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Sample records for plant iron nutrition

  1. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet.

  2. Contribution of Iron Phosphate in Calcareous Paddy Soils to Phosphorus Nutrition of Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOZHI-FEN; TUSHU-XIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    A study was carried out on contribution of iron phosphate to phosphorus nutrition of rice plant under waterlogged and moist conditions,respectively,by use of synthetic Fe32 PO4.nH2O,tagging directly the iron phophate in calcareous paddy soils.Results showed that under waterlogged condition,similar to iron phosphate in acidic paddy soils.that in clacareous paddy soils was an important source of phosphorus to rice plant ,and the amount of phosphorus originated from it generally constituted 30-65% of the total phosphorus absorbed by rice plant.

  3. Strictly NO3- Nutrition Alleviates Iron Deficiency Chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Msilini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of NO3- nutrition on iron deficiency responses were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown with or without 5 µM Fe, and with NO3- alone or a mixture of NO3- and NH4+. The results indicated that, NO3- nutrition induced higher dry matter production, regardless the Fe concentration. Fe deficiency reduced growth activity, photosynthetic pigment concentration and Fe content of plants, whatever the N forms. This decrease was more pronounced in plants grown with mixed N source; those plants presented the highest EL and MDA and anthocyanin contents compared to plants grown under Fe sufficient conditions. In iron free-solutions, with NO3- as the sole nitrogen source, enhanced FC-R activity in the roots was observed. However, in the presence of NH4+, plants displayed some decrease in in FC-R and PEPC activities. The presence of NH4+ modified typical Fe stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles for plant nutrition? A preliminary Mössbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homonnay, Z., E-mail: homonnay@caesar.elte.hu [EötvösLoránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Tolnai, Gy. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (Hungary); Fodor, F.; Solti, Á. [EötvösLoránd University, Institute of Biology (Hungary); Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Ábrahám, A. [EötvösLoránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Szabó, E. Gy.; Németh, P.; Szabó, L.; Klencsár, Z. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (Hungary)

    2016-12-15

    One of the most important micronutrients for plants is iron. We have prepared iron(III) oxyhydroxide and magnetite nanoparticles with the aim to use them as possible nutrition source for plants. The iron(III)-oxide/oxyhydroxide nanoparticles prepared under our experimental conditions as colloidal suspensions proved to be 6-line ferrihydrite nanoparticles as verified by XRD, TEM/SAED and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of magnetite nanoparticles prepared under different preparation conditions could be analyzed on the basis of a common model based on the superposition of four sextet components displaying Gaussian-shaped hyperfine magnetic field distributions.

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles for plant nutrition? A preliminary Mössbauer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homonnay, Z.; Tolnai, Gy.; Fodor, F.; Solti, Á.; Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Ábrahám, A.; Szabó, E. Gy.; Németh, P.; Szabó, L.; Klencsár, Z.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important micronutrients for plants is iron. We have prepared iron(III) oxyhydroxide and magnetite nanoparticles with the aim to use them as possible nutrition source for plants. The iron(III)-oxide/oxyhydroxide nanoparticles prepared under our experimental conditions as colloidal suspensions proved to be 6-line ferrihydrite nanoparticles as verified by XRD, TEM/SAED and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of magnetite nanoparticles prepared under different preparation conditions could be analyzed on the basis of a common model based on the superposition of four sextet components displaying Gaussian-shaped hyperfine magnetic field distributions.

  6. Strictly NO3- Nutrition Alleviates Iron Deficiency Chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Najoua Msilini; Ines Guesmi; Mohamed Chebbi; Thouraya Amdouni; Mokhtar Lachaвl; Zeineb Ouerghi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of NO3- nutrition on iron deficiency responses were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown with or without 5 µM Fe, and with NO3- alone or a mixture of NO3- and NH4+. The results indicated that, NO3- nutrition induced higher dry matter production, regardless the Fe concentration. Fe deficiency reduced growth activity, photosynthetic pigment concentration and Fe content of plants, whatever the N forms. This decrease was more pronounced in plants grown with mixed N ...

  7. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  8. Expression of peanut Iron Regulated Transporter 1 in tobacco and rice plants confers improved iron nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nozoye, Tomoko; Zhang, Lixia; Shen, Hongyun; Qiu, Wei; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) limitation is a widespread agricultural problem in calcareous soils and severely limits crop production. Iron Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) is a key component for Fe uptake from the soil in dicot plants. In this study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) AhIRT1 was introduced into tobacco and rice plants using an Fe-deficiency-inducible artificial promoter. Induced expression of AhIRT1 in tobacco plants resulted in accumulation of Fe in young leaves under Fe deficient conditions. Even under Fe-excess conditions, the Fe concentration was also markedly enhanced, suggesting that the Fe status did not affect the uptake and translocation of Fe by AhIRT1 in the transgenic plants. Most importantly, the transgenic tobacco plants showed improved tolerance to Fe limitation in culture in two types of calcareous soils. Additionally, the induced expression of AhIRT1 in rice plants also resulted in high tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soils.

  9. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  10. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  11. Ammonium improves iron nutrition by decreasing leaf apoplastic pH of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Frankasol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chunqin; ZHANG Fusuo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen form on pH and concentration of soluble iron (Fe) in leaf apoplast was investigated in hydrophonically grown sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Frankasol), and the mechanism underlying the improved Fe nutrition by ammonium (NH4) supply was also elucidated. Ammonium supply ameliorated Fe nutrition of plants grown without Fe through decreasing apoplastic pH and increasing soluble Fe concentration in apoplastic fluid of young leaves. The soluble Fe concentration in apoplastic fluid and cell sap of young leaves, and xylem exudates of NH4 fed-plants was higher than that of nitrate (NO3) fed-plants, and no typical Fe-deficiency chlorosis in young leaves was observed in NH4 fed plant without Fe supply. The apoplastic pH was 6.15 and 5.94 in young leaves of Fe-deficient plants fed respectively with NO3 and NH4, while in Fe-sufficient plants, the apoplastic pH was 6.43 with NO3, and 5.50 with NH4 supply. In primary leaves, the apoplastic pH was around 6.25 irrespective of nitrogen form and Fe supply. The pH of xylem exudate was 5.72 in Fe-deficient plants fed with NO3 and 5.49 with NH4. Iron nutrition increased the pH of xylem exudate by 0.27 and 0.16 unit under NO3 and NH4 supply respectively.

  12. Iron stress in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary

    2002-07-30

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  13. Iron stress in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Erin L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches.

  14. Nutritional iron deficiency: the role of oral iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowicz, J I; Nurchi, V M; Fanni, D; Gerosa, C; Peana, M; Zoroddu, M A

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency represents a relevant health problem mainly in developing countries. Children and pregnant women represent the main target of this disease, and the low amount of bio-available iron mostly depends on plant-based diets. Iron deficiency may have serious consequences, with severe impairment of the immune function leading to infectious diseases. The brain development in embryos and fetuses during gestation can be greatly affected by iron deficiency of the mother with heavy outcomes on the cognition status of children. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in iron absorption and metabolism are the basis for new strategies for developing a therapy for iron deficiency. Different therapeutic strategies are summarized, and iron fortification appears the best tool.

  15. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins enc...

  16. Ferritins and iron storage in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briat, Jean-François; Duc, Céline; Ravet, Karl; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2010-08-01

    Iron is essential for both plant productivity and nutritional quality. Improving plant iron content was attempted through genetic engineering of plants overexpressing ferritins. However, both the roles of these proteins in the plant physiology, and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of their expression are largely unknown. Although the structure of ferritins is highly conserved between plants and animals, their cellular localization differ. Furthermore, regulation of ferritin gene expression in response to iron excess occurs at the transcriptional level in plants, in contrast to animals which regulate ferritin expression at the translational level. In this review, our knowledge of the specific features of plant ferritins is presented, at the level of their (i) structure/function relationships, (ii) cellular localization, and (iii) synthesis regulation during development and in response to various environmental cues. A special emphasis is given to their function in plant physiology, in particular concerning their respective roles in iron storage and in protection against oxidative stress. Indeed, the use of reverse genetics in Arabidopsis recently enabled to produce various knock-out ferritin mutants, revealing strong links between these proteins and protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, their putative iron storage function to furnish iron during various development processes is unlikely to be essential. Ferritins, by buffering iron, exert a fine tuning of the quantity of metal required for metabolic purposes, and help plants to cope with adverse situations, the deleterious effects of which would be amplified if no system had evolved to take care of free reactive iron.

  17. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes.

  18. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  19. Influence of Methylobacterium on iron translocation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Yvonne M; Barton, Larry L; Johnson, Gordon V

    2011-06-01

    Iron metabolism in plants is essential to maintain optimal growth and iron nutrition is dependent on uptake of iron from the environment and movement of iron in the plant tissues. We have examined the translocation of iron in plant leaves following foliar application of FeEDTA to Vicia faba and Zea mays. Using radiolabeled iron, we observed that iron translocation is stimulated by products of Methylobacterium mesophylicum and by the cytokinin, kinetin. When cytokinins were applied to leaves along with (55)FeEDTA, the rate of iron translocation was greater than in controls without cytokinin addition. Since recent studies indicate that M. mesophylicum is widely distributed in the environment as a pyllospheric bacterium, this organism may have an important role in enhancing translocation of nutrients in plant leaves.

  20. Linking plant nutritional status to plant-microbe interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia C Carvalhais

    Full Text Available Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N, phosphate (P, iron (Fe and potassium (K deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.

  1. Role of silicon in alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity in hydroponically-grown rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants

    OpenAIRE

    A Abdol Zadeh; z Kiani Chalmardi

    2013-01-01

    Silicon (Si) nutrition may alleviate biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metal deficiency and toxicity in plants. Iron deficiency and toxicity are important limiting factors in growth of rice. In the present study, role of Si nutrition on alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity was investigated in rice plants. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse in hydroponics, using Yoshida solution, under different iron treatments (0, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 250 mg/L as Fe- EDTA) and Si nutritio...

  2. Significance of tests of iron nutrition in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J.; Turchetti, L.; Combrink, B.; Krawitz, S.

    1966-01-01

    Tests of iron and folate nutrition have been carried out in early pregnancy and at delivery in 63 Bantu females. Accepted normal values for serum iron, and percentage saturation of transferrin, but not for unsaturated iron-binding capacity, for non-pregnant subjects were found to apply equally well in pregnancy. Concomitant folate deficiency in early pregnancy did not render tests of iron deficiency less valid. The unsaturated iron-binding capacity, percentage saturation, and marrow iron stores in early pregnancy all showed a significant correlation with the haemoglobin value at term. Patients with normal marrow iron stores and a percentage saturation of transferrin of 20 or more at or before the 24th week are unlikely to become anaemic from iron deficiency during pregnancy. PMID:5909700

  3. Role of silicon in alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity in hydroponically-grown rice (Oryza sativa L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdol Zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si nutrition may alleviate biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metal deficiency and toxicity in plants. Iron deficiency and toxicity are important limiting factors in growth of rice. In the present study, role of Si nutrition on alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity was investigated in rice plants. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse in hydroponics, using Yoshida solution, under different iron treatments (0, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 250 mg/L as Fe- EDTA and Si nutrition (0 and 1.5 mM as sodium silicate. Results revealed that both iron deficiency and toxicity imposed significant reduction in fresh and dry weight and length of plants. The activity of catalase was decreased in shoots due to iron deficiency. Activity of catalase in roots and cell wall peroxidase in shoots increased under iron toxicity compared with control plants. Si nutrition increased Si content in plants and improved plant growth in both iron deficiency (not in the absence of iron and toxicity. Application of Si increased the activity of catalase in shoots and polyphenol oxidase in both roots and shoots under iron deficiency. Also, the activity of catalase in roots and polyphenol oxidase in shoots raised following iron toxicity. This in turn may reduce the oxidative stress in plants. In addition, increase of lignin in extreme iron toxicity due to Si nutrition may enhance sites of iron absorption in plant cell walls and decrease iron toxicity. The results indicated that Si nutrition could ameliorate harmful effects of iron deficiency and toxicity in rice plants possibly through improvement of antioxidant enzyme activity and reduction of oxidative stress.

  4. Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzki, W; Gutierrez Mañero, F J; Algar, E; Lucas García, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos Solano, B

    2013-09-01

    Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Providing plants with an accessible form of iron is crucial when it is scant or unavailable in soils. Chemical chelates are the only current alternative and are highly stable in soils, therefore, posing a threat to drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to quantify siderophores produced by two bacterial strains and to determine if these bacterial siderophores would palliate chlorotic symptoms of iron-starved tomato plants. For this purpose, siderophore production in MM9 medium by two selected bacterial strains was quantified, and the best was used for biological assay. Bacterial culture media free of bacteria (S) and with bacterial cells (BS), both supplemented with Fe were delivered to 12-week-old plants grown under iron starvation in hydroponic conditions; controls with full Hoagland solution, iron-free Hoagland solution and water were also conducted. Treatments were applied twice along the experiment, with a week in between. At harvest, plant yield, chlorophyll content and nutritional status in leaves were measured. Both the bacterial siderophore treatments significantly increased plant yield, chlorophyll and iron content over the positive controls with full Hoagland solution, indicating that siderophores are effective in providing Fe to the plant, either with or without the presence of bacteria. In summary, siderophores from strain Chryseobacterium C138 are effective in supplying Fe to iron-starved tomato plants by the roots, either with or without the presence of bacteria. Based on the amount of siderophores produced, an effective and economically feasible organic Fe chelator could be developed.

  5. Nutrition and adventitious rooting in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolanza Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation success of commercial genotypes via cutting techniques is related to several factors, including nutritional status of mother trees and of propagation material. The nutritional status determines the carbohydrate quantities, auxins and other compounds of plant essential metabolism for root initiation and development. Each nutrient has specific functions in plant, acting on plant structure or on plant physiology. Although the importance of mineral nutrition for success of woody plants vegetative propagation and its relation with adventitious rooting is recognized, the role of some mineral nutrients is still unknown. Due to biochemical and physiological complexity of adventitious rooting process, there are few researches to determine de role of nutrients on development of adventitious roots. This review intends to explore de state of the art about the effect of mineral nutrition on adventitious rooting of woody plants.

  6. Plant genotype, microbial recruitment and nutritional security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jai S; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Harikesh B; Sarma, Birinchi K

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural food products with high nutritional value should always be preferred over food products with low nutritional value. Efforts are being made to increase nutritional value of food by incorporating dietary supplements to the food products. The same is more desirous if the nutritional value of food is increased under natural environmental conditions especially in agricultural farms. Fragmented researches have demonstrated possibilities in achieving the same. The rhizosphere is vital in this regard for not only health and nutritional status of plants but also for the microorganisms colonizing the rhizosphere. Remarkably robust composition of plant microbiome with respect to other soil environments clearly suggests the role of a plant host in discriminating its colonizers (Zancarini et al., 2012). A large number of biotic and abiotic factors are believed to manipulate the microbial communities in the rhizosphere. However, plant genotype has proven to be the key in giving the final shape of the rhizosphere microbiome (Berendsen et al., 2012; Marques et al., 2014).

  7. An MYB Transcription Factor from Malus xiaojinensis Has a Potential Role in Iron Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Shen; Xuefeng Xu; Tianzhong Li; Dongmei Cao; Zhenhai Han

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of iron uptake and use is critical for plant survival and growth. We isolated an MYB gene from Malus xiaojinensis named MxMYB1, which is induced under Fe-deficient conditions. Expression of MxMYB1 was upregulated by Fe starvation in the roots but not in leaves, suggesting that MxMYB1 might play a role in iron nutrition in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MxMYB1 exhibited lower iron content as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal (40 Μm) and Fe-deflcient conditions (Fe omitted and Ferrozine 300 Μm). However, the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were not changed in these transgenic plants. Gene chip and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression of two Fe-related genes encoding an iron transporter AtIRT1 and an iron storage protein ferritin AtFER1 might be negatively regulated by MxMYB1 as the expression levels of these genes were lower in MxMYB1 expressing transgenic Arabidopsls plants as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal and Fe-deficient conditions. These results suggest that MxMYB1 may function as a negative regulator of iron uptake and storage In plants.

  8. Structure, function, and nutrition of phytoferritin: a newly functional factor for iron supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiayun; Yun, Shaojun; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Ferritins are members of the superfamily of iron storage and detoxification proteins present in all living organisms and play important roles in controlling cellular iron homeostasis. In contrast to animal ferritin, relatively little information is available on the structure and function of phytoferritin. Phytoferritin is observed in plastids whereas animal ferritins are largely found in the cytoplasm of cell. Compared to animal ferritin, phytoferritin exhibits two major distinctive features in structure. First, phytoferritin contains a specific extension peptide (EP) at the N-terminal while animal ferritin lacks it. The EP is located on the exterior surface of protein, which recently has been found to act as a second ferroxidase center for iron-binding and oxidation, and regulate iron release during the germination and early growth of seedlings. Second, only H-type subunit has been identified in phytoferritin, which is usually a heteropolymer consisting of two different subunits, H-1 and H-2, sharing ~80% amino acid sequence identity. These two subunits in phytoferritin play a positively cooperative role in iron oxidative deposition in protein. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, so it is crucial to explore a safe and efficient functional factor for iron supplement. Fortunately, phytoferritin seems to be a suitable candidate. In legume seeds, more than 90% of iron is stored in the form of ferritin in amyloplasts. Recently, some studies at different levels have demonstrated that plant ferritin could be used as novel, utilizable, plant-based forms of iron for populations with a low iron status. This review focuses on recent progress in structure, function, and nutrition of phytoferritin.

