WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant life forms

  1. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  2. Life-form and Density of Valuable Non-timber Plants in Ukpom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    State, Nigeria was assessed for the abundance of plant species producing ... vegetables, twigs, nuts and industrial products like rafter, gum, tannin, latex and dyes ... classified into four life-forms, namely: trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers. The.

  3. Reakcii rastenij raznyh zhiznennyh form na izmenenija prirodnoj sredy [The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  4. The interactions between plant life form and fungal traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determine the symbiotic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Álvaro; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Barea, José M

    2014-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have traditionally been considered generalist symbionts. However, an increasing number of studies are pointing out the selectivity potential of plant hosts. Plant life form, determined by plant life history traits, seems to drive the AM fungal community composition. The AM fungi also exhibit a wide diversity of functional traits known to be responsible for their distribution in natural ecosystems. However, little is known about the role of plant and fungal traits driving the resultant symbiotic assemblages. With the aim of testing the feedback relationship between plant and fungal traits on the resulting AM fungal community, we inoculated three different plant life forms, i.e. annual herbs, perennial herbs and perennial semi-woody plants, with AM fungal communities sampled in different seasons. We hypothesized that the annual climate variation will induce changes in the mean traits of the AM fungal communities present in the soil throughout the year. Furthermore, the association of plants with different life forms with AM fungi with contrasting life history traits will show certain preferences according to reciprocal traits of the plants and fungi. We found changes in the AM fungal community throughout the year, which were differentially disrupted by disturbance and altered by plant growth form and plant biomass. Both plant and fungal traits clearly contributed to the resultant AM fungal communities. The revealed process can have implications for the functioning of ecosystems since changes in dominant plant life forms or climatic variables could influence the traits of AM fungal communities in soil and hence ecosystem processes.

  5. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  6. A contribution to flora, life form and chorology of plants in Noor and Sisangan lowland forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Naqinezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowland Hyrcanian (Caspian areas possess a number of important remnant patches of deciduous Euro-Siberian forests distributed sparsely in the three Iranian provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Noor and Sisangan are two large patches of such lowland forests classified as “natural forest parks” in the context of “Iranian Natural Resources”. In spite of a few local studies, broad knowledge upon the flora and vegetation of these areas are lacking. A total of 225 species belonging to 175 genera and 77 plant families were collected from the studied areas. The largest families in terms of species richness, were Poaceae (28 spp., Asteraceae (18 spp. and Rosaceae (9 spp., respectively. The genera with the largest number of species were Carex (6 spp., Veronica (5 spp. and Euphorbia, Polygonum, Solanum (each with 4 spp., respectively. In the assessment of life form spectrum, the dominant life forms were therophytes (30.2%, followed by the geophytes (27.1%, hemicryptophytes (20.9% and phanerophytes (18.2%. The flora was mostly composed of pluriregional elements with 60 taxa (27.3%, followed by Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean elements with 43 taxa (19.5%. Life form spectra and chorotype percentages were discussed for each study area separately. According to Sørensen’s (1948 similarity index, there was a remarkable similarity between two forest areas. Noor and Sisangan forests were highly threatened ecosystems in case of species loss and changing natural communities due to occurrence of anthropogenic and over-grazing effects.

  7. Effects of competitive interactions of different life forms submersed plants on biomass allocation in shallow lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-feng

    2010-01-01

    Plant competition has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing the structure and function of lake ecosystems.Competition from plants of dissimilar growth form may have profound effects on shallow lakes.An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of competitive interactions of submersed plants with dissimilar growth forms on the biomass allocations.Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were selected and were planted in a single-species monoculture and a mixed-species pattern.Results showed that the growth of Ⅴ.natans was significantly affected by the H.verticillata and caused a sharp reduction of biomass,but the root:shoot ratio of Ⅴ.natans was not affected significantly and there was a minimal increase in mixture: while for H.verticillata,the biomass and the root:shoot ratio were not significantly changed by the competitive interactions of Ⅴ.natans,there was minimal increase qf biomass and minimal decrease of the root:shoot ratio.These results may indicate that the phant which candevelop a dense mat or canopy at the water surface would be a stronger competitor relative to the plant that dependsmore on light availability near the sediment.

  8. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  9. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S.H. [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  10. Flora, life form and chorology of plants of the Helali protected area in Khorasan-e Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sokhanvar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available “Helali protected area” has been officially announced as a no-hunting zone since 1997 and then, became a protected area in 2006. This area with ca. 63495 hectares, is located in the west of Gonabad and southeast of Bajestan, Khorasan-e Razavi province. The area includes mountains, plains and foothills and has a dry and desert climate with warm summers and cold winters based on De Martonne’s aridity index. In investigation of the flora, 318 vascular plant species belonging to 205 genera and 53 families were identified. The most dominant families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Brassicaceae with 53, 30, and 26 plant species, respectively. Chorological classification of the flora showed that the majority of the species (56.3% belonged to the Irano-Turanian region. Pluri-regional, cosmopolitan and sub-cosmopolitan elements made up 14.1% of the flora which reflected a disturbance history in the area. Therophytes (47.5% and hemicryptophytes (26.1% were the most important life forms according to Raunkiaer classification.

  11. Within-twig leaf distribution patterns differ among plant life-forms in a subtropical Chinese forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengqun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J; Sun, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    Amax) had more even leaf distribution patterns than evergreen species (which had low LCP, LSP and Amax); shade-adapted evergreen species had more even leaf distribution patterns than sun-adapted evergreen species. We propose that the leaf distribution pattern (i.e., 'evenness' CV, which is an easily measured functional trait) can be used to distinguish among life-forms in communities similar to the one examined in this study.

  12. Diversity of Gall-Inducing Insects in a Mexican Tropical Dry Forest: The Importance of Plant Species Richness, Life-Forms, Host Plant Age and Plant Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pablo Cuevas-Reyes; Mauricio Quesada; Paul Hanson; Rodolfo Dirzo; Ken Oyama

    2004-01-01

    ...) in plant communities. We sampled deciduous and riparian habitats in a tropical dry forest at Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve in western Mexico, that differ in phenology and moisture availability...

  13. Detection of Life Forms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gaia Genomics proposes to develop an instrument for the detection of earthborn and/or planetary life forms that are based on a nucleic acid paradigm. Highly...

  14. Investigation of the flora, life forms and chorotypes of the plants in the Meymand Protected Area, Kohkilouyeh va Boyer Ahmad provice, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Naghipour Borj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Floristic studies have great importance as it represent the existence and the status of all plant species in an area. This study aimed to investigate the flora of Meymand Protected Area, located in central Zagros and in Kohkilouyeh va Boyer Ahmad provice with an elevation range of 1806 to 2730 meters from sea level. Plant families, genera and species were identified using taxonomic methods and available resources. According to the results, the flora of this area included 279 plant species belonging to 198 genera from 48 families. The richest families were Asteraceae with 50 species (17.9%, Poaceae, Lamiaceae with each 23 species (8.2% and Fabaceae with 22 species (7.8%. The dominance of hemicryptophytes and therophytes (totally, 82% life forms in the flora, were the characteristics of mountainous regions in central part of Iran. The high proportion of hemicryptophytes plants in the flora also indicated the dominance of a cold and montinious climates in the study area. The chorotypes of plants species showed that 57 percent (160 species of the plant species belonged to Irano-Touranian zone but other remaining species (119 speciecs grew in other geobotanical zones too. There were 5 vulnerable, 24 lower risks and 1 data deficient species in this protected area.

  15. An introduction to flora, life form, and distribution of plants in two protected lowland forests, Semeskandeh and Dasht-e Naz, Mazandaran N. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semeskandeh and Dasht-e Naz are protected as wildlife refuges with the aim of conservation and revival of the remaining plant and animal populations of the Caspian lowland forests in Mazandaran (Sari. Based on a floristic study, 223 plant species from 175 genera belonging to 69 families were identified. The richest families were Poaceae with 36 species (16%, Asteraceae with 23 species (10.3%, Lamiaceae with 14 species (6.3% and Rosaceae with 13 species (5.8%, respectively. Carex with 7 species, Euphorbia with 6 species and Geranium with 5 species constituted the largest genera. Considering life form spectrum, the highest proportion of life forms belonged to therophytes (34%, hemicryptophytes (24%, geophytes (22% and phanerophytes (15%, respectively. Likewise, the highest proportion of chorotypes belonged to pluriregional elements (32%, followed by Euro-Siberian elements (19%, Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean elements (13%. Moreover, four percent of these plants were endemic of Iran. Since the studied forests in the current investigation are considered as remnants of lowland Caspian forests which had been dominated by Quercus castaneifolia and Buxus hyrcana, conservation policies are quite necessary to protect these very important vulnerable and sensitive ecosystems and to eliminate all dangers and pollutions threatening them.

  16. 石家庄市园林植物区系及生活型分析%Flora and life form of the landscape plants in Shijiazhuang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文增; 周秀珍; 项亚飞; 万五星; 王新颖

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary survey on the composition and feature of spermatophyte genera in Shijiazhuang gardens and parks reveals that there exist 272 species of seed plant belonging to 63 families and 132 genera, with a diversity in flora distribution pattern and predomination of temperature plants. The Shijiazhuang landscape plant flora contains 5 Chinese endemic genera dominated by one-seeded and depauperate genera. The life form analysis of Shijiazhuang landscape plants by Raunkiaer system of classification shows that the dominant genus and specieces of phanerophytes account for 82. 58% and 87. 50% of the total genus and specieces, respectively.%通过对石家庄市园林植物组成及区系的初步调查发现,共有种子植物272种,隶属于63科132属,园林植物区系分布类型多样,以温带成分占优势.石家庄市园林植物区系中,中国特有成分有5种,单种属和寡种属占较大比例.利用瑙基耶尔生活型谱,对石家庄市园林植物分析发现,高位芽植物属种数占总属种数的82.58%,87.50%,居主导地位.

  17. Introduction of the flora, life forms and chorology of plants of some regions in western Chabahar (Sistan and Baluchestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Salimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Zarabad, Cheraghabad and Nogombecom plants of sub-basin watershed city of Chabahar, Iran. The studied flora included 78 species which belonged to 66 genera and 29 families. Poaceae with 16 genera and 19 species, Asteraceae with 7 genera and 8 species, Chenopodiaceae with 5 genera and 4 species, Papilionaceae, with 5 genera and 6 species, constituted the largest plant families respectively. The largest genera of the region were: Salsola, Heliotropium and Plantago, respectively. 42% of the flora belonged to Nobo-Sindian elements, 35%to Irano-Turanian, 18%were bioregional elements and 5% of the species were cosmopolitan. Flora of the studied area, included therophytes (56%, chamaephytes (15%, phanerophytes (14%, geophytes (12% and hemicryptophytes (3%.

  18. Gravity, light and plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangarter, R P

    1997-06-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity.

  19. Integration of European habitat monitoring based on plant life form composition as an indicator of environmental change and change in biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch-Petersen, Margit; Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    led to the re-introduction of Raunkiaer's plant life form concept. This approach enables the indication of changes in biodiversity based on alterations in general habitat composition and quality. Although the objectives of the SBMP and the BioHab projects have been somewhat different......  During the last 25 years a number of European countries have developed general landscape monitoring systems. In the agricultural landscapes of Denmark the Small Biotope Monitoring Program (SBMP), which focuses on the dynamics of small biotopes and their relation to changes in agricultural...... related habitat monitoring. This has been through the BioHab Concerted Action Framework Programme of the EU (2002-2005), and the resulting publication of a handbook for recording and monitoring habitats (Bunce et al., 2005). The focus on environmentally conditioned habitat changes at a landscape level has...

  20. Plant Life of the Dolomites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Brooker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Plant Life of the Dolomites. By Erika Pignatti and Sandro Pignatti. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2014. xxxvii + 769 pp. US$ 209.00, £ 135.00, J 149.95. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-31042-3.

  1. Art as a form of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Afamous aesthetician once said that art is a form of life. One can find a harmonious union of theforms of life in the works famous Chinese artist Wang Huichun is painting late in life. As the principal subjects of his

  2. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; VanAndel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  3. Disability and Bureaucratic Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Abrams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a hybrid actor-network theory/phenomenological approach to a frequent bother in the lives of disabled persons: bureaucratic forms. I argue that these forms are key sites where disabled personhood emerges, something I examine through the lens of what philosopher Annemarie Mol calls ‘ontological politics’. To be disabled is to be entered into the bureaucratic form of life. These forms translate human existence into a categorize-able, transportable and combinable object, to be administered through ‘centers of calculation’. Combining Heidegger’s fundamental ontology with Latour’s theory of paperwork, I suggest that these forms represent disability in terms of ‘objective presence’, as a mere pre-existing thing, rather than a human way of being. I conclude with suggestions for further phenomenological research that takes embodied difference as its point of departure.

  4. Size-dependent variation in plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D

    2017-09-11

    The study of organic form has a long and distinguished history going at least as far back as Aristotle's Historia Anima¯lium, wherein he identified five basic biological processes that define the forms of animals (metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryo development, and inheritance). Unfortunately, all of Aristotle's writings about plant forms are lost. We know of them only indirectly from his student Theophrastus's companion books, collectively called Historia Plantarum, wherein plant forms are categorized into annual herbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and trees. The study of plant forms did not truly begin until the romantic poet and naturalist Goethe proposed the concept of a hypothetical 'Plant Archetype', declared "Alles ist Blatt", and first coined the word morphologie, which inspired the French anatomist Cuvier (who established the field of comparative morphology), the English naturalist Darwin (who saw his theory of evolution reinforced by it), and the Scottish mathematician D'Arcy Thompson (who attempted to quantify it). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. TCP transcription factors: architectures of plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Nora G Uberti; Viola, Ivana L; Welchen, Elina; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    After its initial definition in 1999, the TCP family of transcription factors has become the focus of a multiplicity of studies related with plant development at the cellular, organ, and tissue levels. Evidence has accumulated indicating that TCP transcription factors are the main regulators of plant form and architecture and constitute a tool through which evolution shapes plant diversity. The TCP transcription factors act in a multiplicity of pathways related with cell proliferation and hormone responses. In recent years, the molecular pathways of TCP protein action and biochemical studies on their mode of interaction with DNA have begun to shed light on their mechanism of action. However, the available information is fragmented and a unifying view of TCP protein action is lacking, as well as detailed structural studies of the TCP-DNA complex. Also important, the possible role of TCP proteins as integrators of plant developmental responses to the environment has deserved little attention. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the structure and functions of TCP transcription factors and analyze future perspectives for the study of the role of these proteins and their use to modify plant development.

  6. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  7. Fungal life-styles and ecosystem dynamics: biological aspects of plant pathogens, plant endophytes and saprophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Redman, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses various biochemical, genetic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of fungi that express either symbiotic or saprophytic life-styles. An enormous pool of potential pathogens exists in both agricultural and natural ecosystems, and virtually all plant species are susceptible to one or more fungal pathogens. Fungal pathogens have the potential to impact on the genetic structure of populations of individual plant species, the composition of plant communities and the process of plant succession. Endophytic fungi exist for at least part of their life cycles within the tissues of a plant host. This group of fungi is distinguished from plant pathogens because they do not elicit significant disease symptoms. However, endophytes do maintain the genetic and biochemical mechanisms required for infection and colonization of plant hosts. Fungi that obtain chemical nutrients from dead organic matter are known as saprophytes and are critical to the dynamics and resilience of ecosystems. There are two modes of saprophytic growth: one in which biomolecules that are amenable to transport across cell walls and membranes are directly absorbed, and another in which fungi must actively convert complex biopolymers into subunit forms amenable to transportation into cells. Regardless of life-style, fungi employ similar biochemical mechanisms for the acquisition and conversion of nutrients into complex biomolecules that are necessary for vegetative growth, production and dissemination of progeny, organismal competition, and survival during periods of nutrient deprivation or environmental inclemency.

  8. Species convergence into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Whether the functional structure of ecological communities is deterministic or historically contingent is still quite controversial. However, recent experimental tests did not find effects of species composition variation on trait convergence and therefore the environmental constraints should play the major role on community convergence into functional groups. Seasonal cerrados are characterized by a sharp seasonality, in which the water shortage defines the community functioning. Hyperseasonal cerrados experience additionally waterlogging in the rainy season. Here, we asked whether waterlogging modifies species convergences into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado. We studied a hyperseasonal cerrado, comparing it with a nearby seasonal cerrado, never waterlogged, in Emas National Park, central Brazil. In each area, we sampled all vascular plants by placing 40 plots of 1 m(2) plots in four surveys. We analyzed the species convergences into life-forms in both cerrados using the Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum and the index of divergence from species to life-form diversity (IDD). The overall life-form spectra and IDDs were not different, indicating that waterlogging did not affect the composition of functional groups in the hyperseasonal cerrado. However, there was a seasonal variation in IDD values only in the hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as we did not find a seasonal variation in life-form diversity, the seasonal variation of convergence into life-forms in the hyperseasonal cerrado was a consequence of the seasonal variation of species diversity. Because of high functional redundancy of cerrado plants, waterlogging promoted a floristic replacement without major changes in functional groups. Thus, waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado promoted seasonal changes in species convergence into life-forms by reducing species diversity.

  9. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  10. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  11. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.C.; McGarry, D. [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H.H. [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  12. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  13. Natural goodness and the political form of human life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical Naturalism attempts to explain the objective normativity effective in human practices by reference to the relation between a living individual and the life-form it exhibits. This explanation falls short in the case of human beings (1 - not merely because of their essential rationality, but because the idea of normativity implicit in practice is dependent on the form of normativity’s being made explicit (2. I argue that this explicit form of normativity’s force and claim - the law in general - implies a tension between an explicit norm’s claim to absoluteness and the particularity of the situational case it is applied to. This tension may seem to produce an inherent violence corrupting the very idea of objective normativity inherent in the human form of life (3; in fact, it shows that the human form of life is essentially political. That the human form of life is essentially political does not contradict the idea of objective normativity - provided that this objectivity is not derived from a conception of “natural goodness”, but rather from the actuality of human practice and its principle, justice (4.

  14. Schizophrenia, Paranoia as an Authentic Form of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Gelbmann, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    My understanding of psychopathologic cases as authentic forms of life are derived from my study of the development of the Pragmatic Theory of Communication, whose background in the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein is one of the main themes of my forthcoming book.

  15. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Framatome ANP worldwide experience in ageing and plant life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, B.; Nopper, H. [Framatome ANP (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant components and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP has developed an integrated PLIM concept focussing on the safety concept, plant components and documentation. Representative examples for plant wide analyses are described in the following. The results of the analyses support the plant owner for taking the strategic decisions, involved in plant life extension (PLEX). (orig.)

  17. Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system. PMID:25525810

  18. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system.

  19. Role of phytolectin in the life cycle of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnykova N. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the review the basic properties of plant lectins and their physiological role in the life cycle of plants are considered. There are data on the current state of the researches of phytolectins and lectin-like proteins as well as designation of the main directions of further study on the functioning of these proteins in the plant physiological processes.

  20. IDENTITY, FUNDS OF KNOWLEDGE AND FORMS OF LIFE OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinojal, Lidia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to articulate a theoretical and methodological approach to analyze identity, funds of knowledge and forms of life. In particular, an identity analysis, funds of knowledge and forms of life of a family from Colombia who lives near Girona (Catalonia is reported. According to a cultural psychogeography of human development perspective, we distinguish three levels of analysis: the “psychological landscape”, the “vital geography”, and the “spatial political planning”. We use this approach to study identity, funds of knowledge, routines or forms of life of a particular family. Regarding methodology, we suggest using a mutlimethodological approach, mixing several quantitative and qualitative, visual and narrative techniques. The article illustrates, through psychogeographical maps, the activities, significant others, artifacts, institutions and physical-symbolic geographies embedded in life and identity of family members. We highlight the need to study “cultures in action” with various methodological strategies. Finally, we discuss the educational applications of this study. It seems to us that this theoretical and methodological approach can open new horizons in regard to family and school relationships. Specifically, when there are some discontinuities between both school culture and family culture. This paper is written in Spanish.

  1. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.

  2. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  3. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  4. Plant Classification by Growth Form for Field Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David M.

    1982-01-01

    A simple classification system for terrestrial plants is presented. The method is based on growth forms and avoids the need for identification to genus or species, although students could be encouraged to follow the work through to this level if appropriate. (Author/JN)

  5. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelate...

  6. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  7. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  8. Preferential uptake of soil nitrogen forms by grassland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Alexandra; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we assessed whether a range of temperate grassland species showed preferential uptake for different chemical forms of N, including inorganic N and a range of amino acids that commonly occur in temperate grassland soil. Preferential uptake of dual-labelled (13C and 15N) glycine, serine, arginine and phenylalanine, as compared to inorganic N, was tested using plants growing in pots with natural field soil. We selected five grass species representing a gradient from fertilised, productive pastures to extensive, low productivity pastures (Lolium perenne, Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Deschampsia flexuosa, and Nardus stricta). Our data show that all grass species were able to take up directly a diversity of soil amino acids of varying complexity. Moreover, we present evidence of marked inter-species differences in preferential use of chemical forms of N of varying complexity. L. perenne was relatively more effective at using inorganic N and glycine compared to the most complex amino acid phenylalanine, whereas N. stricta showed a significant preference for serine over inorganic N. Total plant N acquisition, measured as root and shoot concentration of labelled compounds, also revealed pronounced inter-species differences which were related to plant growth rate: plants with higher biomass production were found to take up more inorganic N. Our findings indicate that species-specific differences in direct uptake of different N forms combined with total N acquisition could explain changes in competitive dominance of grass species in grasslands of differing fertility.

  9. Plant Reproduction. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Plants are vital to all other life on this planet - without them, there would be no food, shelter or oxygen. Luckily, over millions of years plants have developed many different features in order to survive and reproduce. In Plant Reproduction, students will discover that primitive mosses and algae are dependent upon water for their reproduction.…

  10. Isolation of lactic acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jelena; Yüksel-Dadak, Aytül; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

    2017-02-20

    Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related. A qualitative multiplex system and a real-time quantitative PCR could be developed for most isolates, realized by the selection of specific primers. Their role in biogas plants was discussed on the basis of the quantitative results and on physiological data of the isolates.

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

  12. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  13. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. D. [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K. J. [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    This research focuses on development of reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, and is divided into two parts, development of life evaluation systems for pressurized components and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered: development of expert systems for integrity assessment of pressurized components, development of integrity evaluation systems of steam generator tubes, prediction of failure probability for NPP components based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, development of fatigue damage evaluation technique for plant life extension, domestic round robin analysis for pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, domestic round robin analysis of constructing P--T limit curves for reactor vessels, and development of data base for integrity assessment. For evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants, on the other hand, the following eight topics are covered: applicability of the Leak-Before-Break analysis to Cast S/S piping, collection of aged material tensile and toughness data for aged Cast S/S piping, finite element analyses for load carrying capacity of corroded pipes, development of Risk-based ISI methodology for nuclear piping, collection of toughness data for integrity assessment of bi-metallic joints, applicability of the Master curve concept to reactor vessel integrity assessment, measurement of dynamic fracture toughness, and provision of information related to regulation and plant life extension issues.

  14. Key genes involved in desiccation tolerance and dormancy across life forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria Cecília D; Farrant, Jill M; Oliver, Melvin J; Ligterink, Wilco; Buitink, Julia; Hilhorst, Henk M W

    2016-10-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT, the ability of certain organisms to survive severe dehydration) was a key trait in the evolution of life in terrestrial environments. Likely, the development of desiccation-tolerant life forms was accompanied by the acquisition of dormancy or a dormancy-like stage as a second powerful adaptation to cope with variations in the terrestrial environment. These naturally stress tolerant life forms may be a good source of genetic information to generate stress tolerant crops to face a future with predicted higher occurrence of drought. By mining for key genes and mechanisms related to DT and dormancy conserved across different species and life forms, unique candidate key genes may be identified. Here we identify several of these putative key genes, shared among multiple organisms, encoding for proteins involved in protection, growth and energy metabolism. Mutating a selection of these genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in clear DT-, dormancy- and other seed-associated phenotypes, showing the efficiency and power of our approach and paves the way for the development of drought-stress tolerant crops. Our analysis supports a co-evolution of DT and dormancy by shared mechanisms that favour survival and adaptation to ever-changing environments with strong seasonal fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GAY RELATIONSHIPS AS ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF FAMILY-MARRIAGE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Perlińska

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available My research and deliberation made in this study show that homosexuality is only one of the signs of human diversity - one from innumerable number of personality features. Therefore, one cannot talk about "gay identity", "homosexual personality", because, as far as I am concerned, it doesn't exist. Artificially generted gay population is only a group of peple being much different from one another and having only one common feature - their sexual orientation. Besides they differ from one another as much as one man from another. Gay relationships take on countless forms, but all of them, as the results of my research indicate, fulfil the majority of family in traditional point of view functions. The deliberation points out at one more conclusion - one cannot examine gay relationships as a separate model of family-marriage life. It should be forgotten about their different psyhosexual orientation and treat their trlationships, together with other interpersonal relationships, equally. Only from such position one can discern in their specific alternative models of family-marriage life.

  16. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wright, M.D

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  17. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  18. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  19. Forming Life: Aesthetic Awareness in Mental Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Berg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-disciplinary perspectives from artistic research, aesthetic theory, and mental health care, this article discusses qualities in sensuous surroundings in mental health facilities. Although the background for the article is in the increased awareness in aesthetic research concerning sensuous surroundings and their connection to health and well-being, this aesthetic research is only reflected to a small extent in research on mental health care surroundings. A further development of these perspectives is suggested in this article by introducing the concept of life forms from the art theorist Nicolas Bourriaud and the concepts of presentation and perception in theatrical communication from theatre researcher Willmar Sauter. These theories are discussed and exemplified on the basis of data from two mental health care wards: one from a psychogeriatric ward and the other from a polyclinic for eating disorders. Some essential qualities identified in the examples were that aesthetic environment and activity could be seen as formative to the “inner landscape”, and that different forms of sensuous activation and interaction could help patients escape communicative isolation. It is further demonstrated how participatory strategies can challenge artistic practice and that art can contribute to a health promoting and communicative space in mental health care. In the discussion section, it is argued that an activating, and possibly empowering, environment can be created through an increased awareness of the aesthetic strategies used in health care institutions. The study seeks to contribute to knowledge transfer in artistic practice and healthcare practice, as a part of a cross-disciplinary art didactic discourse, which intends to address specific societal challenges.

  20. Declaration of the rights of animal and plant life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1977-01-01

    i Each living creature on earth has the right to exist, independent of its usefulness to humans. ii Every effort should be made to preserve all species of animal and plant life from premature extinction. Special protection should be afforded to those species whose survival is already threatened.

  1. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  2. Evolution of the life cycle in land plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long QIU; Alexander B.TAYLOR; Hilarv A.McMANUS

    2012-01-01

    All sexually reproducing eukaryotes have a life cycle consisting of a haploid and a diploid phase,marked by meiosis and syngamy (fertilization).Each phase is adapted to certain environmental conditions.In land plants,the recently reconstructed phylogeny indicates that the life cycle has evolved from a condition with a dominant free-living haploid gametophyte to one with a dominant free-living diploid sporophyte.The latter condition allows plants to produce more genotypic diversity by harnessing the diversity-generating power of meiosis and fertilization,and is selectively favored as more solar energy is fixed and fed into the biosystem on earth and the environment becomes more heterogeneous entropically.Liverworts occupy an important position for understanding the origin of the diploid generation in the life cycle of land plants.Hornworts and lycophytes represent critical extant transitional groups in the change from the gametophyte to the sporophyte as the independent free-living generation.Seed plants,with the most elaborate sporophyte and the most reduced gametophyte (except the megagametophyte in many gymnosperms),have the best developed sexual reproduction system that can be matched only by mammals among eukaryotes:an ancient and stable sex determination mechanism (heterospory) that enhances outcrossing,a highly bimodal and skewed distribution of sperm and egg numbers,a male-driven mutation system,female specialization in mutation selection and nourishment of the offspring,and well developed internal fertilization.The study of evolution of the land plant life cycle requires a multidisciplinary approach that considers morphology,development,genetics,phylogeny,ecology,and evolution in an integrated fashion,and will deepen our understanding of plant evolution.

  3. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  4. Characterisation of phosphorous forms in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Dueñas, Joel; Ribas Alonso, Josep; Freixó Rey, Angel; Sánchez Ferrer, Antoni

    2003-02-28

    The removal of different forms of phosphorous (namely total phosphorous, soluble phosphorous, particulate phosphorous and total phosphate) has been studied in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with different characteristics, but without any specific implemented strategy for phosphorous removal. The results obtained for the different forms of phosphorus can be summarised as follows: (1) complete removal of particulate phosphorous is achieved in either primary or secondary clarifiers; (2) total phosphorous concentration in the effluent is mostly soluble phosphorous and this is mainly phosphate; (3) a small amount of soluble phosphorous is removed by biomass growth and/or biosorption; (4) both WWTPs presented a high-buffered behaviour in response to high inlet loading of phosphorous, showing a constant pattern at the outlet of the WWTP; (5) removal of total phosphorous was approximately 60-70% for both WWTPs; and (6) recirculation streams such as supernatant from centrifuge sludge dehydration operation can have a significant contribution to the inlet amount of phosphorous. The results presented in this paper provide a basis to develop prospects for phosphorous removal, which may be adapted to the particular configurations of the WWTP studied.

  5. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation.

  6. Discovery of novel intermediate forms redefines the fungal tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith D M; Forn, Irene; Gadelha, Catarina; Egan, Martin J; Bass, David; Massana, Ramon; Richards, Thomas A

    2011-05-11

    Fungi are the principal degraders of biomass in terrestrial ecosystems and establish important interactions with plants and animals. However, our current understanding of fungal evolutionary diversity is incomplete and is based upon species amenable to growth in culture. These culturable fungi are typically yeast or filamentous forms, bound by a rigid cell wall rich in chitin. Evolution of this body plan was thought critical for the success of the Fungi, enabling them to adapt to heterogeneous habitats and live by osmotrophy: extracellular digestion followed by nutrient uptake. Here we investigate the ecology and cell biology of a previously undescribed and highly diverse form of eukaryotic life that branches with the Fungi, using environmental DNA analyses combined with fluorescent detection via DNA probes. This clade is present in numerous ecosystems including soil, freshwater and aquatic sediments. Phylogenetic analyses using multiple ribosomal RNA genes place this clade with Rozella, the putative primary branch of the fungal kingdom. Tyramide signal amplification coupled with group-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that the target cells are small eukaryotes of 3-5 μm in length, capable of forming a microtubule-based flagellum. Co-staining with cell wall markers demonstrates that representatives from the clade do not produce a chitin-rich cell wall during any of the life cycle stages observed and therefore do not conform to the standard fungal body plan. We name this highly diverse clade the cryptomycota in anticipation of formal classification.

  7. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  8. Butterfly Larval Host Plant use in a Tropical Urban Context: Life History Associations, Herbivory, and Landscape Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiple, Ashish D.; Khurad, Arun M.; Dennis, Roger L. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines butterfly larval host plants, herbivory and related life history attributes within Nagpur City, India. The larval host plants of 120 butterfly species are identified and their host specificity, life form, biotope, abundance and perennation recorded; of the 126 larval host plants, most are trees (49), with fewer herbs (43), shrubs (22), climbers (7) and stem parasites (2). They include 89 wild, 23 cultivated, 11 wild/cultivated and 3 exotic plant species; 78 are perennials, 43 annuals and 5 biannuals. Plants belonging to Poaceae and Fabaceae are most widely used by butterfly larvae. In addition to distinctions in host plant family affiliation, a number of significant differences between butterfly families have been identified in host use patterns: for life forms, biotopes, landforms, perennation, host specificity, egg batch size and ant associations. These differences arising from the development of a butterfly resource database have important implications for conserving butterfly species within the city area. Differences in overall butterfly population sizes within the city relate mainly to the number of host plants used, but other influences, including egg batch size and host specificity are identified. Much of the variation in population size is unaccounted for and points to the need to investigate larval host plant life history and strategies as population size is not simply dependent on host plant abundance. PMID:21864159

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Mcnamara

    2016-09-01

      The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC introduced a series of measures for the purpose of protecting the environment from the adverse effects of effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants.  There are environmental costs associated with attaining the required level of water quality set out in the directive such as greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production, and ecotoxicity from sludge application to land.  The goal of this study is to assess the environmental costs in an Irish context, focusing specifically on the effects of variation in scale and discharge limitation. Life cycle assessment is the analytical tool used to evaluate the environmental impact.  The life cycle impact assessment methodology developed by the Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University (2010 has been adopted and implemented using GaBi 6.0 life cycle assessment software.  Two plants of varying size and location were chosen for the study. The study found that energy consumption and sludge application to land are the largest contributors to the overall environmental impact associated with the treatment process at both plants.  Economies of scale were observed in energy usage during secondary aeration.   

  10. Life form-specific variations in leaf water oxygen-18 enrichment in Amazonian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Ometto, Jean P H B; Berry, Joseph A; Martinelli, Luiz A; Domingues, Tomas F; Ehleringer, James R

    2008-08-01

    Leaf water (18)O enrichment (Delta(o)) influences the isotopic composition of both gas exchange and organic matter, with Delta(o) values responding to changes in atmospheric parameters. In order to examine possible influences of plant parameters on Delta(o) dynamics, we measured oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of leaf and stem water on plant species representing different life forms in Amazonia forest and pasture ecosystems. We conducted two field experiments: one in March (wet season) and another in September (dry season) 2004. In each experiment, leaf and stem samples were collected at 2-h intervals at night and hourly during the day for 50 h from eight species including upper-canopy forest trees, upper-canopy forest lianas, and lower-canopy forest trees, a C(4) pasture grass and a C(3) pasture shrub. Significant life form-related differences were detected in (18)O leaf water values. Initial modeling efforts to explain these observations over-predicted nighttime Delta(o) values by as much as 10 per thousand. Across all species, errors associated with measured values of the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (delta(v)) appeared to be largely responsible for the over-predictions of nighttime Delta(o) observations. We could not eliminate collection or storage of water vapor samples as a possible error and therefore developed an alternative, plant-based method for estimating the daily average delta(v) value in the absence of direct (reliable) measurements. This approach differs from the common assumption that isotopic equilibrium exists between water vapor and precipitation water, by including transpiration-based contributions from local vegetation through (18)O measurements of bulk leaf water. Inclusion of both modified delta(v) and non-steady state features resulted in model predictions that more reliably predicted both the magnitude and temporal patterns observed in the data. The influence of life form-specific patterns of Delta(o) was incorporated through

  11. Current floristic composition, life form and productivity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-01-23

    Jan 23, 2013 ... Objectives: This paper addressed temporal changes in floristic composition, plant communities' ... viability of the protected area particularly in the context of climate change and for this, it's important to ... where local species extinctions are directly linked to ... using a GPS (Global Positioning System).

  12. Plants survive rapid decompression: Implications for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life

  13. Diversity of Holocene life forms in fossil glacier ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Christensen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of biotic remains of polar ice caps have been limited to morphological identification of plant pollen and spores. By using sensitive molecular techniques, we now demonstrate a much greater range of detectable organisms; from 2000- and 4000-year-old ice-core samples, we obtained and charac...... for future studies of deep ice cores and yielding valuable information about ancient communities and their change over time. Udgivelsesdato: 1999 Jul 6...

  14. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  15. From Caterpillar to Butterfly: A Window for Looking into Students' Ideas about Life Cycle and Life Forms of Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was a qualitative analysis of high school students' ideas about life cycle and life forms of the butterfly. For this purpose, open-ended questions and drawing methods were applied to 194 high school students from the ninth to eleventh grades and 14 to 16 years of age in Erzurum, Turkey. Students' drawings were categorised…

  16. From Caterpillar to Butterfly: A Window for Looking into Students' Ideas about Life Cycle and Life Forms of Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was a qualitative analysis of high school students' ideas about life cycle and life forms of the butterfly. For this purpose, open-ended questions and drawing methods were applied to 194 high school students from the ninth to eleventh grades and 14 to 16 years of age in Erzurum, Turkey. Students' drawings were categorised…

  17. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard J. Bond; Pradeep Ramuhalli; Magdy S. Tawfik; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-06-01

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  18. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 Years for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Tawfik, Magdy; Lybeck, Nancy

    2011-09-23

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring instead of periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  19. Plant Growth and Morphogenesis under Different Gravity Conditions: Relevance to Plant Life in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2014-05-16

    The growth and morphogenesis of plants are entirely dependent on the gravitational acceleration of earth. Under microgravity conditions in space, these processes are greatly modified. Recent space experiments, in combination with ground-based studies, have shown that elongation growth is stimulated and lateral expansion suppressed in various shoot organs and roots under microgravity conditions. Plant organs also show automorphogenesis in space, which consists of altered growth direction and spontaneous curvature in the dorsiventral (back and front) directions. Changes in cell wall properties are responsible for these modifications of growth and morphogenesis under microgravity conditions. Plants live in space with interesting new sizes and forms.

