1.5 g/kg/day. The recommended protein intake is 1.0-1.5 g/kg/day, according to the clinical situation characteristics. Special care must be taken with micronutrients intake, an issue that is many times undervalued. In this sense, there are data to consider some micronutrients such as Zn, CU, Mn, Cr, Se, Mo and some vitamins (A, B, C, and E of great importance for patients in a critical condition, although specific requirements for each one of them have not been established.

  3. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

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    Maaike J. Bruins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.

  4. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

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    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  5. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Silvana Gomes Benzecry

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence linking micronutrient deficiencies and malaria incidence arising mostly from P. falciparum endemic areas. We assessed the impact of micronutrient deficiencies on malaria incidence and vice versa in the Brazilian state of Amazonas.We evaluated children <10 years old living in rural communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from May 2010 to May 2011. All children were assessed for sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, including vitamin A, beta-carotene, zinc and iron serum levels at the beginning of the study (May 2010 and one year later (May 2011. Children were followed in between using passive surveillance for detection of symptomatic malaria. Those living in the study area at the completion of the observation period were reassessed for micronutrient levels. Univariate Cox-proportional Hazards models were used to assess whether micronutrient deficiencies had an impact on time to first P. vivax malaria episode. We included 95 children median age 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3-6.6, mostly males (60.0% and with high maternal illiteracy (72.6%. Vitamin A deficiencies were found in 36% of children, beta-carotene deficiency in 63%, zinc deficiency in 61% and iron deficiency in 51%. Most children (80% had at least one intestinal parasite. During follow-up, 16 cases of vivax malaria were diagnosed amongst 13 individuals. Micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with increased malaria incidence: vitamin A deficiency [Hazard ratio (HR: 1.51; P-value: 0.45]; beta-carotene [HR: 0.47; P-value: 0.19]; zinc [HR: 1.41; P-value: 0.57] and iron [HR: 2.31; P-value: 0.16]. Upon reevaluation, children with al least one episode of malaria did not present significant changes in micronutrient levels.Micronutrient serum levels were not associated with a higher malaria incidence nor the malaria episode influenced micronutrient levels. Future studies targeting larger populations to assess

  6. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzecry, Silvana Gomes; Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Vítor-Silva, Sheila; Salinas, Jorge Luis; de Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Marinho, Helyde Albuquerque; Paes, Ângela Tavares; de Siqueira, André Machado; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Leite, Heitor Pons

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence linking micronutrient deficiencies and malaria incidence arising mostly from P. falciparum endemic areas. We assessed the impact of micronutrient deficiencies on malaria incidence and vice versa in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated children <10 years old living in rural communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from May 2010 to May 2011. All children were assessed for sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, including vitamin A, beta-carotene, zinc and iron serum levels at the beginning of the study (May 2010) and one year later (May 2011). Children were followed in between using passive surveillance for detection of symptomatic malaria. Those living in the study area at the completion of the observation period were reassessed for micronutrient levels. Univariate Cox-proportional Hazards models were used to assess whether micronutrient deficiencies had an impact on time to first P. vivax malaria episode. We included 95 children median age 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3–6.6), mostly males (60.0%) and with high maternal illiteracy (72.6%). Vitamin A deficiencies were found in 36% of children, beta-carotene deficiency in 63%, zinc deficiency in 61% and iron deficiency in 51%. Most children (80%) had at least one intestinal parasite. During follow-up, 16 cases of vivax malaria were diagnosed amongst 13 individuals. Micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with increased malaria incidence: vitamin A deficiency [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; P-value: 0.45]; beta-carotene [HR: 0.47; P-value: 0.19]; zinc [HR: 1.41; P-value: 0.57] and iron [HR: 2.31; P-value: 0.16]). Upon reevaluation, children with al least one episode of malaria did not present significant changes in micronutrient levels. Conclusion Micronutrient serum levels were not associated with a higher malaria incidence nor the malaria episode influenced micronutrient levels. Future studies

  7. Phytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes in soybean as determined by interactions with micronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Olga; Wang, Zhengrui; Neumann, Günter

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanomaterials released into the environment exert extremely variable effects on living organisms. In this study, we used soybean ( Glycine max) to investigate early responses to seed exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, outer diameter 20-70 nm, inner diameter 5-10 nm, length of >2 μm). Soybean seeds were imbibed with deionised water (control) or MWCNT suspension (1000 mg L-1) and were analysed for MWCNT contamination using light microscopy. The seedlings vitality status was evaluated by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and measurement of oxidative stress indicators in the root tissue. Micronutrient (Zn, Mn, Cu) availability in different seedling organs was assessed and the effects of antioxidants, and micronutrient supplementation was investigated. Oxidative stress induction by MWCNTs was detectable in radicle tips, coincided with MWCNTs accumulation and was reverted by external application of proline as antioxidant and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) as cofactors for various enzymes involved in oxidative stress defence. Accordingly, SOD activity increased after Zn supplementation. During germination, the MWCNT treatments reduced Zn translocation from the cotyledons to the seedling and MWCNTs exhibited adsorption potential for Zn and Cu, which may be involved in internal micronutrients immobilisation. This study demonstrates for the first time that MWCNT phytotoxicity is linked with oxidative stress-related disturbances of micronutrient homeostasis.

  8. Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  9. The science and practice of micronutrient supplementations in nutritional anemia: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Mike, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia, affecting millions of people in all age groups worldwide. While inadequate access to food and nutrients can lead to anemia, patients with certain health status or medical conditions are also at increased risk of developing nutritional anemia. Iron, cobalamin, and folate are the most recognized micronutrients that are vital for the generation of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency is associated with insufficient production of hemoglobin. Deficiency of cobalamin or folate leads to impaired synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins, and cell division. Recent research has demonstrated that the status of copper and zinc in the body can significantly affect iron absorption and utilization. With an increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgical procedures, more cases of anemia associated with copper and zinc deficiencies have also emerged. The intestinal absorption of these 5 critical micronutrients are highly regulated and mediated by specific apical transport mechanisms in the enterocytes. Health conditions that persistently alter the histology of the upper intestinal architecture, expression, or function of these substrate-specific transporters, or the normal digestion and flow of these key micronutrients, can lead to nutritional anemia. The focus of this article is to review the science of intestinal micronutrient absorption, discuss the clinical assessment of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to anemia, and suggest an effective treatment plan and monitoring strategies using an evidence-based approach.

  10. Prevention of Mutation, Cancer, and Other Age-Associated Diseases by Optimizing Micronutrient Intake

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    Bruce N. Ames

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I review three of our research efforts which suggest that optimizing micronutrient intake will in turn optimize metabolism, resulting in decreased DNA damage and less cancer as well as other degenerative diseases of aging. (1 Research on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging, including release of mutagenic oxidants, by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. (2 The triage theory, which posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population accelerate molecular aging, including DNA damage, mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence for the theory, including an in-depth analysis of vitamin K that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. (3 The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km for coenzymes (or substrates can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to an age-related decline in membrane fluidity, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be compensated by a high dietary intake of any of the B vitamins, which increases the level of the vitamin-derived coenzyme. This dietary remediation illustrates the importance of understanding the effects of age and polymorphisms on optimal micronutrient requirements. Optimizing micronutrient intake could have a major effect on the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases of aging.

  11. Impact of micronutrient fortification of yoghurt on micronutrient status markers and growth - a randomized double blind controlled trial among school children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazawal, Sunil; Habib, A K M Ahsan; Dhingra, Usha; Dutta, Arup; Dhingra, Pratibha; Sarkar, Archana; Deb, Saikat; Alam, Jahangir; Husna, Asmaul; Black, Robert E

    2013-05-28

    Interventions providing foods fortified with multiple micronutrients can be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve micronutrient status and physical growth of school children. We evaluated the effect of micronutrient-fortified yoghurt on the biochemical status of important micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin A) as well as growth indicators among school children in Bogra district of Bangladesh. In a double-masked randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in 4 primary schools, 1010 children from classes 1-4 (age 6-9 years) were randomly allocated to receive either micronutrient fortified yoghurt (FY, n = 501) or non-fortified yoghurt (NFY, n = 509). For one year, children were fed with 60 g yoghurt everyday providing 30% RDA for iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. Anthropometric measurements and blood/urine samples were collected at base-, mid- and end-line. All children (FY, n = 278, NFY, n = 293) consenting for the end-line blood sample were included in the present analyses. Both groups were comparable at baseline for socio-economic status variables, micronutrient status markers and anthropometry measures. Compliance was similar in both the groups. At baseline 53.4% of the population was anemic; 2.1% was iron deficient (ferritin  8.3 mg/L). Children in the FY group showed improvement in Hb (mean difference: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.4-2.5; p = 0.006) as compared to NFY group. Retinol binding protein (mean diff: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.002-0.09; p = 0.04) and iodine levels (mean difference: 39.87; 95% CI: 20.39-59.35; p < 0.001) decreased between base and end-line but the decrease was significantly less in the FY group. Compared to NFY, the FY group had better height gain velocity (mean diff: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.05-0.60; p = 0.02) and height-for-age z-scores (mean diff: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-0.33; p = 0.03). There was no difference in weight gain velocity, weight-for-age z-scores or Body Mass Index z-scores. In the absence of iron

  12. The effects of regular consumption of a multiple micronutrient fortified milk beverage on the micronutrient status of school children and on their mental and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thankachan, Prashanth; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Srinivasan, K; Kamath-Jha, Shilpa; Vinoy, Sophie; Misra, Situn; Finnegan, Yvonne; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-02-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in school going children in India and bridging the gap between nutrient intake and requirements is an effective way to combat the deficiencies. This study aimed to test the effect of a multi-micronutrient fortified malt and cocoa based milk beverage on the micronutrient status, cognition, physical performance and nutritional deficiencies of 7-10 years old south Indian children. A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study design was used with normal healthy children from low to middle income families, aged 7-10 years randomly assigned to receive either a multi-micronutrient fortified or an unfortified milk based control drink. The drinks were provided 6 days/week for 5 months. Assessments included anthropometry, blood biochemistry, physical performance and cognition at baseline and endline. The baseline characteristics of the study groups were similar. The changes in body weight and height were similar between the groups at the end of the study. Levels of vitamin B12, red cell folate and vitamin B2 significantly improved in the intervention group, while vitamin D, selenium and body iron showed no difference. The Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin levels of the control group decreased at endline, while those in the intervention group maintained their levels. The serum transferrin receptor levels increased in both the groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency and Vitamin B2 deficiency were significantly lower in the intervention group at endline. Overall improvement in cognitive and physical performance was seen in both the groups at endline, with no significant differences between the groups. The micronutrient fortified milk based drink was efficacious in improving the micronutrient status of Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12 and red cell folate and in preventing a decline in Hb level compared to an unfortified milk based drink. It also reduced anemia and the risk of deficiencies of iron, and B12, in apparently healthy children

  13. Effects of humic acids (carbovit on phosphorus, bases and micronutrients of a molisol, with corn as an indicator plant (Zea mays L. Efectos de los ácidos húmicos (Carbovit sobre el fosforo, las bases y los micronutrientes de un molisol, utilizando como planta indicadora el maíz (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarin Sandra

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the influence of humic substances (Carbovit on phosphorus, bases exchanges and microelements of a Molisol, greenhouse essays were peñormed at the College of Agriculture of the National Universityof Colombia located in Santafé de Bogotá, during the second semester of 1992. The experiment was taken into plastic vases using com (Zea mays L. as an indicator plant until sixty days after sowing. Resutts show that the humic acid molecule acts as a transport of solouble fertilizers appliedto the soil. Besides, elements like phosphorus,
    iron, magnesium and zinc showed increased levels of those elements in solution in to the soil. It was also found an equilibrium activity among bases relation ship, altributed to the humic acid molecule.
    Con el objeto de establecer la influencia de los ácidos húmicos (Carbovit sobre el fósforo, las bases de cambio y los micro elementos de un suelo calcáreo (Molisol, se realizó un ensayo en los invernaderos de la Facultad de Agronomla de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, durante el segundo semestre de 1992. El experimento se llevo a cabo en materas
    plasticas utilizando como planta indicadora el maíz (Zea mays L. hasta los 60dlas después de siembra. Los resultados muestran que la molécula del ácido húmico actua como transportadora de los fertilizantes solubles aplicados al suelo. Además, elementos como el fósforo, hierro, magnesio y zinc se solubilizaron apreciablemente elevando los niveles de dichos elementos en la solución del suelo. También, se encontró una actividad equilibrante entre las relaciones de las bases, atribuida a la molecula del ácido húmico.

  14. 土壤、农作物中及家畜体内的微量营养元素%MICRONUTRIENTS IN SOILS, CROPS, AND LIVESTOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh C.Gupta; Wu Kening; Liang Siyuan

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems.Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants.As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants.Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels in

  15. Industrial processing of condiments and seasonings and its implications for micronutrient fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mejia, Elvira González; Aguilera-Gutiérrez, Yolanda; Martin-Cabrejas, Maria Angeles; Mejia, Luis A

    2015-11-01

    Opportunities exist for micronutrient fortification of condiments and seasonings to combat vitamin or mineral deficiencies. This paper reviews the available technologies for industrial processing of condiments and seasonings and their fortification with micronutrients. The industrial processes to manufacture commonly consumed condiments and seasonings, such as soy sauce, bouillon cubes, fish sauce, spices, and other relevant products, are described. The impact of processing on fortification is evaluated, considering both the type of vehicle and the fortificant used. The analyzed technologies represent effective strategies for mineral fortification, particularly with iodine and iron. However, fortification with vitamins has been more challenging, owing to sensory changes of the finished product and a poor stability of the fortificant when using certain vehicles. Therefore, more studies are needed in this area in collaboration with governments, the food industry, and vitamin suppliers. Despite the technical difficulties encountered, the current processing technologies for the production of condiments and seasonings can be adapted and refined to allow their successful fortification with micronutrients.

  16. Micronutrient adequacy and morbidity: paucity of information in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoendorfer, Niikee; Boyd, Roslyn; Davies, Peter S W

    2010-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to investigate the status of vitamins and minerals in children with cerebral palsy and the implications of various deficiencies on health outcomes. Children with cerebral palsy commonly have feeding difficulties, which significantly impact their growth, general health, and life expectancy. Current nutritional literature focuses on energy expenditure, with little information available on other parameters, such as micronutrient status. Due to the paucity of micronutrient research in these children, the impacts of deficiencies and benefits in other populations have been considered. The role of micronutrients in maintaining cellular homeostasis throughout all body systems highlights a need for future research and monitoring of their levels, particularly in vulnerable populations with well-documented incidence of undernutrition.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of catering wastes: effect of micronutrients and retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climenhaga, M A; Banks, C J

    2008-01-01

    Source-separated foodwastes collected from a campus catering facility were processed in bench-scale single-stage anaerobic digesters. The feedstock contained a varied mix of fruits, vegetables, meats and fried foods. A constant organic loading rate (OLR) was maintained with differing hydraulic retention times (HRT). Regular addition of trace elements or prolonged retention time allowed stable digestion at high total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) levels. Reactors on HRT of 25, 50, and 100 days with no micronutrient supplementation exhibited methanogenic failure after approximately 40, 100 and 90 days respectively, while duplicate reactors with micronutrient supplementation maintained stable digestion. An extended HRT of 180 days has so far allowed continued digestion (for reactors with and without micronutrient supplementation) at levels of ammonia nitrogen exceeding 5.7 g l(-1) and volatile fatty acid levels exceeding 15 g l(-1), usually considered inhibitory or toxic.

  18. Follicular fluid high density lipoprotein-associated micronutrient levels are associated with embryo fragmentation during IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Richard W; Bloom, Michael S; Shelly, Wendy B; Ocque, Andrew J; Huddleston, Heather G; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether follicular fluid lipid-soluble micronutrients are associated with embryo morphology parameters during IVF. Follicle fluid and oocytes were obtained prospectively from 81 women. Embryo morphology parameters were used as surrogate markers of oocyte health. HDL lipids and lipid-soluble micronutrients were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Non-parametric bi-variate analysis and multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were employed to examine associations between biochemical and embryo morphology parameters. Follicular fluid HDL cholesterol (r = -0.47, p fragmentation. Ordinal logistic regression models indicate that a 0.1 mumol/L increase in beta-cryptoxanthine, adjusted for gamma-tocopherol, is associated with a 75% decrease in the cumulative odds of higher embryo fragmentation (p = 0.010). Follicular fluid HDL micronutrients may play an important role in the development of the human oocyte as evident by embryo fragmentation during IVF.

  19. Micronutrient deficiencies in early childhood can lower a country's GDP: The Myanmar example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is a developing country in South East Asia. While Myanmar is among the 20 countries where 80% of the world's malnourished children live, its military consumes the majority of the national budget. Children who are malnourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired physical and mental development, which adversely affects the country's productivity and growth. Myanmar is facing three major micronutrient deficiencies which are iodine, iron and vitamin A deficiencies. The three micronutrient deficiencies can cost about 2.4% of the country's GDP. Children are the future of Myanmar and persistent micronutrient deficiencies will hamper its economic growth and lower its GDP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design: A cross...... in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total...... nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age...

  1. Micronutrient intake in relation to all-cause mortality in a prospective Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja Viendahl; Christensen, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have considered source-specific micronutrient intake in relation to mortality under the consideration that dietary and supplemental intake could exhibit different effects. Objective: To evaluate the association between intake of vitamin C, E, folate, beta-carotene from diet...... and supplements, and overall mortality. Furthermore, to examine effect modification by smoking, alcohol intake, and BMI and to investigate if the effect of supplement use differs with dietary micronutrient intake. Methods and Material: In a prospective cohort study of 55,453 middle-aged Danes, information...... regarding diet, supplement use, and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. During follow-up, 6,767 deaths were identified and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of mortality related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The present study found no effect...

  2. Adequate dosing of micronutrients for different age groups in the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienz, Denise; Cori, Hector; Hornig, Dietrich

    2003-09-01

    Many studies of micronutrient supplementation in developing countries have used single-nutrient supplements with either vitamins or minerals. However, people in these countries often suffer from multiple, rather than single, micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this paper is to discuss the factors that go into determining the adequate dosing of vitamins and/or minerals for people of different ages. To elaborate on the adequacy of micronutrient doses in supplements, a model described by the US FNB was used, which calculates the difference between the mean observed intake for an individual and the estimated average requirement for a life stage and gender group. This model allows estimating the degree of confidence that a certain nutrient intake (from supplements and diet) is adequate. The US/Canadian DRI values have been used as the basis for these calculations, from which it can be concluded that a daily supplement of one RDA of each micronutrient is adequate to cover the personal requirements of all individuals in each respective age and gender group of the population, provided that 20 to 40% of an RDA is supplied by the diet--likely a realistic value for developing countries. DRI values vary significantly between different age groups, reflecting changing needs over a life cycle. With the objective of a supplement to be adequate and safe, the design of a one-for-all supplement covering all age groups is not realistic. Such a supplement would either underscore or surpass the required intake of some of the age groups. Additionally the dosage of certain micronutrients might exceed the upper level of intake for lower age groups. Therefore, it is suggested that three different supplements following the one RDA concept for all micronutrients be developed for research use in developing countries for the following age groups; 1 to 3 years, 4 to 13 years, and females > 14 years (excluding during pregnancy).

  3. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  4. [Advances in the knowledge of the use of micronutrients in artificial nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz García, M; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrients are defined as those compounds necessary for the adequate physiological status of the organism and that may be administered through the daily diet either enteral or parenteral. The term micronutrient encompasses the vitamins and oligoelements, also termed trace elements. Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the organism and are categorized in two groups: water-soluble vitamins (the vitamin B group, C, folic acid, and biotin) and lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Oligoelements are found in small amounts in the human body, and copper, cobalt, chrome, iron, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc are considered to be essential. The important role of micronutrients in critically-ill patients has been demonstrated, and their influence on the immune system, cancer, burnt, septic, and poly-traumatized patients has extensively been put in evidence. It is important to establish the micronutrients demands for each individual in order to achieve an adequate intake. However, there is little evidence on the necessary intake to achieve proper physiological functioning under different pathologies; therefore, studies bringing light to this situation are needed. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge on micronutrients supplementation in the adult population with pathologies such as cancer, coronary and cardiovascular disease, bowel inflammatory disease, short-bowel syndrome, cystic fibrosis, liver disease, renal failure, respiratory failure, the surgical patient, big-burnt patient, pancreatitis, poly-traumatized patients, sepsis and HIV. After the bibliographical search, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding micronutrients intake in artificial nutrition under the above-mentioned pathologies.

  5. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Hummelen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use.

  6. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046

  7. Effect of micronutrient and probiotic fortified yogurt on immune-function of anti-retroviral therapy naive HIV patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); J. Changalucha (John); N.L. Butamanya (Nicodemus); S. Hekmat (Sharareh); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving t

  8. Impact of multi-micronutrient supplementation on growth and morbidity of HIV-infected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van J.M.A.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory

  9. Micronutrients reduce stress and anxiety in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder following a 7.1 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia; Johnstone, Jeanette; Harrison, Rachel; Boggis, Anna

    2011-09-30

    The role of good nutrition for resilience in the face of stress is a topic of interest, but difficult to study. A 7.1 earthquake took place in the midst of research on a micronutrient treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), providing a unique opportunity to examine whether individuals with ADHD taking micronutrients demonstrated more emotional resilience post-earthquake than individuals with ADHD not taking micronutrients. Thirty-three adults with ADHD were assessed twice following the earthquake using a measure of depression, anxiety and stress also completed at some point pre-earthquake (baseline). Seventeen were not taking micronutrients at the time of the earthquake (control group), 16 were (micronutrient group). While there were no between-group differences one week post-quake (Time 1), at two weeks post-quake (Time 2), the micronutrient group reported significantly less anxiety and stress than the controls (effect size 0.69). These between group differences could not be explained by other variables, such as pre-earthquake measures of emotions, demographics, psychiatric status, and personal loss or damage following the earthquake. The results suggest that micronutrients may increase resilience to ongoing stress and anxiety associated with a highly stressful event in individuals with ADHD and are consistent with controlled studies showing benefit of micronutrients for mental health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of soil applications of micro-nutrients and chelating agent citric acid on mineral nutrients in soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micro-nutrients deficiency in soil result in crop yield loss and poor seed quality. Correcting this deficiency is normally conducted by foliar or soil application. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of soil applications of five micro-nutrients (Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and B) with a ...