  9. Plant nutrition for sustainable development and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P J; Brown, P H

    2010-06-01

    Plants require at least 14 mineral elements for their nutrition. These include the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and the micronutrients chlorine (Cl), boron (B), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo). These are generally obtained from the soil. Crop production is often limited by low phytoavailability of essential mineral elements and/or the presence of excessive concentrations of potentially toxic mineral elements, such as sodium (Na), Cl, B, Fe, Mn and aluminium (Al), in the soil solution. This article provides the context for a Special Issue of the Annals of Botany on 'Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Development and Global Health'. It provides an introduction to plant mineral nutrition and explains how mineral elements are taken up by roots and distributed within plants. It introduces the concept of the ionome (the elemental composition of a subcellular structure, cell, tissue or organism), and observes that the activities of key transport proteins determine species-specific, tissue and cellular ionomes. It then describes how current research is addressing the problems of mineral toxicities in agricultural soils to provide food security and the optimization of fertilizer applications for economic and environmental sustainability. It concludes with a perspective on how agriculture can produce edible crops that contribute sufficient mineral elements for adequate animal and human nutrition.

  10. The Effects of Peanut Intercropping with Different Gramineous Species and Their Intercropping Model on Iron Nutrition of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yuan-mei; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of peanut intercropped with five different gramineous species with different phyto-siderophore release rate on iron nutrition of peanut were studied in field experiment. The rate of phyto-siderophore release of five gramineous species was as following: barley> oats> wheat>> maize> sorghum.The results showed that intercropping of peanut with five gramineous species could improve iron nutrition ofpeanut respectively. This indicated that root exudates, especially for phytosiderophore of gramineous plantsplayed an important role in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut. Although phytosiderophore release ratesof maize and sorghum were lower than those of barley, oats and wheat, the five gramineous species had thesame effects on iron improvement of peanut. The less phytosiderophore release of maize was enough to improveiron nutrition of peanut in intercropping system. For every intercropping system, intercropping model Ⅱ ( theratio of gramineous plants: peanut: gramineous plants was 2: 3 : 2) was much better in improvement of ironnutrition of peanut than that of intercropping model Ⅰ (the ratio of gramineous plants: peanut : gramineousplants was 2: 6: 2). This led to have greater rhizosphere effect of gramineous plants on iron nutrition of pea-nut in intercropping model Ⅱ than intercropping model Ⅰ .

  11. Plant genotype, microbial recruitment and nutritional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Singh Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural food products with high nutritive value are always preferred over food products with low nutritive value. Efforts are being made to increase the nutritive value of food by incorporating dietary supplements to the food products. The same is more desirous if the nutritive value of food is increased under natural conditions in the food products especially in the agricultural produces. Fragmented researches have led to the conclusion that it is possible to increase nutritive value of the agricultural products naturally in agricultural fields. The rhizosphere is of vital importance in this regard for not only health and nutritional status of plants but also for the microorganisms colonising the rhizosphere. Remarkably robust composition of plant microbiome with respect to other soil environments clearly suggests the role of plant host in discriminating its colonisers. A large amount of biotic and abiotic factors are believed to manipulate the microbial communities in the rhizosphere. However, plant genotype has proven to be the key in giving the final shape of the rhizosphere microbiome.

  12. Nanocompounds of iron and zinc: their potential in nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hilty, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest nanostructured oxides and phosphates of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn may be useful for nutritional applications. These compounds may have several advantages over existing fortificants, such as ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), NaFeEDTA and electrolytic iron. Because of their very lo

  13. Iron fertilization with FeEDDHA : the fate and effectiveness of FeEDDHA chelates in soil-plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis is a nutritional disorder in plants which reduces crop yields both quantitatively and qualitatively, and causes large economic losses. It occurs world-wide, predominantly in plants grown on calcareous soils, as a result of a limited bioavailability of iron related to the po

  14. Iron fertilization with FeEDDHA : the fate and effectiveness of FeEDDHA chelates in soil-plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis is a nutritional disorder in plants which reduces crop yields both quantitatively and qualitatively, and causes large economic losses. It occurs world-wide, predominantly in plants grown on calcareous soils, as a result of a limited bioavailability of iron related to the

  15. Linking Plant Nutritional Status to Plant-Microbe Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Paul G. Dennis; Ben Fan; Dmitri Fedoseyenko; Kinga Kierul; Anke Becker; Nicolaus von Wiren; Rainer Borriss

    2013-01-01

    Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth p...

  16. Table showing nutritional plant list

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Wild food plants play an important role in the diet of inhabitants of Oyam .... specimens were collected and delivered to Makerere University ..... Chief Technician Mr. Ssentongo, the Department Food Science and Technology,.

  17. Iron Availability in Tropical Soils and Iron Uptake by Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Furlan Mielki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Given the increase in crop yields and the expansion of agriculture in low fertility soils, deficiency of micronutrients, such as iron, in plants grown in tropical soils has been observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fe availability and Fe uptake by corn (Zea mays L. plants in 13 different soils, at two depths. Iron was extracted by Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and CaCl2 (Fe-CC and was fractionated in forms related to low (Feo and high (Fed crystallinity pedogenic oxyhydroxides, and organic matter (Fep using ammonium oxalate, dithionite-citrate, and sodium pyrophosphate, respectively. In order to relate Fe availability to soil properties and plant growth, an experiment was carried out in a semi-hydroponic system in which part of the roots developed in a nutrient solution (without Fe and part in the soil (the only source of Fe. Forty-five days after seeding, we quantified shoot dry matter and leaf Fe concentration and content. Fed levels were high, from 5 to 132 g kg-1, and Feo and Fe-CC levels were low, indicating the predominance of Fe as crystalline oxyhydroxides and a low content of Fe readily available to plants. The extraction solutions showed significant correlations with various soil properties, many common to both, indicating that they act similarly. The correlation between the Mehlich-1 and Mehlich-3 extraction solutions was highly significant. However, these two extraction methods were inefficient in predicting Fe availability to plants. There was a positive correlation between dry matter and Fe levels in plant shoots, even within the ranges considered adequate in the soil and in the plant. Dry matter production and leaf Fe concentration and content were positively correlated with Fep concentration, indicating that the Fe fraction related to soil organic matter most contributes to Fe availability to plants.

  18. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  19. Monoubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) transporter controls iron uptake in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Robert, Stéphanie; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Curie, Cathy; Friml, Jìrí; Vert, Grégory

    2011-08-09

    Plants take up iron from the soil using the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) high-affinity iron transporter at the root surface. Sophisticated regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the levels of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of essential but toxic iron. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana IRT1 leads to constitutive IRT1 protein accumulation, metal overload, and oxidative stress. IRT1 is unexpectedly found in trans-Golgi network/early endosomes of root hair cells, and its levels and localization are unaffected by iron nutrition. Using pharmacological approaches, we show that IRT1 cycles to the plasma membrane to perform iron and metal uptake at the cell surface and is sent to the vacuole for proper turnover. We also prove that IRT1 is monoubiquitinated on several cytosol-exposed residues in vivo and that mutation of two putative monoubiquitination target residues in IRT1 triggers stabilization at the plasma membrane and leads to extreme lethality. Together, these data suggest a model in which monoubiquitin-dependent internalization/sorting and turnover keep the plasma membrane pool of IRT1 low to ensure proper iron uptake and to prevent metal toxicity. More generally, our work demonstrates the existence of monoubiquitin-dependent trafficking to lytic vacuoles in plants and points to proteasome-independent turnover of plasma membrane proteins.

  20. Iron ore weathering potentials of ectomycorrhizal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, R A; Cloete, T E; Bertrand, A; Khasa, D P

    2012-10-01

    Plants in association with soil microorganisms play an important role in mineral weathering. Studies have shown that plants in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi have the potential to increase the uptake of mineral-derived nutrients. However, it is usually difficult to study many of the different factors that influence ectomycorrhizal weathering in a single experiment. In the present study, we carried out a pot experiment where Pinus patula seedlings were grown with or without ECM fungi in the presence of iron ore minerals. The ECM fungi used included Pisolithus tinctorius, Paxillus involutus, Laccaria bicolor and Suillus tomentosus. After 24 weeks, harvesting of the plants was carried out. The concentration of organic acids released into the soil, as well as potassium and phosphorus released from the iron ore were measured. The results suggest that different roles of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mineral weathering such as nutrient absorption and transfer, improving the health of plants and ensuring nutrient circulation in the ecosystem, are species specific, and both mycorrhizal roots and non-mycorrhizal roots can participate in the weathering process of iron ore minerals.

  1. Transporters Contributing to Iron Trafficking in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah S. Conte; Elsbeth L. Walker

    2011-01-01

    T This review will discuss recent progress in understanding the many roles of transporters in the whole-plant physiological processes that maintain iron (Fe) homeostasis. These processes include uptake from the soil via roots, control of transport from roots to above-ground parts of the plant, unloading of Fe from the xylem in above-ground parts, loading of Fe into mitochondria and plastids, transport of Fe to reproductive parts of the plant, and Fe mobilization during seed germination. In addition, we will discuss the mechanisms that plants use to cope with an apparently unintended consequence of Fe acquisition: the uptake of toxic heavy metals via Fe transporters. Rapid progress has been made in understanding the transport processes involved in each of these areas in the last 5 years and this review will focus on this recent progress. We will also highlight the key questions regarding transport steps that remain to be elucidated.

  2. Engineering Rhizobial Bioinoculants: A Strategy to Improve Iron Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under field conditions, inoculated rhizobial strains are at a survival disadvantage as compared to indigenous strains. In order to out-compete native rhizobia it is not only important to develop strong nodulation efficiency but also increase their competence in the soil and rhizosphere. Competitive survival of the inoculated strain may be improved by employing strain selection and by genetic engineering of superior nitrogen fixing strains. Iron sufficiency is an important factor determining the survival and nodulation by rhizobia in soil. Siderophores, a class of ferric specific ligands that are involved in receptor specific iron transport into bacteria, constitute an important part of iron acquisition systems in rhizobia and have been shown to play a role in symbiosis as well as in saprophytic survival. Soils predominantly have iron bound to hydroxamate siderophores, a pool that is largely unavailable to catecholate-utilizing rhizobia. Outer membrane receptors for uptake of ferric hydroxamates include FhuA and FegA which are specific for ferrichrome siderophore. Increase in nodule occupancy and enhanced plant growth of the fegA and fhuA expressing engineered bioinoculants rhizobial strain have been reported. Engineering rhizobia for developing effective bioinoculants with improved ability to utilize heterologous siderophores could provide them with better iron acquisition ability and consequently, rhizospheric stability.

  3. Engineering rhizobial bioinoculants: a strategy to improve iron nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, S J; Joshi, Sanket J

    2013-11-06

    Under field conditions, inoculated rhizobial strains are at a survival disadvantage as compared to indigenous strains. In order to out-compete native rhizobia it is not only important to develop strong nodulation efficiency but also increase their competence in the soil and rhizosphere. Competitive survival of the inoculated strain may be improved by employing strain selection and by genetic engineering of superior nitrogen fixing strains. Iron sufficiency is an important factor determining the survival and nodulation by rhizobia in soil. Siderophores, a class of ferric specific ligands that are involved in receptor specific iron transport into bacteria, constitute an important part of iron acquisition systems in rhizobia and have been shown to play a role in symbiosis as well as in saprophytic survival. Soils predominantly have iron bound to hydroxamate siderophores, a pool that is largely unavailable to catecholate-utilizing rhizobia. Outer membrane receptors for uptake of ferric hydroxamates include FhuA and FegA which are specific for ferrichrome siderophore. Increase in nodule occupancy and enhanced plant growth of the fegA and fhuA expressing engineered bioinoculants rhizobial strain have been reported. Engineering rhizobia for developing effective bioinoculants with improved ability to utilize heterologous siderophores could provide them with better iron acquisition ability and consequently, rhizospheric stability.

  4. Time to pump iron: iron-deficiency-signaling mechanisms of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elsbeth L; Connolly, Erin L

    2008-10-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for plants, yet it often limits plant growth. On the contrary, overaccumulation of iron within plant cells leads to oxidative stress. As a consequence, iron-uptake systems are carefully regulated to ensure that iron homeostasis is maintained. In response to iron limitation, plants induce expression of sets of activities that function at the root-soil interface to solubilize iron and subsequently transfer it across the plasma membrane of root cells. Recent advances have revealed key players in the signaling pathways that function to induce these iron-uptake responses. Transcription factors belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix, ABI3/VP1(B3), and NAC families appear to function either directly or indirectly in the upregulation of iron deficiency responses.

  5. Iron-binding haemerythrin RING ubiquitin ligases regulate plant iron responses and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nagasaka, Seiji; Senoura, Takeshi; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms. Plants transcriptionally induce genes involved in iron acquisition under conditions of low iron availability, but the nature of the deficiency signal and its sensors are unknown. Here we report the identification of new iron regulators in rice, designated Oryza sativa Haemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene (RING)- and Zinc-finger protein 1 (OsHRZ1) and OsHRZ2. OsHRZ1, OsHRZ2 and their Arabidopsis homologue BRUTUS bind iron and zinc, and possess ubiquitination activity. OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are susceptible to degradation in roots irrespective of iron conditions. OsHRZ-knockdown plants exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency, and accumulate more iron in their shoots and grains irrespective of soil iron conditions. The expression of iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron utilization is enhanced in OsHRZ-knockdown plants, mostly under iron-sufficient conditions. These results suggest that OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are iron-binding sensors that negatively regulate iron acquisition under conditions of iron sufficiency. PMID:24253678

  6. Managing the Nutrition of Plants and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One definition of food security is having sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs. This paper highlights the role of plant mineral nutrition in food production, delivering of essential mineral elements to the human diet, and preventing harmful mineral elements entering the food chain. To maximise crop production, the gap between actual and potential yield must be addressed. This gap is 15–95% of potential yield, depending on the crop and agricultural system. Current research in plant mineral nutrition aims to develop appropriate agronomy and improved genotypes, for both infertile and productive soils, that allow inorganic and organic fertilisers to be utilised more efficiently. Mineral malnutrition affects two-thirds of the world's population. It can be addressed by the application of fertilisers, soil amelioration, and the development of genotypes that accumulate greater concentrations of mineral elements lacking in human diets in their edible tissues. Excessive concentrations of harmful mineral elements also compromise crop production and human health. To reduce the entry of these elements into the food chain, strict quality requirements for fertilisers might be enforced, agronomic strategies employed to reduce their phytoavailability, and crop genotypes developed that do not accumulate high concentrations of these elements in edible tissues.

  7. Effect of Different Water Management and Nitrogen Forms on Characteristics of Iron Nutrition of Rice Cultivated Under Aerobic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xiao-qing; SHEN Qi-rong; WANG Juan-juan; YANG Jian-chang; ZHOU Ming-yao; BAI Yan-chao

    2003-01-01

    Although available iron is usually abundant for the growth of rice cultivated in waterlogged condition, the rice crop may suffer from its deficiency when cultivated in aerobic soil since the soil properties are totally different from waterlogged. Solubility of iron is very low in soils with high Eh and/or high Ph. A field experiment with five different depth (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm) of groundwater, and a pot-experiment with five treatments of ammonium-nitrate ratio (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100) were conducted to study the characteristics of iron nutrition of rice in non-full irrigation condition. Moreover, the contents of iron extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl of rice plant samples of 8 cultivars from both aerobic and waterlogged cultivation were analyzed to study the effect of water regimes on iron content of rice plants. The results were as follows: (1) The average content of available Fe (2.70 mg kg-1) of 5 layers of the soil treated with 10-cm depth of groundwater was significantly higher than that (0.83 mg kg-1) with 50-cm depth of groundwater, and the iron concentration of rice plant of the former was much higher than that of the later. (2) Iron deficiency of rice became much severe when high ratio of nitrate (more than 75 percent) in nitrogen fertilizer applied at different intervals in aerobic cultivation. (3) The iron concentrations of 3 cultivars, Wuyujing3 (99 mg kg-1), Yangdao4 (87 mg kg-1) and 9520 (95 mg kg-1), of rice plants cultivated in aerobic condition were significantly less than those(195, 197 and 175 mg kg-1) respectively in waterlogged condition at tillering stage. And even much significant differences existed in the iron concentrations of different cultivars growing in the aerobic and waterlogged condition at maturity.