  20. Plant Growth and Morphogenesis under Different Gravity Conditions: Relevance to Plant Life in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hoson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth and morphogenesis of plants are entirely dependent on the gravitational acceleration of earth. Under microgravity conditions in space, these processes are greatly modified. Recent space experiments, in combination with ground-based studies, have shown that elongation growth is stimulated and lateral expansion suppressed in various shoot organs and roots under microgravity conditions. Plant organs also show automorphogenesis in space, which consists of altered growth direction and spontaneous curvature in the dorsiventral (back and front directions. Changes in cell wall properties are responsible for these modifications of growth and morphogenesis under microgravity conditions. Plants live in space with interesting new sizes and forms.

  1. 76 FR 36583 - Submission for Review: Life Insurance Election, Standard Form 2817

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Life Insurance Election, Standard Form 2817 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0230, Life Insurance Election. As...'s coverage through an assignment or ``transfer'' of the ownership of the life insurance)....

  2. Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Duinker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a healthy urban forest contributes immensely to the sustainability of cities. The argument is based on a comprehensive array of values elicited from Canadians in several cities. To begin, we define the urban forest as inclusive of all the trees in the city and thus representing the predominant contributor to a city’s green infrastructure. Then we enumerate and explain the broad diversity of ways in which urban people value trees in the city. We, thus, show the myriad pathways by which trees contribute positively to any city’s social, economic, and ecological sustainability. Following a short summary of the ways in which trees may detract from people’s quality of life, we present promising management directions for urban-forest improvement, as we understand the situation in Canada. We conclude that all cities can enhance their sustainability by improving the urban forest.

  3. Modular construction of early Ediacaran complex life forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne, Guy M

    2004-08-20

    Newly discovered, exceptionally preserved, soft-bodied fossils near Spaniard's Bay in eastern Newfoundland exhibit features not previously described from Ediacaran (terminal Neoproterozoic) fossils. All of the Spaniard's Bay taxa were composed of similar architectural elements-centimeter-scale frondlets exhibiting three orders of fracticality in branching. Frondlets were combined as modules atop semi-rigid organic skeletons to form a wide array of larger constructions, including frondose and plumose structures. This architecture and construction define the "rangeomorphs," a biological clade that dominated the Mistaken Point assemblage (575 to 560 million years ago) but does not appear to be ancestral to any Phanerozoic or modern organisms.

  4. Membrane nanodomains in plants: capturing form, function, and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapken, Wiebke; Murphy, Angus S

    2015-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between the cell and the external environment. Plasma membrane lipids provide scaffolds for proteins and protein complexes that are involved in cell to cell communication, signal transduction, immune responses, and transport of small molecules. In animals, fungi, and plants, a substantial subset of these plasma membrane proteins function within ordered sterol- and sphingolipid-rich nanodomains. High-resolution microscopy, lipid dyes, pharmacological inhibitors of lipid biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthetic mutants have been employed to examine the relationship between the lipid environment and protein activity in plants. They have also been used to identify proteins associated with nanodomains and the pathways by which nanodomain-associated proteins are trafficked to their plasma membrane destinations. These studies suggest that plant membrane nanodomains function in a context-specific manner, analogous to similar structures in animals and fungi. In addition to the highly conserved flotillin and remorin markers, some members of the B and G subclasses of ATP binding cassette transporters have emerged as functional markers for plant nanodomains. Further, the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, that are often associated with detergent-resistant membranes, appear also to have a functional role in membrane nanodomains. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fatigue life of high strength steel for cold forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ulewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fatigue tests carried out on STRENX-type high-strength cold forming steel. For high-cycle fatigue tests carried out using low cycle loading frequencies of around 30 Hz, a ROTOFLEX machine was used. For ultra high-cycle tests, a KAUP-ZU testing machine was employed, which enables fatigue tests to be performed with symetric specimen loading (R = -1 and at a frequency of f ≈ 20 kHz. The relationships σa = f(N were determined experimentally in the high and ultra high-cycle region for STRENX high-strength steel. To determine the fatigue crack initiation mechanism, the fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures was made.

  6. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because inventors who assert rights over DNA sequences obtain protection on all uses of the sequences. Extremely valuable to breeders in the national agricultural research system is the ability to genotype their collections to get a clear picture of their diversity and how diversity could be enhanced through sharing and access to global collections. The issue of the eligibility for patenting of DNA sequences needs to be reopened. Patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution. Rights over DNA sequences as research tools should be discouraged. That the best way to discourage the award of such patents is by stringent application of the criteria for patenting, particularly utility. A more equitable, ethically - based food and agricultural system must incorporate concern for three accepted global goals: improved well being, protection of the environment and improved public health (particular point food from GMO. To mitigate conflict one of the approach to solve problem is ethical and truthful label of GM food, because consumers have a right to choose whether to eat genetically modified foods or not. Interesting examples and risks as consequences of free availability of genetic resources utilization, its transformation, patenting of 'new' organism and selling it back to the genetic resource owner are presented. Society has obligations to raise levels of nutrition and

  7. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR; Planes de gestion de vida en centrales nucleares PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-10-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  8. Life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in plant communities on ironstone outcrops, SE Brazil Formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes em comunidades vegetais sobre afloramentos ferruginosos, SE do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Jacobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rock outcrops play an important role in enhancing plant diversity in montane ecosystems. Ironstone outcrops (cangas are among the lithotypes less known and most threatened in SE Brazil, due to mining activities. Besides species composition, a key feature to promote their conservation and restoration is the knowledge of the community prevalent life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The analyses were done based on published floristic surveys of cangas in SE Brazil. A total of 353 species of angiosperms (70 families were assigned to one of the two predominant physiognomies (open areas and forest islands on ironstone outcrops. Sixteen families responded for 70% of all species. Compared to Raunkiaer's spectrum, phanerophytes were over- and therophytes were under-represented. Phanerophytes were the predominant life-form in forest islands, while hemicryptophytes were outstanding in open areas. Entomophily was the dominant pollination syndrome in both habitats. Zoochory was dominant in forest islands and ranked last in open areas, where anemochory and autochory prevailed. Considering that both forest islands and open areas are subjected to the same climatic conditions, the results corroborate the influence of geoedaphic components in the three traits analysed.Afloramentos rochosos têm um papel importante na diversidade vegetal de ecossistemas montanos. As cangas (afloramentos ferruginosos estão entre os litotipos menos conhecidos e mais ameaçados do sudeste do Brasil, devido às atividades minerarias. Além da composição de espécies, um aspecto fundamental para promover sua conservação e restauração é o conhecimento das formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes dominantes. As análises foram baseadas em listas florísticas publicadas de cangas do sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 353 espécies de angiospermas (70 famílias foi distribuído entre as duas fisionomias predominantes (áreas abertas e cap

  9. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Quinot, P. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Bloc Reacteur et Boucles Primaires, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Ingenierie et Service, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  10. Novel symbiotic protoplasts formed by endophytic fungi explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Atsatt

    Full Text Available Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline "what, where, when and how", opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that

  11. Novel symbiotic protoplasts formed by endophytic fungi explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsatt, Peter R; Whiteside, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs) that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline "what, where, when and how", opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that provide a robust

  12. Mycorrhizas in the Central European flora: relationships with plant life history traits and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Stefan; Götzenberger, Lars; Kühn, Ingolf; Michalski, Stefan G; Rillig, Matthias C; Zobel, Martin; Moora, Mari

    2013-06-01

    Plant traits have been widely used to characterize different aspects of the ecology of plant species. Despite its wide distribution and its proven significance at the level of individuals, communities, and populations, the ability to form mycorrhizal associations has been largely neglected in these studies so far. Analyzing plant traits associated with the occurrence of mycorrhizas in plants can therefore enhance our understanding of plant strategies and distributions. Using a comparative approach, we tested for associations between mycorrhizal status and habitat characteristics, life history traits, and plant distribution patterns in 1752 species of the German flora (a major part of the Central European flora). Data were analyzed using log-linear models or generalized linear models, both accounting for phylogenetic relationships. Obligatorily mycorrhizal (OM) species tended to be positively associated with higher temperature, drier habitats, and higher pH; and negatively associated with moist, acidic, and fertile soils. Competitive species were more frequently OM, and stress tolerators were non-mycorrhizal (NM), while ruderal species did not show any preference. Facultatively mycorrhizal (FM) species showed the widest geographic and ecological amplitude. Indigenous species were more frequently FM and neophytes (recent aliens) more frequently OM than expected. FM species differed markedly from OM and NM species in almost all analyzed traits. Specifically, they showed a wider geographic distribution and ecological niche. Our study of the relationships between mycorrhizal status and other plant traits provides a comprehensive test of existing hypotheses and reveals novel patterns. The clear distinction between FM and OM + NM species in terms of their ecology opens up a new field of research in plant-mycorrhizal ecology.

  13. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  14. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous coal-forming plants of the Bureya Basin, Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markevich, V. S.; Bugdaeva, E. V.

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of the composition of fossil palynomorphs from coals and clastic rocks of the Talyndzhan, Dublikan, Soloni, Chagdamyn, and Chemchuko formations of the Bureya coaliferous Basin revealed that the main coal-forming plants during the Talyndzhan and Dublikan time were represented by cyatheaceous ferns, plants similar to Pinaceae, and plants produced Ginkgocycadophytus pollen. In the Soloni time, the boggy plant communities were composed of dominant Cyatheaceae, subordinate Pinaceae, rare Gleichenaceae representatives, and Ginkgocycadophytus-producing plants. During the Chagdamyn time, the main coal-forming role belonged to gleicheniaceous ferns, bryophytes, and lycopsids, while the Chemchuko time was marked by the dominant contribution of Gleicheniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Ginkgocycadophytus, and plants close to Taxodiaceae to the coal formation.

  15. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  16. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Hyun Jae [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang Beom [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan National Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. In order to Improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the following five subjects were carried out in this study: development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field and evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing. As results, BEM analysis of eddy current signal, intelligent analysis of eddy current signal using neural network, and FEM analysis of remote field eddy current testing have been developed for the inspection of SG tubes. FEM analysis of ultrasonic waves in 2-dimensional media and evaluation of statistical reliability of ultrasonic testing with PD-RR test also have been carried out for the inspection of weldments. Those results can be used to Improve reliability of nondestructive testing.

  17. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.

  18. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  19. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  20. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Alfonsín, Carolina; Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO2 emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario.

  1. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  2. Secret life of plants: from memory to intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Stanislaw; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena

    2010-11-01

    Plants are able to perform photosynthesis and cannot escape from environmental stresses, so they therefore developed sophisticated, highly responsive and dynamic physiology. Others' and our results indicate that plants solve their optimal light acclimation and immune defenses, photosynthesis and transpiration by a computational algorithm of the cellular automation. Our recent results however suggest that plants are capable of processing information encrypted in light intensity and in its energy. With the help of nonphotochemical quenching and photoelectrophysiological signaling (PEPS) plants are able to perform biological quantum computation and memorize light training in order to optimize their Darwinian fitness. Animals have their network of neuron synapses, electrophysiological circuits and memory, but plants have their network of chloroplasts connected by stromules, PEPS circuits transduced by bundle sheath cells and cellular light memory. It is suggested that plants could be intelligent organisms with much higher organism organization levels than it was thought before.

  3. What Possible Life Forms Could Exist on Other Planets: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author’s suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  4. The image simulation arithmetic of the degradating process of porous biologic ceramic in life-form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zuo-bing; HUANG Jian-zhong; YAN Yu-hua; LI Shi-pu

    2001-01-01

    @@ It is a complex and difficult task to simulate the degradating process of porous biologic ceramic in life-form by computer. Because the evolvement of crystal' s structure deals with not only the mechanism of many factors, such as crystallography tropism, the reciprocity of wafer, interfacial movement, but also topology geometry mechanism of dimensional padding.

  5. What possible life forms could exist on other planets: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author's suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  6. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  7. Life cycle of a plant parasitic mite, Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two hosts from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sagata; Gupta, Salil Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The present paper reports duration of different developmental stages as well as fecundity, longevity, oviposition periods, sex ratio, etc. of Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard on two medicinal plants, viz. Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult and Justicia adhatoda L. under laboratory condition at 27.5 °C and 65% R.H. during February-March, 2016. The two hosts in which the life cycle was studied form two new records of hosts for this mite. It appears that C. buchanani is better host among the two hosts as because the life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in shorter time, recording high fecundity and longer longevity.

  8. The Political Economy of Longevity: Developing New Forms of Solidarity for Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Aging populations now exert influence on all aspects of social life. This article examines changes to major social and economic institutions linked with old age, taking the period from the mid-20th century to the opening decades of the 21st century. These developments are set within the context of the influence of globalization as well as the impact of the 2008 financial crisis, these restructuring debates around the longevity revolution. The article examines how the basis for a new framework for accommodating longevity can be built, outlining ways of securing new forms of solidarity in later life.

  9. The plant economics spectrum is structured by leaf habits and growth forms across subtropical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Tao; Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong

    2017-02-01

    The plant economics spectrum that integrates the combination of leaf and wood syndromes provides a useful framework for the examination of species strategies at the whole-plant level. However, it remains unclear how species that differ in leaf habits and growth forms are integrated within the plant economics spectrum in subtropical forests. We measured five leaf and six wood traits across 58 subtropical plant species, which represented two leaf habits (evergreen vs deciduous) and two growth forms (tree vs shrub) in eastern China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed separately to construct the leaf (LES), wood (WES) and whole-plant (WPES) economics spectra. Leaf and wood traits are highly intra- and intercorrelated, thus defining not only the LES and WES, but also a WPES. Multi-trait variations in PCAs revealed that the traits which were representative of the acquisitive strategy, i.e., cheap tissue investment and rapid returns on that investment, were clustered at one end, while traits that represented the conservative strategy, i.e., expensive tissue investment and slower returns, were clustered at other end in each of the axes of the leaf and wood syndromes (PC1-axis) and the plant height strategy (PC2-axis). The local WPES, LES and WES were tightly correlated with each other. Evergreens shaped the conservative side, while deciduous species structured the acquisitive side of the WPES and LES. With respect to plant height strategies, trees formulated the acquisitive side and shrub species made up the conservative side of the WPES, LES and WES. In conclusion, our results suggested that the LES and WES were coordinated to a WPES for subtropical species. The finding of this local spectrum of plant form and function would be beneficial for modeling nutrient fluxes and species compositions in the changing climate, but also for understanding species strategies in an evolutionary context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  10. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  11. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  12. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for enabling data to discovery for the life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identify management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning m...

  13. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke

    2016-01-01

    independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate...

  14. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Kissling, W.D.; Condamine, F.L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Rowe, N.P.; Baker, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale

  15. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Kissling, W.D.; Condamine, F.L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Rowe, N.P.; Baker, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patt

  16. Reliability testing of the Danish version of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Heaf, James; Prescott, Lotte

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The questionnaire Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF) is valuable for assessing the health-related quality of life in patients treated with chronic dialysis. The aim of this study was to translate and test the reliability of the KDQOL-SF for use in Denmark...... involving all patients, two of the disease-specific scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of ... of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients discovered low reliability for three disease-specific scales. The KDQOL-SF manual and the Danish manual for the Short Form 36 (SF36) differed in the scoring of four generic scales: "role limitation-physical", "bodily pain", "general health" and "social function". CONCLUSIONS...

  17. Features of forming subject of anxiety about the health in healthy way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadovnikov E.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of forming of anxiety of man are considered about the health from positions of activity of health activity. The features of forming mechanisms of anxiety are exposed about the health. It is marked that the basic condition of forming of subject of activity in health activity of man is life on the border of health and ill health, pathology and norm. The necessity of principle picture is marked of mechanisms of forming of activity in health activity. Directions which will allow to change the conduct of man toward health activity are recommended. It will allow a man to overpeer above a situation, estimate it and do a correct optimum choice in relation to the health. The necessity of reanimation of anxiety is marked about itself as principle of self-preservation conduct.

  18. Life history traits as predictors of plant rarity, with particular reference to hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Kwak, MM

    2005-01-01

    We made a comparison between life history and reproductive characteristics of a group of Dutch rare (30) and common (105) plant species, all dicotyledonous and insect-visited forbs. The traits life span, clonality, breeding system, seed production, seed dispersal, and soil seed bank longevity are co

  19. Fast–slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R.; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon; Hodgson, D.; Zuidema, P.A.; Kroon, de Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous v

  20. Life forms of endemic carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the forest eco-systems of gorgany mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Pushkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems of Gorgany Mountains 11 endemic carabids are found. It is about 12.2 % of all ground-beetles fauna of the investigated region. As a result of the morphometric analysis the life forms of endemic carabids are determined. The system of ground beetles’ life forms developed by I. Sharova (1981 is supplemented. All endemics we have rated among 1 class (Zoophages, 2 subclasses (Epigeobionts, Stratobionts and 5 life forms. The analysis of the carabid beetles’ life form spectrum in the forest ecosystems of Gorgany mountains attests to their broad settlement of ecological niches in the investigated region.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: the most archaic form in vascular plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genomes have maintained some bacterial features despite their residence within eukaryotic cells for approximately two billion years. One of these features is the frequent presence of polycistronic operons. In land plants, however, it has been shown that all sequenced vascular plant chondromes lack large polycistronic operons while bryophyte chondromes have many of them. In this study, we provide the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of a lycophyte, from Huperzia squarrosa, which is a member of the sister group to all other vascular plants. The genome, at a size of 413,530 base pairs, contains 66 genes and 32 group II introns. In addition, it has 69 pseudogene fragments for 24 of the 40 protein- and rRNA-coding genes. It represents the most archaic form of mitochondrial genomes of all vascular plants. In particular, it has one large conserved gene cluster containing up to 10 ribosomal protein genes, which likely represents a polycistronic operon but has been disrupted and greatly reduced in the chondromes of other vascular plants. It also has the least rearranged gene order in comparison to the chondromes of other vascular plants. The genome is ancestral in vascular plants in several other aspects: the gene content resembling those of charophytes and most bryophytes, all introns being cis-spliced, a low level of RNA editing, and lack of foreign DNA of chloroplast or nuclear origin.

  2. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  3. Developing short-form measures of oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, David; Allen, P Finbarr

    2002-01-01

    Using the item-impact method, we developed an alternative short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) that has good psychometric properties and minimal floor effects. OHIP data were collected from a sample of older Canadians at two points in time. Data from the first administration were used to develop a 14-item short-form measure; data from the second compare the latter's psychometric properties with those of the original short form developed by Slade (1997), who used a controlled regression procedure. The short form based on the item-impact method had only two items in common with the short form derived from the regression approach and contained more high-prevalence items. The regression short form was subject to marked floor effects, while the impact short form had floor effects comparable to those of the full 49-item OHIP. The former discriminated between dentate and edentulous subjects, while the latter did not. Both discriminated between dentate subjects who did and did not wear dentures, those with and without dry mouth, and those with and without chewing problems. Both were also significantly associated with self-ratings of oral health, satisfaction with oral health, and self-perceived need for dental treatment. The strength of the associations was somewhat stronger with the regression short form, indicating that it performed better as a discriminatory instrument. However, because of its floor effects, it was markedly less sensitive to change than the impact short form. There was an indication that item-impact methods of shortening oral health-related quality of life measures produced more stable results across samples than the statistical approach. Because the content validity of short-form measures is always compromised, different short forms are required for different purposes and different patient populations. The regression short form developed by Slade (1997) is likely to be better when the aim is to discriminate, while the impact short form

  4. When Is a Fish Not a Fish? Questions Raised by a Nage Life-Form Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Forth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speakers of a Central-Malayo-Polynesian language, the Nage inhabit the central region of the eastern Indonesian island of Flores. Their folk taxonomy of animals (ana wa contains three named life-form taxa, one of which is ika, fish. A review of component folk-generic taxa, however, reveals that Nage do not classify five kinds of freshwater fish as ‘fish’ (ika, even though they further apply ika to various marine fish (including sharks and rays as well as to marine mammals. The article considers this peculiarity of Nage folk zoological taxonomy, and how it might affect an understanding of ika as denoting a ‘fish’ life-form taxon. The main conclusion is that the five excluded categories—distinguished largely on morphological and behavioural grounds, and  conveniently designated as the ‘tebhu cluster’, after one of their members—are contrasted primarily with freshwater species which Nage do classify as ‘fish’ (ika. Specified by name as ika lowo (‘river fish’, these are further contrasted with another named folk-intermediate taxon of ‘marine fish’ (ika mesi. From this, it is argued that, as a life-form category, ika should be understood as implicitly including the five members of the ‘tebhu cluster’ as a third, albeit covert, folk-intermediate taxon.

  5. Nuclear power plant life extension: How aging affects performance of containments & other structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A Dameron; Sun Junling

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on how aging can affect performance of safety-related structures in nuclear power plant (NPP).Knowledge and assessment of impacts of aging on structures are essential to plant life extension analysis,especially performance to severe loadings such as loss-of-coolant-accidents or major seismic events.Plant life extension issues are of keen interest in countries (like the United States) which have a large,aging fleet of NPPs.This paper addresses the overlap and relationship of structure aging to severe loading performance,with particular emphasis on containment structures.

  6. Life cycle and regeneration niches of herbaceous plants in forest communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dubrovnaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The criterion for steady state species in the community is the possibility of a complete turnover generation. Ontogenetic structure of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations in phytocenoses of different seral stages of forest community depended on the ecological-coenotic conditions. Cenopopulations of species with a high frequency of individuals of generative period were formed on disturbed forest communities, however, Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea seedlings in disturbed forest areas were not present. For these species, regeneration niches or microbioloby were the optimal conditions for seed germination and successful completion of the initial stages of ontogenesis, dedicated to the cenopopulations of phytocenoses climax serial stages. In holistic forest communities, species showed strategy type of patients. This allowed the species to be kept on a previously developed site. Invasive-regressive ontogenetic structure of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations was formed in climax stages of forest communities. However, this type of ontogenetically structure of cenopopulations reflected the survival of seedlings of species in the community, but did not represent, the tenuous state of the population. The stages of the life cycle of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea were confined to different cenopopulations, where they developed the necessary conditions for the flow of the hotel stages of ontogenesis. A set of populations, within which is carried out the full turnover of the generation of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea, formed a correct idea about the status of the species in the community. In terms of a mosaic of phytocenosis cenopopulation of Platanthera bifolia was presented cenopopulations loci. The development of plants within loci differed. A variety of factors in heterogeneous pine forest determined by the separation in space of the processes of formation of seeds and survival of

  7. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  8. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  9. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture.

  10. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  11. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  12. Plants' use of different nitrogen forms in response to crude oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Ming [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Centre for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Lu Meng; Yang Qiang; Zhang Xiaodong [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiao Ming [College of Life and Environment Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Jiang Lifen; Yang Ji; Fang Changming [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen Jiakuan [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Centre for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li Bo, E-mail: bool@fudan.edu.c [Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Centre for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, we investigated Phragmites australis' use of different forms of nitrogen (N) and associated soil N transformations in response to petroleum contamination. {sup 15}N tracer studies indicated that the total amount of inorganic and organic N assimilated by P. australis was low in petroleum-contaminated soil, while the rates of inorganic and organic N uptake on a per-unit-biomass basis were higher in petroleum-contaminated soil than those in un-contaminated soil. The percentage of organic N in total plant-assimilated N increased with petroleum concentration. In addition, high gross N immobilization and nitrification rates relative to gross N mineralization rate might reduce inorganic-N availability to the plants. Therefore, the enhanced rate of N uptake and increased importance of organic N in plant N assimilation might be of great significance to plants growing in petroleum-contaminated soils. Our results suggest that plants might regulate N capture under petroleum contamination. - Plant strategies of utilizing nitrogen in crude oil-contaminated soils.

  13. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong [KOREA HYDRO and NUCLEAR POWER CO. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system.

  14. Astrobiological neurosystems rise and fall of intelligent life forms in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cranford, Jerry L

    2015-01-01

    This book explains why scientists believe that life may be more common in the Universe than previously considered possible. It presents the tools and strategies astronomers and astrobiologists are using in their formal search for habitable exoplanets as well as more advanced forms of life in other parts of our galaxy. The author then summarizes what is currently known about how and where organic molecules critical to our form of carbon-based life are manufactured. The core of the book explains (and presents educated guesses) how nervous systems evolved on Earth, how they work, and how they might work on other worlds. Combining his knowledge of neuroscience, computers, and astrobiology the author jumps into the discussion whether biological nervous systems are just the first step in the rise of intelligence in the Universe. The book ends with a description from both the psychologist’s and the neuroscientist’s viewpoints, exactly what it is about the fields of astrobiology and astronomy that “boggles...

  15. L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall is widely conserved across the bacterial domain, suggesting that it appeared early in the evolution of bacteria. It is normally essential but under certain conditions wall-deficient or ‘L-form’ bacteria can be isolated. In Bacillus subtilis this normally requires two genetic changes. The first, exemplified by mutations shutting down wall precursor synthesis, works by increasing membrane synthesis. This promotes the unusual form of proliferation used by L-forms, involving a range of relatively disorganized membrane blebbing or vesiculation events. The secondary class of mutations probably work by relieving oxidative stress that L-forms may incur due to their unbalanced metabolism. Repression or inhibition of cell wall precursor synthesis can stimulate the L-form transition in a wide range of bacteria, of both Gram-positive and -negative lineages. L-forms are completely resistant to most antibiotics working specifically on cell wall synthesis, such as penicillins and cephalosporins, consistent with the many reports of their involvement in various chronic diseases. They are potentially important in biotechnology, because lack of a wall can be advantageous in a range of production or strain improvement applications. Finally, L-forms provide an interesting model system for studying early steps in the evolution of cellular life. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672147

  16. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle... collections include all client intake, events/activities and export success forms. This comprehensive... services and trade events to U.S. organizations. The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms...

  17. Dichotomous branching: the plant form and integrity upon the apical meristem bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The division of the apical meristem into two independently functioning axes is defined as dichotomous branching. This type of branching typically occurs in non-vascular and non-seed vascular plants, whereas in seed plants it presents a primary growth form only in several taxa. Dichotomy is a complex process, which requires a re-organization of the meristem structure and causes changes in the apex geometry and activity. However, the mechanisms governing the repetitive apex divisions are hardly known. Here, an overview of dichotomous branching is presented, occurring in structurally different apices of phylogenetically distant plants, and in various organs (e.g. shoots, roots, rhizophores. Additionally, morphogenetic effects of dichotomy are reviewed, including its impact on organogenesis and mechanical constraints. At the end, the hormonal and genetic regulation of the dichotomous branching is discussed.

  18. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; PGreek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care.

  19. A Gene, ALCA, Affecting the Life Cycle Form Expressed in PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, C L; Hoffman, C S; Holt, C E

    1982-05-01

    The usual sequence of forms in the Physarum polycephalum life cycle is plasmodium-spore-amoeba-plasmodium. So-called "amoebaless life cycle" or alc mutants of this Myxomycete undergo a simplified plasmodium-spore-plasmodium life cycle. We have analyzed three independently isolated alc mutants and found in each case that the failure of the spores to give rise to amoebae is due to a recessive Mendelian allele. The three mutations are tightly linked to one another and belong to a single complementation group, alcA. The mutations are pleiotropic, not only interfering with the establishment of the amoebal form at spore germination, but also affecting the phenotype of alc amoebae, which occasionally arise from alc spores. The alc amoebae (1) grow more slowly than wild type, particularly at elevated temperatures; (2) tend to transform directly into plasmodia, circumventing the sexual fusion of amoebae that usually accompanies plasmodium formation; and (3) form plasmodia by the sexual mechanism less efficiently than wild-type amoebae. The various effects of an alc mutation seem to derive from mutation of a single gene, since reversion for one effect is always accompanied by reversion for the other effects. Moreover, a mutation, aptA1, that blocks direct plasmodium formation by alcA amoebae, also increases their growth rate to near normal. The manner of plasmodium formation in alcA strains differs significantly from that in another class of mutants, the gad mutants. Unlike gad amoebae, alcA amoebae need not reach a critical density in order to differentiate directly into plasmodia and do not respond to the extracellular inducer of differentiation. In addition, alcA differentiation is not prevented by a mutation, npfA1, that blocks direct differentiation by most gad amoebae.

  20. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; W. Daniel Kissling; Fabien L. Condamine; Jens-Christian eSvenning; Rowe, Nick P.; Baker, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related...

  1. Root phototropism: how light and gravity interact in shaping plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J; Mullen, Jack L; Hangarter, Roger P; Edelmann, Richard E

    2003-06-01

    The interactions among tropisms can be critical in determining the final growth form of plants and plant organs. We have studied tropistic responses in roots as an example of these type of interactions. While gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response in roots, phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth in this organ in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism. In the flowering plant Arabidopsis, the photosensitive pigments phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) mediate this positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. While blue-light-based negative phototropism is primarily mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors, the phyA and phyAB mutants (but not phyB) were inhibited in this response relative to the WT. The differences observed in phototropic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in plants and that phytochrome plays a key role in integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  2. Root phototropism: how light and gravity interact in shaping plant form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie J.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions among tropisms can be critical in determining the final growth form of plants and plant organs. We have studied tropistic responses in roots as an example of these type of interactions. While gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response in roots, phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth in this organ in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism. In the flowering plant Arabidopsis, the photosensitive pigments phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) mediate this positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. While blue-light-based negative phototropism is primarily mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors, the phyA and phyAB mutants (but not phyB) were inhibited in this response relative to the WT. The differences observed in phototropic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in plants and that phytochrome plays a key role in integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  3. When Is a Fish Not a Fish? Questions Raised by a Nage Life-Form Category

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Forth

    2012-01-01

    Speakers of a Central-Malayo-Polynesian language, the Nage inhabit the central region of the eastern Indonesian island of Flores. Their folk taxonomy of animals (ana wa) contains three named life-form taxa, one of which is ika, fish. A review of component folk-generic taxa, however, reveals that Nage do not classify five kinds of freshwater fish as ‘fish’ (ika), even though they further apply ika to various marine fish (including sharks and rays) as well as to marine mammals. The article cons...

  4. Contribution of non-exchangeable potassium forms and its accumulation in corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesquieu da S. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The state of Paraíba, Brazil, has soils from well- to poorly-developed, in which potassium (K is found in different levels, forms and, consequently, with varying availability to plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of non-exchangeable K forms to corn plants in 12 soils from Paraíba state, along four successive cycles. The experimental design was completely randomized block with three replicates and the 24 treatments consisted of the combination between two K levels (0 and 100 mg dm-3 and 12 soils. Before and after each cycle, subsamples of 0.2 dm3 were collected in each pot for the determination of non-exchangeable K (Kne, exchangeable K (Ke and soluble K (Ks. For each cycle, dry matter production, dry matter K content and plant K content (absorbed K were determined. In the studied soils, the amounts of absorbed K after successive cycles were higher than the amounts of exchangeable K released, which shows the contribution of non-exchangeable K forms to corn nutrition.

  5. A concept of a component based system to determine pot-plant shelf-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Oliver; Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti;

    2006-01-01

    to calculate the expected keeping quality, or it will be able to apply the system as decision support during plant cultivation. In the latter case, the model-based system can be implemented in a greenhouse climate computer. The concept contains information on climate control strategies, controlled stress......, the keeping quality of a plant after removal from the greenhouse could be estimated. A concept of a system that describes a model based knowledge system aiming at determination of the last selling date for pot plants is presented. The core of the conceptual system is a tool that can either be used......Plant keeping quality during shelf life is next to genetic attributes also determined by plant treatment. This is attributed to inner plant quality parameters. We expect that a model including information gathered during crop cultivation could be used to predict the inner crop quality. From that...

  6. Older adults and the arts: the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Britt-Maj

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in a randomly selected Swedish population age 65 to 89. Data were based on semi-structured interviews with 166 participants. Results revealed dance, music, literature, and pictures were important for this group of elderly individuals in promoting successful aging, and the connection to their everyday life was apparent. Participants considered viewing natural scenes and looking in a photo album as important aesthetic activities. The aesthetic forms of expression contributed to physical and intellectual activities, as well as to interaction with other individuals. Aesthetic experiences were related to feelings of timelessness and spacelessness, and served as sources of gratification.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued

  8. Unidimensionality of life satisfaction and its relation to social desirability: a confirmatory study of a short form of the Life Satisfaction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicardi, C; Baldassarri, F; Artistico, D

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated construct validity of a short version of the Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale developed from an exploratory factor analysis in 1990 of the original version of Salamon and Conte's Life Satisfaction scale. First, a confirmatory factor analysis (maximum likelihood method) was conducted on 149 adult and elderly Italians to assess whether the latent variable of the Life Satisfaction Short Form scale was adequately represented by one factor. Analysis showed a good fit for the proposed unidimensional model, the items achieved good internal consistency on the scale, and no age differences arose in the score for the Life Satisfaction factor. Second, the correlations between the items measuring Life Satisfaction and the Eysenck 1985 Lie scale indicated that the items on the Life Satisfaction Short Form are largely independent of social desirability for younger and older adults.

  9. An open question on the origin of life: the first forms of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-11-01

    The general framework of the origin of life on Earth is outlined, emphasizing that the so-called prebiotic 'RNA world' is as yet on shaky scientific ground, and that one should any way ask the question of the structure of the first protocellular compartments capable of the initial forms of metabolism. This question is the basis of the research project on the minimal cells, containing the minimal and sufficient complexity capable of leading to life. Such research is briefly summarized, highlighting experiments with liposome-based semisynthetic cells which are capable of ribosomal protein synthesis with a very minimal number of enzymes. The most recent finding in this area of research is the unexpected observation that the formation and closure of liposomes in situ acts as an attractor for the solute molecules in solution, bringing about a very high local concentration in some of the liposomes. It is argued that this spontaneous overcrowding, which permits reactions which are not possible in the original dilute solution, might be the origin of cellular metabolism for the origin of life on Earth. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Productive Destruction:Observations about Destruction as the Central Organizing Form to Social Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FREDERICK Damon

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on observations about the place of destruction in the or-ganization of social life .In contemplating the model of sacrifice , the author draws upon sources ranging Hubert, Mauss, and Evan-Pritchard to Levi-Strauss, and considers the circumstances of his life as a scholar of Melanesia and as a resident of the United States .The question that in-trigues the author the most is:“ what quality is there in social life that makes destruction so often the condition of creation?” The author names this kind of destruction as a productive destruction and gives an analysis .He argues that destruction not only makes creation possible , it also pro-duces the conditions for the formation of not just difference , but a rank order or hierarchy .He suggests that it is not religion which creates the ritual hierarchies of power and destruction , but the latter which gets taken up by religion and ritual , and, thence, by the development of forms of social order .

  11. Towards a more consolidated approach to material data management in life assessment of power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Maile, K. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation discusses the necessity of having a more consolidated (unified, possibly `European`) framework for all (not only pure experimental) material data needed for optimized life management and assessment of high-temperature and other components in power and process plants. After setting the main requirements for such a system, a description of efforts done in this direction at MPA Stuttgart in the area of high-temperature components in power plants is given. Furthermore, a reference to other relevant efforts elsewhere is made and an example of practical application of the proposed solution described (optimized material selection and life assessment of high-temperature piping). (orig.) 10 refs.

  12. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  13. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis [Endesa. C/ Ribera del Loira, No.60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO{sub 2} emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  14. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  15. Jellyfish life histories: role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Cathy H; Graham, William M; Widmer, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Large population fluctuations of jellyfish occur over a variety of temporal scales, from weekly to seasonal, inter-annual and even decadal, with some regions of the world reported to be experiencing persistent seasonal bloom events. Recent jellyfish research has focussed on understanding the causes and consequences of these population changes, with the vast majority of studies considering the effect of changing environmental variables only on the pelagic medusa. But many of the bloom-forming species are members of the Scyphozoa with complex metagenic life cycles consisting of a sexually reproducing pelagic medusa and asexually reproducing benthic polyp. Recruitment success during the juvenile (planula, polyp and ephyrae) stages of the life cycle can have a major effect on the abundance of the adult (medusa) population, but until very recently, little was known about the ecology of the polyp or scyphistoma phase of the scyphozoan life cycle. The aim of this review is to synthesise the current state of knowledge of polyp ecology by examining (1) the recruitment and metamorphosis of planulae larvae into polyps, (2) survival and longevity of polyps, (3) expansion of polyp populations via asexual propagation and (4) strobilation and recruitment of ephyrae (juvenile medusae). Where possible, comparisons are made with the life histories of other bentho-pelagic marine invertebrates so that further inferences can be made. Differences between tropical and temperate species are highlighted and related to climate change, and populations of the same species (in particular Aurelia aurita) inhabiting different habitats within its geographic range are compared. The roles that polyps play in ensuring the long-term survival of jellyfish populations as well as in the formation of bloom populations are considered, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  16. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  17. Development of Bioregenerative Life Support for Longer Missions: When Can Plants Begin to Contribute to Atmospheric Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Through photosynthesis, plants can be used to generate oxygen and food for life support in human exploration of space. Initial contributions of plants to life support would likely occur through the production of supplemental, fresh foods. For plants to provide significant contributions to oxygen production, larger areas and significant lighting would be needed. An area of 10 m2 of plants with moderate lighting could provide about 13 of a human's oxygen needs. As mission distances and durations increase, plant growing areas could be expanded to assume more of the human life support needs.