  11. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements

  12. Effect of micronutrient and probiotic fortified yogurt on immune-function of anti-retroviral therapy naive HIV patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); J. Changalucha (John); N.L. Butamanya (Nicodemus); S. Hekmat (Sharareh); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving t

  13. Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron...

  14. Investigate of Rates and Time of Applying Micronutrients Fertilizer on Traits Quality and Quantity of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    heshmat omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is one of the oilseed crops adaption on a wide range circumstance of Iran edaphic, which deficiency of micronutrients cause in its quality and quantity yield. To assign the effect of amount and utility period of micronutrients fertilizer on grain yield, yield components and characters of oil quality of safflower var Mexi141 an experiment by factorial base Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with three replications was carried out. The factors were including foliar spraying of micronutrients fertilizer at four levels (1-Without consuming of micronutrients fertilizer or Control (F1, apply 2.5 (F2, apply 3 (F3 and 4.5 (F4 Kg.ha-1, and time of utilization (T1= 3, T2=4 and T3=5 weeks fertilizer after silique formation arranged to plots. Results showed that the traits of start and end flowering, flowering period, the height of first reproductive branch (silique, number of lateral branch, number of grain per siliqe, siliqe diameter, grain yield, oil content and unsaturated fatty acids profile of oil were affected under rates and time of foliar spraying micronutrients fertilizer and its interaction. With rising consume of rates micronutrients fertilizer, the grain yield increased and the uppermost of its (1792.1 kg ha-1 achieved in foliar spraying of 3 kg ha-1 micronutrients fertilizer during four weeks after siliqe formation. Rate of fertilizer on unsaturated fatty acids content of oil had effect, in which the greatest amount of mono band fatty acid of oleic acid (18:1 (15.92 % were gets without using of micronutrients or foliar spraying of at least of micronutrients fertilizer., also the highest amount (75.97 % of diband fatty acid of linoleic acid (18:2 with using 4.5 kg.ha-1 of micronutrients, and the most of multiple band fatty acid (0.29 % of linolenic acid (18:3 was obtained with consuming 3 kg.ha-1 of micronutrients fertilizer. Interaction effect of micronutrients fertilizer and time application of

  15. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eLópez-Rayo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing Fe, Mn, and Zn with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, EDDHAm or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, IDHA and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate. The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  16. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Nadal, Paloma; Lucena, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, and EDDHAm) or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, and IDHA) and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate). The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  17. Essential and Beneficial Trace Elements in Plants, and Their Transport in Roots: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Filiz, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The essentiality of 14 mineral elements so far have been reported in plant nutrition. Eight of these elements were known as micronutrients due to their lower concentrations in plants (usually ≤100 mg/kg/dw). However, it is still challenging to mention an exact number of plant micronutrients since some elements have not been strictly proposed yet either as essential or beneficial. Micronutrients participate in very diverse metabolic processes, including from the primary and secondary metabolism to the cell defense, and from the signal transduction to the gene regulation, energy metabolism, and hormone perception. Thus, the attempt to understand the molecular mechanism(s) behind their transport has great importance in terms of basic and applied plant sciences. Moreover, their deficiency or toxicity also caused serious disease symptoms in plants, even plant destruction if not treated, and many people around the world suffer from the plant-based dietary deficiencies or metal toxicities. In this sense, shedding some light on this issue, the 13 mineral elements (Fe, B, Cu, Mn, Mo, Si, Zn, Ni, Cl, Se, Na, Al, and Co), required by plants at trace amounts, has been reviewed with the primary focus on the transport proteins (transporters/channels) in plant roots. So, providing the compiled but extensive information about the structural and functional roles of micronutrient transport genes/proteins in plant roots.

  18. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium recip

  19. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  20. Optimizing nitrification in biological rapid sand filters: Diagnosing and supplementing micronutrients needed for proper filter performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    Nitrification is an important biological process commonly used in biological drinking water filters to remove ammonium from drinking water. Recent research has shown that a lack of micronutrients could be limiting the performance of these filters. Because nitrification is a biological process, ca...... to be an important diagnostic tool that could decrease regulatory hurdles, and save time and money....

  1. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive d

  2. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and micronutrient status among young children from Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Chen, Gaoyun; Sylla, Abdoulaye; Routledge, Michael N; Gong, Yun Yun

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin exposure coincides with micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. Animal feeding studies have postulated that aflatoxin exposure may be exacerbating micronutrient deficiencies. Evidence available in human subjects is limited and inconsistent. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and micronutrient status among young Guinean children. A total of 305 children (28.8 ± 8.4 months) were recruited at groundnut harvest (rainy season), of which 288 were followed up 6 months later postharvest (dry season). Blood samples were collected at each visit. Aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels were measured by ELISA. Vitamin A, vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were measured using HPLC methods. Zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Aflatoxin exposure and micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent in this population and were influenced by season, with levels increasing between harvest and postharvest. At harvest, children in the highest aflatoxin exposure group, compared to the lowest, were 1.98 (95%CI: 1.00, 3.92) and 3.56 (95%CI: 1.13, 11.15) times more likely to be zinc and vitamin A deficient. Although children with high aflatoxin exposure levels were more likely to be zinc and vitamin A deficient, further research is necessary to determine a cause and effect relationship. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Micronutrients-incorporated calcium phosphate particles with protective effect on osteoporotic bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zhang, L; Yang, X; Li, Z; Sun, X; Lin, M; Yang, G; Gou, Z

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation of individual micronutrient is inadequate for maintaining bone function because single micronutrient can not contribute significantly a positive remodeling balance. We developed the highly integrated, stably dietary multi-micronutrients with good bioavailability and low adverse effect on the improvement of bone consolidation in osteoporosis. The trace element-codoped calcium phosphate (teCaP) particles were prepared in the modified body fluid and carefully evaluated. Rats, aged 3 months, were ovariectomized and when 6 month intervened with the conditioned, low, moderate, and high teCaP diets. The teCaP particles showed highly dissolvable in stomach juice-mimicing acidic solutions. Three months after intervention, the body weight increase showed remarkable differences among the low teCaP diet (~52 g), moderate teCaP diet (~34 g) and high teCaP diet (~23 g) group. In particular, the intake of moderate teCaP greatly improved the retention of trace elements in femural bone for better protection against the skeletal weakening, and resulted in a significant increase of bone mineral density (104.06%) in comparison with the conventional high calcium plus vitamin D3 diet (Control group). These investigations improve our understanding of micronutrient retention on bone consolidation in osteoporotic bone tissue, and also provide new mild wet-chemical approach to prepare potent nutritionally effective edible complements to synergistically relieve bone degeneration and prevent osteoporosis.

  4. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of

  5. The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwalla, Nahla; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha Salem; Radwan, Hadia; Alfawaz, Hanan Abdullah; Fouda, Mona A.; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammed; Zaghloul, Sahar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government-sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East. PMID:28273802

  6. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive

  7. Estimation of micronutrient intake distributions: development of methods to support food and nutrition policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.

    2011-01-01


    Introduction
    Adequate and safe micronutrient intake is important. Both insufficient and excessive intakes should be prevented as these can be associated with negative health effects. Therefore, the population intake distribution will ideally lay between insufficient and excessive intake

  8. Physiological and public health basis for assessing micronutrient requirements in children and adolescents. The EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesia, I.; Doets, E.L.; Bel-Serrat, S.; Roman, B.; Hermoso, M.; Quintana, X.; Rosario Garcia-Luzardo, Del M.; Santana-Salguero, B.; Garcia-Santos, Y.; Vucic, V.; Frost Andersen, L.; Perez-Rodrigo, C.; Aranceta, J.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Decsi, T.; Serra-Majem, L.; Gurinovic, M.; Cetin, I.; Koletzko, B.; Moreno, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge relating to the nutritional requirements and corresponding recommended nutrient intake values of children and adolescents for micronutrients and specificities related to these requirements in the course of childhood and adolescence in Europe.

  9. Effects of Micronutrients during Pregnancy and Early Infancy on Mental and Psychomotor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Bleichrodt, N.; Dekker, P.H.; Born, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The questions that are addressed in this chapter concern the extent to which a shortage of iodine and iron during fetal and infant development impairs mental development and the extent to which this impairment can be redressed by increasing the intake of these micronutrients

  10. Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among Bhutanese refugee children--Nepal, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    Acute and chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies have been found in refugee camp populations. In southeastern Nepal, despite consistent access by refugees to general rations, certain micronutrient deficiencies have posed a substantial health burden to the approximately 100,000 Bhutanese residing in seven refugee camps. Limited food diversity, frequent illness, and poor feeding practices have been cited as underlying causes of poor nutritional status in this population. Annual surveys to assess levels of acute malnutrition (i.e., wasting) and chronic malnutrition (i.e., stunting) have been conducted in these camps by the Association of Medical Doctors of Asia (AMDA) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); however, the capacity to reliably evaluate micronutrient deficiencies has not existed locally in the camps. In January 2007, AMDA and CDC, at the request of UNHCR and the World Food Programme (WFP), conducted a nutritional survey of children aged 6-59 months, assessing 1) the prevalence of acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition, underweight, anemia, and angular stomatitis (i.e., riboflavin deficiency); 2) the cumulative incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory illness (ARI); and 3) the feeding practices of the children's mothers. This report describes the results of that survey, which indicated that, although acute malnutrition was found in only 4.2% of the children, chronic malnutrition was found in 26.9% and anemia in 43.3%. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring both malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies and addressing the underlying causes of nutritional deficits.

  11. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium recip

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Genotype on Rice Grain Macronutrients and Micronutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhao-miao; NING Hui-feng; BI Jun-guo; QIAO Jiang-fang; LIU Zheng-hui; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2014-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) input features China’s intensive rice production system. To elucidate N and genotype effects on accumulation of macronutrients and micronutrients in grains of japonica rice, and to discuss its significance in rice production, a three-year field experiment involving six japonica rice varieties and seven N treatments were performed. Macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) concentrations in brown and milled rice were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For macronutrients, no consistently significant effect of N was detected in both brown and milled rice. For micronutrients, N showed significant effect, especially in lowering Zn accumulation in brown and milled rice. In addition, N tended to increase Fe concentration in milled rice. Genotype showed larger effect on distribution of minerals in milled rice than N. The high-yielding variety, Wuyunjing 7, accumulated larger proportion of Mg, K, and Zn in the milled rice as compared with the other five varieties, and could be of value for rice breeding programs aiming at high nutritional quality. The results demonstrated differences in response to N between macronutrients and micronutrients, and are of significance for coping with‘hidden hunger’ both in humans and crops through agronomical practices.

  13. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  14. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium

  15. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2010-01-01

    A number of trials on maternal multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMS) have found a benefical effect on birth weight, but few have demonstrated a beneficial effect on infant survival. We examined the effect of two different preparations of antenatal MMS on fetal loss and under-2-years child...

  16. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and...

  17. Current information gaps in micronutrient research, programs and policy: how can we fill them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient (MN) interventions have a very positive effect on public health and have been a major focus of nutrition research and policy for over 3 decades. Most MN policies are established by the World Health Organization based on available evidence from well-designed trials. These include recomm...

  18. [Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvy, D

    1999-01-01

    In tropical zones, uncertain living conditions, inadequate food intake, and poor medical facilities enhance unnecessary morbidity and mortality especially involving infants and young children. In addition to protein-caloric malnutrition, deficiencies in essential micronutrients have a specific health impact. Such deficiencies can be the direct cause of disease such as vitamin A deficiency and blindness or have a promoting effect by compromising immune status and increasing susceptibility to and severity of infectious diseases especially of viral origin. The promoting effect of micronutrient deficiency plays a significant role in measles, rotavirus-related diarrhea, and, to a certain extent, progression of HIV infection. Several examples are described to illustrate the relationship between tropical viral infection and micronutrients including vitamin A, selenium, and various other antioxidants. These examples highlight the effect of infectious disease on micronutritional status (vitamin A and measles) and the need to develop reliable, practical tools to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of dietary supplementation. In any case, improving living conditions and health programs such as the Expanded Vaccination Program are required and illustrate a transverse approach for prevention of infectious and non-infectious tropical disease. The relationship between micronutrients and infection is only one aspect of the multifactorial reality that must be dealt with in tropical medicine.

  19. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species = Zware metalen tolerantie en accumulatie in Thlaspi caerulescens, een zware metalen hyperaccumulerende plantensoort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  20. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species = Zware metalen tolerantie en accumulatie in Thlaspi caerulescens, een zware metalen hyperaccumulerende plantensoort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  1. Study Protocol for a Randomized Double Blind, Treatment Control Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Micronutrient Formula to a Single Vitamin Supplement in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Retallick-Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent addition of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (5th ed. has highlighted the seriousness of this disorder. Many alternatives to psychoactive medication in the form of vitamins, minerals, and plant extracts have been trialled by women seeking a natural treatment approach. We plan to explore whether a well validated micronutrient formula, EMPowerplus Advanced, can outperform a recognized single nutrient treatment, vitamin B6, for the treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS. Methods: This will be a randomized treatment control study. Eighty women will be recruited and assigned to one of two treatment groups; EMPowerplus Advanced or vitamin B6. Baseline daily data will be collected for an initial two cycles, followed by three months of active treatment. A natural follow up will take place three cycles post treatment. Results: The primary outcome measure will be PMS change scores as based on results from the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP. The number of treatment responders for each of the two groups will yield a comparison score between the two treatments, with participants deemed as a responder if they show a total PMS score improvement of 50% from their baseline scores on the DRSP. Conclusion: If a micronutrient formula proves more effective for treating PMS, not only does it give women suffering from the condition a viable treatment option, but it may also suggest one cause of PMS; that is insufficient minerals and vitamins.

  2. Providing micronutrients through food-based solutions: a key to human and national development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demment, Montague W; Young, Michelle M; Sensenig, Ryan L

    2003-11-01

    To alleviate poverty in developing countries, economies must grow. Without the necessary investments in human capital, national economic growth may not lead to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic development, nor be sustainable. Economic growth that leads to poverty alleviation is fueled by the creative and physical capacities of people. The impact of micronutrient malnutrition is established early in life, leading to growth stunting, lower cognitive abilities, lethargy and poor attention, and greater severity and rates of infection. These effects limit educational progress, physical work capacity and life expectancy, thereby reducing individual lifetime productivity and the aggregate ability of the population to enhance its well-being and participate in national and global markets. The diets of the poor are largely cereal-based, monotonous and lacking in diversity and micronutrients. Animal source foods (ASF) have been an important factor in human evolution, a component of what was an historically diverse diet and an important source of micronutrients. Poverty and micronutrient malnutrition positively influence each other. This poverty micronutrient malnutrition (PMM) trap requires outside inputs to change the state of development in developing countries. Nutrition interventions have been excellent investments in development. More productive interaction between agricultural scientists and nutritionists, supported by a strong federal agenda for development, is needed to break the PMM trap. In the end, food is the means by which nutrients are delivered. Food-based approaches will require long-term commitments, but are more likely to be sustainable because they are part of a development process that leads to long-term economic growth.

  3. Antioxidant Micronutrients and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Flávia Moraes [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sbruzzi, Graciele [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schaan, Beatriz D' Agord [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de, E-mail: jussara.carnevale@gmail.com [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/ or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of > 300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 μmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.

  4. Associations between micronutrient intakes and gut microbiota in a group of adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Krause, Lutz; Somerset, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves chronic inflammation and oxidative stress affecting mainly the respiratory and digestive systems. Survival rates for CF have improved with advances in treatment including nutritional interventions such as micronutrient supplementation. Diet can modulate gut microbiota in the general population with consequences on local and systemic immunity, and inflammation. The gut microbiota appears disrupted and may associate with pulmonary status in CF. This study investigated associations between micronutrient intakes and gut microbiota variations in a group of adults with CF. Faecal microbiota of sixteen free-living adults with CF was profiled by 16ss rDNA sequencing on the GS-FLX platform. Associations were tested between UniFrac distances of faecal microbiota and time-corresponding micronutrient intakes. Associations between relative abundances of bacterial taxa and micronutrient intakes (those showing significant associations with UniFrac distances) were examined by Spearman correlation. Unweighted UniFrac distances were associated with intakes of potassium and antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene equivalents, whereas weighted UniFrac distances were associated with antioxidant vitamins riboflavin, niacin equivalents, beta-carotene equivalents and vitamin A equivalents. Intakes of beta-carotene equivalents, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin equivalents and riboflavin correlated negatively with Bacteroides and/or its corresponding higher level taxa. Intakes of beta-carotene equivalents and vitamin E also positively correlated with Firmicutes and specific taxa belonging to Firmicutes. Some micronutrients, particularly antioxidant vitamins, correlated with gut microbiota variations in the studied cohort. Further research is required to clarify whether antioxidant vitamin intakes can influence CF gut microbiota and potential clinical/therapeutic implications in CF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  5. Micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt for HIV-infected adults taking HAART in London, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Jaimie Caitlin; Hekmat, Sharareh; Reid, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus has devastating effects worldwide. The burden is less pronounced, but still present in Canada where approximately 64,000 men and women are HIV positive. The virus and the life-saving antiretroviral therapies often contribute to diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disturbances. Certain probiotic organisms, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, have been shown to alleviate diarrhea as well as delay the decline of CD4 lymphocytes in some subjects. In addition, micronutrient formulae have been used extensively among HIV positive persons as a cost-effective method for improving quality of life and immune function. The objective of the present study was to combine probiotics and micronutrients into an affordable and highly palatable nutritional supplement and assess outcomes in 21 HIV-positive participants receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in London, Ontario, Canada. The design was a randomized, double blind, three-period, cross-over controlled trial with three different formulations of supplemented yogurt; micronutrient and probiotic (A), micronutrient alone (B) and probiotic alone (C). The period of intake for each of the types was 30 days with a 14 day wash-out period between the intervention types. The mean increase in CD4 was greatest with B (41 cells/µL, SD 221). Supplement A showed a mean change of +19 cells/µL (SD 142) and supplement C a mean change of - 7 cells/µL (SD 154). All yogurt types caused an increase in subjective energy and ability to perform daily activity scores. According to the safety measures taken to assess the tolerance of the yogurt, there were no adverse events and the yogurt was well-tolerated. These preliminary findings suggest that micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt may support immune function among people living with HIV.

  6. Micronutrient supplementation improves physical performance measures in Asian Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Pauline, Maria; Unni, Uma S; Parikh, Panam; Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, A V; Avadhany, Sandhya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrients are important in physical work capacity and therefore performance. The impact of a multi-micronutrient-fortified nutritional beverage on physical performance measures among clinically healthy school-age children was assessed in a double-blind (for test and placebo groups), placebo-controlled, randomized trial in children aged between 7 and 10.5 y (n = 300). The participants with height- and weight-for-age Z-scores between 0 and ≥ -3 were randomized to 1 of 3 study arms: fortified choco-malt beverage powder (F), matched energy equivalent unfortified placebo (U), and untreated control (C). Participants in the F and C groups were given 40 g fortified (19 key vitamins and minerals) and unfortified choco-malt beverage, respectively, daily for 120 d. Primary efficacy outcomes included endurance and aerobic capacity using a 20-m shuttle test and step test. Other physical performance measures included speed (40-m sprint), visual reaction time, maximal hand grip, and forearm static endurance. Micronutrient status included thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, iron, pyridoxal phosphate, and vitamins B-12 and C. All measurements were made at baseline and the end of the intervention. There was a within-subject increase in aerobic capacity and whole body endurance (P < 0.05) accompanied by a significant improvement in the status of iron thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate, folate, and vitamins C and B-12 in the F group compared to the within-subject changes in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). The study suggests that multiple micronutrient supplementation in similar populations may be beneficial in improving micronutrient status and enhancing aerobic capacity and endurance in children.

  7. Plant macro- and micronutrient dynamics in a biochar-amended wetland muck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drainage of Histosols (mucks) in the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) has resulted in extensive subsidence. Decreases in profile thickness threatens long-term agricultural sustainability of the EAA. We hypothesized that biochars could bolster sustainability of these mucks by rebuilding th...

  8. Influence of soil amendments and soil properties on macro– and micronutrient availability to microorganisms and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezanian Bajgiran, Atefeh

    2013-01-01

    Utilising by-products from industrial and domestic activities and from bioenergy production is one of the new ways of recovering and re-using nutrient resources in agriculture. However, these by-products can potentially add toxic elements or alter soil properties in ways that harm the soil and related environments. This thesis investigated the efficacy and potential adverse effects of using organic (biogas digestate, pot ale) and inorganic (rockdust, wood ash) by-products as amendments on the...

  9. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  10. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-15

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller.

  11. Impact of micronutrient fortification of yoghurt on micronutrient status markers and growth – a randomized double blind controlled trial among school children in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions providing foods fortified with multiple micronutrients can be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve micronutrient status and physical growth of school children. We evaluated the effect of micronutrient-fortified yoghurt on the biochemical status of important micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin A) as well as growth indicators among school children in Bogra district of Bangladesh. Methods In a double-masked randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in 4 primary schools, 1010 children from classes 1–4 (age 6–9 years) were randomly allocated to receive either micronutrient fortified yoghurt (FY, n = 501) or non-fortified yoghurt (NFY, n = 509). For one year, children were fed with 60 g yoghurt everyday providing 30% RDA for iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. Anthropometric measurements and blood/urine samples were collected at base-, mid- and end-line. All children (FY, n = 278, NFY, n = 293) consenting for the end-line blood sample were included in the present analyses. Results Both groups were comparable at baseline for socio-economic status variables, micronutrient status markers and anthropometry measures. Compliance was similar in both the groups. At baseline 53.4% of the population was anemic; 2.1% was iron deficient (ferritin  8.3 mg/L). Children in the FY group showed improvement in Hb (mean difference: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.4-2.5; p = 0.006) as compared to NFY group. Retinol binding protein (mean diff: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.002-0.09; p = 0.04) and iodine levels (mean difference: 39.87; 95% CI: 20.39-59.35; p < 0.001) decreased between base and end-line but the decrease was significantly less in the FY group. Compared to NFY, the FY group had better height gain velocity (mean diff: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.05-0.60; p = 0.02) and height-for-age z-scores (mean diff: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-0.33; p = 0.03). There was no difference in weight gain velocity, weight-for-age z-scores or Body Mass Index z

  12. The Distribution of Macro- and Micronutrients in Maize Within Separated Digestate Fertilizing (Digestate Fibre and Digestate Luquor: Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current increase in the number of biogas plants, huge amounts of digestate, i.e. waste products, are being generated. The common practice in the Czech Republic is to plough the digestate into the land. In our field trial, we compared the fertilizing effects of standard fertilizers applied in the Czech Republic with digestate as the only fertilizer (e.g. digestate fibre and digestate liquor in real agricultural conditions to find out whether a comparable amount of nitrogen is used in accordance with European legislation. The impact of separated digestate fibre and separated liquor on the soil fertility and quality was observed on the basis of the distribution of macro- and micronutrients in maize. The evaluation of growth increments in maize suggests that the fertilizing effects of digestate liquor or digestate fibre do not match the standard fertilizer in agriculture, but especially digestate liquor is comparable with other mineral fertilizers. Our field trial also shows that digestate liquor is a better fertilizer than digestate fibre, which may be explained by more appropriate ratios of available nutrients in digestate liquor. Digestate fibre may be recommended mainly for the aeration of clayey soil, but is not sustainable as fertilizer.