  8. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate source of nutrients for all living organisms consists of the inanimate nutrient reserves found on earth. Of the elements known to exist, seven are considered essential to plants in large amounts (macronutrients), and many others are required in smaller quantities (micronutrients). Essentiality of a nutrient is defined according to the following concepts: (a) A deficiency of the element makes it impossible for the plant to complete the vegetative or reproductive stage of its cycle; (b) such deficiency is specific to the element in question and can be prevented or corrected only by supplying this element; (c) the element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant quite apart from its possible effects in correcting some unfavorable microbiological or chemical condition of the soil or other culture medium. From that standpoint a favorable response from adding a given element to the culture medium does not constitute conclusive evidence of its indispensability in plant nutrition. All the elements occurring in the outer part of the earth are in constant turnover among the different components of earth. This overall migration is referred to as geochemical cycling. When cycling includes a role for biological organisms, it is referred to as "biogeochemical cycling." Like most cyclical processes in nature, the biogeochemical cycling of elements is not continuous, nor does it proceed in a well-defined direction. At stages, it may be halted or short-circuited, or it may change. Any changes will eventually impact the survival, evolution, and development of biological species in the system. The relationship of the various systems is represented in a schematic manner. To assess the efficiency of operation of the biogeochemical cycles, it is important to include both natural and human activities. Often reliable values on use by man are difficult to obtain for a number of reasons, such as lack of international cooperation, and lack of proper bookkeeping and

  9. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species.

  10. Differential bioaccumulation and translocation patterns in three mangrove plants experimentally exposed to iron. Consequences for environmental sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Campos, Caroline Quenupe; Souza, Iara da Costa; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants

  11. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  12. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education vs. Non-Nutrition Education Intervention in Improving Awareness Pertaining Iron Deficiency among Anemic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzan Yusoff; Wan Nudri Wan Daud; Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 – 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb =...

  13. Nutrition of Indonesian women during pregnancy and lactation: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, outcome of pregnancy and child survival. A community-based study was conducted in a rural area of West Java, Indonesia to investigate 1) the effect of weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation during pregnancy on iron and vitamin A status o

  14. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine); Mayet, F.G.H. (Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-06-20

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12..mu..g/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12..mu..g/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores.

  15. Strategies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to acquire nutritional iron during host colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia eLeón-Sicairos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element for the growth and development of virtually all living organisms. As iron acquisition is critical for the pathogenesis, a host defense strategy during infection is to sequester iron to restrict the growth of invading pathogens. To counteract this strategy, bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus have adapted to such an environment by developing mechanisms to obtain iron from human hosts. This review focuses on the multiple strategies employed by V. parahaemolyticus to obtain nutritional iron from host sources. In these strategies are included the use of siderophores and xenosiderophores, proteases and iron-protein receptor. The host sources used by V. parahaemolyticus are the iron-containing proteins transferrin, hemoglobin and hemin. The implications of iron acquisition systems in the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus are also discussed.

  16. Legal considerations involving chemical control of iron and other deficiencies in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A; Samman, Y. S.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of lawsuits involving use of chelating agents in plant nutrition are discussed. Three of them involved use of iron. One concerned addition of FeDTPA to nursery trees in containers. One case involved foliar application of FeHEDTA to potatoes in July by airplane. Another case not involving iron chelate was with ZnEDTA and MnEDTA with Fe as FeSO/sub 4/ later as a foliar spray. The Zn and MnEDTA were applied as a band 8 inches (20 cm) on both sides of nursery tree rows just as the buds that had been placed in the fall began growing in the spring. In the fourth case, many tomato transplants died when the transplanting was done with about 120 ml per plant of transplant solution containing besides N, P and K, about 19 mg Zn as ZnEDTA, 14 mg Mn as MnEDTA and 7 mg Fe as FeHEDTA. Cases such as these will probably discourage use of chelating agents in plant nutrition even if the chelating agents were not the damaging agent. Not enough developmental work was done on the potential toxicities from metal chelates. This trend to lawsuits makes it even more important to solve iron chlorosis problems via plant breeding.

  17. Iron deficiency in plants: An insight from proteomic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis is a major nutritional disorder for crops growing in calcareous soils, and causes decreases in vegetative growth as well as marked yield and quality losses. With the advances in mass spectrometry techniques, a substantial body of knowledge has arisen on the changes in ...

  18. Growth and mineral composition of nickel-stressed plants under conditions of supplementation with excessive amounts of calcium and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of excessive calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) supplement nutrition in spinach Markiza F(1) cv. and sweet corn Zlota Karlowa cv. to alleviate nickel (Ni)-induced phytotoxicity. The following doses of the pollutant Ni were introduced: 0 (control), 40, or 60 mg Ni/kg growth medium. Two levels of calcium (Ca), 270 (basic) and 400 mg/kg (intensive), as well as two levels of iron (Fe), 10 (basic) and 20 mg/kg (intensive), respectively, were used. Intensive nutrition supplementation of Ni-stressed test plants species with Ca or Fe was beneficial as manifested by significantly increased maize shoots and roots biomass, lowered content of Ni in spinach and maize in above-ground parts, and decreased concentration of the pollutant in roots of intensive Ca-supplied maize plants grown in the environment containing 60 mg Ni/kg. Moreover there was significantly elevated Fe content in highly fertilized with iron spinach plants grown in the presence of 60 mg Ni/kg and in shoots of Ni-treated maize plants intensively supplied with Ca or Fe. Generally, high content of Ca or Fe in the growth medium significantly raised the content of free and bound Ca in shoots of Ni-stressed spinach plants. The same phenomenon was found in roots, but only in the presence of 60 mg Ni. Intensive nutrition supplementation of Ni-treated maize plants with Fe or Ca generally did not change the concentration of free Ca in plant organs, but elevated bound Ca levels in roots was observed. Increased bound Ca content was also found in leaves of maize plants intensive supplied with Ca. Thus, intensive Ca or Fe nutrition presents a promising potential for use in the conditions of Ni contamination by increasing plant growth, reducing Ni translocation from roots to shoots and raising the nutritive value of above-ground parts of spinach and maize plants.

  19. Heavy-metal nutrition and iron chlorosis of citrus seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.F.; Specht, A.W.

    1953-01-01

    Studies were made on the responses to differential supplies of copper, zinc, manganese, and iron shown by sweet orange and mandarin seedlings grown in vermiculite and solution cultures with the pH maintained near 4. The first three metallic ions were all found to interfere with Fe metabolism in such a way as to induce chlorosis under certain conditions. Relatively low concentrations of these elements also were toxic to roots. Copper appeared to be about 50 times as toxic as Mn and 12 to 15 times as toxic as Zn. Strongly chelated Fe prevented the development of chlorosis. It did not, however, prevent Cu toxicity in roots. It appeared to reduce slightly Zn toxicity in roots and to alleviate greatly toxicity due to Mn. Cu accumulates in roots, even to the point of toxicity, without being transported to the upper parts of the plants in increased amounts. Both Zn and Mn show marked accumulation in the roots as well as substantial distribution within the plant when these elements are increased in the nutrient solution. 12 references, 4 tables.

  20. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  1. Dissecting plant iron homeostasis under short and long-term iron fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Briat, Jean-Francois; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2013-01-01

    A wealth of information on the different aspects of iron homeostasis in plants has been obtained during the last decade. However, there is no clear road-map integrating the relationships between the various components. The principal aim of the current review is to fill this gap. In this context we...... discuss the lack of low affinity iron uptake mechanisms in plants, the utilization of a different uptake mechanism by graminaceous plants compared to the others, as well as the roles of riboflavin, ferritin isoforms, nitric oxide, nitrosylation, heme, aconitase, and vacuolar pH. Cross-homeostasis between...... elements is also considered, with a specific emphasis on the relationship between iron homeostasis and phosphorus and copper deficiencies. As the environment is a crucial parameter for modulating plant responses, we also highlight how diurnal fluctuations govern iron metabolism. Evolutionary aspects...

  2. Effects of Plant Density on Forage Nutritive Value of Whole Plant Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-wang; HU Chang-hao; WANG Kong-jun; DONG Shu-ting; LIU Peng

    2004-01-01

    In the field experiment, the effects of plant densities (75000, 112 500 and 150 000 plants ha-1) on forage nutritive value of whole plant corn (WPC) were studied from 1999 to 2001.The results demonstrated that with the increasing of plant density, the forage matter yield per plant corn decreased significantly, while the fresh matter and dry matter per hectare corn increased significantly, and a higher grains yield was gotten at higher plant densities. Forage nutritive quality of whole plant corn was changed as plant density increased, the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF),nitrogen free extract (NFE) and general energy (GE) yields increased obviously. Increasing plant density reasonably with the application of plant growth regulators could improve plant properties, harvest more forage matter, and enhance forage nutritive value of WPC.

  3. Iron deficiency anemia in sports and preventive dietetic and nutrition interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia in athletes is a very common condition that leads to reduced physical performance. Athletes are susceptible of falling iron deposits, mainly by an increase in its use, by its loss, or by insufficient intake. The present review aims to establish the basis of current knowledge environment: sports-athletes who have increased risk of anemia, etiology of iron deficiency anemia in the sporting group, providing dietary and nutritional guidelines for its prevention. The databases searched were Pubmed, Scirus and Scielo, as well as the official pages of prestigious organizations, recovering items by keywords: “iron-deficiency anemia”, “sports”, “athletic performance”, “iron intake “or Spanish counterparts. Iron deficiency anemia affects mainly endurance athletes (especially women and marathon and the members of team sports with high impact (volleyball and handball. Usually secondary anemias from hemolysis and oxidative stress resulting from the practice of sport, but it cases have also been documented by increased iron losses associated with exercise. Dietary and nutritional practices to prevent iron deficiency anemia in athletes should aim to ensure: carbohydrate intake between 60-65% of total energy daily minimum intake of 1.4 g of protein per day and a consumption of 20-40 mg iron daily, separating the intake of the main absorption inhibitors (phytate, tanetos and calcium. You need assessed by analytical iron status of the athlete every 2-3 months.

  4. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2014-12-12

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense, termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens.

  5. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely extoll

  6. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

  7. [Bone and Nutrition. The relationship between iron and phosphate metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Yuichi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an essential hormone for phosphate metabolism. It has been shown that intravenous administration of some iron formulations including saccharated ferric oxide induces hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with high FGF23 levels. On the other hand, iron deficiency promotes FGF23 and induces hypophosphatemia in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR). While iron and phosphate metabolism is connected, the detailed mechanism of this connection remains to be clarified.

  8. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves García-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.

  9. Iron isotope fractionation during Fe uptake and translocation in alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczka, Mirjam; Wiederhold, Jan G; Kraemer, Stephan M; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-08-15

    The potential of stable Fe isotopes as a tracer for the biogeochemical Fe cycle depends on the understanding and quantification of the fractionation processes involved. Iron uptake and cycling by plants may influence Fe speciation in soils. Here, we determined the Fe isotopic composition of different plant parts including the complete root system of three alpine plant species (Oxyria digyna, Rumex scutatus, Agrostis gigantea) in a granitic glacier forefield, which allowed us, for the first time, to distinguish between uptake and in-plant fractionation processes. The overall range of fractionation was 4.5 per thousand in delta(56)Fe. Mass balance calculations demonstrated that fractionation toward lighter Fe isotopic composition occurred in two steps during uptake: (1) before active uptake, probably during mineral dissolution and (2) during selective uptake of Fe at the plasma membrane with an enrichment factor of -1.0 to -1.7 per thousand for all three species. Iron isotopes were further fractionated during remobilization from old into new plant tissue, which changed the isotopic composition of leaves and flowers over the season. This study demonstrates the potential of Fe isotopes as a new tool in plant nutrition studies but also reveals challenges for the future application of Fe isotope signatures in soil-plant environments.

  10. [Menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Gao, Qiang; Tian, Su; Chen, Yuexiao; Ma, Yuxia; Huang, Zhenwu

    2011-03-01

    To study menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students. Thirty female undergraduate students were selected by simple random sampling method, the general information were investigated by questionnaire. The menstrual blood was collected by weighing every pad before and after use, and the blood not collected in pads was estimated. Hemoglobin, serum free protoporphyrin and serum ferritin were measured by regular method. The relationship between menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status was analyzed by bivariate correlation statistics. The average menstrual period was (4.5 +/- 1.4) days. The average menstrual blood loss was (59.3 +/- 25.1) g, in a range of 24 g to 110 g. The average content of serum ferritin, free protoporphyrin and hemoglobin was (25.13 +/- 14.33) ng/ml, (0.06 +/- 0.01) microg/ml and (131.61 +/- 9.76) g/L respectively. There were 22.58% of subjects in iron reduction period (serum ferritin students was significantly different. No clinical anemia does not mean in a good iron nutritional status. Serum ferritin is a sensitive indicator for iron nutritional status.

  11. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    OpenAIRE

    María Nieves García-Casal; Maritza Landaeta-Jiménez; Rafael Puche; Irene Leets; Zoila Carvajal; Elijú Patiño; Carlos Ibarra

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and...

  12. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of wild plant Cissus rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED KORISH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and antinutritional components of Cissus rotundifolia leaves. They contain an appreciable amount of protein (12.5%db, fat (7.45% db, crude fiber (8.34 % db and minerals (16.32%db. The protein fraction contains a relatively high level of essential amino acids, which accounted for 44.3% of the total amino acids. The fat contains a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids that comprises 55.1% of total fatty acids. The mineral profile is composed of macro- and microelements. The antinutritional factors oxalate, phytate, tanninsand cyanogenic glycosides are present at very low concentrations. Cissus rotundifolia leaves can be considered a potential source of nutritional components for healthy food purposes.

  14. Monoubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of the IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) transporter controls iron uptake in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Robert, Stéphanie; Conejero, Geneviève; Curie, Catherine; Friml, Jìrí; Vert, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    Plants take up iron from the soil using the IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) high-affinity iron transporter at the root surface. Sophisticated regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the levels of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of essential but toxic iron. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana IRT1 leads to constitutive IRT1 protein accumulation, metal overload, and oxidative stress. IRT1 is unexpectedly found in trans-Golgi network/early endosom...

  15. Involvement of Trichoderma asperellum strain T6 in regulating iron acquisition in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Jiaojiao

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major plant nutritional disorder in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with saline soils. Among the numerous root-associated microbes that are beneficial for plant nutrient uptake, Trichoderma spp. are the most effective rhizosphere fungi for enhancing plant growth and plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the potential mechanisms of action of Trichoderma on insoluble Fe in the soil, which is difficult for plants to absorb and utilize, a high siderophore-producing strain of Trichoderma T6, was isolated from the rhizosphere of cucumber plants. The strain was identified as T. asperellum based on the morphological features and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Applying strain T6 to sterile soil could increase soil levels of Fe(2+) and siderophores, as well as increase Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)-chelate reductase (FCR) activity in cucumber tissues. Purified siderophore eluent (PSE) increased plant growth, thus confirming its role in plant growth promotion. Moreover, extracellular Fe(3+) reducing activity and three kinds of organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of strain T6. These results indicate that strain T6 influences plant Fe absorption in several ways. Siderophore-based Fe chelation is effective in providing Fe to plants, organic acids, and Fe(3+) reducing enzymes may participate in the solubilization and reduction of insoluble Fe(3+) to Fe(2+).

  16. [Research advances in iron and zinc transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-yong; Xue, Yan-fang; Meng, Wei-wei; Yu, Li-min; Liu, Ling-yan; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping facilitates the efficient utilization of land, light, water and nutrients. It is, therefore, important to increase the biodiversity of farmland and to develop sustainable ecological agriculture in both theory and practice. Intercropping helps improve the mobilization and uptake of soil iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) and corresponding nutritional status in the plants, thus achieving grain micronutrient biofortification. In this review, phenomena of the improvement of Fe and Zn nutrition in dicotyledonous plants as affected by intercropping with gramineous plants (e.g. maize/peanut intercropping) were summarized. Moreover, the possible mechanisms in relation to interspecific rhizosphere molecular and physiological processes, as well as the changes in interspecific root morphology and distribution and microorganisms in the rhizosphere were elucidated. The accumulation, transfer and distribution of Fe and Zn in the plants in intercropping systems were also reviewed. The possible affecting factors on nutrients of Fe and Zn were analyzed. Based on the present advances in the mobilization and acquisition of soil Fe and Zn, and their accumulation and distribution in plants as well as the related management and environment influence factors, some new research questions were pointed out. Quantitative analysis, dynamic and systemic researches and field studies on Fe and Zn transfer from soil to plant in intercropping systems should be strengthened in the future.

  17. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  18. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  19. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2011-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice.