  18. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Enabling Data to Discovery for the Life Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Merchant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identity management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning material, and best practice resources to help all researchers make the best use of their data, expand their computational skill set, and effectively manage their data and computation when working as distributed teams. iPlant's platform permits researchers to easily deposit and share their data and deploy new computational tools and analysis workflows, allowing the broader community to easily use and reuse those data and computational analyses.

  19. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  20. The Life Assessment of Steam Turbine Rotors for Fossil Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sungho; Song, Geewook; Kim, Bumshin; Hyun, Jungseb; Ha, Jeongsoo

    The operational mode of thermal power plants has been changed from base load to duty cycle. From the changeover, fossil power plants cannot avoid frequent thermal transient states, for example, start up and stop, which results in thermal fatigue damage at the heavy section components. The rotor is the highest capital cost component in a steam turbine and requires long outage for replacing with a new one. For an optimized power plant operational life, inspection management of the rotor is necessary. It is known in general that the start-up and shutdown operations greatly affect the steam turbine life. The start-up operational condition is especially severe because of the rapid temperature and rotational speed increase, which causes damage and reduction of life of the main components life of the steam turbine. The start-up stress of a rotor which is directly related to life is composed of thermal and rotational stresses. The thermal stress is due to the variation of steam flow temperature and rotational stress is due to the rotational speed of the turbine. In this paper, the analysis method for the start-up stress of a rotor is proposed, which considers simultaneously temperature and rotational speed transition, and includes a case study regarding a 500MW fossil power plant steam turbine rotor. Also, the method of quantitative damage estimation for fatigue-creep damage to operational conditions, is described. The method can be applied to find weak points for fatigue-creep damage. Using the method, total life consumption can be obtained, and can be also be used for determining future operational modes and life extension of old fossil power units.

  1. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO₂ assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-02-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH(4)(+)) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO(3)(-))-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH(4)(+)-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO(2)) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O(2)-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O(2)-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH(4)(+)-grown plants had a higher O(2)-independent alternative electron flux than NO(3)(-)-grown plants. NO(3)(-) reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH(4)(+)-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH(4)(+)-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO(3)(-) assimilation, an effect more significant in NO(3)(-)-grown plants than in NH(4)(+)-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH(4)(+)-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO(3)(-) reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH(4)(+)-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH(4)(+) was supplied as the sole N source.

  2. Serotonin 5-O-β-Glucoside and Its N-Methylated Forms in Citrus Genus Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Ferrari, Giovanna; Cautela, Domenico; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2015-04-29

    Citrus genus is characterized by a specific presence of indole metabolites deriving from the N-methylation of tryptamine and its hydroxylated form, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), which are likely involved in plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we identified for the first time the occurrence in Citrus plants of serotonin 5-O-β-glucoside and all its N-methylated derivatives, that is, N-methylserotonin 5-O-β-glucoside, N,N-dimethylserotonin (bufotenine) 5-O-β-glucoside, and N,N,N-trimethylserotonin (bufotenidine) 5-O-β-glucoside. The identification of the glucosylated compounds was based on mass spectrometric studies, hydrolysis by glucosidase, and in some cases, comparison to authentic compounds. Beside leaves, the distribution of the glucosylated forms and their aglycones in some Citrus species was evaluated in flavedo, albedo, juice, and seeds. The simultaneous presence of serotonin and its N-methylated derivatives, together with the corresponding glucosylated forms, is consistent with the occurrence of a metabolic pathway, specific for Citrus, aimed at potentiating the defensive response to biotic stress through the optimization of the production and use of the most toxic of such metabolites.

  3. 26 CFR 1.6052-1 - Information returns regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the form of group-term life insurance. 1.6052-1 Section 1.6052-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.6052-1 Information returns regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance. (a... employees remuneration for services in the form of group-term life insurance on the life of such...

  4. Basal cactus phylogeny: implications of Pereskia (Cactaceae) paraphyly for the transition to the cactus life form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erika J; Nyffeler, Reto; Donoghue, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    The cacti are well-known desert plants, widely recognized by their specialized growth form and essentially leafless condition. Pereskia, a group of 17 species with regular leaf development and function, is generally viewed as representing the "ancestral cactus," although its placement within Cactaceae has remained uncertain. Here we present a new hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships at the base of the Cactaceae, inferred from DNA sequence data from five gene regions representing all three plant genomes. Our data support a basal split in Cactaceae between a clade of eight Pereskia species, centered around the Caribbean basin, and all other cacti. Two other Pereskia clades, distributed mostly in the southern half of South America, are part of a major clade comprising Maihuenia plus Cactoideae, and Opuntioideae. This result highlights several events in the early evolution of the cacti. First, during the transition to stem-based photosynthesis, the evolution of stem stomata and delayed bark formation preceded the evolution of the stem cortex into a specialized photosynthetic tissue system. Second, the basal split in cacti separates a northern from an initially southern cactus clade, and the major cactus lineages probably originated in southern or west-central South America.

  5. Influence of data collection schemes on the Life Cycle Assessment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was conducted to illustrate the effect of an emission inventory data collection scheme on the outcomes of an environmental impact assessment. Due to their burden in respect to data collection, LCAs often rely heavily...

  6. Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J. E.; Henderson, K. E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Barta, D. J.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange constituent cations without major change of the mineral structure. Recently, zeoponic systems developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) slowly release some (Allen et at., 1995) or all of the essential plant-growth nutrients (Ming et at., 1995). These systems have NH4- and K-exchanged clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) and either natural or synthetic apatite (a calcium phosphate mineral). For the natural apatite system, Ca and P were made available to the plant by the dissolution of apatite. Potassium and NH4-N were made available by ion-exchange reactions involving Ca(2+) from apatite dissolution and K(+) and NH4(+) on zeolitic exchange sites. In addition to NH4-N, K, Ca, and P, the synthetic apatite system also supplied Mg, S, and other micronutrients during dissolution (Figure 1). The overall objective of this research task is to develop zeoponic substrates wherein all plant growth nutrients are supplied by the plant growth medium for several growth seasons with only the addition of water. The substrate is being developed for plant growth in Advanced Life Support (ALS) testbeds (i.e., BioPLEX) and microgravity plant growth experiments. Zeoponic substrates have been used for plant growth experiments on two Space Shuttle flight experiments (STS-60; STS-63; Morrow et aI., 1995). These substrates may be ideally suited for plant growth experiments on the International Space Station and applications in ALS testbeds. However, there are several issues that need to be resolved before zeoponics will be the choice substrate for plant growth experiments in space. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on recent research directed toward the refinement of zeoponic plant growth substrates.

  7. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide.

  8. Pedagogical terms of forming of healthy method of life of modern pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarchenko V.I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of conditioning forming of healthy method of life of pupils of general educational educational establishments are probed. In an experiment 156 pupils took part in age from 6 to 17 years. It is set that the characteristic feature of bodily condition of health of pupils is a result of the protracted unfavorable influence of socio-economic, ecological and pedagogical factors. An idea speaks out, that search of the new going near organization of an educational educate process at school it is necessary to send educations to humanizing. It will provide creation of optimum terms for spiritual growth of personality, valuable realization of psychophysical possibilities, maintainance and strengthening of health. It is well-proven that realization of the personality oriented approach taking into account basic valeological principles positively influences on the process of education of responsible attitude toward an own health as to the greatest individual and public value.

  9. The Embodiment of Knowledge Forms and Life Modes in Teacher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard

    an analytical model of topos and logos constructed to illustrate how students, lecturers and supervising teachers, schools, programs and educational literature perceives becoming a teacher in relation to different forms of knowledge, life modes, habits and theory and practice relations. This analysis leads...... of the misunderstandings that lead students to drop out and create tensions between placement and college, namely how one another practices and perceives the relations between theory and practice. In a theoretical framework of Aristotle (1999), Højrup (2003) and Merleau-Ponty (2000, 2002) I analyze the qualitative data...... to a prominent representative the teacher education illustrates different culturally embedded ways of understanding how study and work courses work emphasize different aspects of any education and generally manifests the philosophical and didactical questions of what, how, why and when to learn and teach...

  10. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (S-FAQLQ-AF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolin-Amerigo, D.; Cerecedo Carballo, [Unknown; Muriel, A.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Dieguez Pastor, M.; Flokstra-de Blok, B.; Dubois, A.; De la Hoz Caballer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Specific food allergy quality of life questionnaires have been developed within the context of the EuroPrevall project. We aimed to adapt and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) in the Spanish language. Methods: The original English questionnai

  11. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Role of macrophyte life forms in driving periphytic microalgal assemblages in a Brazilian reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara L. Fernandes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play several roles in aquatic ecosystems, including the provision of habitat for many aquatic organisms, especially the periphyton. The aims of this study were to characterize the structure of periphytic microalgal assemblages on different aquatic macrophyte life forms in order to establish similarities between assemblages from nearby sampling sites. We hypothesized that i aquatic macrophytes with different life forms and morphological characteristics could differently influence the structure of the periphyton and that ii the greatest similarity in periphyton composition should be observed among macrophytes that occupy the same sampling site. The study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 in the Thomaz Osterne de Alencar reservoir (Crato City, Ceará State, Brazil and involved the taxonomic surveying of microalgae attached to five different macrophytes with the application of structural descriptors (richness, abundance, frequency, diversity and equitability. A total of 127 taxa, of which 44% belonged to the Chlorophyta, were identified. The microalgae assemblages showed high species richness on Salvinia auriculata Aubl., a free-floating macrophyte, and large abundance on Apalanthe granatensis (Humb. & Bonpl. Planch., a submerged anchored macrophyte. ANOVA indicated that periphyton significantly varied among the macrophytes investigated, and nearby sampling sites showed no structural similarities in microalgal assemblages. In general, we can conclude that the structure of periphyton assemblages is influenced by the substrate (i.e., macrophyte organ, as this can not only promote high diversity and equitability but can also be a predictor of dissimilarity in the distribution and frequency of occurrence of microalgae. These results reinforce the findings of other studies that have shown that macrophytes play an important role in structuring the periphyton assemblages.

  13. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  14. Impact on the Quality of Life When Living Close to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantarakis, A; Paparrodopoulos, S; Kokkinos, P; Vantarakis, G; Fragou, K; Detorakis, I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact on the quality of life of people living close to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A case control study, including 235 inhabitants living within a 500 m radius by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (cases) and 97 inhabitants living in a different area (controls), was conducted. A standardized questionnaire was self-completed by the participants which examined the general health perception and the overall life satisfaction. Also, the concentration of airborne pathogenic microorganisms in aerosol samples collected around the wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Significant risk for symptoms such as headache, unusual tiredness, and concentration difficulties was recorded and an increased possibility for respiratory and skin diseases was reported. A high rate of the cases being irritable and moody was noticed. Significantly higher gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported among the cases in relation to the controls. The prevalence of pathogenic airborne microorganisms originating from the wastewater treatment plant was reported in high numbers in sampling points close to the wastewater treatment plant. More analytical epidemiological investigations are needed to determine the cause as well as the burden of the diseases to inhabitants living surrounding the wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.L. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of LWR Safety and Technology; Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE`s Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ).

  16. Life Satisfaction Index: Italian version and validation of a short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchignoni, F; Tesio, L; Ottonello, M; Benevolo, E

    1999-01-01

    The Life Satisfaction Index-version A (LSIA) is a 20-item questionnaire providing a cumulative score acknowledged as a valid index of quality of life. In the present study, an Italian version was produced through validated procedures of repeated back-translations. The final Italian version (LSIA.it) was administered to 90 healthy subjects (55 women; aged 40-65 yr, median 51). Cronbach alpha was 0.74, in agreement with previous studies on English, Greek, and Spanish versions, suggesting satisfactory internal consistency of the scale. Also in agreement with previous studies, factor analysis identified three factors (mood tone, zest for life, and congruence between desired and achieved goals), with eigenvalues of 2.80, 1.72, and 1.34, respectively. Nine of the original 20 items were dropped because of inconsistency with the overall scale and/or because of ambiguous loading onto the extracted factors. The resulting 11-item short form (LSI-11) had alpha = 0.69 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sample adequacy = 0.65. In our sample, the mean score of LSIA.it was almost the same as that previously reported in the literature for LSIA, and the correlation between LSIA and LSI-11 was very high (r = 0.91). In a test-retest trial, the cumulative score of LSI-11 showed a percentage of agreement ranging from 73.9 to 100 and Cohen's k statistic for reliability ranging from 0.51 to 1. The individual items of the LSI-11 presented substantial (k > 0.6) to excellent (k > 0.8) levels of agreement. The responsiveness of LSIA and LSI-11 during a hospital stay for 30 consecutive inpatients for medical rehabilitation programs, as measured by effect size, was 0.57 and 0.63, respectively. The results suggest that (1) the LSIA it has cultural equivalence with the English LSIA and that (2) the 11-item short form of LSIA is not only simpler but also more valid from a psychometric standpoint.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste. [Eleven alternative solid forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of a Small Hydropower Plant in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Geller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil as well as the rest of the world, faces a major challenge related to the electricity sector, to meet the growing demand with energy production from renewable sources. Many hydroelectric plants are being implemented, especially in the northern region of Brazil, but its environmental impacts are yet unknown. Energy produced by hydropower plants has been considered totally renewable and clean, but more recent studies describe analysis pointing to the existence of emissions by hydroelectric plants, especially if a lifecycle approach is considered. Thus, the objective of this study is the investigation of environmental impacts of the construction, operation and decommissioning of a hydroelectric power station based on Life-Cycle Assessment. The main focus is the Curuá-Una hydropower plant that is located in the Amazon forest in northern Brazil, in Santarém municipality (Pará state. 

  19. Life cycle management. Condition monitoring of wind power plants; Life-cycle-management. Zustandsueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R. [cmc GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on maintenance strategies and condition monitoring in the field of wind energy. Beside the components in the drive train of wind turbines under consideration, the condition monitoring of the hardware systems and their software is explained. A brief overview of the field of machinery diagnosis and an explanation of the transmission of the measured data follow. Additional sensors such as sensors for the rotor blade monitoring, oil particles counter or oil quality sensors are described. In the field of diagnostic certainty, special follow-up studies such as video endoscopy, analysis of oil or grease, filter testing and material testing are discussed. The information from these thematic fields is used in the life-cycle management database for operationally relevant evaluations and considerations of economy of condition monitoring systems.

  20. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  1. [Prospective validation of the Spanish version of the Short Form-Liver Disease Quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas Taltavull, Teresa; Chandía Frías, Alejandra; Vilallonga Vilarmau, Joan-Salvador; Peña-Cala, María Carmen; de la Iglesia Vicario, Inés; Herdman, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) assessed by a specific, validated, brief test is an important measure of the health status perceived by patients diagnosed with chronic liver disease. To prospectively validate the SF-LDQOL (Short Form-Liver Disease Quality of Life) instrument in Spanish, in patients diagnosed with liver disease of diverse etiologies and distinct severity levels, attended at the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge (Barcelona). This observational, longitudinal study was conducted by using the SF-LDQOL in outpatients diagnosed with chronic liver disease. This instrument contains the generic SF-36 test, and 9 liver disease-specific dimensions. We also evaluated socio-demographic features, the number of missing responses, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), as well as Pearson's correlation between SF-36 and SF-LDQOL scores on specific dimensions by means of a multi-trait multi-method technique. The sample consisted of 340 patients. In 6 out of 9 liver disease-specific dimensions, reliability coefficients for internal consistency exceeded 0.70. The convergent validity of these items was acceptable in 8 out of 9 dimensions, with a scaling success of 100% in each item. Missing items were under 1.5% in all dimensions, except for Sexual Functioning. The Spanish version of the SF-LDQOL has, in general, good psychometric properties, making it a useful instrument for clinical practice in a population of patients diagnosed with chronic liver disease, with or without liver transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Have giant lobelias evolved several times independently? Life form shifts and historical biogeography of the cosmopolitan and highly diverse subfamily Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonelli Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tendency of animals and plants to independently develop similar features under similar evolutionary pressures - convergence - is a widespread phenomenon in nature. In plants, convergence has been suggested to explain the striking similarity in life form between the giant lobelioids (Campanulaceae, the bellflower family of Africa and the Hawaiian Islands. Under this assumption these plants would have developed the giant habit from herbaceous ancestors independently, in much the same way as has been suggested for the giant senecios of Africa and the silversword alliance of Hawaii. Results Phylogenetic analyses based on plastid (rbcL, trnL-F and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] DNA sequences for 101 species in subfamily Lobelioideae demonstrate that the large lobelioids from eastern Africa the Hawaiian Islands, and also South America, French Polynesia and southeast Asia, form a strongly supported monophyletic group. Ancestral state reconstructions of life form and distribution, taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty, indicate their descent from a woody ancestor that was probably confined to Africa. Molecular dating analyses using Penalized Likelihood and Bayesian relaxed clock approaches, and combining multiple calibration points, estimate their first diversification at ~25-33 million years ago (Ma, shortly followed by several long-distance dispersal events that resulted in the current pantropical distribution. Conclusion These results confidently show that lobelioid species, commonly called 'giant', are very closely related and have not developed their giant form from herbaceous ancestors independently. This study, which includes the hitherto largest taxon sampling for subfamily Lobelioideae, highlights the need for a broad phylogenetic framework for testing assumptions about morphological development in general, and convergent evolution in particular.

  3. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  4. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  5. Determination of chemical forms of (14)C in liquid discharges from nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Povinec, P P; Kořínková, T; Tomášková, L; Pospíchal, J; Kurfiřt, M; Striegler, R; Kaufmanová, M

    2017-10-01

    Developments of radioanalytical methods for determination of radiocarbon in wastewaters from nuclear power plants (NPP) with pressurized light water reactors, which would distinguish between the dissolved organic and inorganic forms have been carried out. After preliminary tests, the method was used to process pilot samples from wastewater outlets from the Temelín and Dukovany NPPs (Czech Republic). The results of analysis of pilot water samples collected in 2015 indicate that the instantaneous (14)C releases into the water streams would be about 7.10(-5) (Temelín) and 4.10(-6) (Dukovany) of the total quantity of the (14)C liberated into the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life cycle strategies of bloom-forming, filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Hällfors, Seija; Huttunen, Maija; Laamanen, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Late-summer blooms of the Nostocalean cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena spp., occur annually over vast areas of the Baltic Sea. Apart from the planktonic bloom period, the annual cycle of these cyanobacteria is poorly known. With a combination of pelagial monitoring, sedimentation traps and germination experiments, we studied the annual cycle of formation, sedimentation and germination of cyanobacterial akinetes (resting stages) in the northern Baltic Sea during 2005-2006. Akinetes were only rarely encountered in the fall plankton, but they were abundant in the near-bottom sedimentation trap from the middle of July to August. All three taxa formed akinetes, but the numbers of A. flos-aquae akinetes were generally low. Of the three taxa, only Anabaena spp. were regularly found to germinate from the sediment samples. Estimates of Anabaena viable seed bank size ranged from 205 to 1913 akinetes g -1 (ww) of sediment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae never germinated, and N. spumigena did so only occasionally. It is concluded that the three co-occurring taxa probably have different life cycle strategies, A. flos-aquae being holoplanktonic and Anabaena spp. planktonic during summer, but overwintering as akinetes in the bottom. Summer populations of N. spumigena may originate from both sedimented akinetes and trichomes that overwinter in the water column.

  7. Breeding new forms of life: a critical reflection on extreme variances of bareback sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Chad; Holmes, Dave; Mercier, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) express feeling marginalized by discourses within public health and sexual health nursing that determine bareback sex is deviant and unsafe. Their resistance to risk-based discourses can be seen within radical sex practices such as deliberately becoming-infected with HIV (bug-chasing) and breeding-infection (gift-giving). The metaphors of bug-chasing and gift-giving, particularly those spread across global online spaces, can influence the sexual experiences and practices of MSM. A metaphor analysis was conducted of Internet forums discussing HIV chasing and gifting metaphors, and showed a variety of discursive meanings, tactics and effects to the radical sex practice. A radical research approach was used to explore the processes of becoming-infected and breeding-infection as determinant steps in the symbolic resistance of risk-based discourses, as well as the creation of new forms of life and community among MSM. Our analyses demonstrate how the gifting/chasing metaphors express MSM's marginalization as well as their lines of flight from having their practices captured within public health discourses. We hope to offer alternative nursing approaches for thinking through and engaging with transgressive and queer sexual practices.

  8. Behavioural effects of compounds co-consumed in dietary forms of caffeinated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, C F; Dodd, F L; Wightman, E L; Kennedy, D O

    2013-06-01

    Research into the cognitive and mood effects of caffeine in human subjects has highlighted some fairly robust and well-accepted effects. However, the majority of these studies have focused on caffeine in isolation; whilst caffeine is normally consumed in the form of plant-derived products and extracts that invariably contain other potentially bioactive phytochemicals. The aim of the present review is to consider the possible mechanisms of action of co-occurring phytochemicals, and any epidemiological evidence suggesting that they contribute to potential health benefits ascribed to caffeine. Intervention studies to date that have been conducted to explore the effects on brain function of the non-caffeine components in caffeine-bearing plants (coffee, tea, cocoa, guaraná), either alone or in combination with caffeine, will also be summarised. Research is beginning to accumulate showing independent effects for several of the phytochemicals that co-occur with caffeine, and/or a modulation of the effects of caffeine when it is co-consumed with these naturally concomitant phytochemicals. The present review highlights that more research aimed at understanding the effects of these compounds is needed and, more importantly, the synergistic relationship that they may have with caffeine.

  9. Forming and maintaining a collection of plant genetic resources of the Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill. genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Тригуб

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Providing information on the formation, composition, maintenance of the collection of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill. genus at Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production (Poltava region, and areas of its use: introduction, preservation and study of the material, for the set of index, formation of special collections and providing research and education institutions of Ukraine with a valuable original material. Methods. Methodical developments dealing with formation and maintenance of crop collections, methodical literature on the study of buckwheat collection for breeding and agronomic performance. Results. The author represented results of the collection material study for the main breeding and economically valuable traits including yield, productivity, resistance to abiotic and biotic factors of the environment. The results of work are considered aimed on creating special collections of the gene pool – base, trait (for yield and large seeds; for productivity, drought and heat resistance; for suitability for mechanical cultivation, educational and core ones. Conclusions. All formed and registered collections are a valuable base material for solving a number of breeding goals to increase the quantity and improve the quality of plant production.

  10. Network news: prime time for systems biology of the plant circadian clock truncated form of the title: Plant circadian clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, C. Robertson; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whole-transcriptome analyses have established that the plant circadian clock regulates virtually every plant biological process and most prominently hormonal and stress response pathways. Systems biology efforts have successfully modeled the plant central clock machinery and an iterative process of model refinement and experimental validation has contributed significantly to the current view of the central clock machinery. The challenge now is to connect this central clock to the output pathways for understanding how the plant circadian clock contributes to plant growth and fitness in a changing environment. Undoubtedly, systems approaches will be needed to integrate and model the vastly increased volume of experimental data in order to extract meaningful biological information. Thus, we have entered an era of systems modeling, experimental testing, and refinement. This approach, coupled with advances from the genetic and biochemical analyses of clock function, is accelerating our progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the plant circadian clock network. PMID:20889330

  11. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  12. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  13. Plant Fertilization Interacts with Life History: Variation in Stoichiometry and Performance in Nettle-Feeding Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; Kolb, Gundula; Janz, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year). We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities. PMID:25932628

  14. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; Kolb, Gundula; Janz, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year). We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  15. [Effects of host plants on the life table parameters of experimental populations of Aphis gossypii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Pang, Bao-Ping; Chang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the life table parameters of Aphis gossypii reared on five host plant species at (25 +/- 1) degrees C in laboratory. There existed significant differences in the durations of various developmental stages, adult longevity, mean offspring number per day, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, and population doubling time for the A. gossypii populations reared on the host plants. For the aphids on Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate, they needed the longest time (5.84 days) to complete one generation, but for those on the other four plants, no significant differences were observed, with the time needed ranged from 5.24 to 5.45 days. The adult longevity was the longest (20.04 days) on Cucumis sativus, but had no significant differences on the other four host plants, being from 14.76 to 16.03 days. The populations' survival curves on all test host plants were of Deevey I, i. e., the death mainly occurred during late period. The survival rate on C. sativus was higher than those on the other four host plants. Based on the intrinsic rates of increase of A. gossypii, its host suitability was in the order of Cucumis melo var. saccharinus > Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate > Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis > Cucumis sativus > Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa.

  16. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Osborne, Lance S; Epsky, Nancy D

    2008-06-01

    Life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, on three ornamental plants [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha wilkesiana (Muell.-Arg.), and Plumeria rubra L.] and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Mealybugs were able to develop, survive, and reproduce on all four hosts; however, there were differences in the life history parameters. Adult females that developed on acalypha and parthenium emerged approximately 1 d earlier than those that developed on hibiscus and plumeria. Adult males had a longer developmental time on plumeria than on the other hosts. Survival of first- and second-instar nymphs and cumulative adult survival were lowest on plumeria. Longevity was not affected by hosts for males and females and averaged 2.3 +/- 0.1 and 21.2 +/- 0.1 d, respectively. On plumeria, 58.9 +/- 1.7% of the adults were females, which was a higher female percentage than on the other hosts. No egg production occurred in virgin females. Prereproductive and reproductive periods of the females were not affected by hosts and averaged 6.3 +/- 0.1 and 11.2 +/- 0.1 d, respectively. Mean fecundity of 186.3 +/- 1.8 eggs on plumeria was lower than on the other three plant species. Life history parameters of P. marginatus on hibiscus, acalypha, plumeria, and parthenium show its ability to develop, survive, and reproduce on a wide variety of plant species.

  17. Gas fired combined cycle plant in Singapore: energy use, GWP and cost-a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, R. [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: kannan@pmail.ntu.edu.sg; Leong, K.C. [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: mkcleong@ntu.edu.sg; Osman, Ramli [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ho, H.K. [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tso, C.P. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2005-08-15

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify the non-renewable (fossil) energy use and global warming potential (GWP) in electricity generation from a typical gas fired combined cycle power plant in Singapore. The cost of electricity generation was estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 367.5 MW gas fired combined cycle power plant operating in Singapore revealed that hidden processes consume about 8% additional energy in addition to the fuel embedded energy, and the hidden GWP is about 18%. The natural gas consumed during the operational phase accounted for 82% of the life cycle cost of electricity generation. An empirical relation between plant efficiency and life cycle energy use and GWP in addition to a scenario for electricity cost with varying gas prices and plant efficiency have been established.

  18. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  19. Life cycle assessment (LCA of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Intini, Silvana Kühtz, Gianluca Rospi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  20. The development of the temporal macrostructure of life narratives across adolescence: beginnings, linear narrative form, and endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ehlert-Lerche, Silvia; de Silveira, Cybèle

    2009-04-01

    The ontogeny of the ability to describe people culminates in adolescence in the development of the life story. An overarching temporal macrostructure and framing by a prehistory and a future-oriented global evaluation of life helps integrate disparate autobiographical memories into a coherent story. Two life narratives each of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year-olds (N=102) were analyzed in terms of how well-formed their beginnings and endings are and how much they follow a linear temporal order. By age 12, the majority of life narratives began with birth, ended in the present, and followed a chronological order. In late adolescence and early adulthood, more elaborate birth narratives and retrospective evaluations of life and outlooks into the future were added. These formal characteristics were related to biographical practices, biographical knowledge, and fluid intelligence. Text-analytical methods are proposed as a method for the analysis of biographical and autobiographical reasoning and understanding.

  1. Role of mechanics in PLEX [plant life extension]: A technical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garud, Y.S. (S. Levey, Inc., Campbell, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The mechanics of materials and structures plays an important role in the majority of life prediction and structural integrity evaluations. In many industrial systems this role gets integrated with effects of service environment and material aging; corrosion, oxidation, and irradiation are examples of such effects which require an interdisciplinary approach. Degradation mechanisms related to these effects have been identified as potentially significant to plant life extension (PLEX). In-service inspection and component monitoring are some of the cost effective steps emphasized in the life extension works; usefulness of the results of these steps can be enhanced through the methods needed for the component condition assessment. These methods, therefore, demand an ever increasing accuracy and improvements requiring a better appreciation and integration of the mechanics. The above aspects of PLEX are critically examined with a review of key degradation mechanisms elucidating the role of mechanics. Current design basis and recent developments in the life prediction techniques are discussed identifying areas of further work. Stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, pressurized thermal shock, and long term material stability under thermal and irradiation aging are some of the phenomena emphasized in this work. The significance of mechanics in treating the subcritical crack growth due to these phenomena is discussed. Also, from the point of view of final failure step, the role of impact energy and fracture toughness is examined with consideration of the time dependant changes in these properties. A perspective is also provided on the assessment of remaining life and safety margins with particular reference to the needs and challenges of the plant life extension. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  3. Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation mapping using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to mapping formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno

    Vegetation mapping is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation mapping" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of Formations as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed maps of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of mapping vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these maps, and their value in establishing more standardized mapping protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically mapped incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of Formation based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may

  4. Consequential environmental life cycle assessment of a farm-scale biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Mathot, Michaël; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Loriers, Astrid; Delcour, Alice; Planchon, Viviane; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Stilmant, Didier

    2016-06-15

    Producing biogas via anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for meeting European and regional goals on energy production from renewable sources. It offers interesting opportunities for the agricultural sector, allowing waste and by-products to be converted into bioenergy and bio-based materials. A consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA) was conducted to examine the consequences of the installation of a farm-scale biogas plant, taking account of assumptions about processes displaced by biogas plant co-products (power, heat and digestate) and the uses of the biogas plant feedstock prior to plant installation. Inventory data were collected on an existing farm-scale biogas plant. The plant inputs are maize cultivated for energy, solid cattle manure and various by-products from surrounding agro-food industries. Based on hypotheses about displaced electricity production (oil or gas) and the initial uses of the plant feedstock (animal feed, compost or incineration), six scenarios were analyzed and compared. Digested feedstock previously used in animal feed was replaced with other feed ingredients in equivalent feed diets, designed to take account of various nutritional parameters for bovine feeding. The displaced production of mineral fertilizers and field emissions due to the use of digestate as organic fertilizer was balanced against the avoided use of manure and compost. For all of the envisaged scenarios, the installation of the biogas plant led to reduced impacts on water depletion and aquatic ecotoxicity (thanks mainly to the displaced mineral fertilizer production). However, with the additional animal feed ingredients required to replace digested feedstock in the bovine diets, extra agricultural land was needed in all scenarios. Field emissions from the digestate used as organic fertilizer also had a significant impact on acidification and eutrophication. The choice of displaced marginal technologies has a huge influence on the results, as have the

  5. Eu-funded nuclear research on plant life management in the 4. and 5. framework programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Dir. General Research, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper an overview will be given of the European Union EURATOM research in the field of plant life management and ageing of structural components. The results obtained so far in the projects executed under the 5. framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) will be presented and discussed in detail. The objectives of the 5. framework programme, which is end-user driven, are: 1) to develop a common basis for the continued safe operation and prolonging the safe operational life-spans of existing nuclear installations; 2) to develop better methods for their inspection, maintenance and management (both in terms of performance and occupational exposure). The following three sections were proposed under this heading of the work programme: Integrity of equipment and structures, on-line monitoring, inspection and maintenance, and organisation and management of safety. Besides the traditional technological challenges, socio-economic concerns are also taken on board, such as public acceptance and cost of the nuclear option as well as plant simplification and man-technology-organisation interaction. An additional challenge for the EU consists of the enlargements process towards Central and Eastern European Countries in the coming years. Therefore FP5 pays attention also to plant safety assessments of VVER reactors and to the spreading of the new safety culture in these candidate countries in co-operation with similar activities run at the Commission especially under the programmes of Tacis/Phare and of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In the area of plant life management so far 18 projects have been selected for funding by the European Commission. Most of them are costs shared actions, which means that the European Commission on the one hand and the project partners on the other hand provide each 50 % of the necessary funding. The total contract value of the selected projects is about 18 million euros. (authors)

  6. BIOTIC STRESS IMPACT ON ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ADENYLATE CYCLASE IN ORGANELLES OF POTATO PLANT CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomovatskaya L.A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding significant interest towards study of adenylate cyclase plant signal system, there is still no complete picture of functioning and regulation mechanisms of this signal system in plants under biotic stress. With this in view, our study was aimed at identification of various forms of adenylate cyclase (transmembrane and “soluble” in the nucleus and chloroplasts of potato cells and modulation of their activity under the impact of exopolysaсcharides ofpotato ring rot pathogen. The investigations conducted allowed to conclude that two forms of adenylate cyclase function in nuclei and chloroplasts of potato plants: transmembrane and “soluble”. Activity of these forms of the enzyme extracted from plant cells of the two potato varieties contrasted by resistance to potato ring rot pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, changed in the reverse manner with the mediated impact of exopolysaсcharides secreted by virulent and mucinous strain of bacterial pathogen: in the plants of resistant сultivar it increased, in the plants of sensitive сultivar it was oppressed. It was concluded that activity of both forms of adenylate cyclase directly depended on the degree of resistance of a particular potato variety to given pathogen.

  7. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  8. Life histories of hosts and pathogens predict patterns in tropical fungal plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Graciela; Heil, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Plant pathogens affect the fitness of their hosts and maintain biodiversity. However, we lack theories to predict the type and intensity of infections in wild plants. Here we demonstrate using fungal pathogens of tropical plants that an examination of the life histories of hosts and pathogens can reveal general patterns in their interactions. Fungal infections were more commonly reported for light-demanding than for shade-tolerant species and for evergreen rather than for deciduous hosts. Both patterns are consistent with classical defence theory, which predicts lower resistance in fast-growing species and suggests that the deciduous habit can reduce enemy populations. In our literature survey, necrotrophs were found mainly to infect shade-tolerant woody species whereas biotrophs dominated in light-demanding herbaceous hosts. Far-red signalling and its inhibitory effects on jasmonic acid signalling are likely to explain this phenomenon. Multiple changes between the necrotrophic and the symptomless endophytic lifestyle at the ecological and evolutionary scale indicate that endophytes should be considered when trying to understand large-scale patterns in the fungal infections of plants. Combining knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of pathogen resistance with classical defence theory enables the formulation of testable predictions concerning general patterns in the infections of wild plants by fungal pathogens. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Plant Immunity—At the Crossroad of Life and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla J. Kørner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and complex immune responses are induced in plants upon pathogen recognition. One form of plant defense response is a programmed burst in transcription and translation of pathogenesis-related proteins, of which many rely on ER processing. Interestingly, several ER stress marker genes are up-regulated during early stages of immune responses, suggesting that enhanced ER capacity is needed for immunity. Eukaryotic cells respond to ER stress through conserved signaling networks initiated by specific ER stress sensors tethered to the ER membrane. Depending on the nature of ER stress the cell prioritizes either survival or initiates programmed cell death (PCD. At present two plant ER stress sensors, bZIP28 and IRE1, have been described. Both sensor proteins are involved in ER stress-induced signaling, but only IRE1 has been additionally linked to immunity. A second branch of immune responses relies on PCD. In mammals, ER stress sensors are involved in activation of PCD, but it is unclear if plant ER stress sensors play a role in PCD. Nevertheless, some ER resident proteins have been linked to pathogen-induced cell death in plants. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of plant ER stress signaling and its cross-talk with immune signaling.