  13. [Effects of lower concentrations of Cd on micronutrients uptake and production of phytochelatins (PCs) in Ceratophyllum demersum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Li-Ya; Sun, Qin

    2009-04-15

    A solution experiment with a range of lower cadmium concentrations (0.01-0.64 micromol/L) was conducted to study micronutrients uptake and production of phytochelatins (PCs) in a submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum after exposure for 7 d, 14 d, 21 d. The results showed the uptake of Cu, Zn in Ceratophyllum demersum was promoted when exposed to lower concentrations of cadmium, whereas Mn uptake was inhibited. Unlike Cu, Zn and Mn, the content of Fe was unaffected by Cd uptake. Our data showed that Ceratophyllum demersum had stronger Cd tolerance and obvious absorption and cumulative effects to external lower concentrations of Cd exposure. The inhibition of growth was observed after 21 d in 0.08 micromol/L Cd. The production of PCs was significantly induced by 0.02-0.64 micromol/L Cd for 7 d (p < 0.05), while declined after exposure for 14 d, 21 d. The good dose-related response of PCs was observed in manner of linear for 7 d and parabola for 14 d and 21 d. Regressive analysis showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between PC contents and Cd toxicity in Ceratophyllum demersum. The results suggested that PCs could be a sensitive biomarker for estimating Cd phytotoxicity and subsequently a qualitative tool for studies on Cd contamination.

  14. Micronutrient fortification of food and its impact on woman and child health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamins and minerals are essential for growth and metabolism. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 billion people are deficient in key vitamins and minerals. Groups most vulnerable to these micronutrient deficiencies are pregnant and lactating women and young children, given their increased demands. Food fortification is one of the strategies that has been used safely and effectively to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Methods A comprehensive search was done to identify all available evidence for the impact of fortification interventions. Studies were included if food was fortified with a single, dual or multiple micronutrients and impact of fortification was analyzed on the health outcomes and relevant biochemical indicators of women and children. We performed a meta-analysis of outcomes using Review Manager Software version 5.1. Results Our systematic review identified 201 studies that we reviewed for outcomes of relevance. Fortification for children showed significant impacts on increasing serum micronutrient concentrations. Hematologic markers also improved, including hemoglobin concentrations, which showed a significant rise when food was fortified with vitamin A, iron and multiple micronutrients. Fortification with zinc had no significant adverse impact on hemoglobin levels. Multiple micronutrient fortification showed non-significant impacts on height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores, although they showed positive trends. The results for fortification in women showed that calcium and vitamin D fortification had significant impacts in the post-menopausal age group. Iron fortification led to a significant increase in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age and pregnant women. Folate fortification significantly reduced the incidence of congenital abnormalities like neural tube defects without increasing the incidence of twinning. The number of studies pooled for zinc and

  15. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to

  16. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni M W Maunder

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1-8.9 years of age in South Africa.Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818 was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS. A dietary diversity score (DDS using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined.Added sugar intake varied from 7.5-10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1-3 years (Q1 to 19.3% in Q4 (4-8 years. Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%, cool drinks (squash type (10.4% and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%. Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1-3 years, phosphorus, iron (4-8 years, magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4-8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2-29.8% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7-17.3% in Q1, p = 0.0063].Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was increased with higher added sugar intakes in the 4-8 year old

  17. Effect and mechanism of micronutrient compound on swimming endurance in mice with nutritional deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-quan WU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the anti-fatigue effect and possible mechanisms of micronutrient compound. Methods One hundred and twenty-five male Kunming mice (SPF were fed following different feeding stuffs: sufficient feed, i.e. AIN-93M feed (corn starch 46.6%, casein 14%, dextrinized corn starch 15.5%, sucrose 10%, soybean oil 4%, fiber 5%, mineral mix 3.5%, vitamin mix 1%, L-cystine 0.18%, choline chloride 0.138% and tert-butylhydroquinone 8 ppm; insufficient feed (composed the same ingredients as the AIN-93M diet, replacing 30%, 50% or 70% of the content of mineral and vitamin mix with corn starch; compound micronutrient-added feed (CMAF, replacing 30% of the content of mineral and vitamin mix of AIN-93M diet with micronutrient compound composed of (g/kg Vit A 0.25, Vit B1 0.3, Vit B2 0.3, Vit B6 0.35, nicotinic acid 1.5, Vit D 0.05, Vit C 50, Vit E 10, calcium carbonate 180, ferrous glycine 1, zinc lactate 1 and corn starch 755.25. The mice were fed for 14 or 28 d, and then subjected to forced swim test with a load on their tails to exhaustion. The maximal swimming time was recorded. In another experiment, the Kunming mice were fed with corresponding feed for 28 d, and then subjected to forced swim test for 60 min, thereafter the samples of blood and liver were collected immediately. The serum contents of glucose, lactate, nonprotein nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids and hepatic glycogen were measured. Results The dietary intake of 30% nutritional insufficient group (30% group was significantly decreased compared with normal control group (fed with AIN-93M diet, (P 0.05. The serum glucose and hepatic glycogen decreased and serum lactate, nonprotein nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids increased in the control group, which were aggravated in nutrient insufficient group and reversed in micronutrient supplementation group. Conclusions Insufficient intake of micronutrients has significant influence on swimming endurance in mice and compound

  18. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy...

  19. Deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements and micronutrients in tropical soils: Limitations of knowledge and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge concerning deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements and micronutrients in tropical soils. The myth that all tropical soils are highly leached and nutrient-poor is challenged. Continuing use of the term laterite by ecologists and geologists is criticized and adoption of plinthite is urged. The trace element content of plinthite and its possible influence on micronutrient availability are described. Micronutrient limitations of tropical agriculture are related to soil type and formation, and the special problem of aluminum toxicity in acid soils is discussed in both agricultural and ecological contexts. Studies of micronutrient cycling in tropical forests or savannas are needed to supplement the emerging picture of the complexities of major element cycles in these ecosystems.

  20. Nutrition (Micronutrients) in Child Growth and Development: A Systematic Review on Current Evidence, Recommendations and Opportunities for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lo, Clifford W

    2017-10-01

    An important aspect of malnutrition is deficiency of different micronutrients during pregnancy or early childhood. We systematically reviewed the role of nutrition in child growth (weight or height gain) and development. A comprehensive literature search was done on PubMed/Cochrane Library browsing through 38,795 abstracts until December 31, 2016 to select systematic reviews/meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplementation. Micronutrients studied included iron, iodine, folate, zinc, calcium, magnesium, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, and multiple micronutrients. We summarize evidence with details and results of RCTs, highlight strengths/weaknesses, and critically interpret findings. Effects of breastfeeding-promotion, food-supplementation (complementary and school feeding), conditional-cash-transfers, and integrated nutrition/psychosocial interventions are discussed. Based on this evidence we make policy and programmatic recommendations for supplementation to mothers and children at high-risk of deficiency.

  1. Acúmulo de nutrientes em frutos de cafeeiro em duas altitudes de cultivo: micronutrientes Nutrient accumulation in coffee fruits at two at two plantation altitudes: micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dado à importância de se conhecer a exportação de micronutrientes pelos frutos, bem como, as épocas em que são mais demandados pelo cafeeiro, estudou-se o acúmulo de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos de Coffea arabica L da antese à maturação, em lavouras estabelecidas em duas altitudes. Estudou-se também a variação no teor desses elementos. Estudou-se o acúmulo de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos de cafeeiro arábico da antese à maturação em duas altitudes, bem como a variação na concentração dos elementos em folhas dos ramos produtivos. O experimento foi constituído da variedade de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. Catuaí IAC 44 cultivada a 720 e 950 m de altitude, no município de Martins Soares-MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, usando um esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo. O aumento da altitude influenciou o ciclo reprodutivo do cafeeiro, demandando maior tempo para formação dos frutos. O consumo de nutrientes pelos frutos, assim como o enchimento de grãos, foi mais crítico em condições de menor altitude, já que a planta necessitou completar esses processos em menor espaço de tempo. No estádio de expansão rápida, a percentagem de acúmulo de micronutrientes foi maior na altitude de 720 m, comparada à de 950 m. De modo geral, a altitude influenciou a variação das concentrações foliares de nutrientes, apesar de não se ter observado resposta-padrão da concentração foliar ao aumento da altitude. Conclui-se que a altitude teve influência na extensão do ciclo, bem como no acúmulo de micronutrientes em frutos e na variação, das concentrações foliares destes elementos em folhas de cafeeiro.In view of the importance of knowing fruit micronutrients export from the soil, and the season in which its coffee-plant demand is higher, the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in fruits as well as the variation in the leaf content of the elements in productive branches of

  2. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein ( P  < .05, Spearman correlation. Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients.

  3. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein (P < .05, Spearman correlation). Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients.

  4. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein (P < .05, Spearman correlation). Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients. PMID:28469462

  5. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention, depending on rice variety and original nutritional quality. In this article, modern and traditional premilling, milling, and postmilling processing methods of different rice types are comprehensively reviewed. The implications of industrial rice processing methods, especially milling, as well as techniques for nutrient extraction, transfer, and enhancement, such as rice parboiling, sprouting, and fortification, for macro- and micronutrient content and consumer acceptance of the products, are documented. Socioeconomic constraints facing various aspects of rice processing methods are also discussed. This article reviews up-to-date research on rice industrial processing worldwide and aims to benefit engineers dealing with food processing, nutritionists and dieticians, food companies, education and research institutions, and quality-control and safety managers.

  6. Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raj Kishor; Gangoliya, Shivraj Singh; Singh, Nand Kumar

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the world populations are affected by micronutrient malnutrition and one third of world's population suffers from anemia and zinc deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several methods have been developed to reduce the phytic acid content in food and improve the nutritional value of cereal which becomes poor due to such antinutrient. These include genetic improvement as well as several pre-treatment methods such as fermentation, soaking, germination and enzymatic treatment of grains with phytase enzyme. Biofortification of staple crops using modern biotechnological techniques can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries.

  7. The association between lead and micronutrient status, and children's sleep, classroom behavior, and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Casavantes, K Marcela; Mendoza, Cristina; Lopez, Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; Rosado, Jorge L; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2007-01-01

    The role of lead exposure or micronutrient deficiencies in children's sleep problems is unknown. Although elevated blood lead concentrations (BPb) are clearly related to behavior problems in children, few researchers have used objective observations. The authors investigated relationships between lead, micronutrient status, sleep, classroom behavior, and activity in Mexican children aged 6-8 years living close to a metal foundry. Mean BPb was 11.5 +/- 6.1 microg/dL; 50% had levels >or= 10 microg/dL. Ten percent of children had hemoglobin or= 10 microg/dL was associated with later waking time and shorter duration of sleep. Anemia was linked to more off-task behaviors, lower physical activity, earlier bedtime, and shorter sleep onset. Researchers should investigate these relationships further, using more sensitive measures.

  8. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and increased risk of diarrhoea and respiratory infections. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in HIV-infected children. The poor growth, diarrhoea and respiratory infections seen in HIV-infected children may be partly ...

  9. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  10. The association between first trimester micronutrient intake, MTHFR genotypes, and global DNA methylation in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Chen, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate possible associations between consumption of micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, MTHFR genotypes, and global DNA methylation in pregnant women. Methods A semi-quantitative dietary questionnaire was administered to 195 women during their first trimester in Morelos, Mexico. Two functional polymorphisms of the key folate-metabolizing gene, i.e. MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298 A>C, as well as global DNA methylation were assessed in peripheral blood drawn dur...

  11. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long Fung; Lawlis, Tanya R

    2017-08-01

    Micronutrients are essential for brain development with deficiencies in specific nutrients linked to impaired cognitive function. Interventions are shown to be beneficial to children's mental development, particularly in subjects who were micronutrient-deficient at baseline but results on healthy subjects remain inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of micronutrient inventions on different cognitive domains. Studies conducted in both developing and developed countries, and trials that investigate the effect of both single and multiple micronutrient intervention were reviewed. Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL Plus and Academic Search database were undertaken to identify trials published after year 2000. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the effect of micronutrients on cognitive performance or academic performance among children aged 4-18 years were included. 19 trials were identified from 18 articles. The major cognitive outcomes assessed included fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, long-term memory, cognitive processing speed, attention and concentration, and school performance. Eight of ten trials assessing fluid intelligence reported significant positive effects of micronutrient supplementation among micronutrient-deficient children, especially those who were iron-deficient or iodine-deficient at baseline. The effects of micronutrient interventions on other domains were inconsistent. Improvement in fluid intelligence among micronutrient-deficient children was consistently reported. Further research is needed to provide more definite evidence on the beneficial effects of micronutrient inventions on other cognitive domains and the effects in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Micronutrient malnutrition and wasting in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis with and without HIV co-infection in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Tamara D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wasting and micronutrient malnutrition have not been well characterized in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. We hypothesized that micronutrient malnutrition is associated with wasting and higher plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV load in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study involving 579 HIV-positive and 222 HIV-negative adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi, anthropometry, plasma HIV load and plasma micronutrient concentrations (retinol, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, zinc, and selenium were measured. The risk of micronutrient deficiencies was examined at different severity levels of wasting. Results Body mass index (BMI, plasma retinol, carotenoid and selenium concentrations significantly decreased by increasing tertile of plasma HIV load. There were no significant differences in plasma micronutrient concentrations between HIV-negative individuals and HIV-positive individuals who were in the lowest tertile of plasma HIV load. Plasma vitamin A concentrations Conclusions These data demonstrate that wasting and higher HIV load in pulmonary tuberculosis are associated with micronutrient malnutrition.

  14. Micronutrient quality of weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrients: results from the A TO Z study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kim, Soowon; Bersamin, Andrea; Dopler-Nelson, Mindy; Otten, Jennifer; Oelrich, Beibei; Cherin, Rise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Information on the micronutrient quality of alternative weight-loss diets is limited, despite the significant public health relevance. Objective: Micronutrient intake was compared between overweight or obese women randomly assigned to 4 popular diets that varied primarily in macronutrient distribution. Design: Dietary data were collected from women in the Atkins (n = 73), Zone (n = 73), LEARN (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition) (n = 73), and Ornish (n = 72) diet groups by using 3-d, unannounced 24-h recalls at baseline and after 8 wk of instruction. Nutrient intakes were compared between groups at 8 wk and within groups for 8-wk changes in risk of micronutrient inadequacy. Results: At 8 wk, significant differences were observed between groups for all macronutrients and for many micronutrients (P Zone group, the risk of inadequacy significantly decreased for vitamins A, E, K, and C (P diets that focus on macronutrient composition should attend to the overall quality of the diet, including the adequacy of micronutrient intakes. Concerning calorie-restricted diets, there may be a micronutrient advantage to diets providing moderately low carbohydrate amounts and that contain nutrient-dense foods. PMID:20573800

  15. Global micronutrient deficiencies in childhood and impact on growth and survival: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous advances and improvements in child health, malnutrition still remains as one of the main public health challenges of the 21st century, particularly in developing countries. It undermines the survival, growth and development of children, and is associated with almost 35% of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. An estimated 178 million children are stunted globally, and an additional 19 million children have severe acute malnutrition (wasting). These conditions are very often associated with concomitant micronutrient deficiencies, and among these, vitamin A, iron, zinc and iodine deficiencies are the most prevalent in childhood. Vitamin A and zinc deficiency is associated with an estimated 1 million child deaths and 9% of global childhood disability-adjusted life years. Recent data on the timing of growth retardation and stunting in infants suggest that the onset is commensurate with inappropriate complementary feeding and potentially compounded by maternal undernutrition and intrauterine growth retardation, and that the first 24 months represent a critical window of opportunity for intervention. Given the wide prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in malnourished children in developing countries, the challenge is to implement intervention strategies that combine appropriate infant and young child feeding with micronutrient interventions at scale. Emerging data from community intervention trials now provide evidence that this is both tangible and can lead to alleviation of childhood undernutrition. Some of these recent findings will be discussed.

  16. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Migliozzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  17. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  18. Risk of zinc, iodine and other micronutrient deficiencies among school children in North East Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, R A; Winichagoon, P; Pongcharoen, T; Gowachirapant, S; Boonpraderm, A; Manger, M S; Bailey, K B; Wasantwisut, E; Gibson, R S

    2006-05-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies during childhood can contribute to impairments in growth, immune competence, and mental and physical development, and the coexistence of several such deficiencies can adversely affect the efficacy of single micronutrient interventions. To assess the prevalence of zinc and iodine deficiency and their interrelationships with vitamin A deficiency and anemia and associations with socio-economic status, hemoglobin type, and anthropometry in a cross-sectional study. A total of 10 primary schools in North East Thailand. Non-fasting venipuncture blood samples and casual urine samples were collected from 567 children aged 6-13 years. Anthropometric measures and serum zinc, albumin, C-reactive protein and urinary iodine, are reported here and integrated with published data on vitamin A, anemia, and socio-economic status. Of the children, 57% had low serum zinc and 83% had urinary iodine levels below the 100 microg/l cutoff. Suboptimal serum zinc and urinary iodine concentrations may result from low intakes of zinc and iodized salt. Significant risk factors for low serum zinc were serum retinol iodine median and being female. For serum retinol risk factors were low hemoglobin, low serum zinc, and risk factors were risk of two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies, most commonly suboptimal urinary iodine and low serum zinc. The findings emphasize the need for multimicronutrient interventions in North East Thailand.

  19. Micronutrient Fortification of Food in Southeast Asia: Recommendations from an Expert Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Gayer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies remain a significant public health issue in Southeast Asia, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as women of reproductive age and young children. An important nutrition-specific intervention to address micronutrient malnutrition is fortification of staple foods and condiments. In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Southeast Asia Region held a workshop on micronutrient fortification of food in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective was to engage multiple stakeholders in a discussion on food fortification and its importance as a public health intervention in Southeast Asia, and to identify and address key challenges/gaps in and potential opportunities for fortification of foods in ASEAN countries. Key challenges that were identified include: “scaling up” and mobilizing sustainable support for fortification programs in the form of multi-stakeholder partnerships, effecting policy change to support mandatory fortification, long-term monitoring of the programs’ compliance and efficacy in light of limited resources, and increasing awareness and uptake of fortified products through social marketing campaigns. Future actions recommended include the development of terms of engagement and governance for multi-stakeholder partnerships, moving towards a sustainable business model and more extensive monitoring, both for effectiveness and efficacy and for enforcement of fortification legislation.

  20. Micronutrient fortification of food in Southeast Asia: recommendations from an expert workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, Justine; Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-19

    Micronutrient deficiencies remain a significant public health issue in Southeast Asia, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as women of reproductive age and young children. An important nutrition-specific intervention to address micronutrient malnutrition is fortification of staple foods and condiments. In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Southeast Asia Region held a workshop on micronutrient fortification of food in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective was to engage multiple stakeholders in a discussion on food fortification and its importance as a public health intervention in Southeast Asia, and to identify and address key challenges/gaps in and potential opportunities for fortification of foods in ASEAN countries. Key challenges that were identified include: "scaling up" and mobilizing sustainable support for fortification programs in the form of multi-stakeholder partnerships, effecting policy change to support mandatory fortification, long-term monitoring of the programs' compliance and efficacy in light of limited resources, and increasing awareness and uptake of fortified products through social marketing campaigns. Future actions recommended include the development of terms of engagement and governance for multi-stakeholder partnerships, moving towards a sustainable business model and more extensive monitoring, both for effectiveness and efficacy and for enforcement of fortification legislation.

  1. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria.

  2. The global regulatory landscape regarding micronutrient fortification of condiments and seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Luis A; Bower, Allyson M

    2015-11-01

    Fortification of staple foods has been a successful strategy for combatting micronutrient deficiency. Recently, fortification of condiments and seasonings has been considered as a new approach to mitigate micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. The regulatory environment of already existing programs must be examined to assess their safety, efficacy, and sustainability as this strategy expands globally. The objective of this review is to summarize the global regulatory landscape for the fortification of condiments and seasonings. Presently, legislation regarding the fortification of condiments and seasonings is primarily voluntary and limited to a few nations in Asia. The only dietary vehicles addressed are salt, soy sauce, and fish sauce, and the micronutrients addressed are iron and iodine. A marketing-driven introduction of fortified seasoning powders with iron, and indirectly with iodine, is also gaining popularity in Africa, Central America, and Caribbean countries. It is recommended that legislation regarding food fortification be mandatory in nature and follow established CODEX and World Trade Organization principles as well as World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations fortification guidelines to ensure that these programs are safe, effective, and sustainable.

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies and supplementation in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setnick, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are characterized by unbalanced eating patterns that include inadequate dietary intake of various nutrients. Conservation mechanisms resulting from starvation and/or self-prescribed nutrient supplements can result in laboratory values that appear within normal limits. These artificially inflated values drop to dangerous levels in some patients once rehydration and refeeding begin. Electrolyte status must be closely monitored during this time to prevent complications. Other micronutrient deficiencies can be corrected with adequate dietary intake, but patients with eating disorders are unlikely to consume such an adequate diet immediately upon entering treatment, so they may benefit from supplementation. Depleted nutrient stores require longer supplementation than acute inadequacies in nutrient intake. This review compiles the findings reported to date regarding micronutrient deficiencies and supplementation for patients with anorexia and bulimia. Because of the widely varying eating practices from patient to patient and the current lack of data controlling for nutrient self-supplementation, nutrition assessment performed by a nutrition professional via food intake history may be more practical than laboratory tests and more accurate than current food intake for determining potential micronutrient deficiencies.