  20. Sampling of plant in coffee for evaluation of nutritional status

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; Rozane, Danilo Eduardo; Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Natale, William; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Silva, Silvia Helena Modenese Gorla da; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Barbosa, José Carlos; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; Lopes, Marcelo Domingos Chamma; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho

    2015-01-01

    The foliar fertilization assists programs in order to obtain higher yields, however, it is essential to know the ideal number of plants to be sampled. The study aimed to determine in commercial coffee plantations, subjected to two water regimes, the number of plants to be sampled and estimate the sample error for the diagnosis of nutritional status of that culture. The work consisted of two studies where samples of leaves were collected in rainfed and irrigated farming. For both studies the c...

  1. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  2. Microencapsulated fertilizers for plant nutrition improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolescu Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the need to reduce the impact of the use of chemical fertilizers on the quality of food crop production, it is necessary to make fertilizer formulas, with gradual and controlled release of the active substance achieved by encapsulation, so that it can be almost completely metabolized by plants. This paper is intended to test such fertilizer compositions with controlled release, achieved by encapsulation in polymeric structures, by monitoring the biological activity of the new products, using maize and sunflower crops as target plants, crops with major impact in the agricultural sector. To achieve this objective, we obtained solid microstructures, which allow, on one hand, the incorporation of fertilizing composition, and, on the other hand, a controlled release of the active components in a period of time chosen so that an advanced absorption in the plants can take place. Based on the findings presented, the tested fertilizers can ensure high quality fertilization in terms of nutrient recovery in a greater extent, lower doses and without reducing plant productivity and reduce chemical pollution of soil.

  3. Nutritive Equilibrium in Rice Plant Populations for High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBOLUN; LIUXINAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium application level,seed rate and transplanting density on the growth and development of rice plants were studied to find out nutrient status in high-yielding rice plants and to increase grain yield by adequate fertilization.There was an equilibrium relationship among nutrient elements for high-yielding rice plant populations.The equilibrium index of nutrient amount ,content and distribution in high-yielding rice plants should be generally greater than-2 but less than 2.The optimum nutritive proportion of nitrogen:phosphorus:potassium assimilated by the plants was about 10:2:9 at the ripening stage.But the content and the proportion varied with the growth stages,Therefore,the nutrient in rice plant populations should be in a dynamic equilibrium.So as to achieve high yield.

  4. Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison O. Booth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes.

  5. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  6. Discovering the role of mitochondria in the iron deficiency-induced metabolic responses of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    In plants, iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis is a major problem, affecting both yield and quality of crops. Plants have evolved multifaceted strategies, such as reductase activity, proton extrusion, and specialised storage proteins, to mobilise Fe from the environment and distribute it within the plant. Because of its fundamental role in plant productivity, several issues concerning Fe homeostasis in plants are currently intensively studied. The activation of Fe uptake reactions requires an overall adaptation of the primary metabolism because these activities need the constant supply of energetic substrates (i.e., NADPH and ATP). Several studies concerning the metabolism of Fe-deficient plants have been conducted, but research focused on mitochondrial implications in adaptive responses to nutritional stress has only begun in recent years. Mitochondria are the energetic centre of the root cell, and they are strongly affected by Fe deficiency. Nevertheless, they display a high level of functional flexibility, which allows them to maintain the viability of the cell. Mitochondria represent a crucial target of studies on plant homeostasis, and it might be of interest to concentrate future research on understanding how mitochondria orchestrate the reprogramming of root cell metabolism under Fe deficiency. In this review, I summarise what it is known about the effect of Fe deficiency on mitochondrial metabolism and morphology. Moreover, I present a detailed view of the possible roles of mitochondria in the development of plant responses to Fe deficiency, integrating old findings with new and discussing new hypotheses for future investigations.

  7. 机理I植物根系铁吸收及缺铁感应信号研究进展%Research Progress on the Iron Uptake of Strategy Ⅰ Plant and Iron Sensors to Iron Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓凌韦; 张丽艳; 马军韬; 王永力; 李琬; 王利军; 郑德刚

    2015-01-01

    发展中国家及偏远地区人们普遍侧重植物性食物。植物类食物含铁量偏低,容易导致人体产生各种缺铁病症。缺铁病症尤其是缺铁性贫血严重影响着育龄妇女和儿童的身体健康。虽然铁在土壤中含量丰富,但生物有效性低。目前缺铁是与缺氮和缺磷并列的、发生最为广泛、对植物生长发育影响最大的限制因子之一。因此,改善植物的铁营养成为了当今土壤和植物营养学研究热点。通过综述近年来机理Ⅰ植物根系形态变化、铁吸收过程、应答缺铁胁迫调节网络及缺铁胁迫感应信号研究进展,为通过分子生物学手段解决植物缺铁问题提供理论依据。%People in developing countries and remote areas generally focused on plant‐based foods ,whose iron content was low ,and easily resulting in all kinds of iron deficiency disorders of human body .Iron deficiency symptoms especially iron‐deficiency anemia severely affects women of childbearing age and children's health . The soil was much rich in iron ,but the biological effectiveness was very low .The iron deficiency ,as nitrogen deficiency and phosphorus deficiency ,one of the most widely and seriously limiting factors of plant growth and development .Therefore ,how to improve the plant iron nutrition is becoming a research focus in soil science and Plant nutrition .An overview of the strategy Ⅰ plant root morphology change ,iron acquisition process ,adjust‐ment network and induction signal of iron deficiency was provided ,so as to provide the theory basis for solving the problem of plant iron deficiency by means of molecular biology .

  8. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program.

  9. The nutritive value of some selected Tanzanian plant food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnembuka, B V; Eggum, B O

    1993-07-01

    The chemical composition of different varieties of field beans (Vicia faba L.), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), groundnuts (Voandzeia subterranea), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were determined. Nutrients analysed in these materials included amino acids, starch, sugar, fibre, minerals and antinutritional factors. All the materials were further tested in balance trials with rats; true protein digestibility (TD), biological value (BV), net protein utilization (NPU) and digestible energy (DE) were evaluated. Based on the chemical analyses as well as on the biological data, the nutritive value of plant materials between species as well as between varieties within species differed considerably. Therefore, more quality evaluation studies along with plant breeding programmes are needed to select the most promising varieties from the nutritional point of view.

  10. Challenges for Plant Breeders from the View of Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Flachowsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to feed the growing world population is very old, but because of the increase of population and possible climate change, currently it has an explosive impact. Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point for the whole human food chain. Therefore, high, stable and highly digestible yields of phytogenic biomass with low external inputs of non-renewable resources, such as water, fuel, arable land, fertilizers, etc.; low emissions of gases with greenhouse potential during cultivation; and high resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors, including adaptation to potential climate change, and a low concentration of undesirable substances in the plants are real challenges for plant breeders in the future. Virtually unlimited resources such as sunlight, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the air as well as the genetic pool of microbes, plants and animals can be used to breed/develop optimal plants/crops. Biofortification of plants may also be an objective of plants breeders, but it is more important for human nutrition to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. A lower concentration of undesirable substances in the plants can be considered as more important than higher concentrations of micronutrients in plants/feeds. Animal nutritionists have various possibilities for feed additive supplementation to meet animal nutrient requirements. Examples to reduce undesirable substances in feed plants are discussed and shown in the paper. In summary, plant breeding has a large and strategic potential for global feed and food security. All breeding technologies may contribute to solving important global challenges, such as sustainable use of limited global resources, improved use of unlimited resources, adaption to climate change and lowering global greenhouse gas emission. More publically supported research seems to be necessary in this field. All methods of plant breeding that contribute to a more resource-efficient production of high

  11. The memory of iron stress in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; da Silva, José Paulo; Miguel, Maria Graça; de Varennes, Amarilis; Correia, Pedro José; Pestana, Maribela

    2016-07-01

    To provide information towards optimization of strategies to treat Fe deficiency, experiments were conducted to study the responses of Fe-deficient plants to the resupply of Fe. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was used as model plant. Bare-root transplants of strawberry (cv. 'Diamante') were grown for 42 days in Hoagland's nutrient solutions without Fe (Fe0) and containing 10 μM of Fe as Fe-EDDHA (control, Fe10). For plants under Fe0 the total chlorophyll concentration of young leaves decreased progressively on time, showing the typical symptoms of iron chlorosis. After 35 days the Fe concentration was 6% of that observed for plants growing under Fe10. Half of plants growing under Fe0 were then Fe-resupplied by adding 10 μM of Fe to the Fe0 nutrient solution (FeR). Full Chlorophyll recovery of young leaves took place within 12 days. Root ferric chelate-reductase activity (FCR) and succinic and citric acid concentrations increased in FeR plants. Fe partition revealed that FeR plants expressively accumulated this nutrient in the crown and flowers. This observation can be due to a passive deactivation mechanism of the FCR activity, associated with continuous synthesis of succinic and citric acids at root level, and consequent greater uptake of Fe.

  12. The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Agafonov

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system's response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake.

  13. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  14. [Iron nutrition in Mapuche infants fed with human milk (2d phase)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Rodríguez, E; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Llaguno, S; Lettelier, A

    1990-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin were measured in 140 healthy rural mapuche (southern Chile's indigenous ethnic group) infants aged 8 to 15 months: 90 had been exclusively breast fed for the first 5 or 6 months of life, then solid foods were introduced but cow's milk was never given to them. The remaining 50, which were all weaned at nearly 4 months of age and then given cow's milk and solid foods at the corresponding age, were designated as controls. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of breast fed infants and in 38% of controls. Evidence of iron deficient erythropoiesis was found in 5% and 81% of cases and controls, respectively. Human milk apparently protects this ethnic group from iron deficiency anemia and this protection seems to be better in mapuche infants than in other groups of chilean infants, because these late have shown 30% incidence of anemia around the first year of life in other studies. More studies on differences in iron nutritional state among mapuche and non mapuche are needed and are under way.

  15. Effect of excess iron and copper on physiology of aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate effect of chemical reagents addition on growth of aquatic plants in restoration of aquatic ecosystem, Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid was used to evaluate its physiological responses to excess iron (Fe(3+)) and copper (Cu(2+)) in the study. Results showed that accumulation of iron and copper both reached maximum at 100 mg L(-1) iron or copper after 24 h short-term stress, but excess iron and copper caused plants necrosis or death and colonies disintegration as well as roots abscission at excess metal concentrations except for 1 mg L(-1) iron. Significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) were observed at 1-100 mg L(-1) iron or copper. The synthesis of chlorophyll and protein as well as carbohydrate and the uptake of phosphate and nitrogen were inhibited seriously by excess iron and copper. Proline content decreased with increasing iron or copper concentration, however, MDA content increased with increasing iron or copper concentration.

  16. Nutritional and toxic factors in selected wild edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil, J L; Rodríguez-García, I; Torija, E

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and carotenes); antinutritional and toxic components (oxalic acid, nitrate and erucic acid) were determined in sixteen popular species of wild edible plants which are collected for human consumption in southeast Spain. Ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acids contents were very high in several species, especially in Chenopodium album L. (155 mg/100 g). Carotenoid content ranged from 4.2 mg/100 g (Stellaria media Villars) to 15.4 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). A range of values was found for oxalic acid from absence to 1100 mg/100 g of plant material. Nitrate contents ranged from 47 mg/100 g (Salicornia europaea L.) to 597 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). Low amounts of erucic acid were found in the Cruciferae family (Sisymbrium irio L. 1.73%; Cardaria draba L. 1.23%) and Plantago major L. 3.45%.

  17. The mycorrhizal contribution to plant productivity, plant nutrition and soil structure in experimental grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Streitwolf-Engel, Ruth; Riedl, Ralph; Siegrist, Sabine; Neudecker, Angelica; Ineichen, Kurt; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Sanders, Ian R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can influence plant diversity and ecosystem productivity. However, little is known about the effects of AMF and different AMF taxa on other important community properties such as nutrient acquisition, plant survival and soil structure. We established experimental grassland microcosms and tested the impact of AMF and of different AMF taxa on a number of grassland characteristics. We also tested whether plant species benefited from the same or different AMF taxa in subsequent growing seasons. AMF enhanced phosphorus acquisition, soil aggregation and survival of several plant species, but AMF did not increase total plant productivity. Moreover, AMF increased nitrogen acquisition by some plant species, but AMF had no effect on total N uptake by the plant community. Plant growth responses to AMF were temporally variable and some plant species obtained the highest biomass with different AMF in different years. Hence the results indicate that it may be beneficial for a plant to be colonized by different AMF taxa in different seasons. This study shows that AMF play a key role in grassland by improving plant nutrition and soil structure, and by regulating the make-up of the plant community.

  18. ASPECTS OF IRON NUTRITION IN MACROALGAE ULVA PERTUSA(CHLOROPHYTA) UNDER IRON STRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静雯; 董双林; 刘晓云

    2002-01-01

    Fe, Chlorophyll (Chl) and total nitrogen (TN) content in tissues were measured in Fe-deficient cultures of Ulva. pertusa over a period of 60 days. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates were studied at the start of and 30 days after Fe-deficiency culture, when the effects of Fe-deficiency on the ultrastructure were also analyzed. The iron content in tissue decreased exponentially during Fe-deficiency (from 726.7 to 31.6 μg/gdw) and simultaneously Chl and TN content declined to 4.35% and 59.9% of their original levels respectively. Maximumcarbon fixation rate (50-250 μmol/m2 s) under Fe-deficiency decreased significantly compared with the control (p<0.01) and was 13.6 to 0.365 μg C /cm2 h. Photosynthesis in Fe-deficient cells became light-saturated at lower irradiance than that in control. Ultrastructural observations of Fe-deficient cells showed reductions in chloroplast number, some degeneration of lamellar organization, an increase in vacuolar area, a decrease in mitochondrial matrix density, and variation in accumulation body number and morphology. During Fe-deficiency, the algae growth rate continued to decline and after 6 weeks of iron deficiency, no furthergrowth was detectable. These suggested that the lower growth rate of Ulva. pertusa under Fe-deficiency could be due mainly to nitrogen utilization and inhibition of photosynthesis.``

  19. The effect of humic acids and their complexes with iron on the functional status of plants grown under iron deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abros'kin, D. P.; Fuentes, M.; Garcia-Mina, J. M.; Klyain, O. I.; Senik, S. V.; Volkov, D. S.; Perminova, I. V.; Kulikova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of humic acids (HAs) and their iron complexes (Fe-HAs) on the input of the main mineral elements into wheat seedlings, as well as on the efficiency of photosynthesis and the lipid profile of plants, under iron deficiency has been studied. The input of iron from Fe-HA complexes and its predominant accumulation in roots are demonstrated. It is found that HAs increase the efficiency of photosynthesis due to enhanced electron transport in photosystem II. It is shown that the application of HAs and Fe-HAs is accompanied by an enhanced input of Zn into plants, which could increase the antioxidant status of plants under iron deficiency conditions. In addition, a pronounced increase in the content of lipids in plants is revealed, which is indicative of the effect of HAs on plant metabolism. The obtained results suggest that the positive effect of Fe-HAs and HAs on plants under iron deficiency conditions is due to a combination of factors, among which the effect of HAs on the antioxidant status of plants and the plant lipid metabolism predominates.

  20. Is iron and zinc nutrition a concern for vegetarian infants and young children in industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2014-07-01

    Well-planned vegetarian diets are considered adequate for all stages of the life cycle, despite limited data on the zinc status of vegetarians during early childhood. The bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets is poor because of their higher content of absorption inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenols and the absence of flesh foods. Consequently, children as well as adult vegetarians often have lower serum ferritin concentrations than omnivores, which is indicative of reduced iron stores, despite comparable intakes of total iron; hemoglobin differences are small and rarely associated with anemia. However, data on serum zinc concentrations, the recommended biomarker for identifying population groups at elevated risk of zinc deficiency, are sparse and difficult to interpret because recommended collection and analytic procedures have not always been followed. Existing data indicate no differences in serum zinc or growth between young vegetarian and omnivorous children, although there is some evidence of low serum zinc concentrations in vegetarian adolescents. Some vegetarian immigrants from underprivileged households may be predisposed to iron and zinc deficiency because of nondietary factors such as chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, overweight, and genetic hemoglobin disorders. To reduce the risk of deficiency, the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc should be enhanced in vegetarian diets by consumption of fortified cereals and milk, by consumption of leavened whole grains, by soaking dried legumes before cooking and discarding the soaking water, and by replacing tea and coffee at meals with vitamin C-rich drinks, fruit, or vegetables. Additional recommended practices include using fermented soy foods and sprouting at least some of the legumes consumed. Fortified foods can reduce iron deficiency, but whether they can also reduce zinc deficiency is less certain. Supplements may be necessary for vegetarian children following very

  1. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlotti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1 activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14 an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids to the leaves.

  2. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlotti, Andrea; Vigani, Gianpiero; Zocchi, Graziano

    2012-10-11

    Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves.

  3. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Method: Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraiba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50. The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, hematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein > 6 mg/L were excluded. Results: Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion: The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron, suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency.