  10. Mysterious Mycorrhizae? A Field Trip & Classroom Experiment to Demystify the Symbioses Formed between Plants & Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy C.; Chaudhary, V. Bala; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Moore, John C.; Pringle, Anne; Umbanhowar, James A.; Wilson, Gail W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biology curricula cover fungi in units on bacteria, protists, and primitive plants, but fungi are more closely related to animals than to bacteria or plants. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs and cannot create their own food; but, like plants, fungi have cell walls, and are for the most part immobile. Most species of fungi have a filamentous…

  11. Mysterious Mycorrhizae? A Field Trip & Classroom Experiment to Demystify the Symbioses Formed between Plants & Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy C.; Chaudhary, V. Bala; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Moore, John C.; Pringle, Anne; Umbanhowar, James A.; Wilson, Gail W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biology curricula cover fungi in units on bacteria, protists, and primitive plants, but fungi are more closely related to animals than to bacteria or plants. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs and cannot create their own food; but, like plants, fungi have cell walls, and are for the most part immobile. Most species of fungi have a filamentous…

  12. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  13. Growth-form and spatiality driving the functional difference of native and alien aquatic plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Balázs A; Vojtkó, Anna E; Mesterházy, Attila; Molnár V, Attila; Süveges, Kristóf; Végvári, Zsolt; Brusa, Guido; Cerabolini, Bruno E L

    2017-02-01

    Trait-based approaches are widely used in community ecology and invasion biology to unravel underlying mechanisms of vegetation dynamics. Although fundamental trade-offs between specific traits and invasibility are well described among terrestrial plants, little is known about their role and function in aquatic plant species. In this study, we examine the functional differences of aquatic alien and native plants stating that alien and native species differ in selected leaf traits. Our investigation is based on 60 taxa (21 alien and 39 native) collected from 22 freshwater units of Hungarian and Italian lowlands and highlands. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the effects of nativeness on four fundamental traits (leaf area, leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, and leaf nitrogen content), while the influence of growth-form, altitude, and site were employed simultaneously. We found significantly higher values of leaf areas and significantly lower values of specific leaf areas for alien species if growth-form was included in the model as an additional predictor.We showed that the trait-based approach of autochthony can apply to aquatic environments similar to terrestrial ones, and leaf traits have relevance in explaining aquatic plant ecology whether traits are combined with growth-forms as a fixed factor. Our results confirm the importance of traits related to competitive ability in the process of aquatic plant invasions. Alien aquatic plants can be characterized as species producing soft leaves faster. We argue that the functional traits of alien aquatic plants are strongly growth-form dependent. Using the trait-based approach, we found reliable characteristics of aquatic plants related to species invasions, which might be used, for example, in conservation management.

  14. Growth and Form in Biology:Generation of the Plant Morphology by Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Based on a Pressure Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁羽翔

    2004-01-01

    Considering the role of mechanical forces playing in the morphogenetic pattern formation, we propose a secondorder differential equation for the growth and form of plants based on the turgor pressure field at the organ and cellular level. The solutions can well describe various kinds of morphological features of flowers under certain hypotheses. The plant morphology is considered as the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a circular growing boundary, while the employed hypotheses are subjected to further experimental confirmation.

  15. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    complementary biotic indicators of the palaeoenviroments in which they evolved. This strategy extends into the critical zone, to track evolutionary tenures and turnovers of endemics "ecological prisoners" in vadosic and phreatic landforms. Moreover, geoecodynamics of the Critical Zone can logically exploit endemic biota at the microscale in regolith, and also extremophiles to extreme depths; all such populations hold fascinating potential as biotic indicators of otherwise encrypted events in Earth history. Geoecodynamics is an exciting area emerging in geobiology. It opens up with new lines of attack on challenges at the core of geomorphology and palaeoecology. In its abilities to quantify mesoscale phenomena, geoecodynamics injects new life into evolutionary geomorphology. Moreover, the means to quantify mesoscale process and form enables quantification of thresholds and tenures of landform dynamics; we can now scrutinize obscurities, including the scale-dependency of landscape events invoked to have shaped palimpsests (Brunsden D 1996 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF, 40, 273- 288). Analogously, where accumulated packages of evidence survive, we should be able to map out key signals in the tempo and mode of the genomic record through the Critical Zone, and so scrutinize otherwise encrypted events that shaped the inherent emptiness of the Rock Record (Ager D 1993. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record; Miall AD 2015. Strata and Time: Probing the Gaps in Our Understanding. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP404.4). Compared to, and notwithstanding, the episodic turnovers of sediments (and all allied events) that shaped evolving landscapes, the history of Life has been distinctly different; descent with modification links all clades and lineages of the Tree of Life with the present - even at deep nodes - though an unbroken chain of genomic connectivity. The complexity of niche space we see in landscapes reflects the diverse

  16. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  17. Disentangling facilitation along the life cycle: impacts of plant-plant interactions at vegetative and reproductive stages in a Mediterranean forb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. García-Cervigón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant-plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant-plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant-plant interactions.

  18. Disentangling Facilitation Along the Life Cycle: Impacts of Plant-Plant Interactions at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages in a Mediterranean Forb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cervigón, Ana I; Iriondo, José M; Linares, Juan C; Olano, José M

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant-plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels, and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant-plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower, and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant-plant interactions.

  19. An insect-induced novel plant phenotype for sustaining social life in a closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsukake, Mayako; Meng, Xian-Ying; Katayama, Noboru; Nikoh, Naruo; Shibao, Harunobu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Foraging, defense and waste disposal are essential for sustaining social insect colonies. Hence, their nest generally has an open structure, wherein specialized castes called workers and soldiers perform these tasks. However, some social aphids form completely closed galls, wherein hundreds to thousands of insects grow and reproduce for several months in isolation. Why these social aphids are not drowned by accumulated honeydew has been an enigma. Here we report a sophisticated biological solution to the waste problem in the closed system: the gall inner surface is specialized for absorbing water, whereby honeydew is promptly removed via the plant vascular system. The water-absorbing closed galls have evolved at least twice independently among social aphids. The plant-mediated waste removal, which entails insect's manipulation of plant morphogenesis and physiology, comprises a previously unknown mechanism of nest cleaning, which can be regarded as 'extended phenotype' and 'indirect social behavior' of the social aphids.

  20. Life forms and growth strategies of guianan palms as related to their ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    segmentos de ancho irregular, o divididas en muchas pinnas regularmente distribuidas en un plano, o bien agrupadas y orientadas en diversas direcciones a partir del raquis. Pequeñas palmas cespitos, con hojas enteras o poco divididas, predominan en el sotobosque. Especies con rizomas rastreros se encuentran principalmente en medios rápidamente cambiantes, como los ecosistemas periódicamente inundados, debido a la alta capacidad de dichas palmas para extenderse y formar densas poblaciones clonales. Las palmas erectas, solitarias, particularmente bien adaptadas para llenar los estrechos claros de la copa de los árboles, son por lo tanto más frecuentes en los bosques alterados. Son ilustrados la mayoría de los ejemplos. En conclusión, parece que las palmas están muy bien adaptadas a los hábitats marginales. Palm life forms and species found in the main ecosystems of the 3 Guianas (savannahs, herbaceous swampy savannahs, forests are described and listed respectively. Stems are erect, creeping, climbing or subterranean, and palms are solitary or clustered. Leaf blades are entire, irregularly or regularly divided into pinnae which are regularly disposed in one plane or clustered and oriented in several directions from the rachis. All these characters are considered in relation to habitat. Small, clustered palms with entire or divided leave predominate in shady understory. Species with creeping rhizomes are mostly found in quickly changing mediums, such as periodically flooded ecosystems, owing to their capacity to spread and to form dense clonal populations. Erect solitary palms are particularly well adapted to fit gaps in the canopy and are therefore more frequent in disturbed forests. Most examples are illustrated. In conclusion, it seems that palms are fairly well adapted to marginal habitats.

  1. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  2. On the ability of plant life-history strategies to shape bio-geomorphologic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christian; van Belzen, Jim; Zhu, ZhenChang; Bouma, Tjeerd; van de Koppel, Johan; Gourgue, Olivier; Temmerman, Stijn

    2017-04-01

    Previous work studying bio-geomorphologic interactions in intertidal habitats underlined the importance of wetland vegetation shaping their environment (e.g. tidal channel networks). Up to this point the potential of wetland vegetation to shape their environment was linked to their physical plant properties, such as stiffness, stem diameter or stem density. However the effect of life-history strategies, i.e. the mode of plant proliferation such as sexual reproduction from seeds, non-sexual lateral expansion or a combination of the former two was hitherto ignored. We present numerical experiments based on a wetland ecosystem present in the Western Scheldt Estuary (SW, the Netherlands) showing the importance of life-history strategies shaping bio-geomorphologic interactions. We specifically compare two extremes in life-history strategies, (1) one species solely establishing from seeds and relying on their mass recruitment (Salicornia europea); And a second species (Spartina anglica) which relies on a mixed establishment strategy consisting of seed dispersal and asexual lateral expansion through tillering, with a very low seed recruitment success per year. Based on conducted numerical experiments using TELEMAC2D we show that the Spartina-case facilitates relative low channel densities with pronounced channel networks, whereas the Salicornia-case favors high channel densities with less pronounced intertidal channels. The conducted numerical experiments are the first indication showing that plant proliferation strategies exert a major control on emerging patterns in bio-geomorphologic systems. This provides a deeper understanding in the constraining factors and dynamics shaping the emergence and resilience of bio-geomorphologic systems.

  3. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M. [Alstom Power Heat Exchange, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  4. Influence of data collection schemes on the Life Cycle Assessment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-06-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was conducted to illustrate the effect of an emission inventory data collection scheme on the outcomes of an environmental impact assessment. Due to their burden in respect to data collection, LCAs often rely heavily on existing emission and operational data, which are gathered under either compulsory monitoring or reporting requirements under law. In this study, an LCA was conducted using three input data sources: Information compiled under compulsory disclosure requirements (the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry), compliance with national discharge limits, and a state-of-the-art emission data collection scheme conducted at the same WWTP. Parameter uncertainty for each collection scheme was assessed through Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison of the results confirmed that LCA results depend heavily on input data coverage. Due to the threshold on reporting value, the E-PRTR did not capture the impact for particulate matter emission, terrestrial acidification, or terrestrial eutrophication. While the current practice can capture more than 90% of non-carcinogenic human toxicity and marine eutrophication, an LCA based on the data collection scheme underestimates impact potential due to limitations of substance coverage. Besides differences between data collection schemes, the results showed that 3-13,500% of the impacts came from background systems, such as from the provisioning of fuel, electricity, and chemicals, which do not need to be disclosed currently under E-PRTR. The incidental release of pollutants was also assessed by employing a scenario-based approach, the results of which demonstrated that these non-routine emissions could increase overall WWTP greenhouse gas emissions by between 113 and 210%. Overall, current data collection schemes have the potential to provide standardized data collection and form the basis for a sound environmental impact assessment, but

  5. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  6. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush.

  7. Environmental life cycle assessment of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Udayan Singh; Naushita Sharma; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

    2016-01-01

    Coal is the backbone of the Indian power sector.The coal-fired power plants remain the largest emitters of carbon dioxide,sulfur dioxide and substantial amounts of nitrogen oxides,which are associated with climate and health impacts.Various CO2 mitigation technologies (carbon capture and storage—CCS) and SO2/NOx mitigation technologies (flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction) have been employed to reduce the environmental impacts of the coal-fired power plants.Therefore,it is imperative to understand the feasibility of various mitigation technologies employed.This paper attempts to perform environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Indian coal-fired power plant with and without CO2,SO2 and NOx mitigation controls.The study develops new normalization factors for India in various damage categories,using the Indian emissions and energy consumption data,coupled with the emissions and particulate emission to come up with a final environmental impact of coal-fired electricity.The results show a large degree of dependence on the perspective of assessment used.The impact of sensitivities of individual substances and the effect of plant efficiency on the final LCA results is also studied.

  8. Integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedmak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a vertical pipe turbines, Kaplan 200 MW nominal output power, produced in Russia, and built in six hydro-generation units of hydroelectric power plant „Đerdap 1” in Serbia. Fatigue and corrosion-fatigue interaction have been taken into account using experimentally obtained material properties, as well as analytical and numerical calculations of stress state, to estimate appropriate safety factors. Fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, was also calculated, indicated that internal defects of circular or elliptical shape, found out by ultrasonic testing, do not affect reliable operation of runner cover.

  9. Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluc Canals Casals

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads.

  10. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be

  11. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  12. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  13. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Kissling, W Daniel; Condamine, Fabien L; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rowe, Nick P; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height, and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity, mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analyses of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habits may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high-stature dipterocarps in Asian TRFs.

  14. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. P. Couvreur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rain forests (TRF are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae. We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analysis of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habit may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high

  15. Measuring health-related quality of life in children: The development of the TACQOL parent form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, T.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Fekkes, M.; Kamphuis, R.P.; Koopman, H.M.; Theunissen, N.C.M.; Wit, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), conceptualized as patients' own evaluations of their health status, is an important criterion in evaluating health and health care and in the treatment of individual patients. Until now, few systematic attempts have been made to develop instruments to assess t

  16. Bringing Adam Smith's Pin Factory to Life: Field Trips and Discussions as Forms of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Educators are often aware of the need to implement a variety of teaching techniques to reach out to students with different learning styles. I describe an attempt to target multimodal learners by bringing classical economic texts and concepts to life through discussions, field visits and role playing exercises. In my Labor Economics class I…

  17. Literatura chicana: Vida en busca de forma (Chicano Literature: Life in Search of Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Tomas

    The Chicano culture is searching for appropriate expression in art forms and literature. The Chicano novel and essay, often written in English, seem directed toward the North American public. The short story is the most varied in viewpoint and most versatile in form. Poetry captures the Chicano sensitivity. It is almost impossible to note the…

  18. Trans-fat free margarine from organogel formed by a plant wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research presents a practical method to replace a hardstock containing trans-fat and saturated fat with a small amount of a plant wax in margarine and spreads. Plant waxes were investigated for their ability to make an organogel of many different vegetable oils. Sunflower wax and rice bran wax ...

  19. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

  20. ARP2/3-dependent growth in the plant kingdom: SCARs for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eYanagisawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the human experience SCARs are permanent reminders of past events, not always based on bad decisions, but always those in which an interplay of opposing forces leaves behind a clear record in the form of some permanent watery mark. During plant morphogenesis, SCARs are important proteins that reflect an unusual evolutionary outcome, in which the plant kingdom relies heavily on this single class of actin-related protein (ARP 2/3 complex activator to dictate the time and place of actin filament nucleation. This unusually simple arrangement may serve as a permanent reminder that cell shape control in plants is fundamentally different from that of crawling cells in mammals that use the power of actin polymerization to define and maintain cell shape. In plant cells, actin filaments indirectly affect cell shape by determining the transport properties of organelles and cargo molecules that modulate the mechanical properties of the wall. It is becoming increasingly clear that polarized bundles of actin filaments operate at whole cell spatial scales to organize the cytoplasm and dictate the patterns of long-distance intracellular transport and secretion. The number of actin-binding proteins and actin filament nucleators that are known to participate in the process of actin network formation are rapidly increasing. In plants, formins and ARP2/3 are two important actin filament nucleators. This review will focus on ARP2/3, and the apparent reliance of most plant species on the SCAR/WAVE regulatory complex as the sole pathway for ARP2/3 activation.

  1. Micropropagation and production of camptothecin form in vitro plants of Ophiorrhiza mungos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. G. Namdeo; Priya T.; B. B. Bhosale

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the biotechnological potential of Ophiorrhiza mungos for micropropagation and camptothecin (CPT) production from in vitro grown plants.Methods: Surface sterilized explants of O. mungos were transferred aseptically in MS media containing various combinations of phytohormones for callus initiation and multiple shoot proliferation. The content of CPT was quantified in the methanolic extract of O. mungos plants and in in vitro grown plants by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Maximum fresh weight and dry weight biomass of O. mungos callus was obtained from MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 ppm)+ BAP (2 ppm) + GA (1 ppm). The maximum shoot proliferation (25) and elongation (6.5 cm) was found in MS medium supplemented with Picloram + Thidiazuron + Gibberellic Acid in 1:2:1 ratio after four weeks of incubation. The maximum content of CPT (0.0768 % w/w) was found in wholein vitro plants whereas the minimum CPT was observed in adventitious buds (0.0026 % w/w) as compared to the naturally grown O. mungos plants (0.0030% w/w).Conclusions: Present findings indicate that O. mungos plants respond favourably for in vitro propagation and also produce higher amount of CPT as compared to naturally grown plants.

  2. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  3. Impact of drought on C forms and fluxes in the soil - plant continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Global change is likely to increase the drought periods, which may have significant consequences for the turnover of SOM, in particular through their effect on plants. The aim of the study was to assess different compartments of the soil - plant continuum for their response to drought stress by combining field and laboratory experiments. We focused on three common grassland species (Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) found to constitute grasslands of the temperate climate. We investigated drought impact on (1) plant biochemistry and potential mineralization of this material in soil, (2) decomposition of aboveground plant leaf litter of different quality, (3) plant-mediated soil C fluxes including (4) soil microbial biomass and their enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. Plant elemental and biochemical composition showed contrasting changes depending on the species in response to drought stress. The changes in elemental and biochemical composition of leaf litter, ultimately influenced its mineralization in soil. Drought stress highly modified the decomposition dynamics of litter from the three grassland species as a function of litter quality. Moreover, drought stress resulted in significant decrease in both shoot and root biomass in monocultures, while root biomass did not change when they were grown in mixture. Under drought stress, we observed higher belowground allocation of photosynthates and the drought had reduced root-derived respiration. This resulted in significant changes of soil enzyme activities. Our results suggested that plant species and community composition strongly influenced the drought effects in the rhizosphere. Thus, plant community composition and in particular the introduction of legumes might be used as a tool to attenuate drought stress not only because of different water use efficiency by plants, but also by their indirect effects on soil microbial activities affecting C and N cycles.

  4. Valeo-pedagogical culture of parents and its role in forming healthy way of life of preschool age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshyn O. R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered organizationally-methodical aspects of work with family on forming health for young people. Maintenance is reflected, forms of organization of work with families in the conditions of valeology of preschool education. In research were questionnaire 45 parents, 25 educators and 25 children in the free mode during two weeks. The results of questionnaires proved that only 20% parents spare certain attention in families to forming of healthy way of life of children, 30% consider that an example of adults in this question is fundamental principle, but almost 68% parents have an insufficient level of pedagogical valeological culture. The analysis of results of questionnaire of children testifies that respondents have necessary pre-conditions for forming knowledge, abilities and skills of healthy way of life, accessible understanding of value of own health and health of near them. Methodical recommendations are brought for activations of co-operation of preschool educational establishment and family on forming of health of preschool children.

  5. Effects of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Poupin

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR induce positive effects in plants, such as increased growth or reduced stress susceptibility. The mechanisms behind PGPR/plant interaction are poorly understood, as most studies have described short-term responses on plants and only a few studies have analyzed plant molecular responses under PGPR colonization. Here, we studied the effects of the PGPR bacterial model Burkholderiaphytofirmans PsJN on the whole life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We reported that at different plant developmental points, strain PsJN can be found in the rhizosphere and also colonizing their internal tissues. In early ontogeny, strain PsJN increased several growth parameters and accelerated growth rate of the plants. Also, an Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis revealed that 408 genes showed differential expression in PsJN-inoculated plants; some of these genes are involved in stress response and hormone pathways. Specifically, genes implicated in auxin and gibberellin pathways were induced. Quantitative transcriptional analyses of selected genes in different developmental stages revealed that the beginning of these changes could be evidenced early in development, especially among the down-regulated genes. The inoculation with heat-killed bacteria provoked a more severe transcriptional response in plants, but was not able to induce plant growth-promotion. Later in ontogeny, the growth rates of inoculated plants decreased with respect to the non-inoculated group and, interestingly, the inoculation accelerated the flowering time and the appearance of senescence signs in plants; these modifications correlate with the early up-regulation of flowering control genes. Then, we show that a single inoculation with a PGPR could affect the whole life cycle of a plant, accelerating its growth rate and shortening its vegetative period, both effects relevant for most crops. Thus, these findings provide novel and interesting aspects

  6. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  7. Gene flow between sympatric life history forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss located above and below migratory barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M Van Doornik

    Full Text Available Oncorhynchus mykiss have a diverse array of life history types, and understanding the relationship among types is important for management of the species. Patterns of gene flow between sympatric freshwater resident O. mykiss, commonly known as rainbow trout, and anadromous O. mykiss, commonly known as steelhead, populations are complex and poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to determine the occurrence and pathways of gene flow and the degree of genetic similarity between sympatric resident and anadromous O. mykiss in three river systems, and investigate whether resident O. mykiss are producing anadromous offspring in these rivers, two of which have complete barriers to upstream migration. We found that the population structure of the O. mykiss in these rivers appears to be influenced more by the presence of a barrier to upstream migration than by life history type. The sex ratio of resident O. mykiss located above a barrier, and smolts captured in screw traps was significantly skewed in favor of females, whereas the reverse was true below the barriers, suggesting that male resident O. mykiss readily migrate downstream over the barrier, and that precocious male maturation may be occurring in the anadromous populations. Through paternity analyses, we also provide direct confirmation that resident O. mykiss can produce offspring that become anadromous. Most (89% of the resident O. mykiss that produced anadromous offspring were males. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that shows that gene flow does readily occur between sympatric resident and anadromous O. mykiss life history types, and indicates that resident O. mykiss populations may be a potential repository of genes for the anadromous life history type.

  8. VALIDITY OF MARATHI TRANSLATED KIDNEY DISEASE QUALITY OF LIFE SHORT FORM (KDQOL - SF TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL instrument w as designed to measure Quality of Life of kidney disease patients. KDQOL has been tested, translated and validated in many countries. KDQOL has not been translated into Marathi language. The primary purpose of this study was to validate Marathi version of KDQOL - SF TM and to evaluate its psychometric properties. This cross sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Pune from April 2012 to March 2013. Translated Marathi KDQOL - SF TM was evaluated in 93 dialysis patients. Patients’ average age was 57 ±12 y ears and 71% were males. Internal consistency reliability was found to be medium to high ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 except for social interaction. To investigate construct validity, overall health rating scale was correlated with kidney disease targeted scale and with quality of life (SF - 36 scales. Significant (p <.05 correlations were observed except for cognitive function and social support. Patients with known hypertension, diabetes, low haemoglobin and dialyzing less than thrice a week showed lower score on physical function as compared to higher scores on physical function of patients with no known hypertension and diabetes, HBlife of hemodialysis patients and can be us ed with patients who speak Marathi language

  9. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  10. Plant phloem sterol content: forms, putative functions, and implications for phloem-feeding insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eBehmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available All eukaryotes contain sterols, which serve as structural components in cell membranes, and as precursors for important hormones. Plant vegetative tissues are known to contain mixtures of sterols, but very little is known about the sterol composition of phloem. Plants are food for many animals, but plant-feeding arthropods (including phloem-feeding insets are unique among animals in that they have lost the ability to synthesize sterols, and must therefore acquire these essential nutrients from their food, or via endosymbionts. Our paper starts by providing a very brief overview of variation in plant sterol content, and how different sterols can affect insect herbivores, including those specializing on phloem. We then describe an experiment, where we bulk collected phloem sap exudate from bean and tobacco, and analyzed its sterol content. This approach revealed two significant observations concerning phloem sterols. First, the phloem exudate from each plant was found to contain sterols in three different fractions – free sterols, sterols conjugated to lipids (acylated, and sterols conjugated to carbohydrates (glycosylated. Second, for both plants, cholesterol was identified as the dominant sterol in each phloem exudate fraction; the remaining sterol in the fraction was a mixture of common phytosterols. We discuss our phloem exudate sterol profiles in a plant physiology/biochemistry context, and how it relates to the nutritional physiology/ecology of phloem-feeding insects. We close by proposing important next steps that will advance our knowledge concerning plant phloem sterol biology, and how phloem-sterol content might affect phloem-feeding insects.

  11. Life cycle assessment of four potable water treatment plants in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great concern about the processes that directly or indirectly contribute to the potential for global warming, such as stratospheric ozone depletion or acidification. In this context, and provided that treated water is a basic public utility in urban centers around the world as well as in some rural areas, its impact on the environment is of great interest. Therefore, this study applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental loads of four potable water treatment plants (PWTPs located in northeastern Colombia following the international guidelines delineated in ISO 14040. The different stages of the drinking water process were thoroughly assessed, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network. The functional unit was defined as 1 m3 of drinking water produced at the plant. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results showed that in plants PLA-CA and PLA-PO, the flocculation process has the highest environmental load, which is mostly attributable to the coagulant agent, with a range between 47-73% of the total impact. In plants PLA-TON and PLA-BOS, electricity consumption was identified as the greatest impact source, with percentages ranging from 67 to 85%. Treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior varied from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operational cycle.

  12. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  13. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs) with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE colonization without

  14. Photosynthetic Limitations in Response to Water Stress and Recovery in Mediterranean Plants with Different Growth Forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeroni Galmés; Hipólito Medrano; Jaume Flexas

    2007-01-01

    ... on species with different growth forms are compared. Ten Mediterranean species, representing different growth forms, were subjected to different levels of water stress, the most severe followed by rewatering...

  15. Ankylosing spondylitis: The physical exercise as a form of rehabilitation and promoter of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the main goal of this study was to verify if the practice of physical exercise is related to the quality of life in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis. Material and methods: it was made a quantitative study, following a correlative and descriptive approach. As a means of data collection it was used a questionnaire that it was organized in two parts, the first one to get information about the social- demographic level, whether if it makes or not rehabilitation and about the practise of exercise and the second one related to the quality of life questionnaire, SF36. For the data treatment, it was used the statistical program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 12.0. The statistical techniques used were the descriptive and deductive ones. Results: it involved 19 patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, 10 females and 9 males, whose average age was 46,58 years old. The first symptoms occurred, in average, at the age of 27,53 ; the lapse of time between the disease appearance and the diagnosis was of 6,88 years and the patients presented, in average, 10,83 years of evolution of disease. Concerning physical exercise, the study proved that 10 patients practised it regularly, while the other 9 didn’t practise any type of physical exercise. Conclusions: It was possible to conclude that the age, age of diagnosis and the lapse of time between the disease appearance and the diagnosis influence positive and negative in quality of life and that there are different perceptions regarding the relation between health and physical exercise.

  16. Drag coefficient and plant form response to wind speed in three plant species: Burning Bush (Euonymus alatus), Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens glauca.), and Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nickling, W. G.; King, J.

    2002-12-01

    Whole-plant drag coefficients (Cd) for three plant species: Burning Bush (Euonymus alatus), Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens glauca.), and Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in five different porosity configurations were developed from force versus wind speed data collected with a force balance in a recirculating wind tunnel. The average Cd for the Burning Bush, Colorado Spruce, and Fountain Grass in their untrimmed forms were 0.42 (±0.03), 0.39 (±0.04), and 0.34 (±0.06), respectively. Drag curves (Cd versus flow Reynolds number (Re) function) for the Burning Bush and Colorado Spruce were found to exhibit, for the lower porosity configurations, a rise to a maximum around flow Reynolds numbers (Re = ρuhh/ν) of 2 × 105. Fountain Grass Cd was shown to be dependent upon Re to values >5 × 105. The Burning Bush and Colorado Spruce plants reduced their drag, upon reaching their maxima, by decreasing their frontal area and increasing their porosity. Maximum Cd for these plants occurred at optical porosities of ˜0.20. The Fountain Grass reduced drag at high Re by decreasing frontal area and porosity. The mechanism of drag reduction in Fountain Grass was continual reconfiguration to a more aerodynamic form as evidenced by continual reduction of Cd with Re.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  18. Adenosine monophosphate forms ordered arrays in multilamellar lipid matrices: insights into assembly of nucleic acid for primitive life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toppozini

    Full Text Available A fundamental question of biology is how nucleic acids first assembled and then were incorporated into the earliest forms of cellular life 4 billion years ago. The polymerization of nucleotides is a condensation reaction in which phosphodiester bonds are formed. This reaction cannot occur in aqueous solutions, but guided polymerization in an anhydrous lipid environment could promote a non-enzymatic condensation reaction in which oligomers of single stranded nucleic acids are synthesized. We used X-ray scattering to investigate 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP molecules captured in a multilamellar phospholipid matrix composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. Bragg peaks corresponding to the lateral organization of the confined AMP molecules were observed. Instead of forming a random array, the AMP molecules are highly entangled, with the phosphate and ribose groups in close proximity. This structure may facilitate polymerization of the nucleotides into RNA-like polymers.

  19. NDT methods for life-time assessment of high temperature plant; Ofoerstoerande provning foer livslaengdsbedoemning av hoegtemperaturanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, J. [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive literature study of NDT and analysis methods for residual life-time assessment of high temperature plant has been made. The study has been concentrated on components in boilers, steam piping and turbines in fossil fired power plant. Most types of components are exposed to creep which is also the life-time limiting mechanism in many cases. In addition to creep, other stresses and damages which appear in plant are described for each type of component. Thermal fatigue, corrosion and embrittlement as well as combined damage mechanisms are also life-time limiting in many cases. The literature shows a large number of NDT methods developed and under development in purpose to identify and measure the size and extent of damage in the components. The methods and their limitations are described in relation to the experience and understanding of character, distribution and development of damage in different situations. 83 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  20. THE USEFULNESS FOR ENSILING OF CHOSEN PLANT FORMS OF SPECIES OF SILPHIUM GENUS

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition and usefulness for ensiling of the chosen forms of species: S. perfoliatum was determined in different stages of vegetation. Forage fermantation coefficient of species form: I, II ,III during vegetation period from vegetative phase to seed setting phase was lower than 35. The fermentation coefficient IV form of species during the initial phase of seed setting amounted to 36,54, which ensured the correct fermentation. The high phenol acids content in I, II, III species for...

  1. Beneath the veil: Plant growth form influences the strength of species richness-productivity relationships in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, B.; Grace, J.B.; Chase, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Species richness has been observed to increase with productivity at large spatial scales, though the strength of this relationship varies among functional groups. In forests, canopy trees shade understorey plants, and for this reason we hypothesize that species richness of canopy trees will depend on macroclimate, while species richness of shorter growth forms will additionally be affected by shading from the canopy. In this study we test for differences in species richness-productivity relationships (SRPRs) among growth forms (canopy trees, shrubs, herbaceous species) in small forest plots. Location: We analysed 231 plots ranging from 34.0?? to 48.3?? N latitude and from 75.0?? to 124.2?? W longitude in the United States. Methods: We analysed data collected by the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis program for plant species richness partitioned into different growth forms, in small plots. We used actual evapotranspiration as a macroclimatic estimate of regional productivity and calculated the area of light-blocking tissue in the immediate area surrounding plots for an estimate of the intensity of local shading. We estimated and compared SRPRs for different partitions of the species richness dataset using generalized linear models and we incorporated the possible indirect effects of shading using a structural equation model. Results: Canopy tree species richness increased strongly with regional productivity, while local shading primarily explained the variation in herbaceous plant richness. Shrub species richness was related to both regional productivity and local shading. Main conclusions: The relationship between total forest plant species richness and productivity at large scales belies strong effects of local interactions. Counter to the pattern for overall richness, we found that understorey herbaceous plant species richness does not respond to regional productivity gradients, and instead is strongly influenced by canopy density, while shrub species

  2. THE USEFULNESS FOR ENSILING OF CHOSEN PLANT FORMS OF SPECIES OF SILPHIUM GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Piłat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and usefulness for ensiling of the chosen forms of species: S. perfoliatum was determined in different stages of vegetation. Forage fermantation coefficient of species form: I, II ,III during vegetation period from vegetative phase to seed setting phase was lower than 35. The fermentation coefficient IV form of species during the initial phase of seed setting amounted to 36,54, which ensured the correct fermentation. The high phenol acids content in I, II, III species form limits the possibility of using them for forage purposes. These species may constitute a potentially good raw material for the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  4. A paradigm for endosymbiotic life: cell differentiation of Rhizobium bacteria provoked by host plant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosi, Eva; Mergaert, Peter; Kereszt, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Symbiosis between Rhizobium bacteria and legumes leads to the formation of the root nodule. The endosymbiotic bacteria reside in polyploid host cells as membrane-surrounded vesicles where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen to support plant growth by supplying ammonia in exchange for carbon sources and energy. The morphology and physiology of endosymbionts, despite their common function, are highly divergent in different hosts. In galegoid plants, the endosymbionts are terminally differentiated, uncultivable polyploid cells, with remarkably elongated and even branched Y-shaped cells. Bacteroid differentiation is controlled by host peptides, many of which have antibacterial activity and require the bacterial function of BacA. Although the precise and combined action of several hundred host peptides and BacA has yet to be discovered, similarities, especially to certain insect-bacterium symbioses involving likewise host peptides for manipulation of endosymbionts, suggest convergent evolution. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis provides a rich source of information for understanding host-controlled endosymbiotic life in eukaryotic cells.

  5. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert C.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Wittig, Roman M.; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking. PMID:26481858

  6. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert C.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Wittig, Roman M.; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G.

    2015-10-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking.

  7. Life cycle assessment of introducing an anaerobic digester in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, David; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is being established as a standard technology to recover some of the energy contained in the sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as biogas, allowing an economy in electricity and heating and a decrease in climate gas emission. The purpose of this study was to quantify the contributions to the total environmental impact of the plant using life cycle assessment methodology. In this work, data from real operation during 2012 of a municipal WWTP were utilized as the basis to determine the impact of including AD in the process. The climate change human health was the most important impact category when AD was included in the treatment (Scenario 1), especially due to fossil carbon dioxide emissions. Without AD (Scenario 2), increased emissions of greenhouse gases, mostly derived from the use of electricity, provoked a rise in the climate change categories. Biogas utilization was able to provide 47% of the energy required in the WWTP in Scenario 1. Results obtained make Scenario 1 the better environmental choice by far, mainly due to the use of the digested sludge as fertilizer.

  8. Life cycle assessment of a printed circuit board manufacturing plant in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Elif; Elginoz, Nilay; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2017-09-29

    The objective of this study is to investigate the environmental impacts of a printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing plant through streamlined life cycle assessment approach. As a result, the most effective recommendations on minimizing the environmental impacts for the mentioned sector are revealed and first steps towards establishing a country specific database are taken. The whole PCB production consists of two consecutive stages: namely board fabrication followed by the manufacturing of PCB. Manufacturing of PCB contributes the highest shares to freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity potential (FAETP) and ozone layer depletion potential (ODP). Eighty-nine percent of FAETP is found to be generated from the manufacturing of PCB. Almost all of this contribution can be attributed to the disposal of copper containing wastewater treatment sludge from etching operations to incineration. On the other hand, PCB manufacturing has 73% share in total ODP. Within the manufacturing of PCB, as etching operations are found to be of importance for all the impact categories except eutrophication potential (EP), it is recommended to focus further studies on in-plant control of etching.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Corona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating Solar Power (CSP technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa, an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that the geographic location has a significant influence on the environmental profile of the HYSOL CSP plant. The results obtained for the HYSOL configuration located in different countries presented significant differences (between 35% and 43%, depending on the category, especially in climate change and water stress categories. The differences are mainly attributable to the local availability of solar and water resources and composition of the national electricity mix. In addition, HYSOL technology performs significantly better when hybridizing with biomethane instead of natural gas. This evidence is particularly relevant in the climate change category, where biomethane hybridization emits 27.9–45.9 kg CO2 eq per MWh (depending on the biomethane modelling scenario and natural gas scenario emits 264 kg CO2 eq/MWh.

  10. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  11. Health-related quality of life and alternative forms of exercise in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Earhart, Gammon M

    2009-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) reduces health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but exercise may improve HRQoL. This pilot study compared the effects of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi and No Intervention on HRQoL in individuals with PD. Seventy-five persons with PD (Hoehn and Yahr I-III) were assigned to 20 lessons of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi, or an untreated No Intervention group. Participants completed the PDQ-39 before and after participation in 20 classes or within 13 weeks in the case of the No Intervention group. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between interventions. Tango significantly improved on mobility (p=0.03), social support (p=0.05) and the PDQ-39 SI (p<0.01) at post-testing. No significant changes in HRQoL were noted in the Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi or No Intervention. Tango may be helpful for improving HRQoL in PD because it addresses balance and gait deficits in the context of a social interaction that requires working closely with a partner.

  12. NEMO: A mission to search for and return to Earth possible life forms on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jesse; Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John

    2005-07-01

    The Nuclear Europa Mobile Ocean (NEMO) mission would land on the surface of Europa, and deploy a small, lightweight melt probe powered by a compact nuclear reactor to melt down through the multi-kilometer ice sheet. After reaching the sub-surface ocean, a small nuclear Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) would deploy to explore the sub-ice ocean. After exploration and sample collection, the AUV would return to the probe and melt back to the lander. The lander would have replenished its H2 propellant by electrolysis of H2O ice, and then hop to a new site on Europa to repeat the probe/AUV process. After completing the mission, the NEMO spacecraft would return to Earth with its collected samples. The NEMO melt probe and AUV utilize enriched U-235 fuel and conventional water reactor technology. The lander utilizes a compact nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine based on the 710tungsten/UO2 cermet fuel and high-temperature H2 propellant. The compact nuclear reactors in both the NEMO melt probe and AUV drive a steam power cycle, generating over 10 kW(e) for use in each. Each nuclear reactor's operating lifetime is several years. With its high-mobility and long-duration mission, NEMO provides an ideal platform for life detection experiments.