  4. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

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    Fleshner Neil E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025. This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P Conclusion We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding.

  5. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-11-11

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  6. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

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    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002 and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40, 46.6% (n = 29, 39.7% (n = 27, 35.3% (n = 24, 14.1% (n = 9, respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission.

  7. Food-based interventions to modify diet quality and diversity to address multiple micronutrient deficiency

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    Madhavan K Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global data indicates a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability and outdoor physical activity/ life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behaviour change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  8. MICRONUTRIENTS USE EFFICIENCY IN TROPICAL COVER CROPS AS INFLUENCED BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION

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    NAND KUMAR FAGERIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micronutrients is increasing in the recent years in cropping systems in many parts of the world and cover crops are important components of cropping systems. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn use efficiency in 14 tropical leg-ume cover crops grown on an Oxisol. The P levels used were low (0 mg kg-1, medium (100 mg kg-1 and high (200 mg kg-1. The P X cover crops interactions were significant for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn use efficiency (tops dry weight/unit nutrient uptake. Hence, cover crop species varied in nutrient use efficiency with change in P levels. The micronutrient use efficiency was in the order of Cu > Zn > Mn > Fe. Higher Cu use efficiency was associated with lower uptake of this element, in the cover crop tops compared to other micronutrients. Similar-ly, lower efficiency of Fe and Mn was associated with their higher uptake in the tops of cover crops. Overall, Cu and Mn use efficiency was decreased when P level was raised from low to medium level and then it was constant. Iron use efficiency was increased with increasing P level but Zn use efficiency was constant with the addition of P fertilizer

  9. Effect of zinc rates, arbuscular mycorrhiza and two types of organic matter on corn growth and micronutrients-uptake in a calcareous soil

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    L. Gholami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of zinc rates, arbuscular mycorrhiza and organic matter, on corn growth and micronutrients-uptake in a calcareous soil. Experimental design was factorial based on complete randomized design with 3 replications. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of Zn (0, 5 and 10 mg Zn/kg, 2 types of organic manure (sheep manure and municipal waste compost, each at 0 or 1% w/w and 2 levels of mycorrhiza (no inoculation and inoculation with Glomus intraradices. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after emergence and used for chemical analysis. Roots were used to determine the degree of colonization. Results showed that application of Zn increased plant dry matter weight, total Zn and Cu uptake, root mycorrhizal colonization and decreased total Fe and Mn uptake. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increased plant dry matter weight, root mycorrhizal colonization and total Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu uptake. Application of both organic manures increased plant dry matter weight, root mycorrhizal colonization and total Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu uptake. 

  10. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha TCE; Laswai, H S; Tetens, I

    2000-01-01

    About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age of five suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediate cause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of some home made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania to supply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommended in the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards for cereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruels and plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac- 1, Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, were chemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density. Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercial weaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. When compared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standards specifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaning foods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energy balance. Many of the foods were low in fat. Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high in crude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the most common deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. In spite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaning foods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonable percentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrients and energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towards increasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaning foods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral rich

  11. Database analysis of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder consuming a micronutrient formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Gately, Dermot; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-09-28

    Eleven previous reports have shown potential benefit of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula (known as EMPowerplus) for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms. The current study asked whether children (7-18 years) with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) benefited from this same micronutrient formula; the impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on their response was also evaluated. Data were available from an existing database for 120 children whose parents reported a diagnosis of PBD; 79% were taking psychiatric medications that are used to treat mood disorders; 24% were also reported as ADHD. Using Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF), data were analyzed from 3 to 6 months of micronutrient use. At LOCF, mean symptom severity of bipolar symptoms was 46% lower than baseline (effect size (ES) = 0.78) (p 50% improvement at LOCF, with 38% still taking psychiatric medication (52% drop from baseline) but at much lower levels (74% reduction in number of medications being used from baseline). The results were similar for those with both ADHD and PBD: a 43% decline in PBD symptoms (ES = 0.72) and 40% in ADHD symptoms (ES = 0.62). An alternative sample of children with just ADHD symptoms (n = 41) showed a 47% reduction in symptoms from baseline to LOCF (ES = 1.04). The duration of reductions in symptom severity suggests that benefits were not attributable to placebo/expectancy effects. Similar findings were found for younger and older children and for both sexes. The data are limited by the open label nature of the study, the lack of a control group, and the inherent self-selection bias. While these data cannot establish efficacy, the results are consistent with a growing body of research suggesting that micronutrients appear to have therapeutic benefit for children with PBD with or without ADHD in the absence of significant side effects and may allow for a reduction in psychiatric medications while improving symptoms. The consistent reporting of positive

  12. Prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: current perspectives

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    Berti C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Berti,1 Mieke Faber,2 Cornelius M Smuts11Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South AfricaAbstract: Despite strategies employed to tackle micronutrient malnutrition, limited progress has been achieved in the developing countries. Of global concern are deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc, folate, and iodine. This review aims to explore up-to-date scientific evidence on the effect of different micronutrient strategies on biomarkers and health outcomes, and for each strategy, to highlight strengths, limitations, and factors contributing to success or failure. PubMed/MEDLINE and EBSCO databases and Google-indexed scientific literature were searched for relevant articles and documents, limited to human studies reported since 2003. Evidence shows that the most cost-effective approaches to address symptoms of micronutrient malnutrition are targeted supplementation and/or fortification with iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A, and multimicronutrients, provided that households have access to primary health care and that there is consistent long-term coverage, monitoring, adequate marketing, and commercial commitment. Dietary diversification/modification interventions are probably the most sustainable strategies to address causes of deficiency, but permanent solutions are still required in controlling micronutrient malnutrition at both research and public health levels. Furthermore, many scientific gaps remain, hindering the development of robust public health guidance. These gaps are due to the paucity of well-designed community-based studies, lack of information on biological mechanisms behind relationships between micronutrients and outcomes, and inconsistent results. Further adequately powered long-term trials are needed to fill these gaps. Lessons learned from large-scale nutritional

  13. Database analysis of children and adolescents with Bipolar Disorder consuming a micronutrient formula

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    Gately Dermot

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eleven previous reports have shown potential benefit of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula (known as EMPowerplus for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms. The current study asked whether children (7-18 years with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD benefited from this same micronutrient formula; the impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD on their response was also evaluated. Methods Data were available from an existing database for 120 children whose parents reported a diagnosis of PBD; 79% were taking psychiatric medications that are used to treat mood disorders; 24% were also reported as ADHD. Using Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF, data were analyzed from 3 to 6 months of micronutrient use. Results At LOCF, mean symptom severity of bipolar symptoms was 46% lower than baseline (effect size (ES = 0.78 (p 50% improvement at LOCF, with 38% still taking psychiatric medication (52% drop from baseline but at much lower levels (74% reduction in number of medications being used from baseline. The results were similar for those with both ADHD and PBD: a 43% decline in PBD symptoms (ES = 0.72 and 40% in ADHD symptoms (ES = 0.62. An alternative sample of children with just ADHD symptoms (n = 41 showed a 47% reduction in symptoms from baseline to LOCF (ES = 1.04. The duration of reductions in symptom severity suggests that benefits were not attributable to placebo/expectancy effects. Similar findings were found for younger and older children and for both sexes. Conclusions The data are limited by the open label nature of the study, the lack of a control group, and the inherent self-selection bias. While these data cannot establish efficacy, the results are consistent with a growing body of research suggesting that micronutrients appear to have therapeutic benefit for children with PBD with or without ADHD in the absence of significant side effects and may allow for a reduction in psychiatric medications while

  14. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

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    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the main problems which limits crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Iran is the most important producer of pistachio in the world. However, its performance is low in many areas. Most pistachio plantations are irrigated with saline water and with low quality (28. On the other hand, nitrogen is a dynamic element which is a constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and Enzymes and it has a vital role in plant physiology, growth, chlorophyll formation and production of fruit and seeds (34. Gibberellic acid is known as phytohormon which varied physiological responses in plants under stress. acid gibberellic increases the photosynthesis and growth under stress and impact on the physiology and metabolism of plant (29. Based on previous studies, production and activity of plant hormones are affected by natural factors and plant nutrient requirements and the nitrogen has an important influence on production and transmission of acid gibberellic plant shoot. Therefore, in this study the effect of acid gibberellic and nitrogen on some characteristics of physiology parameters and micronutrient pistachio seedlings (Cv. Qazvini under saline conditions was studied. Materials and methods: Experiment under greenhouse condition and factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse agriculture college, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 1000 and 2000 mg of sodium chloride per kg of soil, three levels of nitrogen (0, 75 and 150 mg per kg of ammonium nitrate source and three acid gibberellic levels (0, 250 and 500 mg per liter. Adequate soil with little available salinity conditions was collected from the top 30-cm layer of a pistachio-culture region of Kerman province. After air drying and ground through passing a 2 mm sieve, some of the physical-chemical properties of this soil include pH (7

  15. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

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    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  16. Growth Responses of Trees to Micronutrients and Their Feedback Effect in Various Soil-Forest Ecosystems of Taihu Lake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vector analysis technique and ecological sequential comparison methods were adopted to study tree growth response to the micronutrients, B, Mo, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn, in soils derived from various parent materials in the forest area of Taihu Lake region in southeast China. The results showed that the dry weight of individual current-year needle of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) grown on the soil derived from granite parent rock was increased by 8% and 13% in comparison with that grown on the soils derived from sandstone and ash-tuff parent rock, respectively. And such dry weight of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) grown on the soil derived from sandstone parent rock was increased by 21% in comparison with that on the soil derived from ash-tuff parent rock. One of the reasons for those results was that micronutrients content in the soil derived from ash-tuff parent rock were not sufficient to meet the requirement of the growth of Chinese fir and loblolly pine, i.e., micronutrients in soil were deficient and/or induced deficient. The amounts of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn uptake by Chinese fir and loblolly pine were in agreement with the contents of available micronutrients in soil respectively, except for B and Mo. Meanwhile, there might exist an "antagonism" between the uptake of B versus Mo by trees, although more studies are needed to confirm it. Regression analysis indicated that amount of a soil available micronutrient was correlated to the type of parent material and its total amount in the forest floor, except for B. The F test identified that the correlation of each equation reached the significant level to different extents, respectively. The t test confirmed that amount of available forms was mainly depended on the type of parent material for Mo, Cu, Zn and Mn but on the forest floor for Fe. There was a feedback effect of forest stand on the amount of soil available micronutrients. The ability of accumulating available micronutrients in soil was better by the

  17. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  18. Effect of Micronutrient and Probiotic Fortified Yogurt on Immune-Function of Anti-Retroviral Therapy Naive HIV Patients  

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    J. Dik F. Habbema

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of HIV patients. Objective: Assess the impact of micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt on the immune function of HIV patients. Design: We performed a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with CD4 count as primary outcome among HIV patients naïve to anti-retroviral treatment. Secondary outcomes included hematological parameters, incidence of diarrhea and clinical symptoms. A total of 112 HIV patients were randomized to receive a micronutrient fortified yogurt with (n = 55 or without additional probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (n = 57 for four weeks. Results: An average decline in CD4 count of −70 cells/μL (95% CI: −154 to −15 was observed in the micronutrient, probiotic group versus a decrease of −63 cells/μL (95% CI: −157 to −30 in the micronutrient control group (p = 0.9. Additional probiotic supplementation was well tolerated and not associated with adverse events. No difference between groups was detected in incidence of diarrhea or clinical symptoms. An improvement of hemoglobin levels was observed for all subjects, based upon a mean difference from baseline of 1.4 g/L (SD = 6 (p = 0.02. Conclusion: The addition of probiotics to a micronutrient fortified yogurt was well tolerated by HIV patients but was not associated with a further increase in CD4 count after one month.

  19. Produtividade de cebola influenciada pela aplicação de micronutrientes Onion yield influenced by micronutrient application

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    Claudinei Kurtz

    2010-02-01

    ção da exigência da cultura.The excessive use of fertilizers and liming as well as monoculture is rather common in the onion-producing region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Such practices have resulted in visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency, mainly of micronutrients. This study aimed to measure the effect of B, Zn and Mn fertilizers on yield and quality of onion bulbs. Three individual trials, one for each nutrient, were carried out in the field, in Ituporanga, southern Brazil, from 2006 until 2009. In each experiment, treatments consisted of increasing rates of each micronutrient applied to the soil before planting and also of a single rate sprayed onto the leaves six times per season. Rates applied to the soil varied from 0 to 4 kg ha-1 for Zn, from 0 to 4.4 kg ha-1 for B, and from 0 to 15.6 kg ha-1 for Mn. The spray solutions contained zinc sulfate, boric acid and manganese sulfate, at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25 and 1.0 %, respectively. The application of Mn or B, regardless of the form, and Zn sprays, had no effect on onion yield in any growing season. The application of Zn to the soil increased onion yield in all three years, by 10-14.5 %. Maximum yield was obtained with Zn rates of 2.7 kg ha-1 in 2006/2007 (22.3 t ha-1, up to an estimated quantity of 4.5 kg ha-1 in 2008/2009 (35.6 t ha-1. The bulb quality was not affected by micronutrient application (Mn, B, or Zn, regardless of the form. It is therefore important to apply Zn to the soil for onion production in the State of Santa Catarina, even where Zn concentration exceeds the critical level established for the region, which is probably due to the requirement of this crop.

  20. Amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Petiole of Some Iranian and Imported Grape Cultivars

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    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops in the world. Several native grapevine genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential are still cultivated in Iran. Developing viticulture requires the conservation of autochthonous varieties that have evolved several mechanisms enabling them to cope with the local bioclimatic and edaphic conditions. Nutrition is a key component of vineyard management that has the potential to influence various factors in vine production that includes fruit set and quality. To develop suitable nutrient plant growers need to have an understanding of the factors such as cultivars, rootstocks, soil type, irrigation type and nutrients that they are applying in the vineyard. The uptake of nutrients from the soil depends on different factors namely; their soluble content in it, soil pH, plant growth stage, plant genetics and types of soil and fertilizers. Plant species have a variety of capacities in removing and accumulating elements. Vigorous genotypes are more capable of finding the necessary nutrients from the surrounding soil environment. This indicates that it does not require as much nutrient as poor vigor genotypes. So, for sustainable viticulture, it is important to know the interactive influences of cultivars, soil characters, climatic conditions, and irrigation type on vine productivity. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the amount of macronutrient elements (N, P, K, Mg and Ca and micronutrient elements (B, Zn and Mn in petiole of some Iranian grapevine cultivars including Bidanesefid Qazvin- Peikany Kashmar- Khalili Shiraz-Rasha and four foreign cultivars Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Perlette and Black seedless,This study was carried out as –randomized complete blocks design -with-four replications in the Kahriz Horticulture Research station -.A total of 30 adult leaves per cultivar were

  1. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

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    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model

  2. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

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    Nunun eBarunawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA in green leaves, while 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approx. one third of the total Fe, Zn or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  3. Soil chemicals properties and wheat genotype impact on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour

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    Krunoslav Karalić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine impact of soil chemical properties and different wheat genotypes in Croatia on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour. Methods Research was conducted and soil samples were collected from two different production areas in the Republic of Croatia: Ovčara and Dalj. Besides soil samples, grain samples of four different Croatian wheat genotypes were also collected and analyzed. In total, 40 samples of soil and 40 samples of wheat grain were analysed for total (aqua regia and plant available (EDTA extraction heavy metal content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd. Results Determined soil pHKCl ranged from 5.63 to 6.25 at Ovčara and from 6.95 to 7.37 at Dalj sampling sites. The highest total concentration of heavy metals in soil were determined for Fe, followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and the lowest total concentration wasrecorded for Cd. The highest EDTA concentrations in soil were determined for Mn, than followed by Fe, Cu, Pb, and the lowest EDTA concentration was recorded for Cd. The highest concentration in integral wheat flour was found for Fe, than lower for Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and the lowest concentration was found for Cd. If consumers in Croatia used daily 203 g of bread made of integral flour, they would take 2.31 to 8.44 µg Cd daily, depending on soil and wheat genotype.Conclusion The analysed soil and winter wheat genotypes have significant impact on potential daily intake of toxic and essentialheavy metals by integral flour or bread.

  4. [Nutritional state and shortcoming of micronutrients on schooled youth's diet on the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara Jalisco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez López, Rosa María; Fausto Guerra, Josefina; Valadez, Figueroa Isabel; Ramos Ramos, Alfredo; Loreto Garibay, Oscar; Villaseñor Farias, Martha

    2012-06-01

    The adolescence is a stage of high nutritional risk due to the increased requirements, changes in eating habits and potential risk. There are documented evidence of micronutrient deficiency among the population of Mexico. To evaluate the nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies in the diet of adolescents. The sample consisted of 307 adolescents. We analyzed the body composition by using anthropometric indicators. To determine the intake of micronutrients, the 24 hours reminder and software Mexfoods were used. The percentages that indicate adequate intake were classified according to the following breakpoints: Below minimum requirements, when intake was or = 50% and or = 75%. The BMI indicated that 21.8% of students of both sexes showed malnutrition and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27.9%. The micronutrient intake results indicated significant deficiencies in iron (p = 0.002), zinc (p = 0.000) and calcium (p = 0.002). The B-complex vitamins were those that had lower failure rates. We identified that the diet of adolescents has significant micronutrient deficiencies and that adolescent girls resulted with the major deficiencies. It is urgent to develop strategies, to reduce the problems of food deficit in adolescents.

  5. Micronutrients supplementation and nutritional status in cognitively impaired elderly persons: a two-month open label pilot study.

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    von Arnim, Christine A F; Dismar, Stephanie; Ott-Renzer, Cornelia S; Noeth, Nathalie; Ludolph, Albert C; Biesalski, Hans K

    2013-11-15

    Malnutrition is a widespread problem in elderly people and is associated with cognitive decline. However, interventional studies have produced ambiguous results. For this reason, we wanted to determine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on blood and tissue levels and on general nutritional status in persons with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a 2-month, open-label trial, administering a daily micronutrient supplement to 42 memory clinic patients with mild cognitive deficits. Blood levels of antioxidants, zinc, and B vitamins were determined before and after supplementation. In addition, we assessed metabolic markers for B vitamins and intracellular (buccal mucosa cell [BMC]) antioxidant levels. Nutritional status was assessed by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Blood levels of B vitamins, folic acid, lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol increased significantly. Decreases in homocysteine levels and the thiamine pyrophosphate effect and an increase in holotranscobalamin were observed. We found no increase in intracellular antioxidant levels of BMC. The MNA score in subjects at risk for malnutrition increased significantly, mainly owing to better perception of nutritional and overall health status. Micronutrient supplementation improved serum micronutrient status, with improved metabolic markers for B vitamins but not for intracellular antioxidant status, and was associated with improved self-perception of general health status. Our data underline the necessity of determining micronutrient status and support the use of additional assessments for general health and quality of life in nutritional supplementation trials.

  6. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Rovaris, Karla; Haiter, Francisco; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18) or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18), based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT) examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the bone volume (BV/TV). Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05). Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants. PMID:27008256

  7. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Peres Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18 or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18, based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC and the bone volume (BV/TV. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05. Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants.

  8. Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankachan, Prashanth; Rah, Jee Hyun; Thomas, Tinku; Selvam, Sumithra; Amalrajan, Vani; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Steiger, Georg; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-05-01

    Fortifying rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy for combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. We determined the efficacy of extruded rice grains fortified with multiple micronutrients on the prevalence of anemia, micronutrient status, and physical and cognitive performance in 6- to 12-y-old, low-income school children in Bangalore, India. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 258 children were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups to receive rice-based lunch meals fortified with multiple micronutrients with either low-iron (6.25 mg) or high-iron (12.5 mg) concentrations or identical meals with unfortified rice. The meals were provided 6 d/wk for 6 mo. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical performance, and cognitive assessments were taken at baseline and endpoint. At baseline, study groups were comparable, with 61% of the children being anemic. However, only fortified rice was efficacious in improving vitamin B-12 status and physical performance in Indian school children.

  9. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

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    Raphael Alvarez

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great

  10. The effects of micronutrient deficiencies on bacterial species from the human gut microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibberd, Matthew C. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Center for Gut Microbiome and Nutrition Research; Wu, Meng [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology; Rodionov, Dmitry A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Kharkevich Inst. for Information Transmission Problems; Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Li, Xiaoqing [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Cheng, Jiye [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Center for Gut Microbiome and Nutrition Researc; Griffin, Nicholas W. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Center for Gut Microbiome and Nutrition Researc; Barratt, Michael J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Center for Gut Microbiome and Nutrition Researc; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Osterman, Andrei L. [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Gordon, Jeffrey I. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Center for Gut Microbiome and Nutrition Researc

    2017-05-17

    Micronutrient deficiencies afflict two billion people. And while the impact of these imbalances on host biology has been studied extensively, much less is known about their effects on the developing or adult gut microbiota. Thus, we established a community of 44 cultured, sequenced human gut-derived bacterial species in gnotobiotic mice and fed the animals a defined, micronutrient-sufficient diet, followed by a derivative diet devoid of vitamin A, folate, iron or zinc, followed by return to the sufficient diet. Acute vitamin A deficiency had the largest effect on community structure and meta-transcriptome, with Bacteroides vulgatus, a prominent responder, increasing its abundance in the absence of vitamin A, and manifesting transcriptional changes involving various metabolic pathways. Applying retinol selection to a library of 30,300 B. vulgatus transposon mutants revealed that disruption of acrR abrogated retinol sensitivity. Genetic complementation studies, microbial RNA-Seq, and transcription factor binding assays disclosed that AcrR functions as a repressor of an adjacent AcrAB-TolC efflux system plus other members of its regulon. Retinol efflux measurements in wild-type, acrR-mutant, and complemented acrR mutant strains, plus treatment with a pharmacologic inhibitor of the efflux system, revealed that AcrAB-TolC is a determinant of retinol and bile acid sensitivity. We associated acute vitamin A deficiency with altered bile acid metabolism in vivo, raising the possibility that retinol, bile acid metabolites, and AcrAB-TolC interact to influence the fitness of B. vulgatus and perhaps other microbiota members. This type of preclinical model can help develop mechanistic insights about and more effective treatment strategies for micronutrient deficiencies.