  4. Iron-binding E3 ligase mediates iron response in plants by targeting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W; Long, Terri A

    2015-01-01

    Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response.

  5. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, F. M.; Teleki, A.; Krumeich, F.; Büchel, R.; Hurrell, R. F.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2009-11-01

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  6. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilty, F M; Hurrell, R F; Zimmermann, M B [Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Teleki, A; Buechel, R; Pratsinis, S E [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Krumeich, F, E-mail: michael.zimmermann@ilw.agrl.ethz.c [Electron Microscopy Center (EMEZ), ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  7. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  8. Effect of Low-Dose Ferrous Sulfate vs Iron Polysaccharide Complex on Hemoglobin Concentration in Young Children With Nutritional Iron-Deficiency Anemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jacquelyn M; Buchanan, George R; Adix, Leah; Zhang, Song; Gao, Ang; McCavit, Timothy L

    2017-06-13

    Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) affects millions of persons worldwide, and is associated with impaired neurodevelopment in infants and children. Ferrous sulfate is the most commonly prescribed oral iron despite iron polysaccharide complex possibly being better tolerated. To compare the effect of ferrous sulfate with iron polysaccharide complex on hemoglobin concentration in infants and children with nutritional IDA. Double-blind, superiority randomized clinical trial of infants and children aged 9 to 48 months with nutritional IDA (assessed by history and laboratory criteria) that was conducted in an outpatient hematology clinic at a US tertiary care hospital from September 2013 through November 2015; 12-week follow-up ended in January 2016. Three mg/kg of elemental iron once daily as either ferrous sulfate drops or iron polysaccharide complex drops for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in hemoglobin over 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included complete resolution of IDA (defined as hemoglobin concentration >11 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume >70 fL, reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent >25 pg, serum ferritin level >15 ng/mL, and total iron-binding capacity serum ferritin level and total iron-binding capacity, adverse effects. Of 80 randomized infants and children (median age, 22 months; 55% male; 61% Hispanic white; 40 per group), 59 completed the trial (28 [70%] in ferrous sulfate group; 31 [78%] in iron polysaccharide complex group). From baseline to 12 weeks, mean hemoglobin increased from 7.9 to 11.9 g/dL (ferrous sulfate group) vs 7.7 to 11.1 g/dL (iron complex group), a greater difference of 1.0 g/dL (95% CI, 0.4 to 1.6 g/dL; P serum ferritin level increased from 3.0 to 15.6 ng/mL (ferrous sulfate) vs 2.0 to 7.5 ng/mL (iron complex) over 12 weeks, a greater difference of 10.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 6.2 to 14.1 ng/mL; P iron-binding capacity decreased from 501 to 389 μg/dL (ferrous sulfate) vs 506 to 417 μg/dL (iron complex) (a greater difference of -50 μg/dL [95

  9. Fitting into the harsh reality: regulation of iron-deficiency responses in dicotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Rumen; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Bauer, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and its shortage, or excess, in the living organism may lead to severe health disorders. Plants serve as the primary source of dietary iron and improving crop iron content is an important step towards a better public health. Our review focuses on the control of iron acquisition in dicotyledonous plants and monocots that apply a reduction-based strategy in order to mobilize and import iron from the rhizosphere. Achieving a balance between shortage and excess of iron requires a tight regulation of the activity of the iron uptake system. A number of studies, ranging from single gene characterization to systems biology analyses, have led to the rapid expansion of our knowledge on iron uptake in recent years. Here, we summarize the novel insights into the regulation of iron acquisition and internal mobilization from intracellular stores. We present a detailed view of the main known regulatory networks defined by the Arabidopsis regulators FIT and POPEYE (PYE). Additionally, we analyze the root and leaf iron-responsive regulatory networks, revealing novel potential gene interactions and reliable iron-deficiency marker genes. We discuss perspectives and open questions with regard to iron sensing and post-translational regulation.

  10. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  11. Improving human micronutrient nutrition through biofortification in the soil-plant system: China as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-E; Chen, Wen-Rong; Feng, Ying

    2007-10-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is a major health problem in China. According to a national nutritional survey, approximately 24% of all Chinese children suffer from a serious deficiency of iron (Fe) (anemia), while over 50% show a sub-clinical level of zinc (Zn) deficiency. More than 374 million people in China suffer from goiter disease, which is related to iodine (I) deficiency, and approximately 20% of the Chinese population are affected by selenium (Se) deficiency. Micronutrient malnutrition in humans is derived from deficiencies of these elements in soils and foods. In China, approximately 40% of the total land area is deficient in Fe and Zn. Keshan and Kaschin-Beck diseases always appear in regions where the soil content of Se in low. The soil-plant system is instrumental to human nutrition and forms the basis of the "food chain" in which there is micronutrient cycling, resulting in an ecologically sound and sustainable flow of micronutrients. Soil-plant system strategies that have been adopted to improve human micronutrient nutrition mainly include: (1) exploiting micronutrient-dense crop genotypes by studying the physiology and genetics of micronutrient flow from soils to the edible parts of crops; (2) improving micronutrient bioavailability through a better knowledge of the mechanisms of the enhancers' production and accumulation in edible parts and its regulation through soil-plant system; (3) improving our knowledge of the relationship between the content and bioavailability of micronutrients in soils and those in edible crop products for better human nutrition; (4) developing special micronutrient fertilizers and integrated nutrient management technologies for increasing both the density of the micronutrients in the edible parts of plants and their bioavailability to humans.

  12. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and

  13. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and impr

  14. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  15. Enhancement of iron content in spinach plants stimulated by magnetic nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Agus; Astuti, Budi; Amalia, Saptaria Rosa

    2016-04-01

    In our previous study, the iron content in spinach plants could be detected by magnetic susceptibility values. In the present work, magnetic nano particles were found from the iron sand. The magnetic nano particles are synthesis by using co-precipitation process and sol-gel technique. The stimulation of magnetic nano particles in the plant has been done by the provision of magnetic nano particles in growing media. After certain time, plant samples was characterized using susceptibility-meter MS2B and atomic absorption spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility and the amount of iron content that absorbed of the plant, respectively. The iron content in the spinach plants was increased when the magnetic nano particles was injected in the growing media.

  16. Long-distance signaling of iron deficiency in plants

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Planta, we established two points regarding the long-distance signal of iron status in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). One is that the long-distance signal generated in iron deficient tissues is a major factor in positively regulating the expressions of iron uptake genes in tobacco. The expression of a ferric chelate reductase gene (NtFRO1) and an iron-regulated transporter gene (NtIRT1) in roots decreased by cutting off the leaves grown under the iron-deficient condi...

  17. Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Wark, Petra A; Sánchez, María-José; Norat, Teresa; Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Michaud, Dominique S; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Katarachia, Helen; Skeie, Guri; Henningsen, Maria; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Duell, Eric J; Quirós, José-Ramón; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Li, Kuanrong; Grote, Verena A; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Peeters, Petra H M; Siersema, Peter D; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas

    2012-10-01

    Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥ 25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

  18. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  19. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  20. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  1. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.

  2. Iron assimilation and transcription factor controlled synthesis of riboflavin in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwieger, A; Gryczka, C; Czihal, A; Douchkov, D; Tiedemann, J; Mock, H-P; Jakoby, M; Weisshaar, B; Saalbach, I; Bäumlein, H

    2007-06-01

    Iron homeostasis is vital for many cellular processes and requires a precise regulation. Several iron efficient plants respond to iron starvation with the excretion of riboflavin and other flavins. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TF) are involved in the regulation of many developmental processes, including iron assimilation. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of two Arabidopsis bHLH TF genes, which are strongly induced under iron starvation. Their heterologous ectopic expression causes constitutive, iron starvation independent excretion of riboflavin. The results show that both bHLH TFs represent an essential component of the regulatory pathway connecting iron deficiency perception and riboflavin excretion and might act as integrators of various stress reactions.

  3. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  4. Scavenging iron: a novel mechanism of plant immunity activation by microbial siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Rigault, Martine; Riache, Nassima; Joseph, Delphine; Desmaële, Didier; Mouille, Grégory; Boutet, Stéphanie; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Thomine, Sébastien; Expert, Dominique; Dellagi, Alia

    2014-04-01

    Siderophores are specific ferric iron chelators synthesized by virtually all microorganisms in response to iron deficiency. We have previously shown that they promote infection by the phytopathogenic enterobacteria Dickeya dadantii and Erwinia amylovora. Siderophores also have the ability to activate plant immunity. We have used complete Arabidopsis transcriptome microarrays to investigate the global transcriptional modifications in roots and leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants after leaf treatment with the siderophore deferrioxamine (DFO). Physiological relevance of these transcriptional modifications was validated experimentally. Immunity and heavy-metal homeostasis were the major processes affected by DFO. These two physiological responses could be activated by a synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid, indicating that siderophores eliciting activities rely on their strong iron-chelating capacity. DFO was able to protect Arabidopsis against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Siderophore treatment caused local modifications of iron distribution in leaf cells visible by ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine-H₂O₂ staining. Metal quantifications showed that DFO causes a transient iron and zinc uptake at the root level, which is presumably mediated by the metal transporter iron regulated transporter1 (IRT1). Defense gene expression and callose deposition in response to DFO were compromised in an irt1 mutant. Consistently, plant susceptibility to D. dadantii was increased in the irt1 mutant. Our work shows that iron scavenging is a unique mechanism of immunity activation in plants. It highlights the strong relationship between heavy-metal homeostasis and immunity.

  5. Nutrition knowledge and practices, and consumption of vitamin A--rich plants by rural Nepali participants and nonparticipants in a kitchen-garden program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katharine M; Specio, Sheila E; Shrestha, Parvati; Brown, Kenneth H; Allen, Lindsay H

    2005-06-01

    Food-based nutrition interventions, including kitchen gardens and nutrition education, offer a potentially sustainable approach to reducing multiple nutritional deficiencies, but they have been poorly evaluated in developing countries. In a poor region of the terai (the flat, subtropical agricultural region that borders on India) in rural Nepal, we developed and evaluated the impact of a nutrition program added to the Market Access for Rural Development (MARD) Project. The primary objective of the MARD Project was to augment household income by increasing the production of high-economic-value crops. The objective of the nutrition program was to increase vitamin A and iron intakes by promoting kitchen gardens (training, technical assistance, and seed distribution) and nutrition education. One-third of the kitchen-garden program participants also attended nutrition education or agricultural training sessions that were part of the MARD Project. The program was evaluated after 36 months by a cross-sectional nutrition survey in 430 MARD households with kitchen gardens and 389 non-MARD control households. The lack of knowledge about nutrition, including the causes, prevention, and treatment of night-blindness and anemia, was remarkable. However, compared with control households, the kitchen-gardens group had significantly more nutrition knowledge (38% vs. 13% knew one of the causes of night-blindness, and 17% vs. 3% knew one of the causes of anemia), were more likely to feed special complementary foods to infants and to preserve food, and consumed more of 16 types of home-produced micronutrient-rich vegetables and fruits. Although the cross-sectional nature of the study limits our ability to attribute these differences to the program, we observed a striking lack of nutrition knowledge in these communities, and a clear opportunity to increase the intake of vitamin A through home production of vitamin A-rich plants.

  6. Combined effects of patch size and plant nutritional quality on local densities of insect herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.; Kamp, A.; Oliveira-Domingues, de F.; Hamback, P.A.; Jongema, Y.; Bezemer, T.M.; Dicke, M.; Dam, N.; Harvey, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions occur in spatially heterogeneous habitats. Understanding how such interactions shape density distributions of herbivores requires knowledge on how variation in plant traits (e.g. nutritional quality) affects herbivore abundance through, for example, affecting movement rates

  7. Administrative Record Index for SMA 4 - Former Chemical Plant and SMA 5 - Former Pig Iron Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Record Index lists the documents, data and other technical information that the EPA - Region 4 considered in preparing the Statement of Basis for the Former Chemical Plant and the Former Pig Iron Foundry at ERP Compliant Coke.

  8. Foliar-applied glyphosate substantially reduced uptake and transport of iron and manganese in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Selim; Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Erenoglu, Bulent; Romheld, Volker; Cakmak, Ismail

    2006-12-27

    Evidence clearly shows that cationic micronutrients in spray solutions reduce the herbicidal effectiveness of glyphosate for weed control due to the formation of metal-glyphosate complexes. The formation of these glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissue may also impair micronutrient nutrition of nontarget plants when exposed to glyphosate drift or glyphosate residues in soil. In the present study, the effects of simulated glyphosate drift on plant growth and uptake, translocation, and accumulation (tissue concentration) of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were investigated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants grown in nutrient solution under controlled environmental conditions. Glyphosate was sprayed on plant shoots at different rates between 1.25 and 6.0% of the recommended dosage (i.e., 0.39 and 1.89 mM glyphosate isopropylamine salt). Glyphosate applications significantly decreased root and shoot dry matter production and chlorophyll concentrations of young leaves and shoot tips. The basal parts of the youngest leaves and shoot tips were severely chlorotic. These effects became apparent within 48 h after the glyphosate spray. Glyphosate also caused substantial decreases in leaf concentration of Fe and Mn while the concentration of Zn and Cu was less affected. In short-term uptake experiments with radiolabeled Fe (59Fe), Mn (54Mn), and Zn (65Zn), root uptake of 59Fe and 54Mn was significantly reduced in 12 and 24 h after application of 6% of the recommended dosage of glyphosate, respectively. Glyphosate resulted in almost complete inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of 59Fe within 12 h and 54Mn within 24 h after application. These results suggest that glyphosate residues or drift may result in severe impairments in Fe and Mn nutrition of nontarget plants, possibly due to the formation of poorly soluble glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissues and/or rhizosphere interactions.

  9. Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouis, Howarth E

    2003-05-01

    Can commonly-eaten food staple crops be developed that fortify their seeds with essential minerals and vitamins? Can farmers be induced to grow such varieties? If so, would this result in a marked improvement in human nutrition at a lower cost than existing nutrition interventions? An interdisciplinary international effort is underway to breed for mineral- and vitamin-dense varieties of rice, wheat, maize, beans and cassava for release to farmers in developing countries. The biofortification strategy seeks to take advantage of the consistent daily consumption of large amounts of food staples by all family members, including women and children as they are most at risk for micronutrient malnutrition. As a consequence of the predominance of food staples in the diets of the poor, this strategy implicitly targets low-income households. After the one-time investment is made to develop seeds that fortify themselves, recurrent costs are low and germplasm may be shared internationally. It is this multiplier aspect of plant breeding across time and distance that makes it so cost-effective. Once in place, the biofortified crop system is highly sustainable. Nutritionally-improved varieties will continue to be grown and consumed year after year, even if government attention and international funding for micronutrient issues fades. Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas. Biofortification and commercial fortification are, therefore, highly complementary. Breeding for higher trace mineral density in seeds will not incur a yield penalty. Mineral-packed seeds sell themselves to farmers because, as recent research has shown, these trace minerals are essential in helping plants resist disease and other environmental stresses. More seedlings

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in rice plants. Effects on mineral nutrition and possible interaction of plant hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, M.; Martinez-Cortina, C.; Sanz, A. (Univ. of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)); Escrig, I.; Lopez-Benet, F.J. (Univ. of Jaume I, Castello (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    As a consequence of anthropogenic activities there is a constant increase in water and soil pollution by heavy metals, which may have negative effect on plants. We have studied the effects of Cd and Ni treatments on mineral nutrition of rice plants. six days after germination. Cd (0.1 mM) or Ni (0.5 mM) was added to the nutrient solution where the plants were grown. After 10 days mineral element contents were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after sample digestion with nitric acid (70[degrees]C 24 h) in erlenmeyer flasks. Cd-treated plants accumulated high quantities of this metal (2.28 mg/g DW, 30 fold the value found in controls), and most of it remained in the root (66% of total). A great increase in Ni contents was also observed in Ni-treated plants (3.06 mg/g DW, 28 fold higher than in controls). However, contrary to Cd, Ni accumulated preferentially in shoots (81% of total). Addition of ABA or GA[sub 3] (5 mg/l) to the nutrient solution together with the heavy metal, did not affect Cd uptake by the plants but caused a significant reduction in Ni accumulation in the shoots (60%). In both, Cd- and Ni-treated plants, the uptake of divalent cations (Ca[sup 2][sup +], Mg[sup 2][sup +]) decreased more than 50% with respect to controls. This effect was not modified by hormonal applications, though a trend to reverse the decrease in Ca[sup 2][sup +] caused by Ni was observed.