  13. Precambrian animal life: probable developmental and adult cnidarian forms from Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Yuan; Oliveri, Paola; Gao, Feng; Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Li, Chia-Wei; Bottjer, David J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of cnidarian and bilaterian lineages from their remote metazoan ancestor occurred at an unknown depth in time before the Cambrian, since crown group representatives of each are found in Lower Cambrian fossil assemblages. We report here a variety of putative embryonic, larval, and adult microfossils deriving from Precambrian phosphorite deposits of Southwest China, which may predate the Cambrian radiation by 25-45 million years. These are most probably of cnidarian affinity. Large numbers of fossilized early planula-like larvae were observed under the microscope in sections. Though several forms are represented, the majority display remarkable conformity, which is inconsistent with the alternative that they are artifactual mineral inclusions. Some of these fossils are preserved in such high resolution that individual cells can be discerned. We confirm in detail an earlier report of the presence in the same deposits of tabulates, an extinct crown group anthozoan form. Other sections reveal structures that most closely resemble sections of basal modern corals. A large number of fossils similar to modern hydrozoan gastrulae were also observed. These again displayed great morphological consistency. Though only a single example is available, a microscopic animal remarkably similar to a modern adult hydrozoan is also presented. Taken together, the new observations reported in this paper indicate the existence of a diverse and already differentiated cnidarian fauna, long before the Cambrian evolutionary event. It follows that at least stem group bilaterians must also have been present at this time.

  14. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...

  15. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  16. Monotropa uniflora plants of eastern Massachusetts form mycorrhizae with a diversity of russulacean fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Pfister, D H

    2006-01-01

    Plant species in the subfamily Monotropoideae are mycoheterotrophs; they obtain fixed carbon from photosynthetic plants via a shared mycorrhizal network. Previous findings show mycoheterotrophic plants exhibit a high level of specificity to their mycorrhizal fungi. In this study we explore the association of mycorrhizal fungi and Monotropa uniflora (Monotropoideae: Ericaceae) in eastern North America. We collected M. uniflora roots and nearby basidiomycete sporocarps from four sites within a 100 km2 area in eastern Massachusetts. We analyzed DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) from the fungal nuclear ribosomal gene to assess the genetic diversity of fungi associating with M. uniflora roots. In this analysis we included 20 ITS sequences from Russula sporocarps collected nearby, 44 sequences of Russula or Lactarius species from GenBank and 12 GenBank sequences of fungi isolated from M. uniflora roots in previous studies. We found that all 56 sampled M. uniflora mycorrhizal fungi were members of the Russulaceae, confirming previous research. The analysis showed that most of the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi spreads across the genus Russula. ITS sequences of the mycorrhizal fungi consisted of 20 different phylotypes: 18 of the genus Russula and two of Lactarius, based on GenBank searches. Of the sampled plants, 57% associated with only three of the 20 mycorrhizal fungi detected in roots, and of the 25 sporocarp phylotypes collected three, were associated with M. uniflora. Furthermore the results indicate that the number of different fungal phylotypes associating with M. uniflora of eastern North America is higher than that of western North America but patterns of fungal species abundance might be similar between mycorrhizae from the two locations.

  17. Effects of artificial lighting on the detection of plant stress with spectral reflectance remote sensing in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2006-09-01

    Plant-based life support systems that utilize bioregenerative technologies have been proposed for long-term human missions to both the Moon and Mars. Bioregenerative life support systems will utilize higher plants to regenerate oxygen, water, and edible biomass for crews, and are likely to significantly lower the ‘equivalent system mass’ of crewed vehicles. As part of an ongoing effort to begin the development of an automatic remote sensing system to monitor plant health in bioregenerative life support modules, we tested the efficacy of seven artificial illumination sources on the remote detection of plant stresses. A cohort of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown 42 days at 25 °C, 70% relative humidity, and 300 μmol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; from 400 to 700 nm). Plants were grown under nutritional stresses induced by irrigating subsets of the plants with 100, 50, 25, or 10% of a standard nutrient solution. Reflectance spectra of the healthy and stressed plants were collected under seven artificial lamps including two tungsten halogen lamps, plus high pressure sodium, metal halide, fluorescent, microwave, and red/blue light emitting diode (LED) sources. Results indicated that several common algorithms used to estimate biomass and leaf chlorophyll content were effective in predicting plant stress under all seven illumination sources. However, the two types of tungsten halogen lamps and the microwave illumination source yielded linear models with the highest residuals and thus the highest predictive capabilities of all lamps tested. The illumination sources with the least predictive capabilities were the red/blue LEDs and fluorescent lamps. Although the red/blue LEDs yielded the lowest residuals for linear models derived from the remote sensing data, the LED arrays used in these experiments were optimized for plant productivity and not the collection of remote sensing data. Thus, we propose that if adjusted to optimize the

  18. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  19. Phenology and cover of plant growth forms predict herbivore habitat selection in a high latitude ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marianne; Fauchald, Per; Langeland, Knut; Ims, Rolf A; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of forage quality is among the most central factors affecting herbivore habitat selection. Yet, for high latitude areas, forage quantity has been found to be more important than quality. Studies on large ungulate foraging patterns are faced with methodological challenges in both assessing animal movements at the scale of forage distribution, and in assessing forage quality with relevant metrics. Here we use first-passage time analyses to assess how reindeer movements relate to forage quality and quantity measured as the phenology and cover of growth forms along reindeer tracks. The study was conducted in a high latitude ecosystem dominated by low-palatable growth forms. We found that the scale of reindeer movement was season dependent, with more extensive area use as the summer season advanced. Small-scale movement in the early season was related to selection for younger stages of phenology and for higher abundances of generally phenologically advanced palatable growth forms (grasses and deciduous shrubs). Also there was a clear selection for later phenological stages of the most dominant, yet generally phenologically slow and low-palatable growth form (evergreen shrubs). As the summer season advanced only quantity was important, with selection for higher quantities of one palatable growth form and avoidance of a low palatable growth form. We conclude that both forage quality and quantity are significant predictors to habitat selection by a large herbivore at high latitude. The early season selectivity reflected that among dominating low palatability growth forms there were palatable phenological stages and palatable growth forms available, causing herbivores to be selective in their habitat use. The diminishing selectivity and the increasing scale of movement as the season developed suggest a response by reindeer to homogenized forage availability of low quality.

  20. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”, disposal of the spent fuel (SF or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extending the life time of its NPP or if the construction of a new NPP is being evaluated by an investor, an integral part of the economic evaluation must be a comprehensive assessment of future incremental costs related to the above-mentioned long-term liabilities. An economic evaluation performed by standard methods (usually NPV, alternatively real options leads to a decision either to proceed with the project or to shelve it. If the investor decides to go ahead with the project there can be an immediate impact on nuclear liabilities. The impact is not the same for all operator liabilities. Depending on the valid legislation and the nature of the liability, in some cases the extent of the liability must be immediately recalculated when a decision is made to proceed with the project, and the annual accrual of accumulated reserves / funds must be adjusted. In other cases, the change in liability is linked to the generation of additional radioactive waste or spent fuel. In the Czech Republic, responsibility for each of the nuclear liabilities is defined, as is the form in which the financial means are to be accumulated. This paper deals with the impact of NPP life time extension (alternatively NPP power up-rate or construction of a new NPP on individual nuclear liabilities in the conditions of the Czech Republic. 

  1. The use of new aceclofenac dosage forms in patients with osteoarthrosis in real-life clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Ivanovna Alekseeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new convenient dosage form of aceclofenac (sashet bags has recently been launched on the Russian market. The powder in a single sashet bag weighs 3 g, which corresponds to 100 mg of the active ingredient per tablet. A prospective study (including evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the sashet form of aceclofenac in real-life clinical practice was carried out in 40 outpatients with osteoarthrosis (OA of the knee and hip joints during 2 weeks. A clear pain relief by 25% vs the beginning of therapy was observed; joint stiffness decreased by 34%; joint function improved by 17%; and the total WOMAC score decreased by 18% by the end of the therapy (262.7±127.7 vs 198.5±111.6; 88.5±42.21vs 57.7±32.6; 789.9±307.2 vs 650.6±242.6 and 1087.7±369.3 vs 886.4±326.0, p<0.05, respectively, in all cases. The results of our surveillance study in real-life clinical practice have shown that sashet aceclofenac rapidly relieves pain and reduces joint stiffness, thus improving the functional condition of joints. Adverse effects related to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in only one (2.5% patient when using sashet aceclofenac. The drug in this dosage form can be recommended as an effective and safe agent, especially for patients who typically receive non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in liquid forms.

  2. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  3. All about Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Flowers are not only pretty, they are also one of the key elements in the process of plant pollination and reproduction that goes from flowers to fruits to seeds! In All About Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds, young scientists learn about the different parts of a flower through the use of microscopic photography and detailed diagrams.…

  4. All about Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Flowers are not only pretty, they are also one of the key elements in the process of plant pollination and reproduction that goes from flowers to fruits to seeds! In All About Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds, young scientists learn about the different parts of a flower through the use of microscopic photography and detailed diagrams.…

  5. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2].

  6. Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life: A Study Concerning the Use of Colours and Its Relationship with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, José Domingo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the drawings that elementary grade school children make on the subject of plant life. More specifically, the pictorial elements drawn by children are analysed together with their colour choices and the size of coloured surfaces. Furthermore, the results are put into perspective with the age of the children in the sample. The…

  7. Thomas Kuhn is alive and well: the evolutionary relationships of simple life form--a paradigm under siege ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Sherrie Lynne

    2002-01-01

    A Kuhnian framework is used to analyze the current controversy over whether two or three fundamental types of life forms exist. Until the 1980s, all life was classified into two primary forms: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Using molecular sequencing data, Carl Woese suggested the archaebacteria constituted a third domain. In the mid-1990s, Radhey S. Gupta challenged the three-domain hypothesis. While this dispute may seem to be a purely technical debate over the analysis of protein and nucleic acid sequence data, the controversy encompasses broader issues such as the aims of classification and the role of microorganisms in the biosphere. At the heart of this dispute is what kinds of data are relevant to constructing an overall taxonomy. The prestige of molecular biology played a large role in why the three-domain hypothesis was accepted so readily, but supporters of the two-domain hypothesis argue that the fossil record, morphology, and cell physiology should all play a role in taxonomy. This case study provides a good example of a paradigm shift in the making, demonstrating that issues beyond the raw data will be significant factors in deciding whether the three-domain hypothesis will prevail or a new classificatory scheme will emerge.

  8. Remaining Life Analysis of Boiler Tubes on Behalf of Hoop Stresses Produced During Operation of Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Zeeshan Gauri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Boiler tube material plays an important role in efficient power generation from a fossil fuel power plant. In order to meet out the gap between fluids to increase heat available per unit mass flow of steam. Waste heat utilization phenomenon is a big challenge on fossil fuel power plants as after use of high grade coal in thermal power plants the efficiency of power plants is not at the level of required value. Clean and efficient power generation with economical aspects is the basic need of growing power generation plants to justify the quality of power and clean power generation. Life analysis technique to calculate remaining life of boiler tubes at critical zones of high temperature requires much attention and is an important hypothesis in research field. Generation of repetitive and fluctuating stress during flow of high temperature and pressure fluid require proper attention on the methodology to be used to calculate the efficiency of system and absorption efficiency of tube material. In this paper complete mathematical analysis of boiler tubes is conducted for calculation of remaining life of boiler tubes, Hoop stress values are calculated and used with mathematical tool to calculate the efficiency. Hoop stress based calculation of efficiency is more reliable and may give more accurate and practical aspects based results.

  9. Mosses Like It Rough—Growth Form Specific Responses of Mosses, Herbaceous and Woody Plants to Micro-Relief Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-relief heterogeneity can lead to substantial variability in microclimate and hence niche opportunities on a small scale. We explored the relationship between plant species richness and small-scale heterogeneity of micro-relief on the subtropical island of La Palma, Canary Islands. Overall, we sampled 40 plots in laurel and pine forests at four altitudinal bands. Species richness was recorded separately for various growth forms (i.e., mosses, herbaceous and woody plants. Site conditions such as altitude, slope, aspect, and tree density were measured. Micro-relief heterogeneity was characterized by surface structure and a subsequently derived surface heterogeneity index. The effect of micro-relief heterogeneity on species richness was analysed by means of linear mixed effect models and variance partitioning. Effects of micro-relief heterogeneity on species richness varied considerably between growth forms. While moss richness was affected significantly by micro-relief heterogeneity, herbaceous and woody plants richness responded mainly to larger-scale site conditions such as aspect and tree density. Our results stress the importance of small-scale relief heterogeneity for the explanation of spatial patterns of species richness. This poses new challenges as small-scale heterogeneity is largely underrepresented, e.g. with regard to its application in species distribution models.

  10. Testing soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Dorofeev, V. Yu.

    We studied soil-like substrate (SLS) as a potential candidate for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The SLS was obtained by successive conversion of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and worms. Mature SLS contained 9.5% humic acids and 4.9% fulvic acids. First, it was shown that wheat, bean and cucumber yields as well as radish yields when cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to yields obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate) under hydroponics. Second, the possibility of increasing wheat and radish yields on the SLS was assessed at three levels of light intensity: 690, 920 and 1150 μmol m -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The highest wheat yield was obtained at 920 μmol m -2 s -1, while radish yield increased steadily with increasing light intensity. Third, long-term SLS fertility was tested in a BLSS model with mineral and organic matter recycling. Eight cycles of wheat and 13 cycles of radish cultivation were carried out on the SLS in the experimental system. Correlation coefficients between SLS nitrogen content and total wheat biomass and grain yield were 0.92 and 0.97, respectively, and correlation coefficients between nitrogen content and total radish biomass and edible root yield were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Changes in hormone content (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) in the SLS during matter recycling did not reduce plant productivity. Quantitative and species compositions of the SLS and irrigation water microflora were also investigated. Microbial community analysis of the SLS showed bacteria from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Nocardia, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Enterobacter genera, and fungi from Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Botrytis, and Cladosporium genera.

  11. Effect of biofilm forming plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad A. Kasim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of biofilm under varying stress conditions is a significant strategy adopted by bacterial strains for their successful survival in plant rhizosphere. In this study, the activity of biofilm formation of 20 isolates and strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR was determined under different salt concentrations. The results indicated that all of the 20 PGPRs have the activity of biofilm formation under 0.0, 250, 500 or 1000 mM NaCl which was increased with increasing salt concentration. PGPR strains with the highest activity of biofilm formation were selected and used to coat barley grains. The coated grains were sown in clay/sandy soil and left to grow for 25 days. The results showed that bacterial inoculation was effective in alleviating the deleterious effect of salinity on some growth criteria (seedling length, fresh and dry masses as well as relative water content, compared with the control. The isolate HM6 (B6, which showed the highest activity of biofilm formation at all the studied NaCl concentrations, was identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and sequencing of the PCR product. The similarity sequence analysis indicated that HM6 isolate has 97.4% similar sequence identity to Bacillus amyloliquifaciens. It could be speculated that the bacterial activity of biofilm formation is helpful for improving salt stress tolerance of barley.

  12. Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Input of charcoal after forest fires can lead to considerable changes of the quality and quantity of organic matter in soils (SOM). This affects not only its organic C pool but also shifts its organic N composition from peptideous to N-heterocyclic structures (Knicker et al., 1996). In the present study we sought to understand how this alteration is affecting the N availability in fire affected soils. Therefore, we performed a medium-term pot experiment in which grass material (Lolium perenne) was grown on soil material (Cambisols) of a fire-affected and a fire-unaffected forest. The soils were topped with mixtures of ground fresh grass residues and KNO3 or charred grass material (pyrogenic organic matter; PyOM) with KNO3. Here, either the organic N or the inorganic N was isotopically enriched with 15N. Following the 15N concentration in the soil matrix and the growing plants as a function of incubation time (up to 16 months) by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry allowed us to indentify which N-source is most efficiently stabilized and how PyOM is affecting this process. Preliminary data indicated that only after the germination of the seeds, the concentration of the added inorganic 15N in the soil decreased considerably most likely due to its uptake by the growing plants but also due to N-losses by leaching and volatilization. Additional addition of plant residues or PyOM had no major effect on this behavior. Covering the soil with 15N-grass residues which simulates a litter layer led to a slow increase of the 15N concentration in the mineral soil during the first month. This is best explained by the ongoing incorporation of the litter into the soil matrix. After that a small decrease was observed, showing that the organic N was only slowly mobilized. Addition of 15N-PyOM showed a comparable behavior but with 15N concentration in the soil corresponding to twice of those of the pots amended with 15N-grass residues. After that the 15N concentrations decrease quickly

  13. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

  14. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  15. Inoculation of Loblolly Pine Seedlings at Planting with Basidiospores of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Chip Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Beckjord; Marla S. McIntosh; Edward Hacskaylo; John H. Jr. Melhuish; John H. Jr. Melhuish

    1984-01-01

    Basidiospores of the ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma auranteum incorporated into an organic hydrocolloid can be used successfully in field inoculation. Containerized loblolly pine seedlings were inoculated during outplanting by this method. This study showed that basidiospore chips were effective inocula in this investigation.

  16. Reversibility of soil forming clay mineral reactions induced by plant - clay interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, P.; Velde, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recent data based upon observations of field experiments and laboratory experiments suggest that changes in phyllosilicate mineralogy, as seen by X-ray diffraction analysis, which is induced by plant action can be reversed in relatively short periods of time. Changes from diagenetic or metamorphic mineral structures (illite and chlorite) to those found in soils (mixed layered minerals in the smectite, hydroxy-interlayer mineral and illites) observed in Delaware Bay salt marsh sediments in periods of tens of years and observed under different biologic (mycorhize) actions in coniferous forests in the soil environment can be found to be reversed under other natural conditions. Reversal of this process (chloritisation of smectitic minerals in soils) has been observed in natural situations over a period of just 14 years under sequoia gigantia. Formation of smectite minerals from illite (potassic mica-like minerals) has been observed to occur under intensive agriculture conditions over periods of 80 years or so under intensive zea mais production. Laboratory experiments using rye grass show that this same process can be accomplished to a somewhat lesser extent after one growing season. However experiments using alfalfa for 30 year growing periods show that much of the illite content of a soil can be reconstituted or even increased. Observations on experiments using zea mais under various fertilizer and mycorhize treatments indicate that within a single growing season potassium can be extracted from the clay (illite layers) but at the end of the season the potassium can be restored to the clay structures and more replaced that extracted. Hence it is clear that the change in clay mineralogy normally considered to be irreversible, illite to smectite or chlorite to smectite observed in soils, is a reversible process where plant systems control the soil chemistry and the soil mineralogy. The changes in clay mineralogy concern mostly the chemical composition of the interlayer

  17. Shifts in symbiotic associations in plants capable of forming multiple root symbioses across a long-term soil chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Felipe E; Lambers, Hans; Turner, Benjamin L; Teste, François P; Laliberté, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Changes in soil nutrient availability during long-term ecosystem development influence the relative abundances of plant species with different nutrient-acquisition strategies. These changes in strategies are observed at the community level, but whether they also occur within individual species remains unknown. Plant species forming multiple root symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, and nitrogen-(N) fixing microorganisms provide valuable model systems to examine edaphic controls on symbioses related to nutrient acquisition, while simultaneously controlling for plant host identity. We grew two co-occurring species, Acacia rostellifera (N2-fixing and dual AM and ECM symbioses) and Melaleuca systena (AM and ECM dual symbioses), in three soils of contrasting ages (c. 0.1, 1, and 120 ka) collected along a long-term dune chronosequence in southwestern Australia. The soils differ in the type and strength of nutrient limitation, with primary productivity being limited by N (0.1 ka), co-limited by N and phosphorus (P) (1 ka), and by P (120 ka). We hypothesized that (i) within-species root colonization shifts from AM to ECM with increasing soil age, and that (ii) nodulation declines with increasing soil age, reflecting the shift from N to P limitation along the chronosequence. In both species, we observed a shift from AM to ECM root colonization with increasing soil age. In addition, nodulation in A. rostellifera declined with increasing soil age, consistent with a shift from N to P limitation. Shifts from AM to ECM root colonization reflect strengthening P limitation and an increasing proportion of total soil P in organic forms in older soils. This might occur because ECM fungi can access organic P via extracellular phosphatases, while AM fungi do not use organic P. Our results show that plants can shift their resource allocation to different root symbionts depending on nutrient availability during ecosystem development.

  18. Ultralong Cycle Life Achieved by a Natural Plant: Miscanthus × giganteus for Lithium Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Bi, Xuanxuan; Tao, Ran; Wang, Qingzhen; Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong

    2017-02-08

    Large energy-storage systems and electric vehicles require energy devices with high power and high energy density. Lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries could achieve high energy density, but they are still facing problems such as low practical capacity and poor cyclability. Here, we prepare activated carbons (MGACs) based on the natural plant Miscanthus × giganteus (MG) through slow pyrolysis. It possesses a large surface area, plenty of active sites, and high porosity, which are beneficial to the utilization of oxygen electrode in Li-O2 batteries. The MGACs-based oxygen electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 9400 mAh/g at 0.02 mA/cm(2), and long cycle life of 601 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 500 mAh/g) and 295 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh/g) at 0.2 mA/cm(2), respectively. Additionally, the material exhibits high rate capability and high reversibility, which is a promising candidate for the application in Li-O2 batteries.

  19. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly.

  20. Seed dispersal of the Australian cycad Macrozamia miquelii (Zamiaceae): are cycads megafauna-dispersed "grove forming" plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John A; Walter, Gimme H

    2013-06-01

    Plants that invest in large, heavy seeds and colorful, fleshy fruits or analogous structures seem adapted for dispersal by large vertebrates. Some such plants, like Australian cycads in the genus Macrozamia, do not disperse well, which could be explained by seed-dispersal relationships with megafauna that are rare or extinct in contemporary ecosystems. Such plants provide an opportunity to investigate the ecological consequences of low seed-dispersal distances. • We investigated seed dispersal of Macrozamia miquelii in Central Queensland by tracking the fate of marked seeds, identifying the dispersal fauna and quantifying population demography and spatial structure. • We found that 70-100% of marked seeds remained within 1 m of maternal females (cycads are dioecious). Of the 812 seeds recovered (from 840 originally marked) only 24 dispersed >1 m from maternal females, the greatest observed dispersal being 5 m. We found an average of 2.2 seedlings and 0.7 juveniles within 1.5 m of mature females, which suggests that most seeds that remain in the vicinity of maternal females perish. Within-stand densities ranged between 1000 and 5000 plants/ha. The brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula was the only animal observed to move the seeds. • Macrozamia are adapted for dispersal by megafauna that are rare or absent in contemporary ecosystems. We argue that Macrozamia are "grove forming" plants that derive ecological benefit from existing as high-density, spatially discrete populations, the function of megafaunal dispersal adaptations being the infrequent dispersal of seeds en masse to establish new such groves in the landscape.

  1. Probabilistic safety assessment for optimum nuclear power plant life management (PLiM) theory and application of reliability analysis methods for major power plant components

    CERN Document Server

    Arkadov, G V; Rodionov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment methods are used to calculate nuclear power plant durability and resource lifetime. Directing preventative maintenance, this title provides a comprehensive review of the theory and application of these methods.$bProbabilistic safety assessment methods are used to calculate nuclear power plant durability and resource lifetime. Successful calculation of the reliability and ageing of components is critical for forecasting safety and directing preventative maintenance, and Probabilistic safety assessment for optimum nuclear power plant life management provides a comprehensive review of the theory and application of these methods. Part one reviews probabilistic methods for predicting the reliability of equipment. Following an introduction to key terminology, concepts and definitions, formal-statistical and various physico-statistical approaches are discussed. Approaches based on the use of defect-free models are considered, along with those using binomial distribution and models bas...

  2. Some progress on the chemistry of natural bioactive terpenoids form Chinese medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Nan Zhou

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Pseudolaric acids - Novel diterpenes, Pseudolaric acid A, B, C and D were isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi Gorden (pinaceae. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic data and chemical correlations. In the contineous studies, the absolute configurations, the conformations in the solutions, the framentation mechanisms of MS and assigments of all NMR spectral signals were also reported. They showed the antifungal and cytotoxic activities. (2 Daphnane diterpenes - In the further studies on the plants of Thymelaeaceae, besides 10 known diterpenes, 16 new daphnane diterpenes were isolated from Daphne genkwa, D. tangutica, D. giraldii, Wikstroemie chamaedaphne. They showed the antifertilities activities. (3 Tripterygium diterpenes 14 new diterpenes were isolated from Triperygium wilfordii, T. regeli and T. hypoglaucum. Some of them showed the antitumor activities. The CD spectra showed that A/B ring of all compoundshave trans configuration as same as tripdiolide and triptolide determined by X-ray diffraction (4 Pregnane glycosides from Marsdenia koi - Two new pregnane glycosides marsdenikoiside A and marsdenikoiside B which can terminate the early pregnancy were isolated from Marsdeia koi. Their structures were elucidated by hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods.

  3. Hormonal disturbances due to severe and mild forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are already detectable in neonatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Signe; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine H;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: National screening programmes for congenital adrenal hyperplasia now include measuring several adrenal metabolites using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to compare neonatal hormonal profiles - whole blood concentrations of 17α-hydrox....... CONCLUSION: There were significant differences in neonatal hormonal profiles between all groups and controls. This confirms that hormonal disturbances are already detectable in both severe and mild forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in neonatal life.......AIM: National screening programmes for congenital adrenal hyperplasia now include measuring several adrenal metabolites using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to compare neonatal hormonal profiles - whole blood concentrations of 17α...

  4. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ......The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation...... life-form-dependent allometries that have similar scaling but different intercepts, such that the mass-specific rates converge on a rather narrow size-independent range. In contrast, ingestion and growth rates follow a near-universal taxa-independent ~3/4 mass scaling power law.We argue...

  5. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  6. Technical-economic evaluation of O2/CO2 recycle combustion power plant based on life-cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a detailed technical-economic analysis on a O2/CO2 recycle combustion power plant (Oxy-combustion plant) retrofitted from the existing coal-fired plant (with a capacity of 2×300 MW) in China was carried out by using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) method. The CO2 emissions, investment cost, cost of electricity and CO2 avoidance cost within the life cycle were calculated respectively. The results showed that the CO2 emission avoidance rate of retrofitted Oxy-combustion plant in the life cycle was about 77.09% without taking account of the CO2 compression; the annual cost increased by 5.9% approximately, the net power decreased by 21.33%, the cost of electricity increased by 34.77%, and the CO2 avoidance cost was about 28.93 USD/t. Considering the compression process of CO2, the avoidance rate of CO2 emission was about 73.35% or so; the annual cost increased by 9.35% approximately, the net power decreased by about 26.70%, the cost of electricity increased by 49.13%, and the CO2 avoidance cost was about 45.46 USD/t. The carbon tax (the CO2 tax) should be more than about 24 USD/t and 34 USD/t under the condition of considering CO2 compression or not, respectively, which is beneficial to promote transformation of existing coal-fired plant for reducing the CO2 emissions.

  7. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-2, see the List of CFR Sections...

  8. 17 CFR 274.302 - Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2... for Exemptions § 274.302 Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note:...

  9. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of life

  10. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  11. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  12. Genome analysis of medicinal Ganoderma spp. with plant-pathogenic and saprotrophic life-styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kües, Ursula; Nelson, David R; Liu, Chang; Yu, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Jianqin; Wang, Xin-Cun; Sun, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a fungal genus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family and Polyporales order. Plant-pathogenic species in this genus can cause severe diseases (stem, butt, and root rot) in economically important trees and perennial crops, especially in tropical countries. Ganoderma species are white rot fungi and have ecological importance in the breakdown of woody plants for nutrient mobilization. They possess effective machineries of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes useful for bioenergy production and bioremediation. In addition, the genus contains many important species that produce pharmacologically active compounds used in health food and medicine. With the rapid adoption of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, whole genome sequencing and systematic transcriptome analyses become affordable approaches to identify an organism's genes. In the last few years, numerous projects have been initiated to identify the genetic contents of several Ganoderma species, particularly in different strains of Ganoderma lucidum. In November 2013, eleven whole genome sequencing projects for Ganoderma species were registered in international databases, three of which were already completed with genomes being assembled to high quality. In addition to the nuclear genome, two mitochondrial genomes for Ganoderma species have also been reported. Complementing genome analysis, four transcriptome studies on various developmental stages of Ganoderma species have been performed. Information obtained from these studies has laid the foundation for the identification of genes involved in biological pathways that are critical for understanding the biology of Ganoderma, such as the mechanism of pathogenesis, the biosynthesis of active components, life cycle and cellular development, etc. With abundant genetic information becoming available, a few centralized resources have been established to disseminate the knowledge and integrate relevant data to support comparative genomic analyses of

  13. Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H I; Cappato, L P; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F

    2016-03-01

    This research investigated the removal of adherent cells of 4 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Listeria monocytogenes strain (previously isolated from dairy plants) from polystyrene microtiter plates using peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5%) for 15, 30, 60, and 120 s, and the inactivation of biofilms formed by those strains on stainless steel coupons using the same treatment times. In the microtiter plates, PAA removed all S. aureus at 15 s compared with control (no PAA treatment). However, L. monocytogenes biofilm was not affected by any PAA treatment. On the stainless steel surface, epifluorescence microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining (BacLight, Molecular Probes/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eugene, OR) showed that all strains were damaged within 15 s, with almost 100% of cells inactivated after 30 s. Results of this trial indicate that, although PAA was able to inactivate both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes monospecies biofilms on stainless steel, it was only able to remove adherent cells of S. aureus from polystyrene microplates. The correct use of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by S. aureus strains found in dairy plants, although further studies are necessary to determine the optimal PAA treatment for removing biofilms of L. monocytogenes.

  14. Prevalence and biofilm-forming ability of Listeria monocytogenes in New Zealand mussel (Perna canaliculus) processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C

    2011-10-01

    Greenshell™ mussels are New Zealand's largest seafood export species. Some export markets require compliance with 'zero' tolerance legislation for Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of product. Even though individually quick frozen (IQF) mussel products are labeled 'to be cooked', and are not classified as ready-to-eat, some markets still require them to comply with the strict policy. Three mussel processing plants were assessed for the pattern of L. monocytogenes contamination on raw material, environment, food contact surfaces, and in the final product. Cultures (n = 101) obtained from an industrial Listeria monitoring program from August 2007 to June 2009 were characterized by serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Using the crystal violet method, isolates were assessed for their ability to form biofilms. This work confirmed the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw and processed product, and the importance of cross-contamination from external and internal environments. Processing plants had L. monocytogenes pulsotypes that were detected more than once over 6 months. No correlation was found between biofilm-forming ability and persistent isolates. Two pulsotypes (including a persistent one), were previously isolated in human cases of listeriosis in New Zealand, but none of the pulsotypes matched those involved in international outbreaks.

  15. Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements in Plants Ⅰ. Fractionation Patterns and Their Forming Mechanisms in Different Organs of Triticum Aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao; Ding Shiming; Zhang Chaosheng; Zhang Zili; Yan Juncai; Li Haitao

    2005-01-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the forming mechanisms in plants were studied using Triticum aestivum as plant material with application of exogenous REEs and hydroponic culture. REEs were significantly fractionated in different parts of Triticum aestivum. M-type tetrad effect could be observed in both root and shoot of Triticum aestivum, which might result from the different abilities of REEs to form phosphate precipitation. Middle REEs (MREEs), light REEs (LREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) were enriched in root, stem and leaf of Triticum aestivum, respectively. REE speciation calculations using VMINTEQ program show REEs in simulated xylem solution mainly exist as REE-EDTA- and RE3+, but only HREEs are enriched in REE-EDTA-, while LREEs are enriched in the other REE species. It is suggested that the fractionation between LREEs and HREEs might be caused by the uptake of REE-EDTA- in Triticum aestivum leaves, but might result from the uptake of the other REE species in their stems.

  16. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of sustainable product design strategies for combined cycle power plants; Lebenszyklusanalyse und Bestimmung von Einflussfaktoren zur nachhaltigen Produktgestaltung von GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthey, Falko

    2010-03-26

    The growth of the national GDP on a worldwide level and the associated increasing demand for primary energy inevitably result in higher emissions levels. According to recent international scientific studies the energy sector (including electricity generation, industrial activities and traffic) contributes up to 83 % to the worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change and the projection of its impacts have been acknowledged also on the political level and concise measures are being considered. Since access to electricity and sustainable development are inseparable, the question arises whether and how adequate answers can be given within the coming years. Furthermore, the definite lifetime of the existing power plant fleet will result in a gap of up to 12.000 MWh in 2020, depending on the scenario. One part of the answer lies in the sustainable design of power plants. The main contribu-tion of this work is therefore the life cycle analysis of a combined cycle power plant from of a manufacturer's perspective. The visualisation of the entire product system and the re-sults of the impact assessment facilitate the determination of improvement potential. The system boundaries for this study include all relevant phases of the product life cycle (materials, manufacturing, transport, operation, service and end of life). The life cycle inventory consists of all bills of materials and energy consumption for all components and life cycle phases. The interpretation of the results of the impact assessment showed the expected significant contribution in kg CO{sub 2}e for the emission of the full load operation. Nevertheless, the results for all impact categories over the entire lifecycle are given. Various operation scenarios and configurations can now be analysed based on the elaborated modules, and can now serve as decision support already during product development. The visualisation of impacts of design decisions on the ecological footprint of the product system in

  17. nip, a symbiotic Medicago truncatula mutant that forms root nodules with aberrant infection threads and plant defense-like response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veereshlingam, Harita; Haynes, Janine G; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated and studied a novel symbiotic mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula, designated nip (numerous infections and polyphenolics). When grown on nitrogen-free media in the presence of the compatible bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nip mutant showed nitrogen deficiency symptoms. The mutant failed to form pink nitrogen-fixing nodules that occur in the wild-type symbiosis, but instead developed small bump-like nodules on its roots that were blocked at an early stage of development. Examination of the nip nodules by light microscopy after staining with X-Gal for S. meliloti expressing a constitutive GUS gene, by confocal microscopy following staining with SYTO-13, and by electron microscopy revealed that nip initiated symbiotic interactions and formed nodule primordia and infection threads. The infection threads in nip proliferated abnormally and very rarely deposited rhizobia into plant host cells; rhizobia failed to differentiate further in these cases. nip nodules contained autofluorescent cells and accumulated a brown pigment. Histochemical staining of nip nodules revealed this pigment to be polyphenolic accumulation. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that nip nodules expressed only a subset of genes associated with nodule organogenesis, as well as elevated expression of a host defense-associated phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene. nip plants were observed to have abnormal lateral roots. nip plant root growth and nodulation responded normally to ethylene inhibitors and precursors. Allelism tests showed that nip complements 14 other M. truncatula nodulation mutants but not latd, a mutant with a more severe nodulation phenotype as well as primary and lateral root defects. Thus, the nip mutant defines a new locus, NIP, required for appropriate infection thread development during invasion of the nascent nodule by rhizobia, normal lateral root elongation, and normal regulation of host defense-like responses

  18. Linear forms of plasmid DNA are superior to supercoiled structures as active templates for gene expression in plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, N; Zakai, N; Friedberg, D; Loyter, A

    1988-07-01

    Introduction of the plasmids pUC8CaMVCAT and pNOSCAT into plant protoplasts is known to result in transient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene. Also, transfection with the plasmid pDO432 results in transient appearance of the luciferase enzyme. In the present work we have used these systems to study the effect of DNA topology on the expression of the above recombinant genes. Linear forms of the above plasmids exhibited much higher activity in supporting gene expression than their corresponding super-coiled structures. CAT activity in protoplasts transfected with the linear forms of pUC8CaMVCAT and pNOSCAT was up to ten-fold higher than that observed in protoplasts transfected by the supercoiled template of these plasmids. This effect was observed in protoplasts derived from two different lines of Petunia hybrida and from a Nicotiana tabacum cell line. Transfection with the relaxed form of pUC8CaMVCAT resulted in very low expression of the CAT gene.Northern blot analysis revealed that the amount of poly(A)(+) RNA extracted from protoplasts transformed with the linear forms of the DNA was about 10-fold higher than that found in protoplasts transformed with supercoiled DNA.Southern blot analysis revealed that about the same amounts of supercoiled and linear DNA molecules were present in nuclei of transfected protoplasts. No significant quantitative differences have been observed between the degradation rates of the various DNA templates used.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040) implementation in foods of animal and plant origin: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Veikou, Agapi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of environmental protection has been recently upgraded due to the continuously increasing environmental pollution load. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), wellknown as ISO 14040, has been repeatedly shown to be a useful and powerful tool for assessing the environmental performance of industrial processes, both in the European and American continents as well as in many Asian countries (such as Japan and China). To the best of our knowledge, almost no information is provided in relation to LCA implementation in Africa apart from an article related to Egypt. Although food industries are not considered to be among the most heavily polluting ones, for some like olive oil, wine, dairy, and meat processing, their impact on the environment is a heavy burden. The introduction of LCA aimed at identifying both inputs and outputs to find out which are the most detrimental to the environment in terms of water/energy consumption and solid/liquid and gas releases. In this review, a thorough coverage of literature was made in an attempt to compare the implementation of LCA to a variety of products of both plant and animal origin. It was concluded that there is a high number of subsystems suggested for the same product, thereby, occasionally leading to confusion. An idea toward solving the problem is to proceed to some sort of standardization by means of several generic case studies of LCA implementation, similarly to what had happened in the case of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, and other countries.