  11. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

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    Maria Laura da Costa Louzada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898. Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption – crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population to avoid these foods.

  12. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption – crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods. PMID:26270019

  13. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yingjun [China Medical University, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun [China Medical University, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the optimum combination of micronutrients used with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Experiment was carried out based on the orthogonal design L{sub 8}(2{sup 7}) setting six factors with two different levels of each, and eight groups of mice were needed. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% lead acetate for four consecutive weeks, and then supplemented by gavage with different combinations of micronutrients with and without DMSA as designed in the orthogonal table. Lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, brain and bone and activities of blood {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were analyzed after cessation of supplementation. The results suggested that DMSA was the only factor which could decrease significantly lead levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone; calcium and ascorbic acid were the notable factors decreasing lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, bone and brain; zinc and calcium were the notable factors reversing the lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD; taurine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in kidney and brain; and thiamine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in brain. The lowest lead level in blood, liver, kidney and bone was shown in the mice supplemented with combination of calcium and ascorbic acid along with DMSA. In conclusion, the optimum combination of micronutrients used with DMSA suggested in present study was calcium and ascorbic acid, which seemed to potentiate the chelating efficacy of DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. (orig.)

  14. Mapping of soil micronutrients in an european atlantic agricultural landscape using ordinary kriging and indicator approach

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    Jorge Dafonte Dafonte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient maps based on intensive soil sampling are useful to develop site-specific management practices. Geostatistical methods have been widely used to determine the spatial correlation and the range of spatial dependence at different sampling scales. If spatial dependence is detected, the modelled semivariograms can then be used to map the interested variable by kriging, an interpolation method that produces unbiased estimates with minimal estimation variance. The objectives of this paper were to examine and to map the spatial distribution of the micronutrients Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn on an agricultural area in Galicia, Spain, under European Atlantic climatic conditions. The ordinary kriging was first used to determine the values for the non-sampled locations, then the indicator approach was used to transform the micronutrient content values into binary values having the mean values of each nutrient as the threshold content. All four elements analyzed showed spatial dependence using the indicator semivariograms. The strength of spatial dependence was assessed using the values of nugget effect and range from the semivariogram, the fitted range values decreased in the order Mn >Fe >Zn >Cu. The spatial dependence of the combination of two or more of the studied micronutrients was also examined using indicator semivariograms. In opposition to spatial analysis of individual microelements, indicator semivariograms obtained for the binary coding of the variables showed a great nugget effect value or a low proportion of sill. The maps for each nutrient obtained using indicator kriging showed some similarity in the spatial distribution, suggesting the delimitation of uniform management areas.

  15. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on micronutrient content in grain maize (Zea mays L.

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    Josef Maňásek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year small-plot field experiment with the grain maize hybrid KWS 2376 was conducted on heavy soil with a low supply of available nutrients incl. potassium (K at Otrokovice, Czech Republic, during 2010–2011. The experiment included 4 treatments: unfertilized control; nitrogen (N fertilisation with urea (120 kg N/ha alone or combined with two forms of K fertiliser (potassium chloride (KCl or potassium sulphate (K2SO4; 125 kg K2O/ha. Biomass samples for determination of Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe were taken as the whole aboveground biomass in the DC 32 (first node stage, the ear-leaf in the DC 61 (flowering stage and grain during the harvest.Between the two years the content of micronutrients in the individual treatments varied irregularly. In DC 32 and DC 61 the order of the content of micronutrients was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu. The Fe content was significantly the highest in the unfertilised control and the Mn content after the application of N + K2SO4 in both samplings. In the grain the order was as follows: Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu (mg/kg DM: at the following contents: Zn: 19.20–23.19; Fe: 15.12–19.87; Mn: 0.85–3.60; Cu: 0.19–1.34. We can recommend fertilisation of maize with urea and with both potassium mineral fertilisers without any negative effects on the content of the micronutrients in the maize biomass.

  16. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm(3) ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population's diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption - crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods.

  18. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia

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    Jan Makurat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined. Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative and serum retinol-binding protein (positive concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  19. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2016-11-02

    Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  20. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farhadnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80, cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93, vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69, vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92, vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97 and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76 had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61, subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  1. The role of antioxidant micronutrients in the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a reduction in antioxidant defenses. This leads to oxidative stress, which is partly responsible for diabetic complications. Tight glycemic control is the most effective way of preventing or decreasing these complications. Nevertheless, antioxidant micronutrients can be proposed as adjunctive therapy in patients with diabetes. Indeed, some minerals and vitamins are able to indirectly participate in the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetic patients by improving glycemic control and/or are able to exert antioxidant activity. This article reviews the use of minerals (vanadium, chromium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, copper) and vitamins or cofactors (tocopherol [vitamin E], ascorbic acid [vitamin C], ubidecarenone [ubiquinone; coenzyme Q], nicotinamide, riboflavin, thioctic acid [lipoic acid], flavonoids) in diabetes, with a particular focus on the prevention of diabetic complications. Results show that dietary supplementation with micronutrients may be a complement to classical therapies for preventing and treating diabetic complications. Supplementation is expected to be more effective when a deficiency in these micronutrients exists. Nevertheless, many clinical studies have reported beneficial effects in individuals without deficiencies, although several of these studies were short term and had small sample sizes. However, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial showed that thioctic acid at an oral dosage of 800 mg/day for 4 months significantly improved cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Above all, individuals with diabetes should be educated about the importance of consuming adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals from natural food sources, within the constraints of recommended sugar and carbohydrate intake.

  2. Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soil crusts: Importance to arid-lands restoration

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    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Davidson, D.W.; Phillips, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is a global problem, costly to national economies and human societies. Restoration of biological soil crusts (BSCs) may have an important role to play in the reversal of desertification due to their ability to decrease erosion and enhance soil fertility. To determine if there is evidence that lower fertility may hinder BSC recolonization, we investigated the hypothesis that BSC abundance is driven by soil nutrient concentrations. At a regional scale (north and central Colorado Plateau, USA), moss and lichen cover and richness are correlated with a complex water-nutrient availability gradient and have approximately six-fold higher cover and approximately two-fold higher species richness on sandy soils than on shale-derived soils. At a microscale, mosses and lichens are overrepresented in microhabitats under the north sides of shrub canopies, where water and nutrients are more available. At two spatial scales, and at the individual species and community levels, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that distributions of BSC organisms are determined largely by soil fertility. The micronutrients Mn and Zn figured prominently and consistently in the various analyses, strongly suggesting that these elements are previously unstudied limiting factors in BSC development. Structural-equation modeling of our data is most consistent with the hypothesis of causal relationships between the availability of micronutrients and the abundance of the two major nitrogen (N) fixers of BSCs. Specifically, higher Mn availability may determine greater Collema tenax abundance, and both Mn and Zn may limit Collema coccophorum; alternative causal hypotheses were less consistent with the data. We propose experimental trials of micronutrient addition to promote the restoration of BSC function on disturbed lands. Arid lands, where BSCs are most prevalent, cover ???40% of the terrestrial surface of the earth; thus the information gathered in this study is potentially useful

  3. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths.

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    Imdad, Aamer; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-13

    Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST) model. We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD), related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR) 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that balanced protein energy supplementation during

  4. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and

  5. Review: micronutrient selenium deficiency influences evolution of some viral infectious diseases.

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    Harthill, Michalann

    2011-12-01

    Recently emerged viral infectious diseases (VIDs) include HIV/AIDS, influenzas H5N1 and 2009 H1N1, SARS, and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers. Earlier research determined metabolic oxidative stress in hosts deficient in antioxidant selenium (Se) (role of micronutrient Se deficiency on the evolution of some contemporary RNA viruses and their subsequent VIDs. Distinguishing cellular and biomolecular evidence for several VIDs suggests that environmental conditions conducive to chronic dietary Se deprivation could be monitored for bioindicators of incipient viral virulence and subsequent pathogenesis.

  6. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths

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    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST model. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD, related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG. Results There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs. Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that

  7. Intra-individual double burden of overweight and micronutrient deficiencies among Vietnamese women.

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    Arnaud Laillou

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Living Standard Surveys showed that the rate of overweight and obese in Vietnamese adults doubled between 1992 and 2002, from 2% to 5.5%, respectively with no significant difference in the proportions of overweight/obesity between men and women.Considering the increasing public health concern over the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam, we investigated micronutrient deficiencies among women of reproductive age according to their Body Mass Index.A transversal study was conducted in 2010 among 1530 women of reproductive age from 19 provinces. Participating women were asked to give a non-fasting blood sample for plasma iron, vitamin A, folate, vitamin B12 and zinc assessment.Although % body fat was associated with haemoglobin, ferritin, retinol and zinc concentrations, BMI category was only associated with marginal vitamin A status (19% among underweight vs 7% among overweight/obese; p<0.0001 and not with iron deficiency anemia, zinc deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency or folate status. The prevalence of iron, and vitamin B12 deficiencies was respectively 11.4% and 15% among the 20% overweight/obese women; prevalence of zinc deficiency and marginal/deficient folate status was much higher, affecting respectively 61.1% and 25.8%. Intra-individual double burden of malnutrition (overweight/obesity (OW and micronutrient deficiency was observed among 2.0% for OW-anemia, 2.3% OW-iron deficient, 3.0% for OW-Vitamin B12 deficiency, 12.2% for OW-Zinc deficiency and 5.2% for OW-marginal/deficient folate status.This large, cross-sectional survey demonstrated that micronutrient deficiencies are an issue across the weight spectrum among women in Vietnam, with only vitamin A status being better among overweight than underweight women. It is therefore essential for Vietnam to actively prevent women of reproductive age from overweight/obesity and at same time to control micronutrient deficiencies in this population to limit their economic and health

  8. Micronutrients during pregnancy and child psychomotor development: Opposite effects of Zinc and Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Krol, Anna; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Kuras, Renata; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Mirabella, Fiorino; Chiarotti, Flavia; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2017-10-01

    Studies on the impact of micronutrient levels during different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal plasma concentrations of selected micronutrients, such as: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and child neuropsychological development. The study population consisted of 539 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). The micronutrient levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in the cord blood. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. The mean plasma Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were 0.91±0.27mg/l, 1.98±0.57mg/l and 48.35±10.54μg/l, respectively. There were no statistically significant associations between Cu levels and any of the analyzed domains of child development. A positive association was observed between Se level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and child language and motor skills (β=0.18, p=0.03 and β=0.25, p=0.005, respectively) at one year of age. Motor score among one-year-old children decreased along with increasing Zn levels in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood (β=-12.07, p=0.003 and β=-6.51, p=0.03, respectively). A similar pattern was observed for the association between Zn level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and language abilities at one year of age (β=-7.37, p=0.05). Prenatal Zn and Se status was associated with lower and higher child psychomotor abilities, respectively, within the first year of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are necessary to confirm the associations between micronutrient levels and child development as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of their effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple micronutrients in powder delivered through primary health care reduce iron and vitamin A deficiencies in young Amazonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristieli Sm; Sampaio, Patrícia; Muniz, Pascoal T; Cardoso, Marly A

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of home fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) on anaemia and micronutrient status of young Amazonian children. A pragmatic controlled trial was performed. A control group (CG) of children aged 11-14 months was recruited in the routine of primary health-care centres for assessing anaemia and micronutrient status. At the same time, an intervention group (IG) of infants aged 6-8 months was recruited in the same health centres to receive MNP daily in complementary feeding for 2 months. The IG children were assessed 4-6 months after enrolment (n 112) when they had reached the age of the CG participants (n 128) for comparisons. Primary health centres in Rio Branco city, Brazilian Amazon. A total of 240 children ageddeficiency (VAD; serum retinol complementary feeding delivered through primary health care was effective in reducing iron and vitamin A deficiencies among young Amazonian children.

  10. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark; Wingrove, Kate; Naude, Celeste; Durao, Solange

    2016-09-08

    Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs), guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either "nutrition-specific interventions" (NSpI) or "nutrition-sensitive interventions" (NSeI), was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated.

  11. Improvement of the Vietnamese diet for women of reproductive age by micronutrient fortification of staples foods and condiments.

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    Arnaud Laillou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. MAIN FINDINGS: Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSION: The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated.

  12. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either “nutrition-specific interventions” (NSpI or “nutrition-sensitive interventions” (NSeI, was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated.

  13. The Association of Macro- and Micronutrient Intake with Growth Hormone Secretion

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    Denny-Brown, S.; Stanley, T.L.; Grinspoon, S.K.; Makimura, H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Growth hormone (GH) is known to be nutritionally regulated, but the effect of dietary composition on detailed GH secretion parameters has not previously been comprehensively evaluated. Objective The objective of the study was to determine whether specific macro- and micronutrients are associated with discrete parameters of GH secretion among subjects with wide ranges of body mass index. Design Detailed macro- and micronutrient intake was assessed by four-day food records while GH secretion was assessed by standard stimulation testing in 108 men and women in one study (Study 1), and by overnight frequent blood sampling in 12 men in another study (Study 2). Results Peak stimulated GH was positively associated with vitamin C (r=+0.29; P=0.003), dietary fiber (r=+0.27; P=0.004), arachidic acid (r=+0.25; P=0.008), and behenic acid (r=+0.30; P=0.002) intake in univariate analysis. Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total caloric intake and these four dietary factors in step-wise multivariate modeling, peak GH remained significantly associated with vitamin C and visceral fat (both Pmicronutrients such as vitamin C intake are strongly and uniquely associated with stimulated and endogenous spontaneous GH secretion. PMID:22465725

  14. Influence of Preoperative Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition with Micronutrients after Colorectal Cancer Patients

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    Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Hu, Shu-Hui; Yang, Hui-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The inflammatory reactions are stronger after surgery of malnourished preoperative patients. Many studies have shown vitamin and trace element deficiencies appear to affect the functioning of immune cells. Enteral nutrition is often inadequate for malnourished patients. Therefore, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is considered an effective method for providing preoperative nutritional support. TPN needs a central vein catheter, and there are more risks associated with TPN. However, peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) often does not provide enough energy or nutrients. Purpose. This study investigated the inflammatory response and prognosis for patients receiving a modified form of PPN with added fat emulsion infusion, multiple vitamins (MTV), and trace elements (TE) to assess the feasibility of preoperative nutritional support. Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the influence of PPN with or without adding MTV and TE on malnourished abdominal surgery patients. Results. Both preoperative groups received equal calories and protein, but due to the lack of micronutrients, patients in preoperative Group B exhibited higher inflammation, lower serum albumin levels, and higher anastomotic leak rates and also required prolonged hospital stays. Conclusion. Malnourished patients who receive micronutrient supplementation preoperatively have lower postoperative inflammatory responses and better prognoses. PPN with added fat emulsion, MTV, and TE provides valid and effective preoperative nutritional support. PMID:26000296

  15. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

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    Imane El Menchawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  16. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  17. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Trakooljul, Nares; Reyer, Henry; Zeyner, Annette; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin). In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health. PMID:28106759

  18. Micronutrientes en nutrición parenteral Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition

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    A. García de Lorenzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En un debate multidisciplinar, y tras revisar la evidencia disponible así como la experiencia de los expertos, la IV Mesa de Trabajo Baxter-SENPE establece las indicaciones y pautas de manejo de los micronutrientes (vitaminas hidrosolubles y liposolubles y oligoelementos o elementos traza en la Nutrición Parenteral. Se concluye en la conveniencia del aporte diario de micronutrientes contemplándose diferentes posibilidades en lo que respecta a dosis por exceso y defecto, sistemas de administración, interacciones, monitorización y coste-efectividad.At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness.

  19. Low phytic acid lentils (Lens culinaris L.): a potential solution for increased micronutrient bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Vandenberg, Albert

    2009-10-14

    Phytic acid is an antinutrient present mainly in seeds of grain crops such as legumes and cereals. It has the potential to bind mineral micronutrients in food and reduce their bioavailability. This study analyzed the phytic acid concentration in seeds of 19 lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) genotypes grown at two locations for two years in Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the levels of phytic acid in commercial lentil genotypes and (2) the impact of postharvest processing and (3) the effect of boiling on the stability of phytic aid in selected lentil genotypes. The phytic acid was analyzed by high-performance anion exchange separation followed by conductivity detection. The Saskatchewan-grown lentils were naturally low in phytic acid (phytic acid = 2.5-4.4 mg g(-1); phytic acid phosphorus = 0.7-1.2 mg g(-1)), with concentrations lower than those reported for low phytic acid mutants of corn, wheat, common bean, and soybean. Decortication prior to cooking further reduced total phytic acid by >50%. As lowering phytic acid intake can lead to increased mineral bioavailability, dietary inclusion of Canadian lentils may have significant benefits in regions with widespread micronutrient malnutrition.

  20. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend

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    JAFAR SALAMAT KHAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Khan HN, Farooqi H, Ali S, Khan JS. 2010. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 109-116. The animal rats were given 10% oil mixed in fat free diet for one month or six months. In the experiment, the groups of rats were fed with the micronutrient (MN rich blends mixed previously with 1% cholesterol, and their effects were tested on serum lipid profile. Most significant changes in the High Dencity Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were observed in one-month study where HDL increased from 24 mg/dl in group to 64 mg/dl in the Mustard palm olein oil blend (MP; in mustard oil (MO alone fed rats, the HDL was 36 mg/dl. Serum retinol was analyzed as one of the important MN in rats receiving the diet mixed with the blend for various duration of time. The results assume great significance as MO or palm olein oil (PO alone could not bring the maximum beneficial effects, and the blends appear to have more merit as health oils in alleviating adverse health condition such as coronary heart disease (CHD, diabetes, obesity and hypertension.

  1. Role of micronutrients and natural antioxidants in fighting against HIV; a quick mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of HIV to AIDS, since HIV usually replicates in a highly oxidized condition and CD4+ T lymphocytes can be activated via a cascade of internal oxidative pathways, which enhances the formation of proteins and enzymes. Thus, antioxidants should potentially be useful for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection as a new alternative strategy. Regarding the point that there are various approaches for treating the HIV-positive patients, antioxidant supplementation therapy alongside with other medications possesses many benefits. In fact, antioxidants and micronutrient supplements have been considered as a costly and short-term strategy to improve antioxidant deficiency. If diets come with sufficient education and scientific recommendations, they can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV progression. This strategy may be applicable and beneficial particularly in countries around coast of Africa, where HIV is most common. Meantime these countries are rich of natural food resources. It seems that a healthy diet is the best way to insure proper nutrient intake, since it contains many nutrients not available in pills.

  2. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  3. Assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadigan, C M; Anderson, E J; Miller, K K; Hubbard, J L; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A; Grinspoon, S K

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of diet history compared to observed food intake in the nutritional assessment of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy age-matched controls. One-month diet history was compared to 1-day observed food intake in 30 women with AN and 28 control subjects. Reported intake by diet history was similar to observed intake for macronutrient composition and fat intake for patients with AN. Reported energy intake was higher than observed intake (1,602 +/- 200 kcal vs. 1,289 +/- 150 kcal, p assessed by diet history. In contrast to patients with AN, diet history did not correlate with observed intake of energy, macronutrients, or most micronutrients among the controls. Diet history is an accurate tool to assess fat intake and macronutrient composition in patients with AN and demonstrates significant micronutrient deficiencies in this population. The agreement between total energy intake and predicted energy expenditure supports the overall utility of the diet history in the nutritional assessment of patients with AN. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Whaley, Shannon; Sigman, Marian; Murphy, Suzanne P; Harrison, Gail; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2009-05-01

    With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

  5. The Key Role of Government in Addressing the Pandemic of Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore H. Tulchinsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world.

  6. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  7. Climate versus geological controls on glacial meltwater micronutrient production in southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciego, S. M.; Stevenson, E. I.; Arendt, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    Low concentrations of micronutrients in subarctic North Atlantic surface waters limit phytoplankton growth. Iron, phosphorous, and silicon are all potentially bio-limiting nutrients; iron is the most well documented in the subarctic North Atlantic. Manganese, nickel, copper and zinc are also essential trace metals for phytoplankton cell function. However, the spatial and temporal variability in the flux of these elements to the subarctic North Atlantic is undercharacterized. Here we show new data from the meltseason peak in 2013 indicating that glacial meltwater from the southern tip of Greenland has elevated dissolved major and trace metal concentrations compared to glacial meltwater draining shorter melt season glacial catchments to the north. Fe concentrations range from 0.13 to 6.97 μM, Zn from 4 to 95 μM, and Si from 4 to 36 μM, all higher than the depleted surface waters of the subarctic North Atlantic. Measured hydrochemical data modeled by PHREEQC indicates meltwater is undersaturated in pyrite and silicate phases but supersaturated with respect to oxyhydroxides, hematite and goethite, all phases that precipitate Fe as colloids, of which the nanoparticle phases should remain biologically available. The variability in geologic units between the sites indicates that subglacial lithology is a minor but not the dominant control on meltwater chemistry. The disparity in concentrations is directly correlated with climate, and an extended melt season, suggesting that future warming in Greenland will lead to increased trace element, and potential micronutrient, flux to the subarctic North Atlantic surface waters.

  8. Micronutrients and sickle cell disease, effects on growth, infection and vaso-occlusive crisis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Brabin, Bernard J; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2012-08-01

    Patients with Sickle cell disease (SCD) exhibit signs of poor growth, increased susceptibility to infection and recurrent episodes of painful vaso-occlusive crises. Micronutrient deficiencies may increase susceptibility to these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess the strength of evidence for improved outcomes related to micronutrient interventions. Six randomized-controlled trials of moderate quality met the inclusion criteria. Zinc supplementation was associated with improved growth and decreased incidence of infection and is a promising intervention in the management of SCD patients. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was associated with limited reduction in vaso occlusive crises. This review identifies key knowledge gaps, which are important research priorities for nutritional interventions.

  9. Extraction methods and availability of micronutrients for wheat under a no-till system with a surface application of lime

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Caires,Eduardo Fávero; Barth,Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrient availability can be affected by the increase of the soil pH due to surface liming. A field trial was carried out on a loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. The main objective was to evaluate the effects of surface liming and re-liming on the availability of micronutrients [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn)] for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropped under a no-till system. A randomized complete block design was used in...