  11. Geochemical patterns and microbial contribution to iron plaque formation in the rice plant rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Markus; Murata, Chihiro; Unger, Julia; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the major food source for more than half of the world population and 80 percent of the worldwide rice cultivation is performed on water logged paddy soils. The establishment of reducing conditions in the soil and across the soil-water interface not only stimulates the microbial production and release of the greenhouse gas methane. These settings also create optimal conditions for microbial iron(III) reduction and therefore saturate the system with reduced ferrous iron. Through the reduction and dissolution of ferric minerals that are characterized by their high surface activity, sorbed nutrients and contaminants (e.g. arsenic) will be mobilized and are thus available for uptake by plants. Rice plants have evolved a strategy to release oxygen from their roots in order to prevent iron toxification in highly ferrous environments. The release of oxygen to the reduced paddy soil causes ferric iron plaque formation on the rice roots and finally increases the sorption capacity for toxic metals. To this date the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the formation of iron plaque are not deciphered. It has been hypothesized that iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria play a potential role in the iron(III) mineral formation along the roots. However, not much is known about the actual processes, mineral products, and geochemical gradients that establish within the rhizosphere. In the present study we have developed a growth set-up that allows the co-cultivation of rice plants and iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria, as well as the visual observation and in situ measurement of geochemical parameters. Oxygen and dissolved iron(II) gradients have been measured using microelectrodes and show geochemical hot spots that offer optimal growth conditions for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidizers. First mineral identification attempts of iron plaque have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained results on mineraology and crystallinity have been

  12. Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather A; Gayle, Alicia; Jakszyn, Paula; Merritt, Melissa; Melin, Beatrice; Freisling, Heinz; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Kyrozis, Andreas; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Quirós, José Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Drake, Isabel; Sandström, Maria; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J

    2016-11-11

    Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample sizes and heterogeneous tumour classifications. The aim of this study was to examine red meat, processed meat and iron intake in relation to glioma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. In this prospective cohort study, 408 751 individuals from nine European countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine intake of red meat, processed meat, total dietary iron and haem iron in relation to incident glioma. During an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 688 incident glioma cases were diagnosed. There was no evidence that any of the meat variables (red, processed meat or subtypes of meat) or iron (total or haem) were associated with glioma; results were unchanged when the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded. This study suggests that there is no association between meat or iron intake and adult glioma. This is the largest prospective analysis of meat and iron in relation to glioma and as such provides a substantial contribution to a limited and inconsistent literature.

  13. Two plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase genes are differentially expressed in iron-deficient cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Simonetta; Cesco, Stefano; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    Aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) isoforms of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in the response to Fe deficiency. Two PM H(+)-ATPase cDNAs (CsHA1 and CsHA2) were isolated from cucumber and their expression analysed as a function of Fe nutritional status. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed in Fe-deficient roots an enhanced accumulation of CsHA1 gene transcripts, which were hardly detectable in leaves. Supply of iron to deficient plants caused a decrease in the transcript level of CsHA1. In contrast, CsHA2 transcripts, detected both in roots and leaves, appeared to be unaffected by Fe. This work shows for the first time that a transcriptional regulation of PM H(+)-ATPase involving a specific isoform occurs in the response to Fe deficiency.

  14. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  15. A widespread plant-fungal-bacterial symbiosis promotes plant biodiversity, plant nutrition and seedling recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A; de Bruin, Susanne; Luckerhoff, Ludo; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Highly diverse microbial assemblages colonize plant roots. It is still poorly understood whether different members of this root microbiome act synergistically by supplying different services (for example, different limiting nutrients) to plants and plant communities. In order to test this, we manipulated the presence of two widespread plant root symbionts, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in model grassland communities established in axenic microcosms. Here, we demonstrate that both symbionts complement each other resulting in increased plant diversity, enhanced seedling recruitment and improved nutrient acquisition compared with a single symbiont situation. Legume seedlings obtained up to 15-fold higher productivity if they formed an association with both symbionts, opposed to productivity they reached with only one symbiont. Our results reveal the importance of functional diversity of symbionts and demonstrate that different members of the root microbiome can complement each other in acquiring different limiting nutrients and in driving important ecosystem functions.

  16. A carnivorous plant fed by its ant symbiont: a unique multi-faceted nutritional mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bazile

    Full Text Available Scarcity of essential nutrients has led plants to evolve alternative nutritional strategies, such as myrmecotrophy (ant-waste-derived nutrition and carnivory (invertebrate predation. The carnivorous plant Nepenthes bicalcarata grows in the Bornean peatswamp forests and is believed to have a mutualistic relationship with its symbiotic ant Camponotus schmitzi. However, the benefits provided by the ant have not been quantified. We tested the hypothesis of a nutritional mutualism, using foliar isotopic and reflectance analyses and by comparing fitness-related traits between ant-inhabited and uninhabited plants. Plants inhabited by C. schmitzi produced more leaves of greater area and nitrogen content than unoccupied plants. The ants were estimated to provide a 200% increase in foliar nitrogen to adult plants. Inhabited plants also produced more and larger pitchers containing higher prey biomass. C. schmitzi-occupied pitchers differed qualitatively in containing C. schmitzi wastes and captured large ants and flying insects. Pitcher abortion rates were lower in inhabited plants partly because of herbivore deterrence as herbivory-aborted buds decreased with ant occupation rate. Lower abortion was also attributed to ant nutritional service. The ants had higher δ(15N values than any tested prey, and foliar δ(15N increased with ant occupation rate, confirming their predatory behaviour and demonstrating their direct contribution to the plant-recycled N. We estimated that N. bicalcarata derives on average 42% of its foliar N from C. schmitzi wastes, (76% in highly-occupied plants. According to the Structure Independent Pigment Index, plants without C. schmitzi were nutrient stressed compared to both occupied plants, and pitcher-lacking plants. This attests to the physiological cost of pitcher production and poor nutrient assimilation in the absence of the symbiont. Hence C. schmitzi contributes crucially to the nutrition of N. bicalcarata, via protection

  17. A carnivorous plant fed by its ant symbiont: a unique multi-faceted nutritional mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Moran, Jonathan A; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Scarcity of essential nutrients has led plants to evolve alternative nutritional strategies, such as myrmecotrophy (ant-waste-derived nutrition) and carnivory (invertebrate predation). The carnivorous plant Nepenthes bicalcarata grows in the Bornean peatswamp forests and is believed to have a mutualistic relationship with its symbiotic ant Camponotus schmitzi. However, the benefits provided by the ant have not been quantified. We tested the hypothesis of a nutritional mutualism, using foliar isotopic and reflectance analyses and by comparing fitness-related traits between ant-inhabited and uninhabited plants. Plants inhabited by C. schmitzi produced more leaves of greater area and nitrogen content than unoccupied plants. The ants were estimated to provide a 200% increase in foliar nitrogen to adult plants. Inhabited plants also produced more and larger pitchers containing higher prey biomass. C. schmitzi-occupied pitchers differed qualitatively in containing C. schmitzi wastes and captured large ants and flying insects. Pitcher abortion rates were lower in inhabited plants partly because of herbivore deterrence as herbivory-aborted buds decreased with ant occupation rate. Lower abortion was also attributed to ant nutritional service. The ants had higher δ(15)N values than any tested prey, and foliar δ(15)N increased with ant occupation rate, confirming their predatory behaviour and demonstrating their direct contribution to the plant-recycled N. We estimated that N. bicalcarata derives on average 42% of its foliar N from C. schmitzi wastes, (76% in highly-occupied plants). According to the Structure Independent Pigment Index, plants without C. schmitzi were nutrient stressed compared to both occupied plants, and pitcher-lacking plants. This attests to the physiological cost of pitcher production and poor nutrient assimilation in the absence of the symbiont. Hence C. schmitzi contributes crucially to the nutrition of N. bicalcarata, via protection of assimilatory

  18. A Carnivorous Plant Fed by Its Ant Symbiont: A Unique Multi-Faceted Nutritional Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Moran, Jonathan A.; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J.; Gaume, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Scarcity of essential nutrients has led plants to evolve alternative nutritional strategies, such as myrmecotrophy (ant-waste-derived nutrition) and carnivory (invertebrate predation). The carnivorous plant Nepenthes bicalcarata grows in the Bornean peatswamp forests and is believed to have a mutualistic relationship with its symbiotic ant Camponotus schmitzi. However, the benefits provided by the ant have not been quantified. We tested the hypothesis of a nutritional mutualism, using foliar isotopic and reflectance analyses and by comparing fitness-related traits between ant-inhabited and uninhabited plants. Plants inhabited by C. schmitzi produced more leaves of greater area and nitrogen content than unoccupied plants. The ants were estimated to provide a 200% increase in foliar nitrogen to adult plants. Inhabited plants also produced more and larger pitchers containing higher prey biomass. C. schmitzi-occupied pitchers differed qualitatively in containing C. schmitzi wastes and captured large ants and flying insects. Pitcher abortion rates were lower in inhabited plants partly because of herbivore deterrence as herbivory-aborted buds decreased with ant occupation rate. Lower abortion was also attributed to ant nutritional service. The ants had higher δ15N values than any tested prey, and foliar δ15N increased with ant occupation rate, confirming their predatory behaviour and demonstrating their direct contribution to the plant-recycled N. We estimated that N. bicalcarata derives on average 42% of its foliar N from C. schmitzi wastes, (76% in highly-occupied plants). According to the Structure Independent Pigment Index, plants without C. schmitzi were nutrient stressed compared to both occupied plants, and pitcher-lacking plants. This attests to the physiological cost of pitcher production and poor nutrient assimilation in the absence of the symbiont. Hence C. schmitzi contributes crucially to the nutrition of N. bicalcarata, via protection of assimilatory

  19. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  20. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of iron stored in the body become low, iron deficiency anemia sets in. Red blood cells become smaller and ... from the lungs throughout the body. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include tiredness and lack of energy, GI upset, ...

  1. Effect of Iron Nutrition on Growth of Citrus limonia%铁营养对白(黎)檬生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洁; 樊卫国

    2011-01-01

    The growth condition of Citrus limonia under different iron levels was studied and compared with that of Poncirus trifoliata to have a good knowledge of the influence of iron nutrition on C. Limonia growth. The results showed that the growth of C. Limonia increased with the increase of iron concentration ranging from 0 mg/L to 2 mg/L while decreased when the iron concentration ranged from 2 mg/L to 7 mg/L. The plant height, stem diameter, fresh weight and dry weight of aerial part and underground part, total volume and area of root system reached the maximum when the iron concentration was 2 mg/L. The grow was significantly inhibited when the iron concentration was 0 mg/L or 7 mg/L. The suitable iron concentration range was greater than P. Trifoliate and had stronger adaptability to iron concentration.%为了解不同供铁水平对白(黎)檬(Citrus limonia Osbeck)生长的影响,采用营养液培养法对白(黎)檬在不同供铁水平下的生长状况进行了研究,并对比分析枳壳(Poncirus tri foliata Raf)与白(黎)檬对铁浓度的响应.结果表明:在0~2 mg/L的铁浓度范围内,随着供铁浓度的增加,白(黎)檬的生长呈上升趋势,2 mg/L铁浓度水平时,白(黎)檬的株高、茎粗、地上部分的鲜重、干重、地下部分鲜重、干重、根系总体积、根系总面积都达到最大值.在2~7 mg/L的铁浓度范围内,随着供铁浓度的增加,白(黎)檬的生长呈下降趋势.在无铁(0 mg/L)和高铁(7mg/L)的供铁水平时,白檫檬的生长明显受到抑制.白檫檬对铁营养的适应浓度范围大于枳壳,对铁营养有更强的适应性.

  2. Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the Ross Sea: implications for vitamin B12 nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Bertrand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 hours. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability.

  3. Meat and heme iron intake and esophageal adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Molina, Esther; Sánchez, Ma José; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Siersema, Peter D; Matiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadie; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Oikonomidou, Edespina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Mattias; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Freisling, Heinz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, Jose Ma; Amiano, Pilar; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Kuehn, Tilman; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Peeters, Petra H M; González, Carlos A

    2013-12-01

    Although recent studies suggest that high intakes of meat and heme iron are risk factors for several types of cancer, studies in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are scarce. Previous results in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) based on a relatively small number of cases suggested a positive association between processed meat and EAC. In this study, we investigate the association between intake of different types of meats and heme iron intake and EAC risk in a larger number of cases from EPIC. The study included 481,419 individuals and 137 incident cases of EAC that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of meat (unprocessed/processed red and white meat) was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant positive association of EAC risk with heme iron and processed meat intake, with HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68 and HR: 2.27, 95% CI:1.33-3.89, respectively, for comparison of the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake. Our results suggest a potential association between higher intakes of processed meat and heme iron and risk of EAC.

  4. Effect of planting density on nutritional quality of green-chopped corn for silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Alfonso, Mauro; Depino, Sebastián; Alessandri, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this on-farm study was to determine the effect of corn planting density on the nutritional quality of whole-plant corn for silage. This study was performed in a commercial 1,900-cow dairy farm located in Piedritas (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Two commercial hybrids (A and B) were planted in experimental plots within a cornfield destined for corn silage. Hybrids were sown at a theoretical seeding rate of 60,000, 70,000, 80,000, and 90,000 seeds/ha in 4 replicates per hybrid. Plots were eight 50-m-long rows separated by 52cm. Corn was planted with a no-till seeder equipped with a pneumatic dosing machine. Ten plants within each plot were cut by hand at 15cm above ground. Whole plants were chopped, weighed, mixed thoroughly, and frozen until analysis. Nutritional composition was determined by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Harvesting occurred at one-quarter milk-line [31.4% dry matter (DM)] and one-half milk-line (34.5% DM) stages of maturity for hybrids B and A, respectively. No interactions between hybrid and planting density were observed for any of the variables of interest. Planting density did not affect either plant DM weight or DM, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or starch concentrations of whole-plant corn. Dry matter yield was significantly increased at higher planting densities. The similar per-plant biomass and nutritional quality among different densities can be explained by the abundant precipitation observed during this growing season (719mm since the beginning of fallow until harvest). In conclusion, greater yields of silage can be obtained by increasing corn planting density without affecting its nutritional composition, although the effect of planting density with limiting resources (e.g., precipitation) still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Announcement of new division: C9 – Biomedical, Health-Beneficial, and Nutritionally Enhanced Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop Science, is pleased to announce that manuscript submissions are now being accepted to the journal through the new Provisional Division C09 – Biomedical, Health-Beneficial, and Nutritionally Enhanced Plants. The focus of this Division is on plants as food or feed, and on the development and eva...

  6. IRON REDUCTASE SYSTEMS ON THE PLANT PLASMA-MEMBRANE - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOG, PR; BRUGGEMANN, W

    1994-01-01

    Higher plant roots, leaf mesophyll tissue, protoplasts as well as green algae are able to reduce extra-cellular ferricyanide and ferric chelates. In roots of dicotyledonous and nongraminaceous, monocotyledonous plants, the rate of ferric reduction is increased by iron deficiency. This reduction is

  7. IRON REDUCTASE SYSTEMS ON THE PLANT PLASMA-MEMBRANE - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOG, PR; BRUGGEMANN, W

    1994-01-01

    Higher plant roots, leaf mesophyll tissue, protoplasts as well as green algae are able to reduce extra-cellular ferricyanide and ferric chelates. In roots of dicotyledonous and nongraminaceous, monocotyledonous plants, the rate of ferric reduction is increased by iron deficiency. This reduction is a

  8. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder, E-mail: bhupindersinghiari@yahoo.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Datta, Partha Sarathi [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2010-08-15

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat (). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  9. The response of the root apex in plant adaptation to iron heterogeneity in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and is frequently limiting. By contrast, over-accumulation of iron in plant tissues leads to toxicity. In soils, the distribution of Fe is highly heterogeneous. To cope with this heterogeneity, plant roots engage an array of adaptive responses to adjust their morphology and physiology. In this article, we review root morphological and physiological changes in response to low- and high-Fe conditions and highlight differences between these responses. We especially focus on the role of the root apex in dealing with the stresses resulting from Fe shortage and excess.

  10. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: A new promising technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA·Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentra- tion in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA·Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentra- tion of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants. It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  11. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: a new promising technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, GuoSheng; Chen, MingXue; Wang, DanYing; Xu, ChunMei; Mou, RenXiang; Cao, ZhaoYun; Zhang, XiuFu

    2008-03-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA.Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA.Na2Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA.Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentration in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA.Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentration of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants. It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA.Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  12. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: A new promising technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO GuoSheng; CHEN MingXue; WANG DanYing; XU ChunMei; MOU RenXiang; CAO ZhaoYun; ZHANG XiuFu

    2008-01-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA·Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA.Na=Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentration in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA·Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentration of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants.It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  13. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Miller

    Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  14. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  15. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Domellöf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. Objective : The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation, in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods : The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C. An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1, probable (grade 2, suggestive (grade 3, and inconclusive (grade 4. Results : There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries.An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that

  16. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  17. A plant nutrition strategy for ex-situ conservation based on "Ecological Similarity"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Kai-yuan; CHEN Fang; TAO Yong; CHEN Shu-sen; ZHANG Guo-shi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed a large scale conservation work of rare and endangered plants currently conducted in main botanical gardens in China,and the existed,predictable and neglected problems on plant growth and reproduction in ex-situ conservation process.Considered the status quo in plant ex conservation,a nutritional strategy on the plant conservation was proposed based on 'Ecological Similarity'.Its main idea was that the ex-situ conservation plants coming from natural ecosystem were compulsively allocated in the agro-ecosystems and would return to natural ecosystem ultimately.Therefore,research on plant nutrition of the ex-situ conservation plants should neither just pursue yield and quality as that in agro-ecosystems nor merely stay on intrinsic natures without human intervening.We should give attentions to both of their attributes as in natural ecosystems and in agro-ecosystems,i.e.,taking full advantage of plant nutritional measures as in agro-ecosystems to solve actual survival problems of the ex-conservation plants,and ensuring the final goal of returning to nature and playing its ecological role.