  20. Studying the Hydrological Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms of Life in hot Mineral Water with HDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition, the temperature and the pH value of water were analyzed in experiments with prognosis of primary hydrosphere and hydrological conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water with HDO. For this aim we performed experiments with hot mineral water and seawater from Bulgaria and water with varying content of deuterium using IR- and DNES-spectroscopy. As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. The reactions of condensation–dehydration occurring in alkaline aqueous solutions at t = 65–95 0C and рН = 9–10, resulting in synthesis from unorganic molecules the larger organic molecules as polymers and short polipeptides, were discussed, as well as the possible mechanisms of the deuterium accumulation in form of HDO in hot water. It was shown that hot alkaline mineral water with temperature from +65 0C to +95 0C and the pH value from 9 to 11 is more suitable for the origination of life and living matter than other analyzed water samples. In hot mineral waters the local maximums in IR-spectra are more manifested compared to the local maximums obtained in IR-spectra of the same water at a lower temperature. The difference in the local maximums from +20 0C to +95 0C at each +5 0C according to the Student t-criterion makes up p < 0,05.

  1. THE PROBLEM OF FORMING PLANTS EMPATHETIC JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN BY MEANS OF NLP TECHNIQUE – METAPHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagornova Anna Yurevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of the formation of empathic attitudes in primary school means NLP - metaphor for metaphor can serve as a swarm - a direct analogy, history, personal experience, the parable, anecdote, proverbs, legends, fairy tales. Emphasizes the efficiency of the use of simple and complex metaphors as a means invigorated resource mechanisms of age when working with children. A distinction between literary and therapeutic metaphor, the main function of which is to dive into the world of a child, educators created by God. Emphasis on the need to form a tripartite em-pathic relationship between the child, the teacher and the narrative that allows the child is to identify with its characters and events. Underlines that one of the purposes of the metaphor in the therapeutic process of NLP is to gather information about the child to understand his world map, to find out the problems. States that the metaphor can serve as primary school children and speech, when he invests his experience in verbal expression.

  2. A conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system including soil-like substrate for growing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yu, C. Y.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu L.; Wang, J.

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents a conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system (LBLSS), including soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants. SLS makes it possible to combine the processes of plant growth and the utilization of plant waste. Plants are to be grown on SLS on the basis of 20 kg of dry SLS mass or 100 kg of wet SLS mass per square meter. The substrate is to be delivered to the base ready-made as part of the plant growth subsystem. Food for the crew was provided by prestored stock 24% and by plant growing system 76%. Total dry weight of the food is 631 g per day (2800 kcal/day) for one crew member (CM). The list of candidate plants to be grown under lunar BLSS conditions included 14 species: wheat, rice, soybean, peanuts, sweet pepper, carrots, tomatoes, coriander, cole, lettuce, radish, squash, onion and garlic. From the prestored stock the crew consumed canned fish, iodinated salt, sugar, beef sauce and seafood sauce. Our calculations show that to provide one CM with plant food requires the area of 47.5 m 2. The balance of substance is achieved by the removal dehydrated urine 59 g, feces 31 g, food waste 50 g, SLS 134 g, and also waters 86 g from system and introduction food 236 g, liquid potassium soap 4 g and mineral salts 120 g into system daily. To reduce system setup time the first plants could be sowed and germinated to a certain age on the Earth.

  3. Early Understanding of the Concept of Living Things: An Examination of Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, José Domingo; Infante, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the drawings of a sample of 118 children aged between 4 and 7 years old on the topic of plant life and relates the content to their knowledge of the concept of living things. The research project uses two types of tests: a task to analyse the level of understanding of the concept of living things and a free drawing activity.…

  4. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  5. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  6. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  7. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M; Gols, Rieta

    2016-08-03

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature.

  9. ABA in bryophytes: how a universal growth regulator in life became a plant hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi

    2011-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is not a plant-specific compound but one found in organisms across kingdoms from bacteria to animals, suggesting that it is a ubiquitous and versatile substance that can modulate physiological functions of various organisms. Recent studies have shown that plants developed an elegant system for ABA sensing and early signal transduction mechanisms to modulate responses to environmental stresses for survival in terrestrial conditions. ABA-induced increase in stress tolerance has been reported not only in vascular plants but also in non-vascular bryophytes. Since bryophytes are the key group of organisms in the context of plant evolution, clarification of their ABA-dependent processes is important for understanding evolutionary adaptation of land plants. Molecular approaches using Physcomitrella patens have revealed that ABA plays a role in dehydration stress tolerance in mosses, which comprise a major group of bryophytes. Furthermore, we recently reported that signaling machinery for ABA responses is also conserved in liverworts, representing the most basal members of extant land plant lineage. Conservation of the mechanism for ABA sensing and responses in angiosperms and basal land plants suggests that acquisition of this mechanism for stress tolerance in vegetative tissues was one of the critical evolutionary events for adaptation to the land. This review describes the role of ABA in basal land plants as well as non-land plant organisms and further elaborates on recent progress in molecular studies of model bryophytes by comparative and functional genomic approaches.

  10. Plant DB link - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered... Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Plant DB link - PGDBj Registered

  11. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Cheol Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College Cultural Studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Current status of regulatory aspects of life extension and upgrading of NPPs is reviewed for major foreign countries. Most countries require similar technical requirements; however, procedural aspects differ country by country. Regulatory systems suitable for NPP life extension is investigated. The procedure and requirements for reassessment of design life should be established first; then it can be incorporated into the PSR system. The concept of 'Current Licensing Basis (CLB)' can be adopted in Korea, but further elaboration for terms and definitions is needed for common understanding between interested groups. The procedure for maintenance and backfitting should also be improved. The Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) that require development of regulatory requirements for life extension are identified based on extensive analysis of foreign experiences. By analyzing the rules and regulations related to life extension. Basic directions are suggested to harmonize or establish regulatory systems for life extension, two-step licensing, PSR, and backfitting.

  12. Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, and life-history characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Pierce, Beck M.; Conner, Mary M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2011-01-01

    Phenological events of plants and animals are sensitive to climatic processes. Migration is a life-history event exhibited by most large herbivores living in seasonal environments, and is thought to occur in response to dynamics of forage and weather. Decisions regarding when to migrate, however, may be affected by differences in life-history characteristics of individuals. Long-term and intensive study of a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, allowed us to document patterns of migration during 11 years that encompassed a wide array of environmental conditions. We used two new techniques to properly account for interval-censored data and disentangle effects of broad-scale climate, local weather patterns, and plant phenology on seasonal patterns of migration, while incorporating effects of individual life-history characteristics. Timing of autumn migration varied substantially among individual deer, but was associated with the severity of winter weather, and in particular, snow depth and cold temperatures. Migratory responses to winter weather, however, were affected by age, nutritional condition, and summer residency of individual females. Old females and those in good nutritional condition risked encountering severe weather by delaying autumn migration, and were thus risk-prone with respect to the potential loss of foraging opportunities in deep snow compared with young females and those in poor nutritional condition. Females that summered on the west side of the crest of the Sierra Nevada delayed autumn migration relative to east-side females, which supports the influence of the local environment on timing of migration. In contrast, timing of spring migration was unrelated to individual life-history characteristics, was nearly twice as synchronous as autumn migration, differed among years, was related to the southern oscillation index, and was influenced by absolute snow depth and advancing phenology of plants

  13. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves only some domains of health-related quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chok Limsuwat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR has inconsistent effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with chronic lung diseases. We evaluated the effect of PR on HRQL outcomes using the 36-item short form of the medical outcomes (SF-36. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who completed PR in 2010, 2011, and first half of 2012. We collected information on demographics, symptoms, pulmonary function tests, 6-minute walk tests (6-MWT, and responses on the SF-36 survey, including the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS. Results: The study included 19 women and 22 men. The mean age was 69.8 ± 8.5 years. The diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 31, asthma (n = 3, interstitial lung disease (n = 5, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; n = 2. The mean forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1 was 1.16 ± 0.52 L (against 60.5 ± 15.9% of predicted value. There was a significant improvement in 6-MWT (P < 0.0001. The PCS improved post-PR from 33.8 to 34.5 (P = 0.02; the MCS did not change. Conclusion: These patients had low SF-36 scores compared to the general population; changes in scores after PR were low. These patients may need frequent HRQL assessment during rehabilitation, and PR programs should consider program modification in patients with small changes in mental health.

  14. Effects of nitrogen form on growth,CO2 assimilation,chlorophyll fluorescence,and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hong ZHOU; Yi-li ZHANG; Xue-min WANG; Jin-xia CUI; Xiao-jian XIA; Kai SHI; Jing-quan YU

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium(NH4+)sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen(N)sources on gas exchange,chlorophyll(ChI)fluorescence quenching,and photosynthetic electron allocation.Compared to nitrate(NO3-)-grown plants,cucumber plants grown under NH4+-nutdtion showed decreased plant growth,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular carbon dioxide(CO2)level,transpiration rate,maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ,and O2-independent alternative electron flux,and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux.However,the N source had little effect on gas exchange,ChI a fluorescence parameters,and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants,except that NH4+-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3--grown plants.NO3-reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4+-grown cucumber plants,but was high in NH4+-grown rice plants.These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3-assimilation,an effect more significant in NO3--grown plants than in NH4+-grown plants.Meanwhile,NH4+-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH)for NO3-reduction,regardless of the N form supplied,while NH4+-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4+was supplied as the sole N source.

  15. Woody plants in dry sands : life history traits and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304849324

    2010-01-01

    Inland dune ecosystems are harsh environment for long-lived woody plants because of poor water and nutrient availability and frequent sand. As a result, long-lived woody plants have a high risk of being killed by sand movement or a long period of drought and this may occur even before they reach rep

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  17. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068439199; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068848625; Zuidema, Pieter A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/204458455

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments. T

  18. Woody plants in dry sands : life history traits and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.

    2010-01-01

    Inland dune ecosystems are harsh environment for long-lived woody plants because of poor water and nutrient availability and frequent sand. As a result, long-lived woody plants have a high risk of being killed by sand movement or a long period of drought and this may occur even before they reach

  19. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  20. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  1. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with

  2. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments. T

  3. Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle Plant with Integrated CO2 – H2S Removal: Performance Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment and Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lombardi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study is to assess the possibility of reducing CO2 emissions from an Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle plant, accounting for the entire life cycle.

    With respect to the basic scheme of a conventional Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle - which already includes H2S removal - a shift reaction section followed by CO2 chemical absorption have been added, before the syngas combustion, in order to obtain a clean and H2-rich synthesis gas.

    The proposed plant reaches 38.8 % efficiency vs. 46.4 % efficiency of the corresponding IGCC without CO2 removal. The main reason for the efficiency reduction is the complexity due to the addition of shift and CO2 removal sections and, hence, the related losses in the complex heat recovery process.

    From LCA results, a substantial decrease in the carbon dioxide total production, due to the applied removal technology, is highlighted. In fact, the CO2 equivalent production in the life cycle, per energy unit, is one order of magnitude lower with respect to the parent IGCC.

    Moreover, the major contribution to CO2 production comes from operation/maintenance phase; likely, in the case of Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment: the major exergy destruction - in term of MJ of destroyed exergy per functional unit - comes from operation/maintenance, which is two orders of magnitude greater than the contributions of the other phases.

    The whole cycle has been simulated by means of Aspen Plus 10.1-0.

  4. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process,'' issued 2006, with the... guidance in IEEE Std. 1074- 2006, ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process... to systems and related quality assurance processes, and the requirements also extend to the...

  5. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  6. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  7. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S

    2011-03-15

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  8. Plant phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of organs, tissues, development stages. The vocabulary is defined in Plant Ontology(PO). Qualities: Characte...ristics, attributes of entities. The vocabulary is defined in Phenotype Ontology(PATO). Data file File name:

  9. Psychometric attributes of the Cervantes short-form questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth of plant tissue cultures in simulated lunar soil: Implications for a lunar base CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketeswaran, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on plant tissue cultures, seed germination, seedling development and plants grown on Simulated Lunar Soil to evaluate the potential of future development of lunar based agriculture. The studies done to determine the effect of the placement of SLS on tissue cultures showed no adverse effect of SLS on tissue cultures. Although statistically insignificant, SLS in suspension showed a comparatively higher growth rate. Observations indicate the SLS, itself cannot support calli growth but was able to show a positive effect on growth rate of calli when supplemented with MS salts. This positive effect related to nutritive value of the SLS was found to have improved at high pH levels, than at the recommended low pH levels for standard media. Results from seed germination indicated that there is neither inhibitory, toxicity nor stimulatory effect of SLS, even though SLS contains high amounts of aluminum compounds compared to earth soil. Analysis of seeding development and growth data showed significant reduction in growth rate indicating that, SLS was a poor growth medium for plant life. This was confirmed by the studies done with embryos and direct plant growth on SLS. Further observations attributed this poor quality of SLS is due to it's lack of essential mineral elements needed for plant growth. By changing the pH of the soil, to more basic conditions, the quality of SLS for plant growth could be improved up to a significant level. Also it was found that the quality of SLS could be improved by almost twice, by external supply of major mineral elements, directly to SLS.

  11. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  13. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  14. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  16. [Nutrient Characteristics and Nitrogen Forms of Rhizosphere Soils Under Four Typical Plants in the Littoral Zone of TGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-feng; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Yue, Jun-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), which is the largest water conservancy project ever built in tne world, produced a drawdown area of about 348.93 km2 because of water level control. The biological geochemical cycle of the soil in the drawdown zone has been changed as the result of long-term winter flooding and summer drought and vegetation covering. The loss of soil nitrogen in the drawdown zone poses a threat to the water environmental in TGR. Pengxi river, is an important anabranch, which has the largest drawdown area has been selected in the present study. The four typical vegetation, contained Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Anthium sibiricum and Zea mays L. as the control, were studied to measure nutrient characteristics and nitrogen forms of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in three distribution areas with different soil types (paddy soil, purple soil and fluvo-aquic soils). The variables measured included organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), hydrolysis N, available P and available K, pH, ion-exchangeable N (IEE-N), weak acid extractable N (CF-N) , iron-manganese oxides N (IMOF-N), organic matter sulfide N (OSF-N), added up four N forms for total transferable N (TF-N) and TN minus TF-N for non-transferable N (NTF-N). The results showed: (1) pH of rhizosphere soil was generally lower than that of non-rhizosphere soil under different vegetation in different type soils because the possible organic acid and H+ released form plant roots and cation absorption differences, and the OM, TP, TN and hydrolysis N of rhizosphere soil were generally higher than those of non-rhizosphere soil, and that the enrichment ratio (ER) of all the four nutrient indicators showed Cyperus rotundus > Cynodon dactylon > Zea mays L. > Anthium sibiricum. Available P showed enrichment in the rhizosphere of three natural vegetations but lose under corn, and available K, TK showed different ER in different conditions. (2) IEF-N CF

  17. Species Diversity and Life-Form Patterns in Steppe Vegetation along a 3000 m Altitudinal Gradient in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, Parastoo; Akhani, Hossein; Van der Maarel, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity pattern and life-form spectra were studied along a 3,000 m altitudinal gradient from a semi-desert area to the alpine peak of Tochal Mountain. The gradient is located on the southern slopes of Central Alborz with a Mediterranean continental climate. DCA ordination was applied to 1,069 r

  18. Species diversity and life-form patterns in steppe vegetation along a 3000 m altitudinal gradient in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, Parastoo; Akhani, Hossein; Van der Maarel, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity pattern and life-form spectra were studied along a 3,000 m altitudinal gradient from a semi-desert area to the alpine peak of Tochal Mountain. The gradient is located on the southern slopes of Central Alborz with a Mediterranean continental climate. DCA ordination was applied to 1,069 r

  19. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  20. Substitution of Soybean Meal and Cornmeal to Moisture, pH, Bacterial Colony Forming and Shelf Life of Rejected Duck Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Deni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of substitution of soybean meal with cornmeal to moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. This research material using duck meat Coast (Indian Runner salvage as much as 4000 grams were obtained from the Livestock Anduring Padang and soybean meal with Mungbean trademarks and cornmeal with cornstarch trademarks respectively of 600 grams were obtained at Raya Padang market. The research method used was experimental method with the random design, which consists of 5 treatments and 4 groups as replication. The treatment given in this study is the substitution of soybean meal and maize by A (100%: 0%, B (75%: 25%, C (50%: 50%, D (25%: 75% and E (0%: 100%. Variables measured were moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. The results of this study indicate that substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal significant effect on moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. Substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal by 100%: 0% is the best to produce the rejected duck meatballs with 69.20% moisture, pH 6.44, bacterial colony forming 7.85 x 105 CFU / g, and the shelf life of 22.12 hours.

  1. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Khean-Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was developed using standard procedures. English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI were assessed against the SF-36 and the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ, examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Results Pilot testing of the translated Malay and original English versions of the SF-NDI in twenty subjects did not identify any cross-cultural adaptation problems. 143 patients (86 English-speaking and 57 Malay speaking with dyspepsia were interviewed and the overall response rate was 100% with nil missing data. The median total SF-NDI score for both languages were 72.5 and 60.0 respectively. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 (English and 0.83 (Malay, while internal consistency of SF-NDI subscales revealed α values ranging from 0.83 – 0.88 (English and 0.83 – 0.90 (Malay. In both languages, SF-NDI sub-scales and total score demonstrated lower values in patients with more severe symptoms and in patients with functional vs organic dyspepsia (known groups validity, although these were less marked in the Malay language version. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.3 – 0.6 between all SF-NDI sub-scales and various domains of the SF-36 (convergent validity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI are reliable and probably valid instruments for measuring HRQoL in Malaysian patients with dyspepsia.

  2. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  3. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  4. Invasive cells in animals and plants: searching for LECA machineries in later eukaryotic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cell growth and migration is usually considered a specifically metazoan phenomenon. However, common features and mechanisms of cytoskeletal rearrangements, membrane trafficking and signalling processes contribute to cellular invasiveness in organisms as diverse as metazoans and plants – two eukaryotic realms genealogically connected only through the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LECA). By comparing current understanding of cell invasiveness in model cell types of both metazoan and plant origin (invadopodia of transformed metazoan cells, neurites, pollen tubes and root hairs), we document that invasive cell behavior in both lineages depends on similar mechanisms. While some superficially analogous processes may have arisen independently by convergent evolution (e.g. secretion of substrate- or tissue-macerating enzymes by both animal and plant cells), at the heart of cell invasion is an evolutionarily conserved machinery of cellular polarization and oriented cell mobilization, involving the actin cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway. Its central components - small GTPases (in particular RHO, but also ARF and Rab), their specialized effectors, actin and associated proteins, the exocyst complex essential for polarized secretion, or components of the phospholipid- and redox- based signalling circuits (inositol-phospholipid kinases/PIP2, NADPH oxidases) are aparently homologous among plants and metazoans, indicating that they were present already in LECA. Reviewer: This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Valerian Dolja and Purificacion Lopez-Garcia. PMID:23557484

  5. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    generation in a concentrated solar power plant in Spain. The inventory phase was completed by using the indicators proposed by the United Nations Environment Program/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) Guidelines on S-LCA. The impact assessment phase was approached by developing...

  6. Confirmation of Sigillaria Brongniart as a coal-forming plant in Cathaysia: occurrence from an Early Permian autochthonous peat-forming flora in Inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Feng, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2009-07-15

    A common lycopsid genus, Sigillaria Brongniart, has been recorded most frequently in peat-forming forests in Europe and North America, but rarely in China. Although Sigillaria, in China, has been found in coal balls and used as evidence that it was a coalforming element, it has never been recorded as compression/impressions in peat-forming settings. Recent investigation of an Early Permian autochthonous peat-forming flora of the Taiyuan Formation near Wuda, Inner Mongolia, has provided evidence that Sigillaria could be a major element of peat-forming vegetation in China. Sigillaria is the only arborescent lycopsid acting as a major contributor to peat/coal formation. The genus Sigillaria is another element that China has in common with the Palaeozoic low-land floras of Europe and North America, enhancing the common floral aspects between the tropical swamp vegetations of the east and west regions of the Palaeotethys Ocean.

  7. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  8. Metabolic scaling theory in plant biology and the three oxygen paradoxa of aerobic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russell Wallace was a field naturalist with a strong interest in general physiology. In this vein, he wrote that oxygen (O2), produced by green plants, is "the food of protoplasm, without which it cannot continue to live". Here we summarize current models relating body size to respiration rates (in the context of the metabolic scaling theory) and show that oxygen-uptake activities, measured at 21 vol.% O2, correlate closely with growth patterns at the level of specific organs within the same plant. Thus, whole plant respiration can change ontogenetically, corresponding to alterations in the volume fractions of different tissues. Then, we describe the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Paleoarchean, which changed the world forever. By slowly converting what was once a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing one, microbes capable of O2-producing photosynthesis modified the chemical nature and distribution of the element iron (Fe), slowly drove some of the most ancient prokaryotes to extinction, created the ozone (O3) layer that subsequently shielded the first terrestrial plants and animals from harmful UV radiation, but also made it possible for Earth's forest to burn, sometimes with catastrophic consequences. Yet another paradox is that the most abundant protein (i.e., the enzyme Rubisco, Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) has a greater affinity for oxygen than for carbon dioxide (CO2), even though its function is to bind with the latter rather than the former. We evaluate this second "oxygen paradox" within the context of photorespiratory carbon loss and crop yield reduction in C3 vs. C4 plants (rye vs. maize). Finally, we analyze the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as destructive by-products of cellular metabolism, and discuss the three "O2-paradoxa" with reference to A. R. Wallace's speculations on "design in nature".

  9. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  10. Life Experiences of Displaced Workers: From Closing Plants to Their Journey through Iowa Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anisha La Velle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to illuminate the life experiences of displaced workers enrolled in community colleges for retraining and their views on obtaining employment after completion of a degree. The study is important because it provides qualitative data that will inform community college academic leadership, faculty,…

  11. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species: related rather to leaf life span than to species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A.; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the role of individual organisms in whole ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes. It is currently unknown if different plant community members share the same or different kinetics of C pools in aboveground biomass, thereby adding (or not) variability to the first steps in ecosystem C cycling. We assessed the residence times in metabolic and non-metabolic (or structural) C pools and the allocation pattern of assimilated C in aboveground plant parts of four co-existing, co-dominant species from different functional groups in a temperate grassland community. For this purpose continuous, 14-16 day long 13CO2/12CO2-labeling experiments were performed in Sept. 2006, May 2007 and Sept. 2007, and the tracer kinetics were analysed with compartmental modeling. In all experimental periods, the species shared vastly similar residence times in metabolic C (5-8 d). In contrast, the residence times in non-metabolic C ranged from 20 to 58 d (except one outlier) and the fraction of fixed C allocated to the non-metabolic pool from 7 to 45%. These variations in non-metabolic C kinetics were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited close relationships with (independent estimates of) leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. This adds new meaning to leaf life span as a functional trait in the leaf and plant economics spectrum and its implication for C cycle studies in grassland and also forest systems. As the four co-dominant species accounted for ~80% of total community shoot biomass, we should also expect that the observed similarities in pool kinetics and allocation will scale up to similar relationships at the community level.

  12. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  13. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    transported a high proportion of 15N to aboveground parts, whereas the dwarf shrubs allocated most 15N to underground storage. Enhanced 13C in Betula nana roots represents the first field evidence of uptake of intact glycine by this important circumpolar plant. Plant and microbial uptake of label...... was complementary as plants took up more inorganic than organic N, while microbes preferred organic N. Microbes initially took up a large part of the added label, but over the following four weeks microbial 15N decreased by 50% and most 15N was recovered in soil organic matter, while a smaller but slowly increasing...

  14. Ecology and life history affect different aspects of the population structure of 27 high-alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirmans, Patrick G; Goudet, Jerome; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2011-08-01

    A plant species' genetic population structure is the result of a complex combination of its life history, ecological preferences, position in the ecosystem and historical factors. As a result, many different statistical methods exist that measure different aspects of species' genetic structure. However, little is known about how these methods are interrelated and how they are related to a species' ecology and life history. In this study, we used the IntraBioDiv amplified fragment length polymorphisms data set from 27 high-alpine species to calculate eight genetic summary statistics that we jointly correlate to a set of six ecological and life-history traits. We found that there is a large amount of redundancy among the calculated summary statistics and that there is a significant association with the matrix of species traits. In a multivariate analysis, two main aspects of population structure were visible among the 27 species. The first aspect is related to the species' dispersal capacities and the second is most likely related to the species' postglacial recolonization of the Alps. Furthermore, we found that some summary statistics, most importantly Mantel's r and Jost's D, show different behaviour than expected based on theory. We therefore advise caution in drawing too strong conclusions from these statistics.

  15. Life cycle assessment of a power tower concentrating solar plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Michael B; Heath, Garvin A; Burkhardt, John J; Turchi, Craig S

    2013-06-04

    A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate four sustainability metrics over the life cycle of a power tower concentrating solar power (CSP) facility: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). The reference design is for a dry-cooled, 106 MW(net) power tower facility located near Tucson, AZ that uses a mixture of mined nitrate salts as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium, a two-tank thermal energy storage system designed for six hours of full load-equivalent storage, and receives auxiliary power from the local electric grid. A thermocline-based storage system, synthetically derived salts, and natural gas auxiliary power are evaluated as design alternatives. Over its life cycle, the reference plant is estimated to have GHG emissions of 37 g CO2eq/kWh, consume 1.4 L/kWh of water and 0.49 MJ/kWh of energy, and have an EPBT of 15 months. Using synthetic salts is estimated to increase GHG emissions by 12%, CED by 7%, and water consumption by 4% compared to mined salts. Natural gas auxiliary power results in greater than 10% decreases in GHG emissions, water consumption, and CED. The thermocline design is most advantageous when coupled with the use of synthetic salts.

  16. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  17. Current floristic composition, life form and productivity of the grasslands in the Hunting Zone of Djona (Benin)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahoudji, Myrese C.; Teka, Oscar; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard;

    2014-01-01

    plots of 900m² were used and “phytosociological relevés” were done following ecological uniformity, floristic homogeneity and samples representativeness to established plants communities. Biomass was estimated in 30 plots of 100 m². Results showed that the greatest productivity value (8320 ± 0.21 kg DM...

  18. Cs-miR156 is involved in the nitrogen form regulation of catechins accumulation in tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Fan, Dongmei; Ding, Zhaotang; Su, Yanhua; Wang, Xiaochang

    2015-12-01

    The nitrogen source affects the growth of tea plants and regulates the accumulation of catechins in the leaves. In this report, we assessed the influences of NH4(+) and NO3(-) on plant growth, catechins accumulation and associated gene expression. Compared with the preferential nitrogen source NH4(+), when NO3(-) was supplied as the sole nitrogen source, tea plants showed similar symptoms with the nitrogen-free treatments and showed lower nitrogen, free amino acid accumulation, chlorophyll content and biomass gain, indicating NO3(-) was not efficiently used by these plants. However, the total shoot catechins content was significantly higher for NO3(-) treatments than that for NH4(+) treatment or combined NH4(+)+NO3(-) treatment, suggesting that, in addition to its influence on plant growth, the nitrogen form regulated the accumulation of catechins in tea. The expression of catechins biosynthesis-related genes was associated with the regulation of catechins accumulation and composition changes mediated by nitrogen form. PAL, CHS, CHI, and DFR genes exhibited higher expression levels in plants supplied with NO3(-), in which the transcript level of DFR in the shoots was significantly correlated with the catechins content. In the end, we identified a new function for the Cs-miR156, which was drastically induced through NH4(+). Moreover, a potential mechanism of the Cs-miR156 pathway in regulating catechins biosynthesis in tea plants has been suggested, with particular respect to nitrogen forms. Cs-miR156 might repress the expression of the target gene SPL to regulate the DFR gene, which plays a vital role in catechins biosynthesis.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Spanish form of the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Balaguer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the SMiLE (Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation). The SMiLE is a respondent-generated instrument: respondents are first asked to list three to seven areas, which provide meaning to their lives, and then to rate their current satisfaction with the listed areas, as well as the individual importance of each one. Indices of total weighting (IoW), total satisfaction (IoS), and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS) are calculated. Two hundred and fifty University students responded to the Spanish version of the SMiLE, as well as to instruments for measuring self-esteem, quality of life, depression, and anxiety. The Cronbach alphas (α = 0.61 for IoS and α = 0.41 for IoW) and test-retest correlations were comparable to those found in the initial validation of the instrument (IoS: r = 0.55; IoW: r = 0.61). The SMiLE showed positive correlations with self-esteem (r = 0.28, P life scale (r = 0.31, P depression (r = -0.23, P life.

  20. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  1. Gall-forming root-knot nematodes hijack key plant cellular functions to induce multinucleate and hypertrophied feeding cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favery, Bruno; Quentin, Michaël; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Abad, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Among plant-parasitic nematodes, the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) of the Meloidogyne spp. are the most economically important genus. RKN are root parasitic worms able to infect nearly all crop species and have a wide geographic distribution. During infection, RKNs establish and maintain an intimate relationship with the host plant. This includes the creation of a specialized nutritional structure composed of multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells, which result from the redifferentiation of vascular root cells. Giant cells constitute the sole source of nutrients for the nematode and are essential for growth and reproduction. Hyperplasia of surrounding root cells leads to the formation of the gall or root-knot, an easily recognized symptom of plant infection by RKNs. Secreted effectors produced in nematode salivary glands and injected into plant cells through a specialized feeding structure called the stylet play a critical role in the formation of giant cells. Here, we describe the complex interactions between RKNs and their host plants. We highlight progress in understanding host plant responses, focusing on how RKNs manipulate key plant processes and functions, including cell cycle, defence, hormones, cellular scaffold, metabolism and transport.

  2. Life time analysis of thermal oil used as heat transfer fluid in CSP power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grirate, H.; Zari, N.; Elmchaouri, A.; Molina, S.; Couturier, R.

    2016-05-01

    The present work describes stability testing of hydrogenated terphenyl (HT), thermal oil available in the market and considered as a potential HTF for CSP power plants. Before ageing tests, hydrogenated terphenyl was compared to Biphenyl/diphenyl oxide (DPO) at the initial state, which is the most commonly used HTF in CSP plants (SEGS VI and ANDASOL I) and included as a comparison material in the NREL HTF requirements. The (HT) stability tests were performed in sealed ampoules (stainless steel) under inert gas blanket in the range of temperature between 250°C and 350°C (max temperature of HT) for 500 hrs. After ageing, many investigations were made to track the thermal oil behavior after extended time over a range of temperature, such as chemical composition, flash point, viscosity, acid value…. Laboratory testing indicated that the hydrogenated terphenyl (HT) is stable after ageing process at a temperature of about 250°C. Nevertheless, it has shown signs of serious thermal cracking at elevated temperature which is reflected by low flash point temperature. Therefore, the system must be purged effectively to purge the volatile decomposition products.

  3. 氮素形态对植物生长影响的研究进展%Research Progress on Effect of Nitrogen Form on Plant Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢瑶; 马兴华

    2015-01-01

    铵态氮和硝态氮作为植物从土壤中吸收的主要无机态氮素,对植物的形态学特征以及生理过程具有不同的影响。从植物对不同形态氮素的吸收利用机制,氮素形态调控植物养分吸收、根系发育、光合生理、产量与品质形成及氮转运蛋白基因表达等方面进行了综述,阐述了氮素形态调控植物生长的机理,并提出了氮素形态研究中需要进一步阐明的问题。%Ammonium and nitrate,as the main inorganic nitrogen forms absorbed from the soil, had different effects on morphological and physiological processes in higher plants. This paper reviewed the mechanism of different nitrogen forms absorption and utilization in plants, how nitrogen form regulating nutrient uptake, root system development,photosynthesis physiology, yield and quality formation, and nitrogen transporter protein genes expression etc.. The paper also elaborated the mechanism of nitrogen forms regulating plant growth,and put forward problems needed to be clarified in studying nitrogen form.

  4. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su’ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  5. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  6. MYB3Rs, plant homologs of Myb oncoproteins, control cell cycle-regulated transcription and form DREAM-like complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Plant MYB3R transcription factors, homologous to Myb oncoproteins, regulate the genes expressed at G2 and M phases in the cell cycle. Recent studies showed that MYB3Rs constitute multiprotein complexes that may correspond to animal complexes known as DREAM or dREAM. Discovery of the putative homologous complex in plants uncovered their significant varieties in structure, function, dynamics, and heterogeneity, providing insight into conserved and diversified aspects of cell cycle-regulated gene transcription.

  7. MYB3Rs, plant homologs of Myb oncoproteins, control cell cycle-regulated transcription and form DREAM-like complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Plant MYB3R transcription factors, homologous to Myb oncoproteins, regulate the genes expressed at G2 and M phases in the cell cycle. Recent studies showed that MYB3Rs constitute multiprotein complexes that may correspond to animal complexes known as DREAM or dREAM. Discovery of the putative homologous complex in plants uncovered their significant varieties in structure, function, dynamics, and heterogeneity, providing insight into conserved and diversified aspects of cell cycle-regulated gen...

  8. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  9. Implementing groundwater extraction in life cycle impact assessment: characterization factors based on plant species richness for The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Schipper, Aafke M; Rombouts, Michiel; Snepvangers, Judith; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-01-15

    An operational method to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with groundwater use is currently lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). This paper outlines a method to calculate characterization factors that address the effects of groundwater extraction on the species richness of terrestrial vegetation. Characterization factors (CF) were derived for The Netherlands and consist of a fate and an effect part. The fate factor equals the change in drawdown due to a change in groundwater extraction and expresses the amount of time required for groundwater replenishment. It was obtained with a grid-specific steady-state groundwater flow model. Effect factors were obtained from groundwater level response curves of potential plant species richness, which was constructed based on the soil moisture requirements of 625 plant species. Depending on the initial groundwater level, effect factors range up to 9.2% loss of species per 10 cm of groundwater level decrease. The total Dutch CF for groundwater extraction depended on the value choices taken and ranged from 0.09 to 0.61 m(2)·yr/m(3). For tap water production, we showed that groundwater extraction can be responsible for up to 32% of the total terrestrial ecosystem damage. With the proposed approach, effects of groundwater extraction on terrestrial ecosystems can be systematically included in LCA.

  10. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors.

  11. Download - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...d 1 README README_e.html - 2 Registered plant list pgdbj_dna_marker_linkage_map_plant_species_list_en.zip (2...Policy | Contact Us Download - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Influence of different plant species on methane emissions from soil in a restored Swiss wetland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhullar, Gurbir S; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2014-01-01

    .... Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups--based on life form or productivity of the habitat...

  13. Mass spectrometry-based method to investigate the natural selectivity of sucrose as the sugar transport form for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hang; Wu, Yile; Liu, Wu; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Jinming; Zhao, Yufen

    2015-04-30

    Sucrose is the carbon skeletons and energy vector for plants, which is important for plants growth. Among thousands of disaccharides in Nature, why chose sucrose for plants? In this paper, we analyzed the intrinsic structural characteristics of four sucrose isomers with different glycosidic linkage by mass spectrometry (MS) technique. Our results show that sucrose has the most labile glycosidic bond compared with other three isomers, which is helpful for releasing glucose and fructose unit. Besides, sucrose has the most stable integral structure, which is hard to dehydrate and degrade into fragments through losing one or three even four-carbon units, just as its three isomers. In other words, sucrose is more easily holds an integral structure during the transport process, whenever it is necessary, and sucrose can be cleaved into glucose and fructose easily. Besides, we also investigate the internal relationship of sucrose with K(+) by tandem mass spectrometry and viscosity measurement. The related results have shown that the K(+) can stabilize sucrose to a greater extent than the Na(+). Furthermore, under the same conditions, K(+) ions reduce the viscosity of sucrose-water system much more than Na(+). These results suggest that K(+) is a better co-transporter for sucrose. Of course, the transport of sucrose in plants is a very complicated process, which is involved in many proteins. This paper directly accounts for the basic structure feature of sucrose, and the results discovered could provide the novel insight for the answer why Nature chose sucrose for plants.