  10. Effect of Preventive Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Non-Malarial Morbidity in Tanzanian Pre-School Children : A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Ottenhof, Maarten J.; Mank, Theo G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Savelkou, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malari

  11. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal a

  12. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h di

  13. Food groups associated with a composite measure of probability of adequate intake of 11 micronutrients in the diets of women in urban Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age.

  14. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  15. Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on non-malarial morbidity in Tanzanian pre-school children: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Schouten, L.R.A.; Ottenhof, M.; Mank, T.; Uges, D.R.A.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Kraaijenhagen, R.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malaria

  16. Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB......-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi-micronutrient...... supplementation led to a higher handgrip gain (1.22 kg; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.94; P = 0.001) but had no effects on other outcomes. The effects of multi-micronutrient supplementation were modified by HIV infection (P-interaction = 0.002). Among HIV- patients, multi-micronutrient supplementation increased weight gain...

  17. Micronutrient deficiencies as predisposing factors for hypertension in lacto-vegetarian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Agte, Vaishali V; Tarwadi, Kirtan V; Paknikar, Kishor M; Diwate, Uma P

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the antioxidant potential of many micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin C, their roles in oxidative stress related health disorders have been postulated. This study therefore investigated low micronutrient status as a predisposing factor for hypertension in a traditionally lacto-vegetarian population like Indians. Micronutrient profile was assessed in 109 hypertensives with age-gender-socio-economic status matched 115 healthy normotensives (30-58 years of age). Food intakes were estimated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes were then evaluated by previous estimates of cooked foods from our laboratory. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), age, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, occupation, physical activity, smoking habits were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, ceruloplasmin, plasma level of ascorbic acid, folic acid, retinol, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) and erythrocyte membrane zinc. There were no significant differences between protein, fat intakes of normal and hypertensive individuals, though intakes of men were higher than those of women (p 0.2) in these subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc were associated with 18% (OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.08, 1.26), 51% (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94, 2.1) higher odds for hypertension, and 3% lower odds for hypertension (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.01), respectively. Mean plasma vitamin C and folic acid were significantly higher (p < 0.01), and serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were marginally higher (p = 0.07) in normal than hypertensive subjects. In multivariate linear regression analyses, plasma vitamin C, serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were negatively associated with SBP (p = 0.00001) and plasma vitamin C was

  18. Metals essentials for plants: the nickel case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The long period of research that preceded the discovery of nickel (Ni) essentiality for plants constitutes a paradigmatic case of doubts and uncertainties that often occur in experimental biology. The history of the essentiality of chemical elements that are present as traces in the plant ash (micronutrients) began in the mid-Nineteenth, but it had blurred outlines until Daniel Arnon, towards the mid-twentieth century, fixed the now historic 'criteria of essentiality'. During this rather long time, seven micronutrients were recognised, step by step, as essential for higher plants, (iron, manganese, boron, Zinc, copper, molybdenum, and chloride), at first thanks to meticulous observations of deficiency symptoms and then to the culture of plant on aqueous solutions. The last element to be recognised as essential for plant nutrition was Ni, which was considered a very toxic element for more than a century. Towards the Thirties, Ni became to be regarded as a useful element by some researchers, but the ultimate proof of its essentiality was obtained only in the Eighties, when the American group of Ross M. Welch demonstrated that Ni is a cofactor of the enzyme urease. More recent research shows that Ni improves the nitrogen (N) metabolism and appears to be important for the efficiency of N fixation.

  19. Dietary Diversity Score Is a Useful Indicator of Micronutrient Intake in Non-Breast-Feeding Filipino Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Pedro, M.R.; Seghieri, C.; Nantel, G.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition remains a problem of public health concern in most developing countries, partly due to monotonous, cereal-based diets that lack diversity. The study objective was to assess whether dietary diversity score (DDS) based on a simple count of food groups consumed and DDS using

  20. Influence of essential trace minerals and micronutrient insufficiencies on harmful metal overload in a Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Kudoh, Hideki; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2012-07-01

    Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders are prevalent in Mongolia. Our previous studies revealed a significant correlation of these diseases with high oxidative stress due to a high body burden of harmful metals, such as manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. This report describes a 37-year-old male Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis and essential micronutrient deficiency. This patient demonstrated high oxidative stress, as shown by high urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels of 14.7 and 14.3 ng/mg creatinine (crea), although his hair levels of these toxic metals were markedly lower than other Mongolians. In addition, this patient was deficient not only in various essential minerals, including selenium, magnesium, copper, cobalt, vanadium, and nickel, but also in micronutrients such as vitamin B6, C, E, folic acid, niacin, and β-carotene. Furthermore, after taking 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, a chelating agent, urinary excretion of lead, cadmium, manganese, aluminum, iron, copper, and lithium were increased 156-, 8.4-, 7.6-, 4.3-, 3.3-, 2.1-, and 2.1-fold, respectively. These results suggest that this patient suffered from a deficiency in micronutrients such as essential minerals and vitamins, which resulted in a disturbance in the ability to excrete harmful metals into the urine and hair. It is possible that a deficiency of micronutrients and a high burden of heavy metals play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Nutritional treatment may be an effective approach to this disease.

  1. Undernutrition, fatty acid and micronutrient status in relation to cognitive performance in Indian school children: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, A.; Muthayya, S.; Knaap, van der H.; Srinivasan, K.; Thomas, T.; Kok, F.J.; Kurpad, A.V.; Osendarp, S.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status

  2. Disadvantaged black and coloured infants in two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa differ in micronutrient status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Benade, A.J.; Dhansay, M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the nutritional and health status of urban infants in two disadvantaged communities in the Western Cape, South Africa with special reference to micronutrient status. The results of this study will serve to plan an intervention study in these communities in the same age group

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  4. Effects of salinity and Cu on total uptake of micronutrient in shoot and root of pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eskandari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of soil Cu and salinity levels on uptake of micronutrients by shoots and roots of pistachio seedlings, a factorial experiment was carried out as completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran, in May 2008. Treatments consisted of five salinity levels (0, 800, 1600, 2400 and 3200 mg NaCl per kg soil, four Cu levels (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg Cu per kg soil and two pistachio cultivars (Badami Zarand and Ghazvini. Results showed that salinity stress significantly (P<0.05 decreased the uptake of micronutrients including Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by shoots and roots. Application of 5 mg Cu per kg soil significantly increased the uptake of Cu, Fe and Mn by shoots, but had no significant effect on Zn uptake by shoots. Application of 2.5 mg Cu per kg soil significantly increased uptake of Cu, Fe and Mn by roots, while had no significant effect on Zn uptake by roots. In conclusion, the uptake of micronutrients in Badami Zarand cultivar was significantly higher than Ghazvini cultivar. Since trees suffer from deficiency of micronutrients in pistachio orchards, using Badami Zarand cultivar is recommended as pistachio rootstock.

  5. Anemia, micronutrient deficiencies, and malaria in children and women in Sierra Leone prior to the Ebola outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify the factors associated with anemia and to document the severity of micronutrient deficiencies, malaria and inflammation, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select children <5 years of age and adult women...

  6. Approaches for setting micronutrient recommendations : a case study of vitamin B12 for adults and elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most countries in Europe provide recommendations on the micronutrient composition of diets to fulfil requirements of nearly all individuals in the general apparently healthy population. However as each country uses its own methods for deriving such recommendations, there is large variati

  7. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and inc

  8. Short-Term Micronutrient Supplementation Reduces the Duration of Pneumonia and Diarrheal Episodes in HIV-Infected Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The duration of pneumonia and of diarrhea is reported to be longer in HIV-infected than in uninfected children. We assessed the effect of a multi-micronutrient supplement on the duration of hospitalization in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind, randomized trial, HIV-infected children (4–24 mo)

  9. Approaches for setting micronutrient recommendations : a case study of vitamin B12 for adults and elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most countries in Europe provide recommendations on the micronutrient composition of diets to fulfil requirements of nearly all individuals in the general apparently healthy population. However as each country uses its own methods for deriving such recommendations, there is large

  10. Optimization of micronutrient supplement for enhancing biogas production from food waste in two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ajay; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the biogas productivity of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) using food waste (FW) as the primary substrate. The influence of adding four trace metals (Ca, Mg, Co, and Ni) as micronutrient supplement in the methanogenic phase of the thermophilic system was investigated. Initially, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimal concentration of micronutrients in batch experiments. The results showed that optimal concentrations of 303, 777, 7 and 3mg/L of Ca, Mg, Co and Ni, respectively, increased the biogas productivity as much as 50% and significantly reduced the processing time. The formulated supplement was tested in continuous two-phase thermophilic AD system with regard to process stability and productivity. It was found that a destabilized thermophilic AD process encountering high VFA accumulation recovered in less than two weeks, while the biogas production was improved by 40% yielding 0.46L CH4/gVSadded/day. There was also a major increase in soluble COD utilization upon the addition of micronutrient supplement. The results of this study indicate that a micronutrient supplement containing Ca, Mg, Co and Ni could probably remedy any type of thermophilic AD process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Micronutrient intakes in a group of UK vegans and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2000-06-01

    Micronutrient intakes and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements were investigated in 26 vegans, comprising 17 non-supplement users (NSU) and nine supplement users (SU), consuming their habitual diet. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using a four-day weighed record and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements was assessed according to the manufacturers' declarations on the packaging. Mean daily intakes from food sources were similar in NSU and SU. Dietary supplements significantly increased intakes of riboflavin (p B12 and selenium (Se) were below the appropriate lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) in 80% and 65% of NSU respectively. After supplements, 33% of SU remained below the LRNI for vitamin B12 and 33% below the LRNI for Se. Some vegans who took supplements were not taking certain micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet the RNIs but were taking a mix of micronutrients, some of which they needed and others which they did not need. Some vegans who did not take supplements had a potential need for the addition of supplements to their diets. Advice on the appropriate usage of dietary supplements for those on a vegan diet is needed.

  12. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and

  13. Exploring the link between micro-nutrients and phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during the 2007 austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel eHassler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bottle assays and large-scale fertilisation experiments have demonstrated that, in the Southern Ocean, iron often controls the biomass and the biodiversity of primary producers. To grow, phytoplankton need numerous other trace metals (micronutrients required for the activity of key enzymes and other intracellular functions. However, little is known of the potential these other trace elements have to limit the growth of phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean. This study investigates the link between the distribution of several micronutrients (Zn, Co, Cu, Cd, Ni and phytoplankton from samples collected during the SAZ-Sense oceanographic expedition (RV Aurora Australis, Jan.–Feb. 2007. Larger phytoplankton are usually associated with lower diffusive supply and higher micronutrient requirement; for this reason, the delineation between phytoplankton larger than 10 µm and those with a size ranging from 0.8–10 µm was made. In addition, different species of phytoplankton may have different requirements to sustain their growth; the phytoplankton biodiversity here was inferred using biomarker pigments. This study, therefore, attempts to elucidate whether micronutrients other than iron need to be considered as parameters for controlling the phytoplankton growth in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean. Understanding of the parameters controlling phytoplankton is paramount, as it affects the functioning of the Southern Ocean, its marine resources and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

  14. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The role that micronutrients play in ameliorating the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure was explored in a clinical trial conducted in the Ukraine. Cardiac orienting responses during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 6-12 month-olds to assess neurodevelop...

  15. Dietary Diversity Score Is a Useful Indicator of Micronutrient Intake in Non-Breast-Feeding Filipino Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Pedro, M.R.; Seghieri, C.; Nantel, G.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition remains a problem of public health concern in most developing countries, partly due to monotonous, cereal-based diets that lack diversity. The study objective was to assess whether dietary diversity score (DDS) based on a simple count of food groups consumed and DDS using

  16. Identification of QTLs underlying seed micronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed nutrition levels is almost non-existent. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs associated with seed micronutrients accumulation (concentration) in a population of 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that derived fro...

  17. Culinary practices mimicking a polysaccharide-rich recipe enhance the bioaccessibility of fat-soluble micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Servent, Adrien; Descalzo, Adriana; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Achir, Nawel

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of heat processing of a complex emulsion on the behavior of fat soluble micronutrients (FSM) in a traditional Tunisian dish. A simplified recipe involved, dried mucilage-rich jute leaves, tomato paste and olive oil, followed by a cooking treatment (150min). Hydrothermal pattern and viscosity were monitored along with the changes of FSM content and the bioaccessibility (called micellarization, using an in vitro digestion model). Partitioning of carotenoids differed according to their lipophilicity: lycopene, β-carotene and lutein diffused to the oil phase (100%, 70% and 10% respectively). In contrast with the poor carotenes/tocopherol bioaccessibility (0.9-1%), the highest micellarization was observed for lutein (57%) and it increased with heating time and viscosity change. Domestic culinary cooking practices probably increase the bioavailability of carotenes mainly by their diffusion to the oil phase, facilitating their in vivo transfer into micelles.

  18. Micronutrientes en cirugía bariátrica Micronutrients in bariatric surgery

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    M.ª J. Amaya García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad mórbida es una enfermedad crónica con prevalencia creciente y que asocia una importante morbimortalidad. La cirugía bariátrica es el tratamiento más eficaz para conseguir una reducción ponderal mantenida en el tiempo y una disminución en las tasas de complicaciones asociadas a la obesidad. El sobrepeso y la obesidad son factores de riesgo para el déficit de varios micronutrientes como las vitaminas B1, B6, C, ácido fólico y D, minerales como el hierro y oligoelementos como el zinc, en general por déficit dietético. A pesar de ello, por el momento no existe un consenso acerca de la monitorización de micronutrientes en el preoperatorio, aunque parece razonable a la vista de su considerable prevalencia. La cirugía bariátrica puede provocar déficit de micronutrientes o intensificar deficiencias previas, tanto por limitación de la ingesta como por la maldigestión y malabsorción en las técnicas malabsortivas, siendo el riesgo paralelo a la pérdida ponderal. Es preciso monitorizar de por vida los diferentes micronutrientes, sobre todo tras las técnicas quirúrgicas malabsortivas. Se recomienda el uso de un complejo polivitamínico de forma sistemática y en los casos en los que sea insuficiente, será preciso emplear suplementación específica.The morbid obesity is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence and that associates an important morbility and mortality. The bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to secure a weight reduction maintained in the time and a diminution in the rates of complications associated to the obesity. The overweight and the obesity are risk factors for the deficit of several micronutrients like vitamins B1, B6, C, folic acid and D, minerals like the iron and trace elements like zinc, generally by dietetic deficit. In spite of it, at the moment a consensus don´t exist about the monitoring of micronutrients in the preoperative one, although it seems reasonable in view of his

  19. Stability of micronutrients and phytochemicals of grapefruit jam as affected by the obtention process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual, M; García-Martínez, E; Camacho, M M; Martínez-Navarrete, N

    2016-04-01

    Fruits are widely revered for their micronutrient properties. They serve as a primary source of vitamins and minerals as well as of natural phytonutrients with antioxidant properties. Jam constitutes an interesting way to preserve fruit. Traditionally, this product is obtained by intense heat treatment that may cause irreversible loss of these bioactive compounds responsible for the health-related properties of fruits. In this work, different grapefruit jams obtained by conventional, osmotic dehydration (OD) without thermal treatment and/or microwave (MW) techniques were compared in terms of their vitamin, organic acid and phytochemical content and their stability through three months of storage. If compared with heating, osmotic treatments lead to a greater loss of organic acids and vitamin C during both processing and storage. MW treatments permit jam to be obtained which has a similar nutritional and functional value than that obtained when using a conventional heating method, but in a much shorter time.

  20. The search for a new paradigm to study micronutrient and phytochemical bioavailability: from reductionism to holism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, A; Rock, E

    2014-02-01

    The study of micronutrient and phytochemical (MaP, i.e., non-energy nutrients) bioavailability has been mainly studied through a reductionist and pharmacological approach. This has led to associate one health effect to one MaP. However, human interventional studies have given conflicting and disappointing results about MaP supplementation. This is because the health effect is the result of the synergetic action of numerous MaPs supplied by foods and/or diets at nutritional doses. A food is not a drug. Therefore, there is a need for more holistic approach to study MaP bioavailability, then their health effect to achieve general recommendations. This paper aims to hypothesize for such a paradigm shift in this topic and to lay new foundations for research in MaP bioavailability.

  1. Micronutrient Cycles and Their Responses to Global Change:Progress and Prospects%陆地生态系统微量元素循环及其对全球变化的响应:进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒文涛; 乌云娜

    2016-01-01

    微量元素对植物的生长发育起着至关重要的作用。在全球变化大背景下,陆地生态系统微量元素循环过程势必发生改变,影响生态系统的结构与功能。综合文献资料,提取全球变化因子对陆地生态系统微量元素循环的主要影响,以便使读者详细了解这方面的研究进展。重点阐述微量元素的地球化学循环过程及其对降水格局改变、CO2浓度升高、氮沉降等全球变化的响应机制。经过分析文献资料得出:目前微量元素循环研究存在重视不足、时空尺度较小、技术陈旧等诸多缺陷。非稳定同位素技术与多因子控制实验的协同化将是陆地生态系统微量元素循环研究的重点发展方向。%Biogeochemical cycling of micronutrients is at the core of ecosystem functions because they play an important role for plant growth, maintenance and reproduction in terrestrial ecosys-tems. This article summarizes the present state of knowledge about micronutrient cycling based on a literature review and make the readers know the progress in detail. The paper mainly focu-ses on biogeochemical cycling of micronutrients interrestial ecosystem and its cffects on soil de-velopment, atmpspheric deposition, increased inorganic nitrogen and CO2 , nitrogen deposition and soil acidification. Based on the findings, the paper concludes that less enphasis are put on biogeochemical. Cycling of micronutrient. Non -stationary Isotope technology and integrated systems analysis are important development directions in biogeochemical cycling of micronutri-ents in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. The association between selenium and other micronutrients and thyroid cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. RESULTS: With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P(trend, <0.01, we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92-1.65; P(trend, 0.26 or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  3. Systematic review of safety and tolerability of a complex micronutrient formula used in mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Theoretically, consumption of complex, multinutrient formulations of vitamins and minerals should be safe, as most preparations contain primarily the nutrients that have been in the human diet for millennia, and at safe levels as defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes. However, the safety profile of commercial formulae may differ from foods because of the amounts and combinations of nutrients they contain. As these complex formulae are being studied and used clinically with increasing frequency, there is a need for direct evaluation of safety and tolerability. Methods All known safety and tolerability data collected on one complex nutrient formula was compiled and evaluated. Results Data were assembled from all the known published and unpublished studies for the complex formula with the largest amount of published research in mental health. Biological safety data from 144 children and adults were available from six sources: there were no occurrences of clinically meaningful negative outcomes/effects or abnormal blood tests that could be attributed to toxicity. Adverse event (AE) information from 157 children and adults was available from six studies employing the current version of this formula, and only minor, transitory reports of headache and nausea emerged. Only one of the studies permitted a direct comparison between micronutrient treatment and medication: none of the 88 pediatric and adult participants had any clinically meaningful abnormal laboratory values, but tolerability data in the group treated with micronutrients revealed significantly fewer AEs and less weight gain. Conclusions This compilation of safety and tolerability data is reassuring with respect to the broad spectrum approach that employs complex nutrient formulae as a primary treatment. PMID:21501484

  4. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  5. Successful treatment of bipolar disorder II and ADHD with a micronutrient formula: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Harrison, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Bipolar disorder with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenge to treat. Ten previous reports have shown potential benefit of a micronutrient treatment (consisting mainly of vitamins and minerals) for various psychiatric symptoms, including mood and ADHD. This case study aimed to investigate the longer term impact of the micronutrients on both psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning in an off-on-off-on (ABAB) design with 1 year follow-up. A 21-year-old female with bipolar II disorder, ADHD, social anxiety, and panic disorder entered an open-label trial using a nutritional treatment following a documented 8 year history of on-going psychiatric symptoms not well managed by medications. After 8 weeks on the formula she showed significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Blood test results remained normal after 8 weeks on the formula. She did not report any adverse side effects associated with the treatment. She then chose to come off the formula; after 8 weeks her depression scores returned to baseline, and anxiety and ADHD symptoms worsened. The formula was reintroduced, showing gradual improvement in all psychiatric symptoms. This case represents a naturalistic ABAB design showing on-off control of symptoms. After 1 year, the patient is now in remission from all mental illness. Neurocognitive changes mirrored behavioral changes, showing improved processing speed, consistency in response speed, and verbal memory. A placebo response and expectancy effects cannot be ruled out although previous poor response to treatment and the duration of the current positive response decrease the likelihood that other factors better explain change. These consistently positive outcomes alongside an absence of side effects indicate that further research, particularly larger and more controlled trials, is warranted using this multinutrient approach.

  6. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  7. Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S

    2006-02-01

    The first cases of human Zn deficiency were described in the 1960s in the Middle East. Nevertheless, it was not until 2002 that Zn deficiency was included as a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, and only in 2004 did WHO/UNICEF include Zn supplements in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Despite this recognition Zn is still not included in the UN micronutrient priority list, an omission that will continue to hinder efforts to reduce child and maternal mortality, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals for improved nutrition in developing countries. Reasons for this omission include a lack of awareness of the importance of Zn in human nutrition, paucity of Zn and phytate food composition values and difficulties in identifying Zn deficiency. Major factors associated with the aetiology of Zn deficiency include dietary inadequacies, disease states inducing excessive losses or impairing utilization and physiological states increasing Zn requirements. To categorize countries according to likely risk of Zn deficiency the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group has developed indirect indicators based on the adequacy of Zn in the national food supplies and/or prevalence of childhood growth stunting. For countries identified as at risk confirmation is required through direct measurements of dietary Zn intake and/or serum Zn in a representative sample. Finally, in at risk countries either national or targeted Zn interventions such as supplementation, fortification, dietary diversification or modification, or biofortification should be implemented, where appropriate, by incorporating them into pre-existing micronutrient intervention programmes.