  18. Effect of Iron Oxides (Ordinary and Nano and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC Coated Sulfur on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Plant Iron Concentration and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mazaherinia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effects of ordinary iron oxide (0.02-0.06 mm and nano iron oxide (25-250 nm and five levels of both iron oxides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 %w/w and two levels of sulfurous granular compost (MSW (0 and 2% w/w on plant height, spike length, grain weight per spike, total plant dry matter weight and thousands grain weight of wheat. The experimental factors were combined in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Results showed that nano iron oxide was superior over ordinary iron oxide in all parameters studied. Fe concentration, spike length, plant height, grain weight per spike, total plant dry weight and thousands grain weight showed increasing trend per increase in both of iron oxides levels. Also, all parameters studied in sulfurous granular compost (MSW treatment were superior over granular compost without sulfurous (MSW. This increase in all parameters were significantly higher when urban solid waste compost coated with sulfur coupled with nano iron oxide compared to urban sulfurous granular compost (MSW along with ordinary iron oxide. Keywords: Sulfurous granular compost (MSW, Nano and ordinary iron oxides, Wheat

  19. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental biochemic

  20. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental

  1. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ...

  2. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  3. Microbiota and Host Nutrition across Plant and Animal Kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; González, Antonio; Spaepen, Stijn; Ackermann, Gail; Lebeis, Sarah; McHardy, Alice C; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Knight, Rob; Ley, Ruth; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-05-13

    Plants and animals each have evolved specialized organs dedicated to nutrient acquisition, and these harbor specific bacterial communities that extend the host's metabolic repertoire. Similar forces driving microbial community establishment in the gut and plant roots include diet/soil-type, host genotype, and immune system as well as microbe-microbe interactions. Here we show that there is no overlap of abundant bacterial taxa between the microbiotas of the mammalian gut and plant roots, whereas taxa overlap does exist between fish gut and plant root communities. A comparison of root and gut microbiota composition in multiple host species belonging to the same evolutionary lineage reveals host phylogenetic signals in both eukaryotic kingdoms. The reasons underlying striking differences in microbiota composition in independently evolved, yet functionally related, organs in plants and animals remain unclear but might include differences in start inoculum and niche-specific factors such as oxygen levels, temperature, pH, and organic carbon availability.

  4. Characterization of iron and manganese precipitates from an in situ ground water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Abdelmoula, M; Hoehn, E; Schoenenberger, R; Weidler, P; von Gunten, U

    2001-01-01

    Aquifer samples from the precipitation zone of an in situ iron and manganese removal plant that was operated for 10 years were analyzed for iron and manganese minerals. Measurements were performed by various chemical extraction techniques (5 M HCI, 0.008 M Ti(III)-EDTA, 0.114 M ascorbic acid), X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Chemical extractions showed that iron was precipitated as ferric oxides, whereas manganese was not oxidized but deposited as Mn(II) probably within carbonates. The ferric oxides in particular accumulate preferentially in the smaller grain- size fractions. This tendency was observed to a lesser extent for manganese. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the ferric oxides were mainly crystalline (goethite, 50% to 100% of the iron). Ferrihydrite was found as well, but only as a minor fraction (< or = 12%). Pure manganese minerals were not found by X-ray diffraction. The precipitated amounts of iron (5 to 27 micromol/g Fe as ferric oxide) and manganese (1 to 4 micromol/g Mn) during 10 years operation of the treatment plant agree with values that were estimated from operational parameters (9 to 31 micromol/g Fe and 3 to 6 micromol/g Mn). Considering the small amounts of precipitated iron and manganese, no long-term risks of clogging of the aquifer are expected.

  5. Influence of fish on the bioavailability of plant iron in the anemic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L S; Gordon, D T

    1983-08-01

    The effect of fish protein and fish oil on the utilization of endogenous iron in wheat bran, spinach and soy protein isolate was investigated by using the anemic rat as an animal model. Marine products were substituted for casein and corn oil in the diets of these animals. Hemoglobin regeneration was one criteria used to measure iron uptake. Relative biological values (RBV) were computed from a regression equation obtained from control animals receiving graded levels of FeSO4 X 7H2O. The RBV of iron from plant sources provided in diets containing casein-corn oil versus fish-fish oil were: wheat bran, 123 vs. 111%; spinach, 53 vs. 49%; and soybean isolate, 84 vs. 67%; RBV FeSO4 = 100%. These changes were not significant. The decreases in iron absorption from diets containing marine products was attributed to the fish oil. Absorption of exogenous iron (59Fe) was measured in the same animals after the 14-day repletion period. Assimilation of the 59Fe was highly correlated (r2 = 0.958) with hemoglobin level at time of dosing. Diet composition did not appear to have the same effect on the percentage of 59Fe retained after 110 hours by the rat as compared to levels of hemoglobin regeneration (i.e., RBV). A "meat factor" effect was not shown by substituting fish for casein the diets containing plant iron sources fed anemic rats.

  6. Significance of Sulphur nutrition against metal induced oxidative stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mazid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur (S is available to plants as sulphate (SO42- in the soil to the roots and as gaseous SO2 in the atmosphere to the shoots. Of all the macronutrient, S is perhaps the nutrient which has attracted the most attention in soil science and plant nutrition due to its potential defensive characteristics to pests, good nutritive potentiality to crops and its relative immobility in the soil-plant system. This review highlights the mechanisms of uptake and translocation of S from soil and its transport in xylem and phloem tissues of plants. Moreover, it also throws new insights, have led us to revisit the hypothesis of S chelation in reference to oxidative stress induced by heavy metals sequestration.

  7. Regulation of iron acquisition responses in plant roots by a transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Petra

    2016-09-10

    The presented research hypothesis-driven laboratory exercise teaches advanced undergraduate students state of the art methods and thinking in an integrated molecular physiology context. Students understand the theoretical background of iron acquisition in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They design a flowchart summarizing the key steps of the experimental approach. Students are made familiar with current techniques such as qPCR. Following their experimental outline, students grow Arabidopsis seedlings up to the age of six days under sufficient and deficient iron supply. The Arabidopsis plants are of two different genotypes, namely wild type and fit loss of function mutants. fit mutants lack the essential transcription factor FIT, required for iron acquisition and plant growth. Students monitor growth phenotypes and root iron reductase activity in a quantitative and qualitative manner. Then, students determine gene expression regulation of FIT, FRO2, and a reference gene by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Finally, students interpet their results and build a model summarizing the connections between morphological, physiological and molecular iron deficiency responses. Learning outcomes and suggestions for integrating the course concept are explained. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):438-449, 2016.

  8. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought.

  9. Removal of uranium from uranium plant wastewater using zero-valent iron in an ultrasonic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Libo; Peng, Jinhui; Ma, Aiyuan; Xia, Hong Ying; Guo, Wen Qian; Yu, Xia [Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intensification Metallurgy, Kunming (China); Hu, Jinming; Yang, Lifeng [Nuclear Group Two Seven Two Uranium Industry Limited Liability Company, Hengyang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Uranium removal from uranium plant wastewater using zero-valent iron in an ultrasonic field was investigated. Batch experiments designed by the response surface methodology (RSM) were conducted to study the effects of pH, ultrasonic reaction time, and dosage of zero-valent iron on uranium removal efficiency. From the experimental data obtained in this work, it was found that the ultrasonic method employing zero-valent iron powder effectively removes uranium from uranium plant wastewater with a uranium concentration of 2,772.23 μg/L. The pH ranges widely from 3 to 7 in the ultrasonic field, and the prediction model obtained by the RSM has good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Irene; Giacometti, Sonia; Balestrazzi, Alma; Paparella, Stefania; Pagliano, Cristina; Morandini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe) deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of somatic homologous recombination (SHR) events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression ...

  11. Production of Correa 'Mannii' as a potted plant - propagation, nutrition management, and controlled flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian natives, Correa ‘Mannii’ and C. reflexa (Rutaceae), are considered suitable as a flowering pot plant. However, comprehensive information on the most effective propagation method and nutrition management and their impact on propagation and flowering is unavailable. The influence of temper...

  12. Nutritional constraints in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants under increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragazza, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Kutnar, L.; Rydin, H.; Limpens, J.; Hajek, M.; Grosvernier, P.; Hansen, I.; Lacumin, P.; Gerdol, R.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effects of increasing levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on nutrient limitation of ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants. • Fifteen mires in 11 European countries were selected across a natural gradient of bulk atmospheric N deposition from 0.1 to 2 g/m2 year-1. Nutritional constrai

  13. Harmful admixtures assessment in sinter mixtures used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Korol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study composition of sinter mixtures used in Polish sinter plants were established. Seven sinter mixtures composition were examined, based on iron-bearing materials, admixtures and fuels. Contents of harmful admixtures were examined according to three kinds of environmental impacts: emissions of SOx, heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs.

  14. Regulation of Iron Acquisition Responses in Plant Roots by a Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The presented research hypothesis-driven laboratory exercise teaches advanced undergraduate students state of the art methods and thinking in an integrated molecular physiology context. Students understand the theoretical background of iron acquisition in the model plant "Arabidopsis thaliana." They design a flowchart summarizing the key…

  15. Glyphosate Effects on Plant Mineral Nutrition, Crop Rhizosphere Microbiota, and Plant Disease in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354

  16. Nutritional update for physicians: plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Philip J; Ismail, Mohamed H; Ha, Benjamin P; Bartolotto, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity.

  17. The chloroplast permease PIC1 regulates plant growth and development by directing homeostasis and transport of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Daniela; Stübe, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

    2011-04-01

    The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development.

  18. Vacuolar ion channels: Roles in plant nutrition and signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayenkov, Stanislav; Isner, Jean Charles; Maathuis, Frans J M

    2010-05-17

    Vacuoles play various roles in many physiologically relevant processes in plants. Some of the more prominent are turgor provision, the storage of minerals and nutrients, and cellular signalling. To fulfil these functions a complement of membrane transporters is present at the tonoplast. Prolific patch clamp studies have shown that amongst these, both selective and non-selective ion channels participate in turgor regulation, nutrient storage and signalling. This article reviews the physiological roles, expression patterns and structure function properties of plant vacuolar anion and cation channels that are gated by voltage and ligands.

  19. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  20. Effects of two iron sources on iron and cadmium allocation in poplar (populus alba) plants exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, F.; Gaspar, L.; Cseh, E.; Sarvari, E. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Plant Physiology; Morales, F.; Gogorcena, Y.; Abadia, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. de Nutricion Vegetal; Lucena, J.J. [Madrid Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Agricola; Kropfl, K. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Technology and Environmental Chemistry

    2005-09-01

    The phytotoxicity of heavy metals is often manifested as inhibition of plant growth, nitrate assimilation and photosynthesis, as well as disturbances in plant ion and water balances. Many of these plant responses are a result of inhibition of enzyme activity caused by the binding of heavy metal ions to sulfhydryl groups in the active sites of enzymes and by substitution of essential metals. This study investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) nitrate on the utilization and allocation of iron (Fe) in poplar plants grown in a nutrient solution with Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-citrate as the Fe source. The effects of Cd were also compared with those of Fe deprivation. Results indicated that the accumulation of Fe in roots was 10-fold higher in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-ETDA. In addition, cadmium increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthetic rates, and these decreases were more marked in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA. In both treatments, addition of Cd caused large increases in root and shoot apoplasmic and non-apoplasmic Cd contents and increases in root Fe content. However, Cd decreased shoot Fe content, especially in plants grown with Fe-citrate. New leaves of plants grown with Fe-citrate had small cellular Fe pools, whereas these pools were large in new leaves of plants grown with Fe-EDTA. Non-apoplasmic Cd pools in new leaves were smaller in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA, which indicated that inactivation of non-apoplasmic Cd pools is facilitated more by Fe-EDTA than by Fe-citrate. In the presence of Cd, Fe-EDTA was also superior to Fe-citrate in maintaining an adequate Fe supply to poplar shoots. It was concluded that because the amount of non-apoplasmic root Fe was higher in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA, the observed differences in plant responses to Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate may reflect distances in long-distance transport of Fe rather than its acquisition of Fe by roots. 42 refs., 6

  1. Functional Significance of Iron Deficiency. Annual Nutrition Workshop Series, Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwonwu, Cyril O., Ed.

    Iron deficiency anemia impairs cognitive performance, physical capacity, and thermoregulation. Recent evidence suggests that these functional impairments are also evident in subclinical nonanemic iron deficiency. Very little is known about the relevance of the latter to the health of blacks, who have been shown to have the highest prevalence of…

  2. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The evolutionary development of plant-feeding insects and their nutritional endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Isabel H; Hansen, Allison K

    2017-03-29

    Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet. Emerging evidence in these systems suggest that the symbiont's and/or the insect's biosynthetic pathways are dynamically regulated throughout the insect's development to potentially cope with the insect's changing nutritional demands. In this review, we evaluate the evolutionary development of symbiotic insect cells (bacteriocytes) by comparing and contrasting genes and mechanisms involved in maintaining and regulating the nutritional symbiosis throughout insect development in a diversity of insect herbivore-endosymbiont associations. With new advances in genome sequencing and functional genomics, we evaluate to what extent nutritional symbioses are shaped by (i) the regulation of symbiont titer, (ii) the regulation of insect symbiosis genes, and (iii) the regulation of symbiont genes. We discuss how important these mechanisms are for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins across insect life stages in divergent insect-symbiont systems. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research to further elucidate the evolutionary development of bacteriocytes and the impact of these nutritional symbioses on insect-plant interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Nutritional value of some non-conventional plant foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1992-07-01

    Thirteen non-conventional foods including fruits, leaves and grains consumed in various parts of the Indian subcontinent were analysed for their nutritional value. Khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria), Pinju (Capparis decidua) and Kachri (Cucumis species) contained considerable amounts of protein (15-18%). Kachri was rich in fat (13%). Bhakri (Tribulus terristris), Gullar (Ficus glomerata) and Peehl (Salvadora oleoides) were found to be rich sources of calcium; Gullar contained about 15 times the amount of calcium present in wheat. Phosphorus content of Santhi (Boernavia diffusa), Khejri beans, Bhakri, Pinju and Lehsora (Cordia dichotoma) were noticeable. Zinc was present in high amounts in Peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa) and Gullar; as was iron in Santhi and Bhakri and manganese in Santhi. Besides iron, zinc and calcium, Pinju contained appreciable amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin C. However, Santhi contained high amounts of oxalic acid.

  5. Combined effects of extreme climatic events and elevation on nutritional quality and herbivory of Alpine plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Leingärtner

    Full Text Available Climatic extreme events can cause the shift or disruption of plant-insect interactions due to altered plant quality, e.g. leaf carbon to nitrogen ratios, and phenology. However, the response of plant-herbivore interactions to extreme events and climatic gradients has been rarely studied, although climatic extremes will increase in frequency and intensity in the future and insect herbivores represent a highly diverse and functionally important group. We set up a replicated climate change experiment along elevational gradients in the German Alps to study the responses of three plant guilds and their herbivory by insects to extreme events (extreme drought, advanced and delayed snowmelt versus control plots under different climatic conditions on 15 grassland sites. Our results indicate that elevational shifts in CN (carbon to nitrogen ratios and herbivory depend on plant guild and season. CN ratios increased with altitude for grasses, but decreased for legumes and other forbs. In contrast to our hypotheses, extreme climatic events did not significantly affect CN ratios and herbivory. Thus, our study indicates that nutritional quality of plants and antagonistic interactions with insect herbivores are robust against seasonal climatic extremes. Across the three functional plant guilds, herbivory increased with nitrogen concentrations. Further, increased CN ratios indicate a reduction in nutritional plant quality with advancing season. Although our results revealed no direct effects of extreme climatic events, the opposing responses of plant guilds along elevation imply that competitive interactions within plant communities might change under future climates, with unknown consequences for plant-herbivore interactions and plant community composition.