  14. Two phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases coexist in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plant Ananas comosus. Isolation and characterization of the smaller 65 kDa form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Mariana; Rius, Sebastián Pablo; Podestá, Florencio Esteban

    2011-06-01

    Two phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 4.1.1.49) isoforms of 74 and 65 kDa were found to coexist in vivo in pineapple leaves, a constitutive Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plant. The 65 kDa form was not the result of proteolytic cleavage of the larger form since extraction methods reported to prevent PEPCK proteolysis in other plant tissues failed to yield a single immunoreactive PEPCK polypeptide in leaf extracts. In this work, the smaller form of 65 kDa was purified to homogeneity and physically and kinetically characterized and showed parameters compatible with a fully active enzyme. The specific activity was nearly twice higher for decarboxylation of oxaloacetate when compared to carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. Kinetic parameters fell within the range of those estimated for other plant PEPCKs. Its activity was affected by several metabolites, as shown by inhibition by 3-phosphoglycerate, citrate, malate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, l-asparagine and activation of the decarboxylating activity by succinate. A break in the Arrhenius plot at about 30°C indicates that PEPCK structure is responsive to changes in temperature. The results indicate that pineapple leaves contain two PEPCK forms. The biochemical characterization of the smaller isoform performed in this work suggests that it could participate in both carbon and nitrogen metabolism in vivo by acting as a decarboxylase.

  15. Disentangling Facilitation Along the Life Cycle: Impacts of Plant–Plant Interactions at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages in a Mediterranean Forb

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cervigón, Ana I.; Iriondo, José M.; Linares, Juan C.; Olano, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant–plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels, and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant–plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower, and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant–plant interactions. PMID:26904086

  16. The tragic actor: forms and transformations of narcissism in the life and work of Edouard Manet (1832-1883).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, K J

    1995-08-01

    This paper has explored some of the developmental factors and psychological conflicts that may have played a central role in the life of the French artistic revolutionary, Edouard Manet. A case is made that Manet suffered from a narcissistic personality disturbance based on considerable, albeit spurious, individuation in the face of failed separation. Preoedipal and oedipal conflicts are traced from the available biographical data. They suggest that Manet's lifelong yearning for approbation and inability to sustain mature object relationships derived from his quest for a loving, admiring father and a struggle against an enveloping, rejecting mother. Failed paternal identifications, persistent primal maternal identifications, excessive needs for selfobject affirmation, superficial but compulsive heterosexuality, and rejection of his own paternity appear to have been powerful forces within Manet that found expression in his life and creative products. Although painting enabled Manet to transcend some of his own characterological vulnerabilities, he remained a tormented personality quite destructive towards others and to himself. Understanding more fully the developmental impingements and facilitators of this "tragic actor" helps his audience gain a greater appreciation of his artistic contribution.

  17. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  18. Evaluation of new alternatives in wastewater treatment plants based on dynamic modelling and life cycle assessment (DM-LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinella de Faria, A B; Spérandio, M; Ahmadi, A; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2015-11-01

    With a view to quantifying the energy and environmental advantages of Urine Source-Separation (USS) combined with different treatment processes, five wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) scenarios were compared to a reference scenario using Dynamic Modelling (DM) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and an integrated DM-LCA framework was thus developed. Dynamic simulations were carried out in BioWin(®) in order to obtain a realistic evaluation of the dynamic behaviour and performance of plants under perturbation. LCA calculations were performed within Umberto(®) using the Ecoinvent database. A Python™ interface was used to integrate and convert simulation data and to introduce them into Umberto(®) to achieve a complete LCA evaluation comprising foreground and background processes. Comparisons between steady-state and dynamic simulations revealed the importance of considering dynamic aspects such as nutrient and flow peaks. The results of the evaluation highlighted the potential of the USS scenario for nutrient recovery whereas the Enhanced Primary Clarification (EPC) scenario gave increased biogas production and also notably decreased aeration consumption, leading to a positive energy balance. Both USS and EPC scenarios also showed increased stability of plant operation, with smaller daily averages of total nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, USS and EPC results demonstrated that the coupled USS + EPC scenario and its combinations with agricultural spreading of N-rich effluent and nitritation/anaerobic deammonification could present an energy-positive balance with respectively 27% and 33% lower energy requirements and an increase in biogas production of 23%, compared to the reference scenario. The coupled scenarios also presented lesser environmental impacts (reduction of 31% and 39% in total endpoint impacts) along with effluent quality well within the specified limits. The marked environmental performance (reduction of global warming) when nitrogen is used

  19. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as nat

  20. Effects of growth form and functional traits on response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, R M; Zanne, A E; Gallagher, R V; Cornwell, W; Rossetto, M; O'Connor, P; Parkes, E A; Catterall, C F; Laffan, S W; Lusk, C H

    2013-12-01

    The conservation implications of large-scale rainforest clearing and fragmentation on the persistence of functional and taxonomic diversity remain poorly understood. If traits represent adaptive strategies of plant species to particular circumstances, the expectation is that the effect of forest clearing and fragmentation will be affected by species functional traits, particularly those related to dispersal. We used species occurrence data for woody plants in 46 rainforest patches across 75,000 ha largely cleared of forest by the early 1900s to determine the combined effects of area reduction, fragmentation, and patch size on the taxonomic structure and functional diversity of subtropical rainforest. We compiled species trait values for leaf area, seed dry mass, wood density, and maximum height and calculated species niche breadths. Taxonomic structure, trait values (means, ranges), and the functional diversity of assemblages of climbing and free-standing plants in remnant patches were quantified. Larger rainforest patches had higher species richness. Species in smaller patches were taxonomically less related than species in larger patches. Free-standing plants had a high percentage of frugivore dispersed seeds; climbers had a high proportion of small wind-dispersed seeds. Connections between the patchy spatial distribution of free-standing species, larger seed sizes, and dispersal syndrome were weak. Assemblages of free-standing plants in patches showed more taxonomic and spatial structuring than climbing plants. Smaller isolated patches retained relatively high functional diversity and similar taxonomic structure to larger tracts of forest despite lower species richness. The response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest differed between climbers and slow-growing mature-phase forest trees but not between climbers and pioneer trees. Quantifying taxonomic structure and functional diversity provides an improved basis for

  1. Short-form mindfulness-based stress reduction reduces anxiety and improves health-related quality of life in an inner-city population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Metzker, Kathleen; Waite, Roberta; Gerrity, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction is a mindfulness-based intervention that is an effective treatment modality for many conditions including stress, anxiety, and depression. Using data from 23 patients who completed a short-form mindfulness-based stress reduction course at a federally qualified health center, a quasi-experimental design was used to assess the impact of participation on self-reported anxiety, stress, mindfulness, and quality of life. Mindfulness and stress showed improvements from pre- to posttests, but neither difference achieved statistical significance. Participants showed statistically significant decreases in anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale score: 7.8-4.4; P = .005) and improvements in health-related quality of life including the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Mental Component Summary (+9.1; P = .001), Physical Functioning (+6.6; P = .039), Vitality (+16.1; P = .001), Social Functioning (+16.9; P = .003), Role Physical (+16.8; P = .016), and Mental Health (+15.6; P improve quality of life in an underserved population.

  2. 绘本阅读与儿童生命意识的建立%Picture Story Book and the Forming of Life Consciousness of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘多灵

    2014-01-01

    The forming of life consciousness cannot resort to cognition,but can only resort to experience. Immediacy of picture sto-ry book,imagery of children's aesthetic psychological and emotion of life education are highly fit. Therefore,the picture story book on the two major themes of love and death,can play an important role in the process of forming life consciousness of children.%生命意识的建立不能诉诸于认知,只能诉诸于体验。绘本以图画为主要表意媒介的直观性特点,与儿童审美接受心理的形象性和生命教育的情感性,三者高度契合。绘本对爱和死两大主题的表现,在儿童生命意识建立的过程中发挥着重要的作用。

  3. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  4. QTL list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...Policy | Contact Us QTL list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  5. License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: ... PGDBj Registered plan... Policy | Contact Us License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods

  6. Database Description - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d and funding Name: Database Integration Coordination Program (FY2011-FY2013) Integration of plant databases...ency (JST) Reference(s) Article title: Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj): A Portal Website for the Integ...ration of Plant Genome-Related Databases Author name(s): Erika Asamizu, Hisako Ichi

  7. Enhancing filterability of activated sludge from landfill leachate treatment plant by applying electrical field ineffective on bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Gulizar Kurtoglu; Sekman, Elif; Top, Selin; Sagir, Ece; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Guvenc, Senem Yazici

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study is to investigate filterability enhancement of activated sludge supplied form a full-scale leachate treatment plant by applying DC electric field while keeping the biological operational conditions in desirable range. The activated sludge samples were received from the nitrification tank in the leachate treatment plant of Istanbul's Odayeri Sanitary Landfill Site. Experimental sets were conducted as laboratory-scale batch studies and were duplicated for 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A of electrical currents and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min of exposure times under continuous aeration. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, and oxidation reduction potential in the mixture right after each experimental set and biochemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen in supernatant were analyzed to define the sets that remain in the range of ideal biological operational conditions. Later on, sludge filterability properties such as capillary suction time, specific resistance to filtration, zeta potential, and particle size were measured for remaining harmless sets. Additionally, cost analyses were conducted in respect to energy and electrode consumptions. Application of 2A DC electric field and 15-min exposure time was found to be the most favorable conditions to enhance filterability of the landfill leachate-activated sludge.

  8. Kleiber's Law: How the Fire of Life ignited debate, fueled theory, and neglected plants as model organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Size is a key feature of any organism since it influences the rate at which resources are consumed and thus affects metabolic rates. In the 1930s, size-dependent relationships were codified as “allometry” and it was shown that most of these could be quantified using the slopes of log-log plots of any 2 variables of interest. During the decades that followed, physiologists explored how animal respiration rates varied as a function of body size across taxa. The expectation was that rates would scale as the 2/3 power of body size as a reflection of the Euclidean relationship between surface area and volume. However, the work of Max Kleiber (1893–1976) and others revealed that animal respiration rates apparently scale more closely as the 3/4 power of body size. This phenomenology, which is called “Kleiber's Law,” has been described for a broad range of organisms, including some algae and plants. It has also been severely criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. Here, we review the history of the analysis of metabolism, which originated with the works of Antoine L. Lavoisier (1743–1794) and Julius Sachs (1832–1897), and culminated in Kleiber's book The Fire of Life (1961; 2. ed. 1975). We then evaluate some of the criticisms that have been leveled against Kleiber's Law and some examples of the theories that have tried to explain it. We revive the speculation that intracellular exo- and endocytotic processes are resource delivery-systems, analogous to the supercellular systems in multicellular organisms. Finally, we present data that cast doubt on the existence of a single scaling relationship between growth and body size in plants. PMID:26156204

  9. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae and consequences for adult life history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae and consequences for adult life history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  11. Translation, cultural adaptation assessment, and both validity and reliability testing of the kidney disease quality of life - short form version 1.3 for use with Iranian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Mølsted, Stig

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the study were to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) questionnaire into Iranian (Farsi), and to then assess it in terms of validity and reliability on Iranian patients. METHODS: The questionnaire was first translated into Farsi...... a larger group (212 patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis). Afterwards, reliability was estimated by internal consistency, and validity was assessed using known group comparisons and constructs for the patient group as a whole. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire...

  12. Occurrence and Forms of Water and Ice on the Earth and Beyond, and the Origin(s) of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The natural history of the biogenic elements (H,C,O,N) from their first association within cold molecular clouds to their delivery to the Earth during the late bombardment of the inner solar system, is intimately linked to water ice. The earliest organic compounds are formed in cold interstellar molecular clouds as a result of UV and thermal processing of sub-micrometer ice grains which contain trapped carbon and nitrogen molecules. Structural changes in the water ice host underlie and fundamentally control important macroscopic phenomena such as the outgassing of volatiles, the rates of chemical reactions, and processing and retention of organic compounds. Prebiotic organic material was in all likelihood delivered the early Earth in a pristine state as a consequence of its sequestration within a protective water ice host.

  13. How to address data gaps in life cycle inventories: a case study on estimating CO2 emissions from coal-fired electricity plants on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Venkatesh, Aranya; Hauck, Mara; Schipper, Aafke M; Karuppiah, Ramkumar; Laurenzi, Ian J; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-05-06

    One of the major challenges in life cycle assessment (LCA) is the availability and quality of data used to develop models and to make appropriate recommendations. Approximations and assumptions are often made if appropriate data are not readily available. However, these proxies may introduce uncertainty into the results. A regression model framework may be employed to assess missing data in LCAs of products and processes. In this study, we develop such a regression-based framework to estimate CO2 emission factors associated with coal power plants in the absence of reported data. Our framework hypothesizes that emissions from coal power plants can be explained by plant-specific factors (predictors) that include steam pressure, total capacity, plant age, fuel type, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of the resident nations of those plants. Using reported emission data for 444 plants worldwide, plant level CO2 emission factors were fitted to the selected predictors by a multiple linear regression model and a local linear regression model. The validated models were then applied to 764 coal power plants worldwide, for which no reported data were available. Cumulatively, available reported data and our predictions together account for 74% of the total world's coal-fired power generation capacity.

  14. Toward a better δDalkanes paleoclimate proxy; Partitioning of seasonal water sources and xylem-leaf deuterium enrichment according to plant growth form and phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wispelaere, Lien; Bodé, Samuel; Herve-Fernández, Pedro; Hemp, Andreas; Verschuren, Dirk; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    -water deuterium enrichment, averaged over all plant species, sites and seasons equals 23 ± 27‰. Several factors influence the isotopic enrichment between xylem and leaf water, but according to our results, the growth form and phenology of plant species are the primary factors, while the location (proximity to the lake) and season exert relatively minor effects.

  15. Food plants and life histories of sawflies of the families Argidae and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera in Costa Rica, a supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food plants and information on life history are presented for six species of Argidae and four species of Tenthredinidae in Costa Rica. The Argidae include cocoons of Atomacera josefernandezi Smith, sp. n., found on Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae and likely feeding on its leaves before pupation, and larvae of Eriglenum tristum Smith feeding on Machaerium seemanii Benth. Ex Seem. (Fabaceae, Ptenos leucopodus (Cameron feeding on Inga oerstediana Benth. and I. vera Willd. (Fabaceae, Ptilia peleterii (Gray feeding on Cnestidium rufescens (Connaraceae, and Scobina lepida (Klug and S. notaticollis (Konow feeding on Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae. The Tenthredinidae include larvae of Dochmioglene crassa (Cameron feeding on the fern Lomariopsis vestita E. Fourn. (Lomariopsidaceeae, Dochmiogleme Smith03 feeding on Blechnum occidentale L. (Blechnaceae, Waldheimia laeta (Cameron feeding on Cissus alata Jacq. (Vitaceae, and Waldheimia lucianocapellii Smith, sp. n., feeding on Davilla nitida (Vahl Kubitzki (Dilleniaceae. Waldheimia lucianocapellii is described from specimens from both Panama and Costa Rica. Selandria crassa Cameron, 1883 is a comb. n. in Dochmioglene.

  16. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  17. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  18. Gravity control of growth form in brassica rapa and arabidopsis thaliana (brassicaceae): consequences for secondary metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J.; Bisbee, P.A.; Darnell, R.L.; Kuang, A.; Levine, L.H.; Musgrave, M.E.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    How gravity influences the growth form and flavor components of plants is of interest to the space program because plants could be used for food and life support during prolonged missions away from the planet, where that constant feature of Earth’s environment does not prevail. We used plant growth

  19. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  20. EFFECTS OF CALCIUM FORMS ON ELECTROLYTE LEAKAGE, TOTAL NITROGEN, YIELD AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION BY STRAWBERRY PLANTS UNDER NACL SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi KHAYYAT

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. plants cv. Selva was grown in soilless culture under greenhouse conditions to present the effects of application of supplementary calcium combined with nutrient solution on plants grown under NaCl (35 mmol salinity. Treatments: (1 Commercial nutrient solution or control; (2 the addition of NaCl (35 mmol; (3 NaCl (35 mmol + CaCl2 (5 mmol; (4 NaCl (35 mmol + CaCl2 (10 mmol; (5 NaCl (35 mmol + CaSO4 (5 mmol; (6 NaCl (35 mmol +CaSO4 (10 mmol. Data showed that NaCl stress strongly decreased leaf and runner number, flower production, fruit set, shoot and root fresh weight, total yield and calcium contents of root. On the other hand, it was found that calcium salts had an impact on negative effects of NaCl stress on these variables and reduced it. These results showed that calcium sulfate was better than calcium chloride ameliorating the negative effects of NaCl salinity on this cultivar.

  1. Influence of Different Plant Species on Methane Emissions from Soil in a Restored Swiss Wetland: e89588

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurbir S Bhullar; Peter J Edwards; Harry Olde Venterink

    2014-01-01

    .... Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups - based on life form or productivity of the habitat...

  2. Update History of This Database - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...f This Database Date Update contents 2014/10/10 PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB... link & Genome analysis methods English archive site is opened. 2012/08/08 PGDBj Registered... Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - PGDBj Registered plant lis

  3. Adaptive strategies against drought stress of six plant species with different growth forms from karst habitats of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Guo, K.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Frequent temporary drought in the rain season, as well as long-term drought in the dry season, is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats of southwestern China. The morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of six native woody plant species were investigated under both temporary and prolonged drought stress. The six plant species included Pyracantha fortuneana (evergreen shrub), Rosa cymosa (deciduous shrub), Cinnamomum bodinieri (evergreen tree), and other three deciduous trees, Broussonetia papyrifera, Platycarya longipes and Pteroceltis tatarinowii. Under severe drought stress, the two shrubs with low leaf area ratio (LAR) maintained higher water status, higher photosynthetic capacity and larger percent biomass increase than the most of the trees, owing to their lower specific leaf area, higher intrinsic water use efficiency and thermal dissipation, and higher capacities of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant protection. The evergreen tree, C. bodinieri, exhibited small decrease of water potential and maintained higher leaf mass ratio (LMR) and LAR than the deciduous species under moderate drought stress, due to the high proline accumulation and high activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, it showed high levels of cellular damages, very low photosynthetic capacity, and sharp decreases of water potential and biomass under severe drought stress. After rewatering, C. bodinieri showed a lower ability to recover from severe drought with the successive repeats of severe drought event. The three deciduous trees developed high root mass ratio for maximizing water uptake, and showed higher LAR and biomass than the two shrubs under well-watered condition. However, drought stress resulted in sharp decreases of biomass in the three deciduous trees, which were attributed to the large drought-induced decreases of LMR, LAR and gas exchange. Under drought conditions, the deciduous trees

  4. Making Sense of Plant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Ciencia, Inc. created a new device, known as a Portable Photosynthesis Analyzer, or Phase Fluorometer, that provides real-time data about the photochemical efficiency of phytoplankton and other plant forms. The commercial version of this technology is used for photosynthesis research and offers major benefits to the field of life science. This new instrument is the first portable instrument of its kind. Through a license agreement with Ciencia, Oriel Instruments, of Stratford, Connecticut, manufactures and markets the commercial version of the instrument under the name LifeSense.TMLifeSense is a 70 MHz single-frequency fluorometer that offers unrivaled capabilities for fluorescence lifetime sensing and analysis. LifeSense provides information about all varieties of photosynthetic systems. Photosynthesis research contributes important health assessments about the plant, be it phytoplankton or a higher form of plant life. With its unique sensing capabilities, LifeSense furnishes data regarding the yield of a plant's photochemistry, as well as its levels of photosynthetic activity. The user can then gain an extremely accurate estimate of the plant's chlorophyll biomass, primary production rates, and a general overview of the plant's physiological condition.

  5. Engineering stategies and implications of using higher plants for throttling gas and water exchange in a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Corey, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering stategies for advanced life support systems to be used on Lunar and Mars bases involve a wide spectrum of approaches. These range from purely physical-chemical life support strategies to purely biological approaches. Within the context of biological based systems, a bioengineered system can be devised that would utilize the metabolic mechanisms of plants to control the rates of CO2 uptake and O2 evolution (photosynthesis) and water production (transpiration). Such a mechanism of external engineering control has become known as throttling. Research conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project has demonstrated the potential of throttling these fluxes by changing environmental parameters affecting the plant processes. Among the more effective environmental throttles are: light and CO2 concentration for controllingthe rate of photsynthesis and humidity and CO2 concentration for controlling transpiration. Such a bioengineered strategy implies control mechanisms that in the past have not been widely attributed to life support systems involving biological components and suggests a broad range of applications in advanced life support system design.

  6. Evaluation of the integrity and duration of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant life- Plant Life Management program (PLIM). TC MEX 04/53 Technical Cooperation Project; Evaluacion de la integridad y extension de vida de la planta de potencia nuclear Laguna Verde- Programa de manejo de vida de planta (PLIM). Proyecto de cooperacion tecnica TC MEX 04/53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Diaz S, A.; Aguilar T, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC MEX 04/53 Project 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Handling Program of plant' whose objective is the one of beginning the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of plant life in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central for to obtain the Renovation of License in 2020 the ININ, through the Department of Synthesis and Characterization of materials has carried out more of 20 analysis of susceptibility to the intergranular cracking for corrosion under effort in interns so much of the reactor of the unit 1 like of the unit 2 documenting the current state of components based on the type or types of materials that conform them, to it thermomechanical history, operational and of production, as well as of the particularities associated to its use and operation. For the application of the methodology of life handling of plant 5 structure systems or pilot components were selected, to carry out the programs of handling of the aging and handling of plant life: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the reactor pressure vessel (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the primary container (Primary Containment), the recirculation system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables. (Author)

  7. Interactions with the environment during plant sexual reproduction and dispersal consequences for the concept of sexual reproduction and life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, M.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between seed plants and animals during pollination and fruit and seed dispersal is well known, and marks the sexual reproduction process. During the history of the plant kingdom, the development of sexual reproduction has been governed by changes in the environment of the plant, toge

  8. Longlife thanks to Conlife. Service life monitoring of highly stressed power plant components; Longlife dank ConLife. Lebensdauerueberwachung hochbelasteter Anlagenteile im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaum, M. [Hartmann und Braun / Schoppe und Faeser GmbH, Minden (Germany); Nicolai, W. [Hartmann und Braun / Schoppe und Faeser GmbH, Minden (Germany); Weber, J. [Mannesmann Anlagenbau AG, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The `Technical Regulation for Steam Boilers` (TRD) require control and monitoring of high-temperature range components of power stations, in order to monitor component fatigue, for instance. Software requirements are explained. The ConLife software fulfills these requirements. Martin Kaum, Wolfgang Nicolai and Jochen Weber explain how ConLife can be used for analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die `Technischen Regeln fuer Dampfkessel` (TRD) schreiben fuer im Hochtemperaturbereich betriebene hochbeanspruchte Kraftwerkskomponenten Massnahmen zur Ueberwachung wie die rechnerische Verfolgung der Bauteilerschoepfung vor. Die Anforderungen an die dafuer verwendeten Software-Programme und deren Realisierung im Programm ConLife werden erlaeutert. Martin Kaum, Wolfgang Nicolai und Jochen Weber stellen zudem Analysemoeglichkeiten mit ConLife an einem Praxisbeispiel vor. (orig.)

  9. Modeling the influence of genetic and environmental variation on the expression of plant life cycles across landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Liana T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Wilczek, Amity M; Schmitt, Johanna; Donohue, Kathleen

    2015-02-01

    Organisms develop through multiple life stages that differ in environmental tolerances. The seasonal timing, or phenology, of life-stage transitions determines the environmental conditions to which each life stage is exposed and the length of time required to complete a generation. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to phenological variation, yet predicting their combined effect on life cycles across a geographic range remains a challenge. We linked submodels of the plasticity of individual life stages to create an integrated model that predicts life-cycle phenology in complex environments. We parameterized the model for Arabidopsis thaliana and simulated life cycles in four locations. We compared multiple "genotypes" by varying two parameters associated with natural genetic variation in phenology: seed dormancy and floral repression. The model predicted variation in life cycles across locations that qualitatively matches observed natural phenology. Seed dormancy had larger effects on life-cycle length than floral repression, and results suggest that a genetic cline in dormancy maintains a life-cycle length of 1 year across the geographic range of this species. By integrating across life stages, this approach demonstrates how genetic variation in one transition can influence subsequent transitions and the geographic distribution of life cycles more generally.

  10. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Núñez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae, Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae, Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae; the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae; the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae; rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae and Dracontium croatii (Araceae, and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae. After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 µg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 µg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g. All extracts (6.2-200 µg/mouse partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition, with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 µg/mouse also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection, the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  11. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C

    2004-07-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  12. A factor analytic study of the Italian National Institute of Health Quality of Life – Core Evaluation Form (ISSQoL-CEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lauriola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available M Lauriola1, R Murri3, M Massella4, M Mirra4, S Donnini4, V Fragola4, J Ivanovic5, M Pavoni6, G Mancini2, R Bucciardini41Department of Social and Developmental Psychology, 2Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Catholic University of “Sacro Cuore”, Rome, Italy; 4Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; 5National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy; 6Ospedale Civile Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, ItalyObjectives: The Italian National Institute of Health Quality of Life – Core Evaluation Form (ISSQoL-CEF is a specific questionnaire measuring health-related quality of life for human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The main goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of this questionnaire by confirmation of its hypothesized dimensional structure.Methods: Baseline quality of life data from four clinical studies were collected and a confirmatory factor analysis of the ISSQoL-CEF items was carried out. Both first-order and secondorder factor models were tested: Model 1 with nine correlated first-order factors; Model 2 with three correlated second-order factors (Physical, Mental, and Social Health; Model 3 with two correlated second-order factors (Physical and Mental/Social Health; Model 4 with only one second-order factor (General Health.Results: A total of 261 patients were surveyed. Model 1 had a good fit to the data. Model 2 had an acceptable fit to the data and it was the best of all hierarchical models. However, Model 2 fitted the data worse than Model 1.Conclusions: The findings of in this study, consistent with the results of previous study, pointed out the construct validity of the ISSQoL-CEF.Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis, HRQoL, patient-reported outcomes

  13. Contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity responses to forest modifications: comparisons of taxa and successive plant life stages in South African scarp forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Ingo; Brandl, Roland; Botzat, Alexandra; Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Farwig, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of natural forests to modified forests threatens subtropical and tropical biodiversity worldwide. Yet, species responses to forest modification vary considerably. Furthermore, effects of forest modification can differ, whether with respect to diversity components (taxonomic or phylogenetic) or to local (α-diversity) and regional (β-diversity) spatial scales. This real-world complexity has so far hampered our understanding of subtropical and tropical biodiversity patterns in human-modified forest landscapes. In a subtropical South African forest landscape, we studied the responses of three successive plant life stages (adult trees, saplings, seedlings) and of birds to five different types of forest modification distinguished by the degree of within-forest disturbance and forest loss. Responses of the two taxa differed markedly. Thus, the taxonomic α-diversity of birds was negatively correlated with the diversity of all plant life stages and, contrary to plant diversity, increased with forest disturbance. Conversely, forest disturbance reduced the phylogenetic α-diversity of all plant life stages but not that of birds. Forest loss neither affected taxonomic nor phylogenetic diversity of any taxon. On the regional scale, taxonomic but not phylogenetic β-diversity of both taxa was well predicted by variation in forest disturbance and forest loss. In contrast to adult trees, the phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings showed signs of contemporary environmental filtering. In conclusion, forest modification in this subtropical landscape strongly shaped both local and regional biodiversity but with contrasting outcomes. Phylogenetic diversity of plants may be more threatened than that of mobile species such as birds. The reduced phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings suggests losses in biodiversity that are not visible in adult trees, potentially indicating time-lags and contemporary shifts in forest regeneration. The different

  14. Contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity responses to forest modifications: comparisons of taxa and successive plant life stages in South African scarp forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Grass

    Full Text Available The degradation of natural forests to modified forests threatens subtropical and tropical biodiversity worldwide. Yet, species responses to forest modification vary considerably. Furthermore, effects of forest modification can differ, whether with respect to diversity components (taxonomic or phylogenetic or to local (α-diversity and regional (β-diversity spatial scales. This real-world complexity has so far hampered our understanding of subtropical and tropical biodiversity patterns in human-modified forest landscapes. In a subtropical South African forest landscape, we studied the responses of three successive plant life stages (adult trees, saplings, seedlings and of birds to five different types of forest modification distinguished by the degree of within-forest disturbance and forest loss. Responses of the two taxa differed markedly. Thus, the taxonomic α-diversity of birds was negatively correlated with the diversity of all plant life stages and, contrary to plant diversity, increased with forest disturbance. Conversely, forest disturbance reduced the phylogenetic α-diversity of all plant life stages but not that of birds. Forest loss neither affected taxonomic nor phylogenetic diversity of any taxon. On the regional scale, taxonomic but not phylogenetic β-diversity of both taxa was well predicted by variation in forest disturbance and forest loss. In contrast to adult trees, the phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings showed signs of contemporary environmental filtering. In conclusion, forest modification in this subtropical landscape strongly shaped both local and regional biodiversity but with contrasting outcomes. Phylogenetic diversity of plants may be more threatened than that of mobile species such as birds. The reduced phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings suggests losses in biodiversity that are not visible in adult trees, potentially indicating time-lags and contemporary shifts in forest regeneration. The

  15. Genome analysis methods - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PGDBj Registered...ear Year of genome analysis Sequencing method Sequencing method Read counts Read counts Covered genome region Covered...otation method Number of predicted genes Number of predicted genes Genome database Genome database informati... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Genome analysis... methods - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Initial construct cross-cultural validation of the Short Form 36 for quality of life assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumboo, J; Fong, K Y; Ng, T P; Leong, K H; Feng, P H; Boey, M L

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire measures differences in quality of life between lupus patients and healthy controls in Singapore. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on consecutive English-speaking, female Chinese lupus patients seen at a Rheumatology unit. Healthy volunteers were recruited as controls during the same time period. All subjects completed the United Kingdom version of the SF-36. Lupus disease activity was assessed using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and converted to a global score. Lupus-related damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACRDI). The main outcomes measured were the mean SF-36 scale scores for lupus patients and healthy controls. Thirty-six lupus patients and 76 controls were included in the study. All subjects were English-speaking, Chinese female between 21 and 53 years of age. The mean age of patients and controls was 31.9 and 29.0 years respectively. Lupus patients had lower mean scale scores than controls for physical functioning (73.0 versus 89.7, P SF-36 Health Survey may be able to measure differences in quality of life between lupus patients and healthy controls in Singapore.

  17. Instrument detects bacterial life forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, C.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

  18. Nutritional form for the elderly is a reliable and valid instrument for the determination of undernutrition risk, and it is associated with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Tímea; Kertész, Krisztina; Csíkos, Agnes; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2008-02-01

    Undernutrition is a common problem associated with clinical complications such as impaired immune response, reduced muscle strength, impaired wound healing, and susceptibility to infections; therefore, it is an important treatment target to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with chronic diseases and aging. The aim of the present study was to apply a reliable and valid instrument for the determination of undernutrition risk in an in-hospital patient population and to describe possible associations between risk of undernutrition and some aspects of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic diseases. Fifty-six adult patients with different chronic diseases were interviewed with NUFFE questionnaire and the EQ-5D. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Reliability and validity of the NUFFE instrument was tested, and its correlation with EQ-5D was calculated. Euro-Qol scores correlated significantly with the total NUFFE scores and with the items constructing the most important factor of the instrument, explaining 53.74% of its variance. Nutritional form for the elderly was shown to be a reliable instrument in the study group because its internal consistency measured by Cronbach alpha was 0.62, and the item-total score correlations were significant for the half of the items. Criterion-related validity, concurrent validity, and construct validity of NUFFE were established. We have shown that impaired level of health-related quality of life is an important determinant of risk for undernutrition. Nutritional form for the elderly is an appropriate instrument to estimate undernutrition risk in a general, in-hospital patient population with various chronic diseases and to identify "at risk" patients who may benefit from professional dietary interventions to reduce undernutrition-related complications.

  19. Ammonium as a driving force of plant diversity and ecosystem functioning: observations based on 5 years' manipulation of N dose and form in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Teresa; Clemente, Adelaide; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Sheppard, Lucy; Bobbink, Roland; Cruz, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced nitrogen (N) availability is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystem functions. However, in very nutrient-poor ecosystems, enhanced N input can, in the short-term, promote diversity. Mediterranean Basin ecosystems are nutrient-limited biodiversity hotspots, but no information is available on their medium- or long-term responses to enhanced N input. Since 2007, we have been manipulating the form and dose of available N in a Mediterranean Basin maquis in south-western Europe that has low ambient N deposition (plant composition and diversity (richness and evenness) and some ecosystem characteristics (soil extractable N and organic matter, aboveground biomass and % of bare soil) were assessed. Plant species richness increased with enhanced N input and was more related to ammonium than to nitrate. Exposure to 40 kg NH4+-N ha(-1) yr(-1) (alone and with nitrate) enhanced plant richness, but did not increase aboveground biomass; soil extractable N even increased under 80 kg NH4NO3-N ha(-1) yr(-1) and the % of bare soil increased under 40 kg NH4+-N ha(-1) yr(-1). The treatment containing less ammonium, 40 kg NH4NO3-N ha(-1) yr(-1), did not enhance plant diversity but promoted aboveground biomass and reduced the % of bare soil. Data suggest that enhanced NHy availability affects the structure of the maquis, which may promote soil erosion and N leakage, whereas enhanced NOx availability leads to biomass accumulation which may increase the fire risk. These observations are relevant for land use management in biodiverse and fragmented ecosystems such as the maquis, especially in conservation areas.

  20. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  1. Role of scab-resistant apple varieties in forming assortment of new industrial apple plantings (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Д. Гончарук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identifying new scab-resistant apple varieties with high biological potential by the set of agronomic characters and the ability to realize it effectively in various soil and climatic conditions. Methods. Field, laboratory, comparison, generalization, statistical ones. Results. The author presents the results of study of 17 scab-resistant non-irrigated apple varieties on a semi-dwarf rootstock as to their adaptability to biotic and abio­tic stressors as well as their economic productivity. The studied varieties appeared to be winter-hardy, frost- and heat-resistant, but medium drought-tolerant ones. They are characterized by weak and moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew, high resistance to fruit rot and very low amounts of brown spot, except for Gold Rush variety. Such 10 year old varieties as ‘Edera’, Florina’, ‘Amulet’ and ‘Perlyna Kyieva’ and 8 year old ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Orlovskoie Polesie’ and ‘Topaz’ formed the highest productivity during the years of study. Due to the pollen quality and high interfertility, ‘Revena’ and ‘Gold Rush’ varieties were identified as universal pollinators for winter scab-resistant apple varieties. Conclusions. Such ecologically resistant winter varieties as ‘Topaz’, ‘Freedom’, ‘Edera’ and autumnal ‘Remo’, ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Amulet’ were recognized as promising for new intensive non-irrigated plantations in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. They can be the basis of new gardens occupying 25–30% of the area where ecologically safe fruits for various target purposes will be grown supplying demands of the population and processing industry.

  2. Evaluation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale and Its Short Form in Systemic Sclerosis: Analysis from the UCLA Scleroderma Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Merz, Erin L; Clements, Philip J; Kafaja, Suzanne; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-09-01

    Changes in appearance are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can significantly affect well-being. The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) measures body image dissatisfaction in persons with visible disfigurement; the Brief-Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (Brief-SWAP) is its short form. The present study evaluated the reliability and validity of SWAP and Brief-SWAP scores in SSc. A sample of 207 patients with SSc participating in the University of California, Los Angeles Scleroderma Quality of Life Study completed the SWAP. Brief-SWAP scores were derived from the SWAP. The structural validity of both measures was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability of total and subscale scores was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Convergent and divergent validity was evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire. SWAP and Brief-SWAP total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.97). The 4-factor structure of the SWAP fit well descriptively; the 2-factor structure of the Brief-SWAP fit well descriptively and statistically. Internal consistencies for total and subscale scores were good, and results supported convergent and divergent validity. Both versions are suitable for use in patients with SSc. The Brief-SWAP is most efficient; the full SWAP yields additional subscales that may be informative in understanding body image issues in patients with SSc.