  8. Beyond protein intake: bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M. Sarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild meat is critical for the food security and income of millions of people, especially for poor rural households. Its role as a primary source of macronutrients worldwide has been recognized, but there have been few attempts to evaluate the contribution of bushmeat consumption to micronutrient intake. This is so particularly in the context of nutritional transitions induced by modernization and globalization. Here, we calculated the role of bushmeat as a source of micronutrients in the diets of urban and peri-urban inhabitants within the Tres Fronteras (Peru, Brazil, Colombia region in the Amazon. We gathered food intake data from 35 households using 3-day 24-h food recalls combined with food weighing. Additionally, we interviewed 105 households on food consumption frequency. Our results indicate that 14.3% of the households consumed bushmeat, which represented approximately 32% of their caloric intake, 72% of consumed protein, and 77% of iron. Typically, households consuming bushmeat presented higher a nutritional status, i.e., lower intake of carbohydrates (âˆ'10% and higher intake of proteins (+46%, iron (+151%, and zinc (+23%, than households not consuming bushmeat. Most of the sampled households did not achieve standard nutritional requirements for calories (94%, fiber, vitamin C, or iron (97% per adult per day. None of the households achieved the recommended daily intake for calcium. Households consuming bushmeat consumed statistically significantly higher levels of iron, zinc, and vitamin C than households that did not eat bushmeat. The latter consumed an excess of 31% calories from processed foods per adult per day, and lower amounts of iron (âˆ'60% and zinc (âˆ'19%. We argue that households not consuming bushmeat are at greater risk of anemia in the short run and other chronic health problems in the long run.

  9. Micronutrient and protein-fortified whole grain puffed rice made by supercritical fluid extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Wagner, Michael E; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2012-11-07

    Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (~100 °C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130-180 °C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of all added minerals, 55-58% retention of vitamin A, and 64-76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source of complete protein. Thus, SC-CO(2)-assisted extrusion is an effective process-based approach to produce cereal grain-based, low-moisture (5-8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop byproducts such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace.

  10. Refining in silico simulation to study digestion parameters affecting the bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marze, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable number of in vivo and in vitro studies on the digestive fate of lipophilic nutrients, micronutrients, and bioactives, the effects of the structure and composition of foods on the physicochemical mechanisms of luminal digestion are still poorly understood. Studying them is indeed complex because the number of parameters is high and many of them are interdependent. To solve this problem, an in silico simulation based on a multi-agent system was recently proposed to study the intestinal bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients from a single oil droplet. The roles of lipolysis and solubilization in bile salt were included. The effects of several food and digestion parameters were in line with those reported in the experimental literature. The goal of the research reported in this new article was to include more digestion parameters in the simulation in order to make it more realistic against complex cases. This was done in one specific digestion condition reflecting in vitro experiments, using droplets of tricaprylin or triolein containing vitamin A. The structure and principles of the original model were kept, with independent local modifications in order to study each factor separately. First, a gastric step was added where lipolysis took place, and only a marginal effect on the following intestinal step was found. Then, the chemical form of vitamin A, either non-hydrolyzed retinyl ester or retinyl ester instantly hydrolyzed into retinol, was investigated by considering different localizations in the droplet, resulting in a higher bioaccessibility for the retinol. The case of a mixture of tricaprylin and triolein indicated an influence of the oil phase viscosity. The consideration of mixed micelles compared to simple bile salt micelles was also investigated, and resulted in a higher vitamin A bioaccessibility, especially with triolein. Finally, a full model including the most influential parameters was tested to simulate

  11. Microalgae screening under CO2 stress: Growth and micro-nutrients removal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fida; Shah, Syed Zahir; Zhou, Wenguang; Iqbal, Munawar

    2017-05-01

    Algae are one of the promising agents for greenhouse gas reduction and biofuel production. Different technologies have been developed and introduced in last decades for algae growth. Algae plays a very imperative role in the aquatic ecosystem regarding CO2 reduction and micro-nutrient removal. In present investigation, eight locally isolated (microalgae) strains and two pure strains were studied. The selected microalgae were grown under variable CO2 concentration and CO2 biofixation efficiencies along with micro-nutrient removal were monitored. Among selected strains, three strains (UMN266, UMN268 and UTEX 2714 showed adaptability up to 20% CO2 concentration with high biomass production of 1.3, 1.4 and 1.21g/L, respectively, whereas UTEX 78 and UMN 230 growth was slow under high CO2 concentration (20% CO2). However, in step wise CO2 feeding, the growth of UTEX 78 and UMN 230 improved considerably and up to 0.9 and 0.97 (g/L) biomasses were recorded, respectively. All algae strains showed high growth rate at 2% CO2 feeding and nitrogen, phosphorus and ammonia removal from the simulated media were also significant. The fast-growing microalgae species tolerant up to 20% CO2 concentration and could be used for flue gas mitigation and valuable products production. These results can contribute to understand the nature of CO2 bio-fixation and microalgae could be a potential alternative for CO2 fixation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation on the Growth of Preschool Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between micronutrient supplementation and children growth. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 156 growth retarded preschool children. They were randomly assigned to five groups: supplemental control (S-control,n=28), zinc supplementation(+Zn, 3.5mg Zn/day, n=34), zinc and calcium supplementation (+ZnCa,3.5mg Zn+250mg Ca/day, n=37), zinc and calcium and vitamin A supplementation (+ZnCaVA,3.5mgZn +250mgCa+200gVA/day, n=28), Calcium and vitamin A supplementation (+CaVA,250mgCa + 200gVA/day, n=29). Another 34 children with normal height were selected as normal control (N-control). Supplementation continued for twelve months. Results The height gain in +Zn group (7.84cm per year) and +ZnCa group (7.70 cm per year) was significantly higher than that in S-control group (6.74 cm per year, P<0.05); The weight gain in +ZnCaVA group (2.55kg per year)and +CaVA group (2.57 kg per year) was also significantly higher than that in S-control group (2.19kg per year, P<0.05); The average days of illness in each supplementation group were lower than that in S-control (13 days per year compared with 23 days per year). No significant difference was observed on bone age. Conclusion Zinc and Zinc+Calcium supplementation can improve the height gain,and vitamin A can improve weight gain in growth retarded preschool children, but do not affect the maturity of bone. Micronutrient supplementation can lower the morbidity of these children.

  13. Blood micronutrient, oxidative stress, and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-Sheng Ko; Chih-Hung Guo; Maw-Sheng Yeh; Li-Yun Lin; Guoo-Shyng W.Hsu; Pei-Chung Chen; Mei-Ching Luo; Chia-Yeh Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the extent of micronutrient and oxidative stress in blood and to examine their linkages with viral loads in chronic hepatitis C patients.METHODS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA levels were quantified in the serum from 37 previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C. The plasma and erythrocyte micronutrients (zinc, selenium, copper, and iron) were estimated, and malondialdehyde (MDA)contents were determined as a marker to detect oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in blood were also measured. The control group contained 31 healthy volunteers.RESULTS: The contents of zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)in plasma and erythrocytes were significantly lower in hepatitis C patients than in the controls. On the contrary,copper (Cu) levels were significantly higher. Furthermore,plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels, and the SOD and GR activities in erythrocytes significantly increased in hepatitis C patients compared to the controls. However, the plasma GPX activity in patients was markedly lower. Plasma Se (r= -0.730, P<0.05), Cu (r = 0.635), and GPX (r = -0.675)demonstrated correlations with HCV-RNA loads. Significant correlation coefficients were also observed between HCV-RNA levels and erythrocyte Zn (r = -0.403), Se (r = -0.544), Cu (r = 0.701) and MDA (r = 0.629) and GR (r = 0.441).CONCLUSION: The levels of Zn, Se, Cu, and oxidative stress (MDA), as well as related anti-oxidative enzymes (GR and GPX) in blood have important impact on the viral factors in chronic hepatitis C. The distribution of these parameters might be significant biomarkers for HCV.

  14. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  15. Molybdate transport through the plant sulfate transporter SHST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate L; Tyerman, Stephen D; Kaiser, Brent N

    2008-04-30

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient required by plants. The mechanism of molybdenum uptake in plants is poorly understood, however, evidence has suggested that sulfate transporters may be involved. The sulfate transporter from Stylosanthes hamata, SHST1, restored growth of the sulfate transport yeast mutant, YSD1, on media containing low amounts of molybdate. Kinetic analysis using 99MoO4(2-) demonstrated that SHST1 enhanced the uptake of molybdate into yeast cells at nM concentrations. Uptake was not inhibited by sulfate, but sulfate transport via SHST1 was reduced with molybdate. These results are the first measurement of molybdate transport by a characterised plant sulfate transport protein.

  16. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder, E-mail: bhupindersinghiari@yahoo.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Datta, Partha Sarathi [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2010-08-15

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat (). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  17. 微营养素对糖尿病的防治作用%Preventive and therapeutic effects of micronutrients on diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施咏梅; 陈著隽

    2011-01-01

    微营养素与糖尿病及其并发症的发生、发展密切相关.本文就目前较为关注的微营养素锌、硒、镁、铬对糖尿病的防治作用做一综述.%Micronutrients are closely associated with the progression of diabetes and its complications. Diabetic patients are susceptible to micronutrient deficiency. In this article, we summarize the preventive and therapeutic effects of micronutrients including zinc, selenium, magnesium, and chromium on diabetes mellitus.

  18. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: A potential tool for the analysis of contaminants and macro/micronutrients in organic mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; de Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz; Marangoni, Bruno Spolon; De Melo Benites, Vinícius; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2016-09-15

    Organic fertilizers are obtained from waste of plant or animal origin. One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is that, from the composting, it recycles waste-organic of urban and agriculture origin, whose disposal would cause environmental impacts. Fast and accurate analysis of both major and minor/trace elements contained in organic mineral and inorganic fertilizers of new generation have promoted the application of modern analytical techniques. In particular, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is showing to be a very promising, quick and practical technique to detect and measure contaminants and nutrients in fertilizers. Although, this technique presents some limitations, such as a low sensitivity, if compared to other spectroscopic techniques, the use of double pulse (DP) LIBS is an alternative to the conventional LIBS in single pulse (SP). The macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn) and contaminant (Cr) in fertilizer using LIBS in SP and DP configurations were evaluated. A comparative study for both configurations was performed using optimized key parameters for improving LIBS performance. The limit of detection (LOD) values obtained by DP LIBS increased up to seven times as compared to SP LIBS. In general, the marked improvement obtained when using DP system in the simultaneous LIBS quantitative determination for fertilizers analysis could be ascribed to the larger ablated mass of the sample. The results presented in this study show the promising potential of the DP LIBS technique for a qualitative analysis in fertilizers, without requiring sample preparation with chemical reagents.

  19. Effects of Spraying Micronutrients on Yield, Quality and Micronutrient Content in Grain of Wheat%喷施微肥对小麦产量、品质及籽粒微量元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪元; 张平平; 马鸿翔; 姚金保; 耿志明

    2012-01-01

    以宁麦13为材料,在拔节孕穗期叶面喷施锌、铁和硒肥.喷施3种微肥对小麦产量结构、品质性状和铁含量均无显著影响,但显著提高了籽粒的锌和硒含量,锌含量提高了24.6%,硒含量提高了43倍.%The micronutrients zinc, ferrum and selenium were sprayed on the leaf surface at jointing and booting stage of wheat variety Ningmai 13. The results showed that the yield components, quality traits, and ferrum content in the grain were not significantly affected by these three kinds of micronutrients. But the zinc content and selenium content in the grain were improved greatly, and they were increased by 24. 6% and forty - three times respectively.

  20. Micronutrient content of certain tropical conventional and unconventional feed resources of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, N K S; Ramana, J V; Prasad, C S; Singh, Khub

    2004-01-01

    The ash, silica and certain important micronutrients were estimated in conventional and unconventional feed and fodder resources available in Southern India. Commonly used dry roughages, such as paddy straw, ragi straw, maize kadbi/stalk, jowar kadbi/stalk, bajra stalk and wheat straw, were high in ash (9.9% +/- 0.77%) and silica (6.4% +/- 0.65%) and low in most of the other micronutrients, except iron, with paddy straw containing most silica (>9%). Cultivated non-leguminous (maize, jowar) and improved green crops (hybrid napier, guinea, green panic, NB-21, CO-1) were also high in ash (10.5% +/- 0.60% and 12.5% +/- 0.51%) but were moderate sources of P, Mg and Cu and good sources of Zn (98 +/- 13.8 ppm and 55 +/- 6.7 ppm). Leguminous green fodders (stylosanthus, lucerne, cow pea, soyabean) were excellent sources of Ca (1.9% +/- 0.16%), Mg (0.40% +/- 0.05%), Cu (30 +/- 5.2 ppm), Zn (121 +/- 14.7 ppm) and Fe (1234 +/- 166 ppm) and moderate sources of P. Mixed local grasses and weeds were high in silica (6.9% +/- 1.00%) but were good sources of Cu, Zn and Fe. Cereal grains (maize, wheat, rice, ragi) were low in ash (2.9% +/- 0.33%) and were relatively poor sources of Ca (0.22% +/- 0.03%), Mg (0.19% +/- 0.03%) and Cu (13 +/- 3.1 ppm). Pulses were low to medium sources of most minerals and good sources of Fe (1230 +/- 293 ppm). Oil seed cake/extractions (groundnut cake, cotton seed cake, soyabean meal, sunflower cake, safflower cake) and cereal by-products (rice polish, rice bran, wheat bran) were excellent sources of P (1.1% +/- 0.47% and 2.3% +/- 0.19%) and good sources of Zn (65 +/- 3.9 ppm and 66 +/- 10.7 ppm) and Fe (938 +/- 130 ppm and 662 +/- 126 ppm). Among the unconventional feeds screened, orange peel, sunflower heads, meat meal, rubber seed cake, spirulina algae and sea weeds contained plentiful Ca, Zn and Fe: tree leaves/top feeds (mulberry, erythrina, glyricidia, banana, subabul, groundnut haulms) were excellent sources of Ca (1.5% +/- 0.13%), Zn (120

  1. The SMILING project: A North–South–South collaborative action to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in women and young children in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, J.; Blanchard, G.; Doets, E.L.; Fahmida, U.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Sustainable Micronutrient Interventions to Control Deficiencies and Improve Nutritional Status and General Health in Asia" project (SMILING), funded by the European Commission, is a transnational collaboration of research institutions and implementation agencies in five Southeast As

  2. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2014-01-01

    .... We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling.METHODS...

  3. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars Ake

    2014-01-01

    .... We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling...

  4. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin C in the IRIS multi-micronutrient supplement: effect of combination with a milk-based cornstarch porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Fernanda; Jandel, Doris; Hoenicke, Imke; Pietrzk, Klaus; Gross, Rainer; Trugo, Nadia M; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2003-09-01

    The effect of combining a multi-micronutrient supplement with a milk-based cornstarch porridge on the bioavailability of iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin C was evaluated using the plasma curve response over time (8 hours) in healthy women. Three tests were carried out in a crossover design: S (multi-micronutrient supplement), MS (multi-micronutrient supplement plustest meal), and M (test meal). Relative bioavailability was determined as the percent ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) in MS corrected by M, and AUC in S. Compared to S, AUC in MS was smaller for iron (p porridge is small. Therefore, the tested meal is a suitable vehicle for the multi-micronutrient supplement.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of micronutrient deficiencies pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) among a diverse multicountry cohort of HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakoti, Rupak; Christian, Parul; Yang, Wei-Teng; Gupte, Nikhil; Mwelase, Noluthando; Kanyama, Cecilia; Pillay, Sandy; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Santos, Breno; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Tripathy, Srikanth; Riviere, Cynthia; Berendes, Sima; Lama, Javier R; Cardoso, Sandra W; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Tang, Alice M; Semba, Richard D; Campbell, Thomas B; Gupta, Amita

    2016-02-01

    HIV-infected adults have increased risk of several individual micronutrient deficiencies. However, the prevalence and risk factors of concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies and whether micronutrient concentrations change after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have not been well described. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of individual, concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies among ART-naïve HIV-infected adults from nine countries and assess change in micronutrient status 48 weeks post-ART initiation. A random sub-cohort (n = 270) stratified by country was selected from the multinational PEARLS clinical trial (n = 1571 ART-naïve, HIV-infected adults). We measured serum concentrations of vitamins A, D (25-hydroxyvitamin), E, carotenoids and selenium pre-ART and 48 weeks post-ART initiation, and measured vitamins B6, B12, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor at baseline only. Prevalence of single micronutrient deficiencies, concurrent (2 coexisting) or conditional (a deficiency in one micronutrient given a deficiency in another) and multiple (≥3) were determined using defined serum concentration cutoffs. We assessed mean changes in micronutrient concentrations from pre-ART to week 48 post-ART initiation using multivariable random effects models. Of 270 participants, 13.9%, 29.2%, 24.5% and 32.4% had 0, 1, 2 and multiple deficiencies, respectively. Pre-ART prevalence was the highest for single deficiencies of selenium (53.2%), vitamin D (42.4%), and B6 (37.3%) with 12.1% having concurrent deficiencies of all three micronutrients. Deficiency prevalence varied widely by country. 48 weeks post-ART initiation, mean vitamin A concentration increased (p ART (p ART initiation but vary between countries. Importantly, despite increases in micronutrient concentrations, prevalence of individual deficiencies remains largely unchanged after 48 weeks on ART. Our results suggest that ART alone is

  6. Macro- and Micronutrients Consumption and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer among Jordanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema F. Tayyem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the association between total energy and nutrient intake and the risk of developing CRC has not been clearly explained. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between total energy intake and other nutrients and the development of CRC in the Jordanian population. Research Methods and Procedures: Dietary data was collected from 169 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 248 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status. These control subjects were healthy and disease free. Data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between quartiles of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes with the risk of developing CRC in our study population. Results: Total energy intake was associated with a higher risk of developing CRC (OR = 2.60 for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 1.21–5.56, p-trend = 0.03. Intakes of protein (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.63–8.05, p-trend = 0.002, carbohydrates (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.67–2.99, p-trend = 0.043, and percentage of energy from fat (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 0.38–11.70, p-trend = 0.009 significantly increased the risk for the development of CRC. Saturated fat, dietary cholesterol and sodium intake showed a significant association with the risk of developing CRC (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 2.33–11.76; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.18–5.21; and OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.59–7.38, respectively, while vitamin E and caffeine intake were indicative of a protective effect against the development of CRC, OR = 0.002 (95% CI: 0.0003–0.011 and 0.023 (95%CI: 0.008–0.067, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest an increased risk for the development of CRC in subjects with high dietary intake of energy, protein, saturated fat

  7. Micronutrient Deficits Are Still Public Health Issues among Women and Young Children in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Pham, Thuy Van; Tran, Nga Thuy; Le, Hop Thi; Wieringa, Frank; Rohner, Fabian; Fortin, Sonia; Le, Mai Bach; Tran, Do Thanh; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background The 2000 Vietnamese National Nutrition Survey showed that the population's dietary intake had improved since 1987. However, inequalities were found in food consumption between socioeconomic groups. As no national data exist on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, a survey was conducted in 2010 to assess the micronutrient status of randomly selected 1526 women of reproductive age and 586 children aged 6–75 mo. Principal Findings In women, according to international thresholds, prevalence of zinc deficiency (ZnD, 67.2±2.6%) and vitamin B12 deficiency (11.7±1.7%) represented public health problems, whereas prevalence of anemia (11.6±1.0%) and iron deficiency (ID, 13.7±1.1%) were considered low, and folate (deficiencies were considered negligible. However, many women had marginal folate (25.1%) and vitamin A status (13.6%). Moreover, overweight (BMI≥23 kg/m2 for Asian population) or underweight occurred in 20% of women respectively highlighting the double burden of malnutrition. In children, a similar pattern was observed for ZnD (51.9±3.5%), anemia (9.1±1.4%) and ID (12.9±1.5%) whereas prevalence of marginal vitamin A status was also high (47.3±2.2%). There was a significant effect of age on anemia and ID prevalence, with the youngest age group (6–17 mo) having the highest risk for anemia, ID, ZnD and marginal vitamin A status as compared to other groups. Moreover, the poorest groups of population had a higher risk for zinc, anemia and ID. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia and ID in Vietnam has been markedly reduced over the last decade, but a large part of the population is still at risk for other deficiencies such as zinc, vitamin A, folate and vitamin B12 especially the youngest children aged 6–17 mo. Consequently specific interventions to improve food diversity and quality should be implemented, among them food fortification of staple foods and condiments and improvement of complementary feeding. PMID:22529954

  8. Micronutrient deficits are still public health issues among women and young children in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2000 Vietnamese National Nutrition Survey showed that the population's dietary intake had improved since 1987. However, inequalities were found in food consumption between socioeconomic groups. As no national data exist on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, a survey was conducted in 2010 to assess the micronutrient status of randomly selected 1526 women of reproductive age and 586 children aged 6-75 mo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In women, according to international thresholds, prevalence of zinc deficiency (ZnD, 67.2 ± 2.6% and vitamin B12 deficiency (11.7 ± 1.7% represented public health problems, whereas prevalence of anemia (11.6 ± 1.0% and iron deficiency (ID, 13.7 ± 1.1% were considered low, and folate (<3% and vitamin A (VAD, <2% deficiencies were considered negligible. However, many women had marginal folate (25.1% and vitamin A status (13.6%. Moreover, overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2 for Asian population or underweight occurred in 20% of women respectively highlighting the double burden of malnutrition. In children, a similar pattern was observed for ZnD (51.9 ± 3.5%, anemia (9.1 ± 1.4% and ID (12.9 ± 1.5% whereas prevalence of marginal vitamin A status was also high (47.3 ± 2.2%. There was a significant effect of age on anemia and ID prevalence, with the youngest age group (6-17 mo having the highest risk for anemia, ID, ZnD and marginal vitamin A status as compared to other groups. Moreover, the poorest groups of population had a higher risk for zinc, anemia and ID. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia and ID in Vietnam has been markedly reduced over the last decade, but a large part of the population is still at risk for other deficiencies such as zinc, vitamin A, folate and vitamin B(12 especially the youngest children aged 6-17 mo. Consequently specific interventions to improve food diversity and quality should be implemented, among them food fortification of staple foods and condiments and improvement of

  9. IMPACT OF MICRONUTRIENT FORTIFIED FOOD SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRITIONAL PROFILE AMONG GINNING WOMEN WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sridevi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150 (gin house, gutter and sorting sections industries. Socio demographic, work pattern, nutritional and health status were assessed by administering a questionnaire. Further, to correct micronutrient deficiency, iron and folic acid fortified soy biscuits were formulated. Intervention study was conducted among the selected moderate anaemic ginners (n=20. l00 g of micronutrient fortified soy biscuit containing 13.5 g of protein, 8.4 mg of iron (ferrous fumarate and 120 µg of folic acid was supplemented to experimental group of women as a midmorning and midevening snack for a period of four months. Therapeutic efficacy of food supplement was studied by assessing their anthropometric and haematological conditions at pre and post supplementation period. Anthropometric indices showed an improvement in weight (48.7 ± 4.98 to 51.5 ± 6.25 and BMI (19.02 to 23.04. Haematological indices revealed that the mean haemoglobin of experimental group improved to 11.04 ± 0.56 g/dl from 9.1 ± 0.67. Similarly increase in serum iron from 61.9 ± 3.24 to 65.0 ± 2.95 µg/dl was noticed and showed a significant difference at 1 per cent. Improvement in total protein (6.62 ± 0.49 to 8.11 ± 0.20 g/dl, albumin (3.9 ± 0.36 to 4.73 ± 0.31 g/dl and globulin (2.82 ± 0.24 to 3.8 ± 0.29 g/dl showed significant difference at 1 per cent level. Similarly, an increase in Total WBC count (7326 ± 19.5 to 9725 ± 25.5 cumm, reduction in lymphocyte (942.16 ± 3.6 to 35.2 ± 2.2 per cent seen among the ginning women workers.