  3. Development of an efficient in vitro transcription system for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei reveals life cycle-independent functionality of class I transcription factor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Nguyen, Tu N; Günzl, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites possess extremely divergent transcription factors whose identification typically relied on biochemical, structural and functional analyses because they could not be identified by standard sequence analysis. For example, subunits of the Trypanosoma brucei mediator and class I transcription factor A (CITFA) have no sequence resemblance to putative counterparts in higher eukaryotes. Therefore, homologous in vitro transcription systems have been crucial in evaluating the transcriptional roles of T. brucei proteins but so far such systems have been restricted to the insect-stage, procyclic form (PF) of the parasite. Here, we report the development of a homologous system for the mammalian-infective, bloodstream form (BF) of T. brucei which supports accurately initiated transcription from three different RNA polymerase (pol) I promoters as well as from the RNA pol II-recruiting spliced leader RNA gene promoter. The system is based on a small scale extract preparation procedure which accommodates the low cell densities obtainable in BF culture. BF and PF systems behave surprisingly similar and we show that the CITFA complex purified from procyclic extract is fully functional in the BF system indicating that the transcriptional machinery in general is equivalent in both life cycle stages. A notable difference, however, was observed with the RNA pol I-recruiting GPEET procyclin promoter whose reduced promoter strength and increased sensitivity to manganese ions in the BF system suggests the presence of a specific transcriptional activator in the PF system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Suitability of ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Renee S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum

  5. Structural validity of a 16-item abridged version of the Cervantes Health-Related Quality of Life scale for menopause: the Cervantes Short-Form Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Borrego, Rafael Sánchez; Palacios, Santiago; Ruiz, Miguel A; Rejas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    The Cervantes Scale is a specific health-related quality of life questionnaire that was originally developed in Spanish to be used in Spain for women through and beyond menopause. It contains 31 items and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to produce an abridged version with the same dimensional structure and with similar psychometric properties. A representative sample of 516 postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 57 [4.31] y) seen in outpatient gynecology clinics and extracted from an observational cross-sectional study was used. Item analysis, internal consistency reliability, item-total and item-dimension correlations, and item correlation with the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Version 2.0 were studied. Dimensional and full-model confirmatory factor analyses were used to check structure stability. A threefold cross-validation method was used to obtain stable estimates by means of multigroup analysis. The scale was reduced to a 16-item version, the Cervantes Short-Form Scale, containing four main dimensions (Menopause and Health, Psychological, Sexuality, and Couple Relations), with the first dimension composed of three subdimensions (Vasomotor Symptoms, Health, and Aging). Goodness-of-fit statistics were better than those of the extended version (χ(2)/df = 2.493; adjusted goodness-of-fit index, 0.802; parsimony comparative fit index, 0.749; root mean standard error of approximation, 0.054). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α = 0.880). Correlations between the extended and the reduced dimensions were high and significant in all cases (P < 0.001; r values ranged from 0.90 for Sexuality to 0.969 for Vasomotor Symptoms). The Cervantes Scale can be reduced to a 16-item abridged version (Cervantes Short-Form Scale) that maintains the original dimensional structure and psychometric properties. At 51% of the original length, this version can be administered faster, making it especially suitable for routine medical practice.

  6. Local above-ground persistence of vascular plants : Life-history trade-offs and environmental constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, Wim A.; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Schaminee, Joop H. J.; Smits, Nina A. C.; Bekker, Renee M.; Roemermann, Christine; Klimes, Leos; Bakker, Jan P.; van Groenendael, Jan M.

    2007-01-01

    Questions: 1. Which plant traits and habitat characteristics best explain local above-ground persistence of vascular plant species and 2. Is there a trade-off between local above-ground persistence and the ability for seed dispersal and below-ground persistence in the soil seed bank? Locations: 845

  7. Local above-ground persistence of vascular plants: life-history trade-offs and environmental constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, W.A.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Smits, N.A.C.; Bekker, R.M.; Römermann, C.; Bakker, J.P.; Groenendael, van J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Questions: 1. Which plant traits and habitat characteristics best explain local above-ground persistence of vascular plant species and 2. Is there a trade-off between local above-ground persistence and the ability for seed dispersal and below-ground persistence in the soil seed bank? Locations: 845

  8. Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd ElHafeez Samar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients. Methods KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4 patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed. Results All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α TM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance. Conclusion The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.

  9. Chasing the Origin of Viruses: Capsid-Forming Genes as a Life-Saving Preadaptation within a Community of Early Replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalasvuori, Matti; Mattila, Sari; Hoikkala, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids mediate the transfer of viral genetic information from one cell to another, thus the origin of the first viruses arguably coincides with the origin of the viral capsid. Capsid genes are evolutionarily ancient and their emergence potentially predated even the origin of first free-living cells. But does the origin of the capsid coincide with the origin of viruses, or is it possible that capsid-like functionalities emerged before the appearance of true viral entities? We set to investigate this question by using a computational simulator comprising primitive replicators and replication parasites within a compartment matrix. We observe that systems with no horizontal gene transfer between compartments collapse due to the rapidly emerging replication parasites. However, introduction of capsid-like genes that induce the movement of randomly selected genes from one compartment to another rescues life by providing the non-parasitic replicators a mean to escape their current compartments before the emergence of replication parasites. Capsid-forming genes can mediate the establishment of a stable meta-population where parasites cause only local tragedies but cannot overtake the whole community. The long-term survival of replicators is dependent on the frequency of horizontal transfer events, as systems with either too much or too little genetic exchange are doomed to succumb to replication-parasites. This study provides a possible scenario for explaining the origin of viral capsids before the emergence of genuine viruses: in the absence of other means of horizontal gene transfer between compartments, evolution of capsid-like functionalities may have been necessary for early life to prevail.

  10. Rhizosphere chemical dialogues: plant-microbe interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badri, D.V.; van der Lelie, D.; Weir, T. L.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Every organism on earth relies on associations with its neighbors to sustain life. For example, plants form associations with neighboring plants, microflora, and microfauna, while humans maintain symbiotic associations with intestinal microbial flora, which is indispensable for nutrient assimilation and development of the innate immune system. Most of these associations are facilitated by chemical cues exchanged between the host and the symbionts. In the rhizosphere, which includes plant roots and the surrounding area of soil influenced by the roots, plants exude chemicals to effectively communicate with their neighboring soil organisms. Here we review the current literature pertaining to the chemical communication that exists between plants and microorganisms and the biological processes they sustain.

  11. Green-house gas mitigation capacity of a small scale rural biogas plant calculations for Bangladesh through a general life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khondokar M; Melville, Lynsey; Fulford, David; Huq, Sm Imamul

    2017-08-01

    Calculations towards determining the greenhouse gas mitigation capacity of a small-scale biogas plant (3.2 m(3) plant) using cow dung in Bangladesh are presented. A general life cycle assessment was used, evaluating key parameters (biogas, methane, construction materials and feedstock demands) to determine the net environmental impact. The global warming potential saving through the use of biogas as a cooking fuel is reduced from 0.40 kg CO2 equivalent to 0.064 kg CO2 equivalent per kilogram of dung. Biomethane used for cooking can contribute towards mitigation of global warming. Prior to utilisation of the global warming potential of methane (from 3.2 m(3) biogas plant), the global warming potential is 13 t of carbon dioxide equivalent. This reduced to 2 t as a result of complete combustion of methane. The global warming potential saving of a bioenergy plant across a 20-year life cycle is 217 t of carbon dioxide equivalent, which is 11 t per year. The global warming potential of the resultant digestate is zero and from construction materials is less than 1% of total global warming potential. When the biogas is used as a fuel for cooking, the global warming potential will reduce by 83% compare with the traditional wood biomass cooking system. The total 80 MJ of energy that can be produced from a 3.2 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant would replace 1.9 t of fuel wood or 632 kg of kerosene currently used annually in Bangladesh. The digestate can also be used as a nutrient rich fertiliser substituting more costly inorganic fertilisers, with no global warming potential impact.

  12. 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and derivatives formed during acid hydrolysis of conjugated and bound phenolics in plant foods and the effects on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Marcone, Massimo F; Li, Xihong; Tsao, Rong

    2014-05-21

    A common protocol for the extraction of phenolic aglycons or bound phenolics in plants generally involves hydrothermal hydrolysis in an aqueous methanol or ethanol solution containing 2-4 N HCl. However, as shown in the present study, this process also forms 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde (HMF) and its derivative products 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde (MMF) and 5-(ethoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde (EMF), as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and NMR. These compounds are commonly misidentified as phenolics due to similar UV absorption at 280 nm. In this study, production of HMF, MMF, and EMF was shown to be dependent on the solvent condition and duration and temperature of hydrolysis. Fruits and vegetables produced HMF more readily than grains. HMF and its derivatives were subjected to various spectrophotometric antioxidant assays [2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC)] and displayed antioxidant activity mainly in the ORAC assay. Results of this study help avoid overestimation of phenolic content and antioxidant activities of plant foods.

  13. The altitudinal patterns of leaf C∶N∶P stoichiometry are regulated by plant growth form, climate and soil on Changbai Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Ruili; Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the geographic patterns and potential drivers of leaf stoichiometry is critical for modelling the nutrient fluxes of ecosystems and to predict the responses of ecosystems to global changes. This study aimed to explore the altitudinal patterns and potential drivers of leaf C∶N∶P stoichiometry. We measured the concentrations of leaf C, N and P in 175 plant species as well as soil nutrient concentrations along an altitudinal transect (500-2300 m) on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, China to explore the response of leaf C∶N∶P stoichiometry to plant growth form (PGF), climate and soil. Leaf C, N, P and C∶N∶P ratios showed significant altitudinal trends. In general, leaf C and C∶N∶P ratios increased while leaf N and P decreased with elevation. Woody and herbaceous species showed different responses to altitudinal gradients. Trees had the largest variation in leaf C, C∶N and C∶P ratios, while herbs showed the largest variation in leaf N, P and N∶P ratio. PGF, climate and soil jointly regulated leaf stoichiometry, explaining 17.6% to 52.1% of the variation in the six leaf stoichiometric traits. PGF was more important in explaining leaf stoichiometry variation than soil and climate. Our findings will help to elucidate the altitudinal patterns of leaf stoichiometry and to model ecosystem nutrient cycling.

  14. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  15. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant; Analisis de Ciclo de Vida de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales Municipales. Caso: PTARM de Yautepec (Morelos, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-05-13

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  16. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  17. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  18. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  19. Production characteristics of the "higher plants-soil-like substrate" system as an element of the bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Shihov, V. N.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100-1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the "higher plants - SLS" system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.

  20. Saúde e trabalho docente: a escola como produtora de novas formas de vida Teaching and health: the school as producer of new forms of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabeth Barros

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como tema as articulações saúde-trabalho docente. Apresenta uma experiência vivida numa escola municipal da rede de ensino da cidade de Vitória, no Espírito Santo. Pauta-se nas abordagens de G. Canguilhem, na ergonomia de linhagem francesa e na ergologia para realizar o processo de pesquisa-intervenção. Parte do princípio de que o vivido na escola afirma a perspectiva segundo a qual saúde é possibilidade de produzir novas normas, ou seja, novas formas de vida. Nessa direção de análise, buscou criar espaços de diálogo e tensionamento na escola para que outros modos de trabalhar, favorecedores de saúde, pudessem se instituir.This article focuses on the relationship between teaching and health. It presents an experience in a public school in Vitória, Espírito Santo. The intervention research was based on the ideas of G. Canguilhem, on French ergonomics, and on ergology. Its basic premise is that experience at school confirms the concept that health is the possibility of producing new norms, that is, new forms of life. In this sense, the research sought to produce dialogue and tension at school so that other health-promoting modes of work could be implemented.

  1. Life on a Changing Edge: Arctic-Alpine Plants at the Edges of Permanent Snowfields that are Receding Due to Climate Change at Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Martin, A. C.; Moritz, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and snowfields are intrinsic parts of many alpine landscapes but they are retreating rapidly at Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. Plants that inhabit the edges of glaciers and snowfields are vulnerable to habitat changes wrought by the recession of these frozen bodies. Snowfields provide plants with frost protection in the winter and water in the form of melting snow during the summer. However, changes in snowfield and glacial edges may leave plants exposed to frost in the winter and subjected to water stress in the summer, which would likely have an impact on important processes, including emergence from the soil, leaf expansion, root growth, flowering, seed germination, seedling establishment, photosynthesis, and transpiration. Because these processes influence the survival of plants, responses of snowfield plants to changing edges will likely result in changes in species abundance, distribution and diversity, which will in turn influence community composition. In summer 2012, we initiated a study of Glacier National Park's snowfield plants by establishing 2m2 plots at geospatially referenced 50m transects extending outwards from the toe and perpendicularly outward from the lateral edges of currently permanent snowfields at Siyeh Pass, Piegan Pass, and Preston Park, with an additional 100m transect extending from an impermanent snowfield to treeline at Mt. Clements near Logan Pass. We constructed species lists and determined percent cover for each species in each 2m2 plot, and used high resolution photographs of each plot as records and for fine scale determinations of species presence and location. In addition, we searched for rare arctic-alpine plants which, due to their rarity, may be especially vulnerable to changes in snowfields and glaciers. Two species of rare arctic-alpine plants, Tofieldia pusilla and Pinguicula vulgaris, were found near snowmelt-fed springs, rivulets, and tarns but were not found adjacent to the snowfields. Thus, they may

  2. Environmental life cycle assessment of a large-scale grid-connected PV power plant. Case study Moura 62 MW PV power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomalainen, Kiti

    2006-01-15

    An environmental life cycle assessment has been conducted for a 62 MW grid-connected photovoltaic installation to study the role of BOS components in the total environmental load. Also the influence of the current electricity supply has been investigated. For an alternative approach a net output approach has been used, where all electricity requirements are supplied by the photovoltaic installation itself. The components taken into account are monocrystalline silicon cells in frameless modules, steel support structures in concrete foundations, inverters, transformers, cables, transports and construction of roads and buildings. For stationary inert products without intrinsic energy requirements, such as cables, inverters, support structures etc., only raw material acquisition and processing are taken into account, since they are considered the most dominant stages in the life cycle. The results confirm a minor environmental load from BOS components compared to the module life cycle, showing approximately ten to twenty percent impact of the total. Uncertainties lie in the approximations for electronic devices as well as in the emissions from silicon processing. Concerning the electricity supply, the results differ considerably depending on which system perspective is used. In the net output approach the impacts decrease with approximately ninety percent from the traditional approach. Some increases are also shown in toxicity categories due to the increased module production needed for the enlargement of the installation.

  3. A Multiple Decrement Life Table Reveals That Host Plant Resistance and Parasitism Are Major Causes of Mortality for the Wheat Stem Sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteler, Micaela; Peterson, Robert K D; Hofland, Megan L; Weaver, David K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of parasitism, host plant resistance, pathogens, and predation on the demography of wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), developing in susceptible (hollow stem) and resistant (solid stem) wheat hosts. This study is also the first to investigate the prevalence and impact of cannibalism on wheat stem sawfly mortality. Wheat stem sawflies were sampled in two commercial wheat fields over 4 yr from the egg stage through adult emergence, and multiple decrement life tables were constructed and analyzed. Cannibalism, host plant resistance, or unknown factors were the most prevalent factors causing egg mortality. Summer mortality of prediapause larvae ranged from 28 to 84%, mainly due to parasitism by Bracon cephi (Gahan) and Bracon lissogaster Muesebeck, cannibalism, and host plant resistance. Winter mortality ranged from 6 to 54% of the overwintering larvae, mainly due to unknown factors or pathogens. Cannibalism is a major cause of irreplaceable mortality because it is absolute, with only a single survivor in every multiple infested stem. Subsequent to obligate cannibalism, mortality of feeding larvae due to host plant resistance was lower in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Mortality from host plant resistance was largely irreplaceable. Irreplaceable mortality due to parasitoids was greater in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Host plant resistance due to stem solidness and parasitism in hollow stems cause substantial mortality in populations of actively feeding larvae responsible for all crop losses. Therefore, enhancing these mortality factors is vital to effective integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Stable isotope composition of mercury forms in flue gases from a typical coal-fired power plant, Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Chaohui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Sun, Ruoyu; Fan, Huipeng; Wang, Lina; Li, Ruiyang; Mao, Tonghua; Zhou, Ting

    2017-04-15

    Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products. As compared to feed coal (δ(202)Hg=-2.04±0.25‰), bottom ash, GEM and GOM in flue gases before and after wet flue gas desulfurization system significantly enrich heavy Hg isotopes by 0.7-2.6‰ in δ(202)Hg, while fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste water show slight but insignificant enrichment of light Hg isotopes. GEM is significantly enriched heavy Hg isotopes compared to GOM and Hg in fly ash. Our observations verify the previous speculation on Hg isotope fractionation mechanism in CFPPs, and suggest a kinetically-controlled mass dependent Hg isotope fractionation during transformation of Hg forms in flue gases. Finally, our data are compared to Hg isotope compositions of atmospheric Hg pools, suggesting that coal combustion Hg emission is likely an important atmospheric Hg contributor.

  5. Parametric scaling from species to growth-form diversity: an interesting analogy with multifractal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Pacini, Alessandra; Avena, Giancarlo

    2002-01-01

    We propose a measure of divergence from species to life-form diversity aimed at summarizing the ecological similarity among different plant communities without losing information on traditional taxonomic diversity. First, species and life-form relative abundances within a given plant community are determined. Next, using Rényi's generalized entropy, the diversity profiles of the analyzed community are computed both from species and life-form relative abundances. Finally, the speed of decrease from species to life-form diversity is obtained by combining the outcome of both profiles. Interestingly, the proposed measure shows some formal analogies with multifractal functions developed in statistical physics for the analysis of spatial patterns. As an application for demonstration, a small data set from a plant community sampled in the archaeological site of Paestum (southern Italy) is used.

  6. Life time of nuclear power plants and new types of reactors; La duree de vie des centrales nucleaires et les nouveaux types de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This report, realized by the Evaluation Parliamentary Office of scientific and technological choices, aims to answer simple but fundamental questions for the french electric power production. What are the phenomena which may limit the exploitation time of nuclear power plants? How can we fight against the aging, at which cost and with which safety? The first chapter presents the management of the nuclear power plants life time, an essential element of the park optimization but not a sufficient element. The second chapter details the EPR and the other reactors for 2015 as a bond between the today and tomorrow parks. The last chapter deals with the necessity of efforts in the research and development to succeed in 2035 and presents other reactors in project. (A.L.B.)

  7. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  8. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Horticulture is an important source of naturalized plants, but our knowledge about naturalization frequencies and potential patterns of naturalization in horticultural plants is limited. We analyzed a unique set of data derived from the detailed sales catalogs (1887-1930) of the most important early Florida, USA, plant nursery (Royal Palm Nursery) to detect naturalization patterns of these horticultural plants in the state. Of the 1903 nonnative species sold by the nursery, 15% naturalized. The probability of plants becoming naturalized increases significantly with the number of years the plants were marketed. Plants that became invasive and naturalized were sold for an average of 19.6 and 14.8 years, respectively, compared to 6.8 years for non-naturalized plants, and the naturalization of plants sold for 30 years or more is 70%. Unexpectedly, plants that were sold earlier were less likely to naturalize than those sold later. The nursery's inexperience, which caused them to grow and market many plants unsuited to Florida during their early period, may account for this pattern. Plants with pantropical distributions and those native to both Africa and Asia were more likely to naturalize (42%), than were plants native to other smaller regions, suggesting that plants with large native ranges were more likely to naturalize. Naturalization percentages also differed according to plant life form, with the most naturalization occurring in aquatic herbs (36.8%) and vines (30.8%). Plants belonging to the families Araceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, and Verbenaceae had higher than expected naturalization. Information theoretic model selection indicated that the number of years a plant was sold, alone or together with the first year a plant was sold, was the strongest predictor of naturalization. Because continued importation and marketing of nonnative horticultural plants will lead to additional plant naturalization and invasion, a comprehensive approach

  9. Floristics of Higher Plants in China——Report from Catalogue of Life: Higher Plants in China Database%中国高等植物编目信息系统进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Song WANG; Yu-Cheng ZHANG; Na-Xin XUE; Hai-Ning QIN

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity research increasingly relies on distribution networks for dealing with large-scale primary data.Up-to-date information on biodiversity is critical for the proper management and conservation of any area. The first step towards conservation should be to compile an authoritative species inventory or checklist. Catalogue of Life:Higher Plants in China (CNPC) is an ongoing biodiversity informatics project with the aim to integrate existing higher plants inventory data, and provide access via an internet based web service to public user and the scientific com-munity. The CNPC, for the first time, provides integrated and authoritative taxonomic information on higher plant species found in China, and this database will be permanent, free and continously updated. Presently, a total of 34377 species have been included in the database. Among of them, 16 620 species are only found in China. Taxa are classified into 432 families and 3 941 genera. The CNPC will be an important source for scientists working on Chinese flora, and will play an important role in helping to achieve the targets set under the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation in the future.

  10. Brassinosteroids make plant life easier under abiotic stresses mainly by modulating major components of antioxidant defense system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojjam V. Vardhini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various abiotic stress factors significantly contribute to major worldwide-losses in crop productivity by mainly impacting plant’s stress tolerance/adaptive capacity. The latter is largely governed by the efficiency of antioxidant defense system for the metabolism of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS, caused by different abiotic stresses. Plant antioxidant defense system includes both enzymatic (such as superoxide dismutase, SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1; catalase, CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6; glutathione reductase, GR, E.C. 1.6.4.2; peroxidase, POD, E.C. 1.11.1.7; ascorbate peroxidase, APX, E.C. 1.11.1.11; guaiacol peroxidase, GPX, E.C. 1.11.1.7 and non-enzymatic (such as ascorbic acid, AsA; glutathione, GSH; tocopherols; phenolics, proline etc. components. Research reports on the status of various abiotic stresses and their impact on plant growth, development and productivity are extensive. However, least information is available on sustainable strategies for the mitigation of abiotic stress-mediated major consequences in plants. Brassinosteroids (BRs are a novel group of phytohormones with significant growth promoting nature. BRs are considered as growth regulators with pleiotropic effects, as they influence diverse physiological processes like growth, germination of seeds, rhizogenesis, senescence etc. and also confer abiotic stress resistance in plants. In the light of recent reports this paper: (a overviews major abiotic stresses and plant antioxidant defense system, (b introduces BRs and highlights their significance in general plant growth and development, and (c appraises recent literature available on BRs mediated modulation of various components of antioxidant defense system in plants under major abiotic stresses including metals/metalloids, drought, salinity, and temperature regimes. The outcome can be significant in devising future research in the current direction.

  11. Formas de fósforo em solos de várzea e biodisponibilidade para o feijoeiro Phosphorus forms in lowland soils and bioavailability to bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação de calcário e de P em algumas formas de P em quatro solos de várzea cultivados com feijoeiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 x 2, com quatro repetições, a saber: quatro solos [Glei Húmico (GH, Glei Pouco Húmico (GP, Aluvial (A e Orgânico (O], cinco doses de P (75, 150, 300, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P e dois níveis de calagem (sem e com. Os solos foram incubados em vasos, por 30 dias, com as respectivas doses de calcário, e por mais 150 dias, com as doses de P. No final desse período, foram coletadas amostras de solo para o fracionamento de P, e o restante foi cultivado com feijoeiro. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com 3 dm³, em que foram cultivadas duas plantas até o final do ciclo. A calagem e a adubação fosfatada influenciaram as formas de P de maneira distinta nos solos de várzea estudados; exceto no solo Glei Pouco Húmico, as formas de P lábil, tanto na ausência quanto na presença de calagem, tiveram pouca participação no P total dos solos. Na presença da calagem, o P lábil foi a forma de P preferencialmente absorvida pelas plantas de feijoeiro.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse of the Soil Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of verifying the influence of application of limestone and phosphorus on some forms of soil P in four lowland soils cultivated with bean plants. The experimental design utilized was a completely randomized in 4 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications, that means: four soils [Gley Humic (GH, Bog Soil (O, Alluvial (A and Low Humic Gley (GP], five doses of P (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 of P and two levels of liming (without and with. The soils were incubated

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  13. The Herdecke questionnaire on quality of life (HLQ): Validation of factorial structure and development of a short form within a naturopathy treated in-patient collective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Thomas; Büssing, Arndt; Beer, Andre-Michael; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) of patients has become a central evaluation parameter that also acts as an aid for decisions related to treatment strategies particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. In Germany, one of the newer instruments attempting to measure distinct QoL aspects is the "Herdecke Questionnaire for Quality of Life" (HLQ). In this study, we aimed to validate the HLQ with respect to its factorial structure, and to develop a short form. The validation has been carried out in relation to other questionnaires including the SF-36 Health Survey, the Mood-Scale Bf-S, the Giessen Physical Complaints Questionnaire GBB-24 and McGill's Pain Perception Scale SES. Methods Data for this study derived from a model project on the treatment of patients using naturopathy methods in Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen. In total, 2,461 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years (mean age: 58.0 ± 13.4 years) were included in this study. Most of the patients (62%) suffered from rheumatic diseases. Factorial validation of the HLQ, it's reliability and external consistency analysis and the development of a short form were carried out using the SPSS software. Results Structural analysis of the HLQ-items pointed to a 6-factor model. The internal consistency of both the long and the short version is excellent (Cronbach's α is 0.935 for the HLQ-L and 0.862 for the HLQ-S). The highest reliability in the HLQ-L was obtained for the "Initiative Power and Interest" scale, the lowest for the 2-item scales "Digestive Well-Being" and the "Physical Complaints". However, the scales found by factor analysis herein were only in part congruent with the original 5-scale model which was approved a multitrait analysis approach. The new instrument shows good correlations with several scales of other relevant QoL instruments. The scales "Initiative Power and Interest", "Social Interaction", "Mental Balance", "Motility", "Physical Complaints", "Digestive Well-Being" sufficiently

  14. The Herdecke questionnaire on quality of life (HLQ: Validation of factorial structure and development of a short form within a naturopathy treated in-patient collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Andre-Michael

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL of patients has become a central evaluation parameter that also acts as an aid for decisions related to treatment strategies particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. In Germany, one of the newer instruments attempting to measure distinct QoL aspects is the "Herdecke Questionnaire for Quality of Life" (HLQ. In this study, we aimed to validate the HLQ with respect to its factorial structure, and to develop a short form. The validation has been carried out in relation to other questionnaires including the SF-36 Health Survey, the Mood-Scale Bf-S, the Giessen Physical Complaints Questionnaire GBB-24 and McGill's Pain Perception Scale SES. Methods Data for this study derived from a model project on the treatment of patients using naturopathy methods in Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen. In total, 2,461 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years (mean age: 58.0 ± 13.4 years were included in this study. Most of the patients (62% suffered from rheumatic diseases. Factorial validation of the HLQ, it's reliability and external consistency analysis and the development of a short form were carried out using the SPSS software. Results Structural analysis of the HLQ-items pointed to a 6-factor model. The internal consistency of both the long and the short version is excellent (Cronbach's α is 0.935 for the HLQ-L and 0.862 for the HLQ-S. The highest reliability in the HLQ-L was obtained for the "Initiative Power and Interest" scale, the lowest for the 2-item scales "Digestive Well-Being" and the "Physical Complaints". However, the scales found by factor analysis herein were only in part congruent with the original 5-scale model which was approved a multitrait analysis approach. The new instrument shows good correlations with several scales of other relevant QoL instruments. The scales "Initiative Power and Interest", "Social Interaction", "Mental Balance", "Motility", "Physical Complaints", "Digestive Well

  15. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Hartmann, Kilian; Bühle, Lutz; Wachendorf, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The environmental performance of biogas plant configurations for a demand - oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation is comparatively assessed in this study. Those configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54-65 g CO(2-eq) MJ(-1) and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ(-1). In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production. Using thicker biogas storage sheeting material reduces the methane permeability of up to 6m(3) d(-1) which equals a reduction of 8% of the configuration's total methane emissions.

  17. Analysis on life forms of lichens in forest ecosystem of Northern Xinjiang%新疆北部森林生态系统地衣植物生活型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孜比尔尼沙·吾买尔; 艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔; 阿不都拉·阿巴斯

    2003-01-01

    Life forms of lichen of forest ecosystem in Northern Xinjiang were researched in the Kanas National Natural Reservation Area.They have been grouped into 6 types:Epipetria,Soil-epipetria,Epiphytia arboricosa,Epiphytia moss,Epiphytis grass and Dry-radicantia,in which the species of Epiphytia arboricosa account for 36.89% of the total species in this area,the species of Epipetria for 22.33% and Epiphytia grass the least.The results show that life forms of lichem at the srea in Northem Xinjiang are relatively rich,which indicates the biodiversity characteristics of lichen.

  18. Fennel pondweed: a world citizen : geographic variation in life-cycle characteristics of the clonal water plant Potamogeton pectinatus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of broadly distributed plants is potentially constrained by geographic variation in climatic

  19. Early life history responses of tidal wetland plants to sea-level rise and salinization in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distribution of abiotic gradients in estuaries, potentially increasing stress in tidal wetland plants. Using field and lab manipulations, we examined inter-specific variation in responses to elevated salinity and inundation in the Ore...

  20. An immunocytochemical procedure for protein localization in various nematode life stages combined with plant tissues using methylacrylate-embedded specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Paulo; Banora, Mohamed Youssef; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2012-10-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes possess a large number of proteins that are secreted in planta, allowing them to be successful parasites of plants. The majority of these proteins are synthesized mainly in the nematode subventral and dorsal glands as well as in other organs. To improve the immunovisualization of these proteins, we adapted a methacrylate embedding method for the localization of proteins inside nematode tissues, and extracellularly when secreted in planta or within plant cells. An important advantage is that the method is applicable for all nematode stages: preparasitic as well as parasitic stages, including large mature females. Herein, the method has been successfully applied for the localization of four nematode secreted proteins, such as Mi-MAP-1, Mi-CBM2-bearing proteins, Mi-PEL3, and Mi-6D4. In addition, we could also localize 14-3-3 proteins, as well as two cytoskeletal proteins, by double-immunolabeling on preparasitic juveniles. Superior preservation of nematode and plant morphology, allowed more accurate protein localization as compared with other methods. Besides excellent epitope preservation, dissolution of methacrylate from tissue sections unmasks target proteins and thereby drastically increases antibody access.

  1. Interactions between plant size and canopy openness influence vital rates and life-history tradeoffs in two neotropical understory herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerband, Andrea C; Horvitz, Carol C

    2015-08-01

    • For tropical forest understory plants, the ability to grow, survive, and reproduce is limited by the availability of light. The extent to which reproduction incurs a survival or growth cost may change with light availability, plant size, and adaptation to shade, and may vary among similar species.• We estimated size-specific rates of growth, survival, and reproduction (vital rates), for two neotropical understory herbs (order Zingiberales) in a premontane tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. During three annual censuses we monitored 1278 plants, measuring leaf area, number of inflorescences, and canopy openness. We fit regression models of all vital rates and evaluated them over a range of light levels. The best fitting models were selected using Akaike's Information Criterion.• All vital rates were significantly influenced by size in both species, but not always by light. Increasing light resulted in higher growth and a higher probability of reproduction in both species, but lower survival in one species. Both species grew at small sizes but shrank at larger sizes. The size at which shrinkage began differed among species and light environments. Vital rates of large individuals were more sensitive to changes in light than small individuals.• Increasing light does not always positively influence vital rates; the extent to which light affects vital rates depends on plant size. Differences among species in their abilities to thrive under different light conditions and thus occupy distinct niches may contribute to the maintenance of species diversity. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Approaches to understanding the impact of life-history features on plant-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Burdon; Peter H. Thrall; Adnane Nemri

    2012-01-01

    Natural plant-pathogen associations are complex interactions in which the interplay of environment, host, and pathogen factors results in spatially heterogeneous ecological and epidemiological dynamics. The evolutionary patterns that result from the interaction of these factors are still relatively poorly understood. Recently, integration of the appropriate spatial and...

  3. Fennel pondweed: a world citizen : geographic variation in life-cycle characteristics of the clonal water plant Potamogeton pectinatus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.

    2002-01-01

      The performance of broadly distributed plants is potentially constrained by geographic variation in climatic factors. Several patterns of response have been proposed that can be considered of adaptive valu

  4. Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting carbon footprint of fossil fuel power plants based on life cycle assessment scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dalir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pseudo comprehensive carbon footprint model for fossil fuel power plants is presented. Parameters which their effects are considered in this study include: plant type, fuel type, fuel transmission type, internal consumption of the plant, degradation, site ambient condition, transmission and distribution losses. Investigating internal consumption, degradation and site ambient condition effect on carbon footprint assessment of fossil fuel power plant is the specific feature of the proposed model. To evaluate the model, a sensitivity analysis is performed under different scenarios covering all possible choices for investigated parameters. The results show that carbon footprint of fossil fuel electrical energy that is produced, transmitted and distributed, varies from 321 g CO2 eq/kWh to 980 g CO2 equivalent /kWh. Carbon footprint of combined cycle with natural gas as main fuel is the minimum carbon footprint. Other factors can also cause indicative variation. Fuel type causes a variation of 28%. Ambient condition may change the result up to 13%. Transmission makes the carbon footprint larger by 4%. Internal consumption and degradation influence the result by 2 and 2.5%, respectively. Therefore, to minimize the carbon footprint of fossil fuel electricity, it is recommended to construct natural gas ignited combined cycles in low lands where the temperature is low and relative humidity is high. And the internal consumption is as least as possible and the maintenance and overhaul is as regular as possible.

  5. Groupings of life-history traits are associated with distribution of forest plant species in a fragmented landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endels, Patrick; Adriaens, Dries; Bekker, Renee M.; Knevel, Irma C.; Decocq, Guillaume; Hermy, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Questions: 1. Do relationships among forest plant traits correspond to dispersability-persistence trade-offs or other intertrait correlations found in the literature? 2. Do species groups delineated by trait similarity, differ in occurrence in ancient vs. new forests or isolated vs more continuous f

  6. Quality of life of children with cystic periventricular leukomalacia – a prospective analysis with the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50

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    Bernhard eResch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is associated with moderate to severe physical and mental handicaps in preterm infants. We hypothesized whether or not those handicaps were associated with a poorer quality of life (QOL of affected children and their families compared to matched controls.Patients and Methods: All children with the diagnosis PVL collected from a local database of the Division of Neonatology of the Medical University of Graz, Austria, and born between 1997 and 2008 were included in the study group. Preterm infants matched for gestational age, birth weight, year of birth, and gender without PVL served as controls. Selected perinatal data and neurological outcome were documented. The interview of the parents was conducted using the Child-Health-Questionnaire – Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50, German version. The CHQ-PF50 consists of 50 items divided over 11 multi-item scales and 2 single-item questions.Results: The CHQ-PF50 was answered by 21 parents of the study (26% and 44 of the control (39% group. Cases were diagnosed as having developmental delay, dystonia, strabismus, central visual impairment, seizures, and cerebral palsy (81 vs. 7%, p<0.001 more common than controls. Analysis of the CHQ-PF 50 revealed significantly poorer results for cases regarding physical health (physical functioning: p<0.001, physical social limitations: p<0.001, physical summary score: p<0.001. Several psychosocial categories (behavior, mental health, self-esteem and the psychosocial summary score did not differ between groups. Only two categories (parental impact concerning time p=0,004, and family activities: p=0.026 revealed significantly poorer results in the cases as it was for the global category for health (p=0.009.Conclusion: Children with PVL had an overall poorer QOL regarding physical aspects. However, PVL was not generally associated with a poorer QOL regarding psychosocial aspects.

  7. Mortality and health-related quality of life in prevalent dialysis patients: Comparison between 12-items and 36-items short-form health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østhus Tone Brit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess health- related quality of life (HRQOL with SF-12 and SF-36 and compare their abilities to predict mortality in chronic dialysis patients, after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Methods The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 with the embedded SF-12 was applied in 301 dialysis patients cross-sectionally. Physical and mental component summary (PCS-36, MCS-36, PCS-12, and MCS-12 scores were calculated. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Mortality (followed for up to 4.5 years was analyzed with Kaplan Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards, after censoring for renal transplantation. Exclusion factors were observation time Results In 252 patients (60.2 ± 15.5 years, 65.9% males, dialysis vintage 9.0, IQR 5.0-23.0 months, mortality during follow-up was 33.7%.(85 deaths. Significant correlations were observed between PCS-36 and PCS-12 (ρ = 0.93, p ρ = 0.95, p χ2 = 15.3, p = 0.002 and PCS-36 (χ2 = 16.7, p = 0.001. MCS was not associated with mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality were 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-6.3, PCS-12 and 2.7 (1.1 – 6.4, PCS-36 for the lowest compared with the highest (“best perceived” quartile of PCS. Conclusion Compromised HRQOL is an independent predictor of poor outcome in dialysis patients. The SF-12 provided similar predictions of mortality as SF-36, and may serve as an applicable clinical tool because it requires less time to complete.

  8. Effects of wind waves versus ship waves on tidal marsh plants: a flume study on different life stages of Scirpus maritimus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Silinski

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that many ecosystems, including intertidal marshes, follow the alternative stable states theory. This theory implies that thresholds of environmental factors can mark a limit between two opposing stable ecosystem states, e.g. vegetated marshes and bare mudflats. While elevation relative to mean sea level is considered as the overall threshold condition for colonization of mudflats by vegetation, little is known about the individual driving mechanisms, in particular the impact of waves, and more specifically of wave period. We studied the impact of different wave regimes on