  10. 6th COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) International Workshop on Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sies, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The 6(th) COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) workshop, "Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment," was held from June 29 to July 2 at Holiday Inn Damai Beach Resort in Kuching, Sarawak. Two hundred twenty participants from 17 countries presented recent advances on natural antioxidants in the area of oxidative stress and molecular aspects of nutrition. Natural products and research are an important program in academic institutions and are experiencing unprecedented interest and growth by the scientific community and public health authorities. Progress is being driven by better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the relation between oxidative stress and micronutrient action. The gathering of scientists from around the world was fruitful, and we hope that future work will be developed by the formal and informal interactions that took place in this beautiful tropical setting.

  11. Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong;

    2016-01-01

    and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency...... were 15.6%, 1.4%, 51.0%, 7.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. The strongest risk factors for anemia were hemoglobinopathy, VA deficiency, and depleted iron stores (all p ...In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron...

  12. Changing scenario of micronutrient deficiencies in India during four decades and its impact on crop responses and nutritional health of human and animals

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Singh; Narwal, R P; G, Bhupal Raj; Patel, K P; Sadana, U S

    2009-01-01

    Changing scenario of micronutrient deficiencies phase wise during four decades (1968-2008) was studied in soils of India, their impact of crop production and changes in micronutrient concentration in seeds and fodders, thereby influences on animal and human health. Results of 269,000 soil sample analysis revealed that mean deficiency of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum was found in 49, 12, 3, 5, 33 and 13% samples, respectively. Throughout country, zinc deficiency is increasin...

  13. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Warthon-Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe or multiple micronutrients (MMN including zinc (451 in each group. The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation.

  14. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Timotijevic, L.; Barnett, J; Brown, K.; Shepherd, R.; Fernandez-Celemin, L.; Domolki, L.; Ruprich, J.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; Sonne, A.M.; M. Hermoso; Koletzko, B.; Frost-Andersen, L.; Timmer, A; Raats, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Copyright @ The Authors 2010 Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting: Questionnaire-based data were collecte...

  15. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-08-07

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6-17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36-48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child's cognitive development requires further investigation.

  16. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-04-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary energy and estimated macro- and micronutrient intake to the diet of young schoolchildren. We analyzed data from third- and fourth-grade urban Guatemalan school-children aged predominantly 8-10 years old. One-day pictorial registries of all beverages, foods and snacks consumed over a 24-h period were collected from children from private (n = 219) and public (n = 230) schools. Food composition nutrient values were assigned to the items consumed. Eleven main categories of beverages were identified. The contribution of each of the 11 beverage categories to energy, macro- and micronutrients was evaluated. The estimated intake of beverages was 475,300 mL, as reported by the 449 children. As a group, the beverage consumed in the greatest quantity was coffee (126,500 mL), followed by plain water (62,000 mL). Beverages represented a mean energy contribution of 418 +/- 26 kcal (21.5% of total dietary energy). The beverages varied in energy density from 0 (water) to 1.5 kcal mL(-1) (thin gruels). Beverages contributed one-third of the dietary carbohydrate. Through the contribution of fortified drinks, beverages were important sources of vitamin A (55%), vitamin C (38%), zinc (21%) and calcium (19%). Milk was an important source for vitamin D (10%). These results show the importance of drinks to nutrition and the balance of concerns of overweight/obesity with micronutrient quality.

  17. Dynamics of Soil and Grain Micronutrients as Affected by Long-Term Fertilization in an Aquic Inceptisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ben-Yin; HUANG Shao-Min; WEI Ming-Bao; H.L.ZHANG; SHEN A-Lin; XU Jian-Ming; RUAN Xin-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrient status in soils can be affected by long-term fertilization and intensive cropping.A 19-year experiment (1990-2008) was carried out to investigate the influence of different fertilization regimes on micronutrients in an Aquic Inceptisol and maize and wheat grains in Zhengzhou,China.The results showed that soil total Cu and Zn markedly declined after 19 years with application of N fertilizer alone.Soil total Fe and Mn were significantly increased mainly due to atmospheric deposition.Applications of P and organic fertilizer with incorporation of straws resulted in dramatic increases in soil total Cu,Zn,Fe,and Mn.Soil diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu in all treatments sharply decreased from initially 1.12 to about 0.8 mg kg-1.The treatments with organic fertilizer had the highest soil DTPA-extractable Cu,Zn,Fe,and Mn after 19 years of cropping and fertilization,thus demonstrating the important role of organic fertilizer application in improving available micronutrient status.Cu and Zn contents in wheat grains in the no-P treatments were significantly higher than those of the treatments with P application.In addition,Fe and Mn contents in wheat grains were positively correlated with their soil DTPA-extractable concentrations.These indicated that the long-term application of organic fertilizer resulted in significant increases in soil total and available micronutrient concentrations and remarkable reduction in wheat grain Cu and Zn contents,which was due to high soil available P.

  18. Methods to Quantify Nickel in Soils and Plant Tissues

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    Bruna Wurr Rodak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other micronutrients, the levels of nickel (Ni available in soils and plant tissues are very low, making quantification very difficult. The objective of this paper is to present optimized determination methods of Ni availability in soils by extractants and total content in plant tissues for routine commercial laboratory analyses. Samples of natural and agricultural soils were processed and analyzed by Mehlich-1 extraction and by DTPA. To quantify Ni in the plant tissues, samples were digested with nitric acid in a closed system in a microwave oven. The measurement was performed by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. There was a positive and significant correlation between the levels of available Ni in the soils subjected to Mehlich-1 and DTPA extraction, while for plant tissue samples the Ni levels recovered were high and similar to the reference materials. The availability of Ni in some of the natural soil and plant tissue samples were lower than the limits of quantification. Concentrations of this micronutrient were higher in the soil samples in which Ni had been applied. Nickel concentration differed in the plant parts analyzed, with highest levels in the grains of soybean. The grain, in comparison with the shoot and leaf concentrations, were better correlated with the soil available levels for both extractants. The methods described in this article were efficient in quantifying Ni and can be used for routine laboratory analysis of soils and plant tissues.

  19. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284

  20. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub- elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  1. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  2. You are what you eat, and so are your children: the impact of micronutrients on the epigenetic programming of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, Kimberly; Vonhögen, Indira G C; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2014-01-01

    The research field of fetal programming has developed tremendously over the years and increasing knowledge suggests that both maternal and paternal unbalanced diet can have long-lasting effects on the health of offspring. Studies implicate that macronutrients play an important role in fetal programming, although the importance of micronutrients is also becoming increasingly apparent. Folic acid and vitamins B2, B6 and B12 are essential for one-carbon metabolism and are involved in DNA methylation. They can therefore influence the programming of the offspring's epigenome. Also, other micronutrients such as vitamins A and C, iron, chromium, zinc and flavonoids play a role in fetal programming. Since it is estimated that approximately 78 % of pregnant women in the US take vitamin supplements during pregnancy, more attention should be given to the long-term effects of these supplements on offspring. In this review we address several different studies which illustrate that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy, regarding the intake of micronutrients of both mother and father, can have long-lasting effects on the health of adult offspring.

  3. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; Macintyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements or placebos for six months. Appetite tests were performed at enrollment and after three and six months. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial cereal test food served after an overnight fast according to standardized procedures. Body weights and total amount of test food eaten were measured. In total, 99 children completed the study (50 on supplements and 49 on placebos). Amounts eaten per kilogram body weight in the supplement group at enrollment and after six months were 36.7+/-17.7 g/kg (mean+/-SD) and 41.3+/-15.0 g/kg respectively, while the amounts in the placebo group were 47.1+/-14.9 g/kg and 45.7+/-13.1g/kg respectively. The change in amount eaten per kilogram body weight over six months was significantly higher in the supplement group (4.7+/-14.7 g/kg) than in the placebo group (-1.4+/-15.1g/kg). Multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months seems to significantly improve the appetite of HIV-infected children.

  4. Ascorbic acid: new role of an age-old micronutrient in the management of periodontal disease in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagl, Adel S; Bhat, Subraya Giliyar

    2015-03-01

    To review the new role of an age-old micronutrient - ascorbic acid - in the management of periodontal disease. Articles pertaining to the topic were searched in PubMed and other search engines from year 1974 to April 2014 with the following key words: "ascorbic acid," "ascorbate," "vitamin C," "periodontal disease," "gingivitis," "periodontitis," "anti-oxidants" and "elderly." Balanced nutrition is an essential factor in the elderly. Modification of nutritional requirement is important to overcome the effect of an unbalanced diet in older individuals as a result of several external and internal host-associated factors. Micronutrient requirements as aging advances could change, and require due attention. Ascorbic acid and its relationship with periodontal disease are very well known. However, recent changes in the concept of understanding the pathogenicity has led to a new path of therapeutic intervention with ascorbic acid in many chronic diseases. Oxidative stress with its associated burden might alter the disease process. In the era of "periodontal medicine," the impact of remote tissue changes on systemic disease has to be taken into serious consideration. Deficiency of nutritional impact on the host, with micronutrient vitamin C detailed in this review with sources, absorption, interaction and its relationship with systemic disease, and thereby the impact on periodontal disease. Ascorbic acid plays an important role in the aging process, and in the maintenance of periodontal health in the elderly. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of micronutrient zinc-associated response for enhanced carbohydrate utilization and earlier solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Wan, Hui-Hui; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-11-20

    The micronutrient zinc plays vital roles in ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In order to elucidate the zinc-associated response for enhanced glucose utilization and earlier solventogenesis, transcriptional analysis was performed on cells grown in glucose medium at the exponential growth phase of 16 h without/with supplementary zinc. Correspondingly, the gene glcG (CAC0570) encoding a glucose-specific PTS was significantly upregulated accompanied with the other two genes CAC1353 and CAC1354 for glucose transport in the presence of zinc. Additionally, genes involved in the metabolisms of six other carbohydrates (maltose, cellobiose, fructose, mannose, xylose and arabinose) were differentially expressed, indicating that the regulatory effect of micronutrient zinc is carbohydrate-specific with respects to the improved/inhibited carbohydrate utilization. More importantly, multiple genes responsible for glycolysis (glcK and pykA), acidogenesis (thlA, crt, etfA, etfB and bcd) and solventogenesis (ctfB and bdhA) of C. acetobutylicum prominently responded to the supplementary zinc at differential expression levels. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that the branch node intermediates such as acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, butyl-CoA, and reducing power NADH remained relatively lower whereas more ATP was generated due to enhanced glycolysis pathway and earlier initiation of solventogenesis, suggesting that the micronutrient zinc-associated response for the selected intracellular metabolisms is significantly pleiotropic.

  6. Poor dietary quality of complementary foods is associated with multiple micronutrient deficiencies during early childhood in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, R; Enkhjargal, T S; Batjargal, J; Bolormaa, N; Enkhmyagmar, D; Tserendolgor, U; Tungalag, S; Bailey, K; Gibson, R S

    2010-09-01

    To assess whether persistent micronutrient deficiencies in Mongolian children identified in our earlier biochemical study are associated with inadequacies in quantity and/or quality in their complementary diets. A cross-sectional study of breast-fed children aged 6-23 months, randomly selected from four districts in Ulaanbaatar and four provincial capitals. Weight and length were measured, and sociodemographic status, feeding practices and nutrient adequacy of complementary foods for children aged 6-8 months (n 26), 9-11 months (n 29) and 12-23 months (n 73) were assessed via questionnaire and in-home interactive 24 h recalls. No geographic differences existed so data were combined. Adherence to WHO infant and young child feeding practices was poor: few children were exclusively breast-fed up to 6 months of age or received the recommended number of feedings containing the recommended number of food groups. Nevertheless, energy intakes from complementary diets, primarily from cereals and non-nutritious snacks, were above WHO-estimated needs; vitamin C > vitamin A > Zn > Ca. Complementary feeding in Mongolia is compromised by deficits in several micronutrients but not energy, in part because of frequent consumption of non-nutritious snacks. The latter may interfere with breast-feeding and should be avoided. Instead, wheat-based complementary foods should be enriched with affordable cellular animal foods and fruits rich in vitamin C to combat existing micronutrient deficits.

  7. US youths in the early stages of HIV disease have low intakes of some micronutrients important for optimal immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzich, Laurie A; Marquis, Grace S; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Wilson, Craig M; Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-07-01

    We examined the association between micronutrient intakes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in youths who were at increased nutritional risk because of the demands of growth and disease as well as poor dietary habits. This was a cross-sectional study to collect dietary intake data using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (98.2). Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and sociodemographic data were available.Subjects/Setting Participants included 264 HIV-infected and 127 HIV-uninfected adolescents and young adults from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health network, a multisite observational study on HIV progression. Statistical analyses CD4(+) T cells were stratified for HIV-infected youths: >/=500, 200 to 499, and /=500 cells/microL. After controlling for other factors, HIV-infected participants with CD4(+) T cells >/=500 had decreased iron intake (P<.05) and tended to be associated with lower intakes of vitamins C and E (P<.10) compared with those with more advanced disease and HIV-uninfected youths. Among those youths with CD4(+) T cells between 200 and 499 cells/microL, a high anxiety score was associated with a sixfold increase in vitamin A intake as compared with those with a low score.Applications/conclusions Given the increased micronutrient requirements, nutrition counseling with HIV-infected youths should focus on early increase of intake of foods rich in micronutrients to improve growth, slow disease progression, and increase survival.

  8. Dietary intake of micronutrients in first-degree healthy, diabetic and IGT relatives of type II diabetic patients

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    Hosein Khosravi-Broojeni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the dietary content of micronutrients in first-degree relatives of type II diabetic patients, with respect to the influence of dietary composition on the development of diabetes. Methods and Materials: 210 first-degree relatives of type II diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups (normal and IGT+ diabetic, according to the results of OGTT. 3-Day food recall questionnaire was completed by skilled nutritionists from all subjects. The participants’ intake of calorie, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, chromium and vitamins B1, B6, C and E was calculated and the results were compared between 2 groups. Results: The mean of age and BMI were 48.9  5.2, 43.6  6.7 years (P=0.373 and 29.3  0.7, 28.7  0.8 kg/m2 in impaired and normal groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in energy, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, chromium and vitamins B1, B6, C and E intake between 2 groups. Conclusion: Although the micronutrient intake between studied groups didn’t differ significantly, the dietary content of chromium, magnesium, zinc and vitamin E was less than recommended daily allowance values. This finding can be taken into consideration with respect to the influence of some micronutrients, including magnesium and chromium, on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

  9. Flexible opto-electronics enabled microfluidics systems with cloud connectivity for point-of-care micronutrient analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Aranyosi, A J; Wong, Michelle D; Hong, Ji Hyung; Lowe, Jared; Chan, Carol; Garlock, David; Shaw, Scott; Beattie, Patrick D; Kratochvil, Zachary; Kubasti, Nick; Seagers, Kirsten; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Swanson, Christina D

    2016-04-15

    In developing countries, the deployment of medical diagnostic technologies remains a challenge because of infrastructural limitations (e.g. refrigeration, electricity), and paucity of health professionals, distribution centers and transportation systems. Here we demonstrate the technical development and clinical testing of a novel electronics enabled microfluidic paper-based analytical device (EE-μPAD) for quantitative measurement of micronutrient concentrations in decentralized, resource-limited settings. The system performs immune-detection using paper-based microfluidics, instrumented with flexible electronics and optoelectronic sensors in a mechanically robust, ultrathin format comparable in size to a credit card. Autonomous self-calibration, plasma separation, flow monitoring, timing and data storage enable multiple devices to be run simultaneously. Measurements are wirelessly transferred to a mobile phone application that geo-tags the data and transmits it to a remote server for real time tracking of micronutrient deficiencies. Clinical tests of micronutrient levels from whole blood samples (n=95) show comparable sensitivity and specificity to ELISA-based tests. These results demonstrate instantaneous acquisition and global aggregation of diagnostics data using a fully integrated point of care system that will enable rapid and distributed surveillance of disease prevalence and geographical progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A coarse-grained simulation to study the digestion and bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients in emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marze, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The digestion of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients requires numerous and simultaneous processes of chemical, physical and biological nature. Studying these processes experimentally is challenging, explaining why there is only little information about the mechanisms and interactions involved. Nevertheless, the bioaccessibility of lipophilic micronutrients is poorly understood so new investigation approaches are needed, all the more when digestion of lipophilic nutrients is also involved. In this article, the development of a coarse-grained simulation with no adjustable parameter is reported, enabling the study of the chemical and physical processes controlling bioaccessibility in such systems. The intestinal digestion of a droplet of a pure triglyceride containing a lipophilic vitamin was simulated to obtain their bioaccessibility kinetics (via lipolysis and/or solubilization in bile salt). The parameters examined here were the type of triglyceride, the type of vitamin, the digestive fluid amount, the droplet size, and different digestion conditions reflecting the in vitro or in vivo cases. Among these structure and composition parameters, the type of triglyceride and the digestion conditions had the greatest effects on bioaccessibility. An interplay between triglyceride digestion and micronutrient bioaccessibility kinetics was evidenced, highlighting the roles of the different parameters, in agreement with the experimental literature. This new approach is shown to be relevant to both nutrition and pharmacology.

  11. Association between Micronutrients (Vitamin A, D, Iron and Schistosome-Specific Cytokine Responses in Zimbabweans Exposed to Schistosoma haematobium

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    Liam Reilly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients play an important role in the development of effective immune responses. This study characterised a populations exposed to schistosome infections in terms of the relationship between micronutrients and immune responses. Levels of retinol binding protein (RBP; vitamin A marker, vitamin D, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and C reactive protein (CRP were related to levels of schistosome specific cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4/5/10 in 40 Zimbabweans (7–54 years exposed to Schistosoma haematobium infection. 67.2% of the participants were deficient in vitamin D. RBP levels were within normal ranges but declined with age. The two indicators of iron levels suggested that although levels of stored iron were within normal levels (normal ferritin levels, levels of functional iron (sTfR levels were reduced in 28.6% of the population. Schistosome infection alone was not associated with levels of any of the micronutrients, but altered the relationship between parasite-specific IL-4 and IL-5 and levels of ferritin and sTfR.

  12. Impact of foliar application of nano micronutrient fertilizers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the growth and yield components of barley under supplemental irrigation

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    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-fertilizers are new generation of the synthetic fertilizers which contain readily available nutrients in nano scale range. Nano fertilizers are preferred largely due to their efficiency and environment friendly nature compared to conventional chemical fertilizers. To evaluate the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient nano-fertilizer (iron and zinc and nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2 solution on grain yield and its components in barley under supplemental irrigation conditions, a field experiment was carried out in the semi-arid highland region of Maragheh, Iran. Barley plants were separately treated with of chelated nano-scale zinc oxide (ZnO and ferric oxide (Fe2O3 suspensions during tillering stage, booting and milky stages. Results revealed that days to anthesis and maturity significantly increased after application of both nano-fertilizers. Furthermore, a considerable improvement was observed in grain mass, spike length, number of the grains per spike, chlorophyll content, grain yield and harvest index by application of nano-fertilizer. However the impact of nano zinc fertilizer was more prominent than iron. Foliar application of nTiO2 positively affected some morphophysiological characteristics like as days to anthesis, chlorophyll content and straw yield. The results suggest that the delivery of Zn into barley seedling through spray of nano-fertilizer can be an efficient nutrient management strategy in semi-arid regions. Overall, our result indicated that the integration of nanotechnology in fertilizer products can improve fertilizer use efficiency and significantly increase of barley yield. However, plant response to nanoparticles significantly depend on concentration and time of application as well as size, shape, and surface functionalization of the particles.

  13. DIET MICRONUTRIENT ADEQUACY OF WOMEN AFTER 1 YEAR OF GASTRIC BYPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEIRO, Larissa Silveira; Melendez-ARAÚJO, Mariana Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background The more effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery. Gastric bypass is a surgical technique used worldwide; however, as well as other techniques; it has postoperative risks, including nutrient deficiency. Aim To determine the amounts of dietary iron, calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12 ingested by patients of a public hospital one year after gastric bypass, and compare with the recommendations of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Methods This was a transverse descriptive study and the sample consisted of 36 women, with at least one year of gastric bypass. Data collected included sociodemographic, anthropometric and diet variables. Dietetic information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Ingestion of iron, calcium, vitamin D and vitamina B12 was evaluated in comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances, as well as correlation of micronutrient ingestion with time of surgery. Results There was inadequate consumption of iron, calcium and vitamin D. The vitamin B12 intake was considered adequate. There was statistically significant positive correlation between the time of surgery and the ingestion of iron, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Conclusion The intake of iron, calcium and vitamin D of women one year after gastric bypass was inadequate, emphasizing the importance of multiprofessional monitoring postoperatively to prevent nutrient deficiencies. PMID:25409960

  14. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices: chemical composition, micronutrient cations, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kar, Chiraz; Ferchichi, Ali; Attia, Faouzi; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-08-01

    Phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins of pomegranate juices, obtained from 9 Tunisian ecotypes were quantified. Phenolics and flavonoids in the variety Tounsi (TN) (3299 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/L and 636 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/L of juice, respectively) were higher than in the variety Gabsi (GB) (1570 mg GAE/L and 135 mg QE/L of juice, respectively). The highest anthocyanins quantity was