  6. Plant-based raw material: Improved food quality for better nutrition via plant genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants form the basis of the human food chain. Characteristics of plants are therefore crucial to the quantity and quality of human food. In this review, it is discussed how technological developments in the area of plant genomics and plant genetics help to mobilise the potential of plants to improv

  7. Iron plaques improve the oxygen supply to root meristems of the freshwater plant, Lobelia dortmanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Claus Lindskov; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    * High radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots of aquatic plants to reduced sediments is thought to deplete the roots of oxygen and restrict the distribution of those species unable to form a barrier to oxygen loss. Metal precipitates with high iron content (Fe-plaques) frequently form on roots...... of aquatic plants and could create such a diffusion barrier, thereby diverting a larger proportion of downward oxygen transport to the root meristems. * To investigate whether Fe-plaques form a barrier to oxygen loss, ROL and internal oxygen concentrations were measured along the length of roots...... of the freshwater plant Lobelia dortmanna using platinum sleeve electrodes and Clark-type microelectrodes. * Measurements showed that ROL was indeed lower from roots with Fe-plaques than roots without plaques and that ROL declined gradually with thicker iron coating on roots. The low ROL was caused by low diffusion...

  8. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  9. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  10. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane El Menchawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  11. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Menchawy, Imane; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Kari, Khalid; Saeid, Naima; Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Benajiba, Nada; El Harchaoui, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N = 195), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p = 0.037). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  12. TIDBIT: portable diagnostics of multiplexed nutrition deficiencies: iron, vitamin A and inflammation status (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengda; Erickson, David

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A and iron deficiency are common malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. However, in infrastructure limited settings, access to blood vitamin A and iron status test is limited because of the complexity and cost of traditional diagnostic methods. Direct measurements of vitamin A and iron level is not easy to perform, and it is necessary to measure approximate marker for obtaining vitamin A and iron deficiency status. Measurement of inflammatory marker is also necessary because the vitamin A and iron level are altered by inflammation status. Here we introduced a multiplex rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that simultaneously characterize three markers relevant to vitamin A, iron and inflammation status: retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein with lateral flow immunoassay test strips. Level of retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein are indicated by excitation intensity of fluorescence tags with three different colors. The test can be done within 15 minutes and a complete sample-answer quantitative results of vitamin A, iron and inflammation status level can be obtained with assists of a smartphone and an external device. We also demonstrated the device is able to perform colorimetric analysis on single test area. which gives the device potential to perform more tests simultaneously at the same time.

  13. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against

  14. Plant Nutrition, Stress and the Forgotten Element, Silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a universal condition that plants are exposed to. Stressful features are either biotic, such as diseases and pests, or abiotic, such as gravity and elemental shortages and excesses. One important method to study these and other conditions is solution culture, which is the only one to permit close monitoring and control of the medium. Before the advent of this method that could not be done, but once developed in the mid-1800s, it led to the determination of the essential elements, ...

  15. Nutritional Health of Indonesian Adolescent Girls: the role of riboflavin and vitamin A on iron status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, D.

    2005-01-01

    In developing countries, adolescent girls often have anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role of riboflavin or vitamin A as determinant of anemia and iron deficiency in Indonesian adolescent girls.

  16. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the College of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMEV of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in Cuiabá/MT, and it was set up in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three repetitions. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic vase, two liters capacity. The treatments used were: complete nutritive solution and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg and -S. It was ascertained that the visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were, as a general rule, of easy characterization except for the treatment with omission of sulphur. Therefore, the omission of macronutrients decreases the production of total dry matter of the Neem plants, except for the omission of the S nutrient.

  17. The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering--better nutrition by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Richard P; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Eastmond, Peter; Moloney, Maurice; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A

    2013-02-01

    This article will focus on the modification of plant seed oils to enhance their nutritional composition. Such modifications will include C18 Δ6-desaturated fatty acids such as γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, as well as the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (often named 'fish oils') such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. We will consider how new technologies (such as synthetic biology, next-generation sequencing and lipidomics) can help speed up and direct the development of desired traits in transgenic oilseeds. We will also discuss how manipulating triacylglycerol structure can further enhance the nutritional value of 'designer' oils. We will also consider how advances in model systems have translated into crops and the potential end-users for such novel oils (e.g. aquaculture, animal feed, human nutrition).

  18. [Ecological stability on biological removal of iron and manganese filter under poor nutritional conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xiong, Xiao-Li; Duan, Xiao-Dong; Song, Li-Xin; Yu, Ping-Bo; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    To supply necessary bacteria and available nutrients, a method of returning backwashing wastewater to the bio-filter for removal of iron and manganese was used. The ecological stability of bio-filter was investigated from 3 aspects: iron and manganese removal efficiency, micro-ecological characteristics and the quantity distribution of dominant bacteria. The results indicated that, the bio-filter held strong antishock loading capability, when the system was operated at high filtration rate (10-13.9 m/h) and high manganese concentration (3.5-4.5 mg/L), a removal rate more than 98.9% of iron and manganese was achieved. Iron and manganese oxidizing bacteria are the dominant microflora in biological filtering layer, they not only adhere on filter sand materials (4.3 x 10(6) MPN/mL) to form compact biofilm, but also exist among filter materials void (6.5 x 10(6) MPN/mL) to form suspended flocs, which is very important to complete removal of iron and manganese. In the past 5 years, the bio-filter realized a continuous and stable operation and kept a high removal efficiency of iron and manganese without adding any nutrients.

  19. Bioleaching of zinc and iron from steel plant waste using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Oktay; Sever, Efsun; Bayat, Belgin; Arslan, Volkan; Poole, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial leaching of zinc and iron from solid wastes at the Isdemir iron and steel plant has been investigated using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans as the bacterial agent. The effects of a range of operational parameters, including particle size, solids concentration and pH, on the efficiency of the bioleaching process were investigated. In each test, several variables were determined to assess the efficiency of leaching, including slurry pH and redox potential, temperature, bacteria population and concentrations of zinc and iron in solution. Experimental results demonstrated that pulp solids concentration, slurry pH and solids particle size were all important parameters in the bacterial leaching process. Maximum extraction was achieved at pH values around 1.3 and a solids concentration of 1% w/v, with 35% of the Zn content and 37% of the Fe being dissolved.

  20. Nutritional zinc status in weaning infants: association with iron deficiency, age, and growth profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Su; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Ko, Jae Sung; Seo, Jeong Kee; Shin, Sue; Lee, Eun Hee

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between iron deficiency (ID) and zinc deficiency (ZD) and explored the demographic, anthropometric, and feeding-related factors associated with hypozincemia and hair zinc content in weaning infants. Infants aged 6-24 months were recruited, their feeding history was recorded, and their heights and weights were measured. Hemoglobin content, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin and zinc concentrations of serum and hair (using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy) were assessed. Among 101 infants, 64 (63.4 %) infants exhibited ID. The median serum zinc concentration in iron-deficient infants was lower than that in non-iron-deficient infants, respectively, 73.5 μg/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 65.0-83.8) vs. 87.0 μg/dL (IQR, 77.5-97.0; p = 0.001). The frequency of hypozincemia was also significantly higher in the iron-deficient group than in the non-iron-deficient group (21 out of 64 [32.8 %] vs. 4 out of 37 [10.8 %], respectively; p = 0.014). In multiple regression analysis, the risk of hypozincemia was significantly increased in infants with ID (p = 0.026), mildly underweight infants (weight-for-age Z score status (p > 0.1); however, there was an inverse relationship between hair zinc concentrations and age of infants (r = -0.250; p = 0.024). In weaning infants, ID is a risk factor for hypozincemia. Hair zinc concentrations appeared to decrease as the age of infants increased during late infancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to validate the relationship between hypozincemia and mild degrees of weight gain impairment in this age group.

  1. Iron homeostasis and fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear plants overexpressing a pea ferritin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djennane, Samia; Cesbron, Colette; Sourice, Sophie; Cournol, Raphael; Dupuis, Fabrice; Eychenne, Magali; Loridon, Karine; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some rosaceous plants including apple and pear. One of the pathogenicity factors affecting fire blight development is the production of a siderophore, desferrioxamine, which overcomes the limiting conditions in plant tissues and also protects bacteria against active oxygen species. In this paper we examine the effect of an iron chelator protein encoded by the pea ferritin gene on the fire blight susceptibility of pear (Pyrus communis). Transgenic pear clones expressing this gene controlled either by the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S or by the inducible promoter sgd24 promoter were produced. The transgenic clones produced were analysed by Q-RT-PCR to determine the level of expression of the pea transgene. A pathogen-inducible pattern of expression of the pea transgene was observed in sgd24-promoter transformants. Adaptation to iron deficiency in vitro was tested in some transgenic clones and different iron metabolism parameters were measured. No strong effect on iron and chlorophyll content, root reductase activity and fire blight susceptibility was detected in the transgenic lines tested. No transformants showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight in greenhouse conditions when inoculated with E. amylovora.

  2. Numerical investigation of the dynamics of nanoparticle systems in biological processes of plant nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrouchev, Alexandre V.; Golubchikov, Valery B.

    2007-03-01

    A complex mathematical model of processes of plant nutrition from a special regulated gas medium containing nanoparticles of basic macro- and microelements is formulated. The variation of the number of nanoparticles and the variation of the total nanoparticle volume with time, which form during the cooling process of the initial gas mixture, were investigated. The calculations of the structures, compositions and shapes of nanoparticles and the movement of nanoparticles were carried out.

  3. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    .... It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N...

  4. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant-Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna. e63556

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    .... It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N...

  5. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The g

  6. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The

  7. Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavaheri, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on iron-regulated metabolites. Under iron-limiting conditions, P. fluorescens WCS374r produces

  8. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  9. Systems and Trans-System Level Analysis Identifies Conserved Iron Deficiency Responses in the Plant Lineage[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzica, Eugen I.; Casero, David; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Hsieh, Scott I.; Adler, Lital N.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Clarke, Steven G.; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the iron nutrition-responsive transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using RNA-Seq methodology. Presumed primary targets were identified in comparisons between visually asymptomatic iron-deficient versus iron-replete cells. This includes the known components of high-affinity iron uptake as well as candidates for distributive iron transport in C. reinhardtii. Comparison of growth-inhibited iron-limited versus iron-replete cells revealed changes in the expression of genes in chloroplastic oxidative stress response pathways, among hundreds of other genes. The output from the transcriptome was validated at multiple levels: by quantitative RT-PCR for assessing the data analysis pipeline, by quantitative proteomics for assessing the impact of changes in RNA abundance on the proteome, and by cross-species comparison for identifying conserved or universal response pathways. In addition, we assessed the functional importance of three target genes, VITAMIN C 2 (VTC2), MONODEHYDROASCORBATE REDUCTASE 1 (MDAR1), and CONSERVED IN THE GREEN LINEAGE AND DIATOMS 27 (CGLD27), by biochemistry or reverse genetics. VTC2 and MDAR1, which are key enzymes in de novo ascorbate synthesis and ascorbate recycling, respectively, are likely responsible for the 10-fold increase in ascorbate content of iron-limited cells. CGLD27/At5g67370 is a highly conserved, presumed chloroplast-localized pioneer protein and is important for growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in low iron. PMID:23043051

  10. Plant Protein Inhibitors of Enzymes: Their Role in Animal Nutrition and Plant Defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Current information and research related to plant protein inhibitors of enzymes are reviewed, including potential uses of the inhibitors for medical treatment and for breeding plant varieties with greater resistance to insects. (DC)

  11. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arash Ebrahimabadi

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After...

  12. Interference of Nickel with Copper and Iron Homeostasis Contributes to Metal Toxicity Symptoms in the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum inflatum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasoul Ghasemi; S. Majid Ghaderian; Ute Krämer

    2009-01-01

    .... To better understand the role of interactions between transition metals in the development of metal toxicity symptoms in plants, the effects of exposure to excess nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) and iron (Fe...

  13. 铁营养状况评价指标的研究进展%Progress of some indices for the assessment of iron nutritional status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷继永; 霍军生

    2011-01-01

    本文对目前铁营养状况评价所涉及的主要指标血清铁蛋白、可溶性转铁蛋白受体、C-反应蛋白的研究进展进行了综述.以期为真实反映人群实际的铁营养状况,预防铁缺乏提供参考.%The progress of main indices involved in the assessment of iron nutritional status was reviewed, including serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein.Hope to reflect the real iron nutritional status and provide references for preventing iron deficiency.

  14. THE EFFECT OF ACID ROCK FROM CĂLIMANI MOUNTAINS ON MAKING UP A NUTRITIVE SUPPORT FOR PLANTS, BASED ON RED MUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experiment carried out in controlled conditions, regarding triticale plants growth on a nutritive layer consisting of a mixture of red mud, acid rock and compost, in different proportions. The analytical results highlighted the strongly alkaline reaction of the layer, high organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium contents and low nitrogen contents. The layer has a high salinity and sodium salts are predominant. The total microelements and heavy metals contents are generally acceptable. The triticale plants grew in these conditions up to 10-15 cm height, when the experiment was stopped. The plants accumulated normal nitrogen, calcium and magnesium quantities, low potassium ones, high phosphorus and very high sodium contents. The metallic microelements (copper, iron, manganese, zinc accumulated at relatively normal levels, but the heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, lead concentrated up to values several tens of times higher than the normal contents. Introducing the obtained vegetal mass in the nutritive layer will contribute to enhancing its fertility for the next vegetation cycles.

  15. Plant-Mediated Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Herlekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a state-of-the-art and cutting edge technology with multifarious applications in a wide array of fields. It is a very broad area comprising of nanomaterials, nanotools, and nanodevices. Amongst nanomaterials, majority of the research has mainly focused on nanoparticles as they can be easily prepared and manipulated. Physical and chemical methods are conventionally used for the synthesis of nanoparticles; however, due to several limitations of these methods, research focus has recently shifted towards the development of clean and eco-friendly synthesis protocols. Magnetic nanoparticles constitute an important class of inorganic nanoparticles, which find applications in different areas by virtue of their several unique properties. Nevertheless, in comparison with biological synthesis protocols for noble metal nanoparticles, limited study has been carried out with respect to biological synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. This review focuses on various studies outlining the novel routes for biosynthesis of these nanoparticles by plant resources along with outlining the future scope of work in this area.

  16. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2’-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANPIERO eVIGANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analysed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s of cellular plant Fe status triggering the long-distance shoot-root signalling and leading to the root Fe-deficiency responses is (are still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (Hypoxia Inducible Factor- Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase, is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe-deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  17. Growth, yield, plant quality and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under soilless agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrajit Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural systems are challenged by globally declining resources resulting from climate change and growing population. Alternative agricultural practices such as aquaponics (includes crop plant and aquatic species and hydroponics (includes crop plant only have the potential to generate high yield per unit area using limited land, water, and no soil. A soilless agricultural study was conducted at the Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA from August to November, 2015. The growth, yield, quality, and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cultivar Aroma 2, were compared between aquaponic and hydroponic systems using crayfish (Procambarus spp. as the aquatic species. Non-circulating floating raft systems were designed using 95 L polyethylene tanks. Equal amounts of start-up fertilizer dose were applied to both systems. The objective was to understand how the additional nutritional dynamics associated with crayfish influence the basil crop. Both fresh and dry basil plant weights were collected after harvest, followed by leaf nutrient analysis. Leaf chlorophyll content, water pH, nitrogen and temperature were measured periodically. Aquaponic basil (AqB showed 14%, 56%, and 65% more height, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively, compared to hydroponic basil (HyB. It is logical to assume that crayfish waste (excreta and unconsumed feed has supplied the additional nutrients to AqB, resulting in greater growth and yield. The chlorophyll content (plant quality or leaf nutrients, however, did not differ between AqB and HyB. Further research is needed to investigate aquaponic crayfish yield, overall nutritional dynamics, cost-benefit ratio, and other plant characteristics under soilless systems.

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements.

  19. Amelioration of iron mine soils with biosolids: Effects on plant tissue metal content and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The achievement of environmentally sound and economically feasible disposal strategies for biosolids is a major issue in the wastewater treatment industry around the world, including Swaziland. Currently, an iron ore mine site, which is located within a wildlife sanctuary, is being considered as a suitable place where controlled disposal of biosolids may be practiced. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of urban biosolids on iron mine soils with regard to plant metal content and ecotoxicological effects on earthworms. This was done through chemical analysis of plants grown in biosolid-amended mine soil. Earthworm behaviour, reproduction and bioaccumulation tests were also conducted on biosolid-amended mine soil. According to the results obtained, the use of biosolids led to creation of soil conditions that were generally favourable to earthworms. However, plants were found to have accumulated Zn up to 346 mg kg(-1) (in shoots) and 462 mg kg(-1) (in roots). This was more than double the normal Zn content of plants. It was concluded that while biosolids can be beneficial to mine soils and earthworms, they can also lead to elevated metal content in plant tissues, which might be a concern to plant-dependant wildlife species. Nonetheless, it was not possible to satisfactorily estimate risks to forage quality since animal feeding tests with hyperaccumulator plants have not been reported. Quite possibly, there may be no cause for alarm since the uptake of metals from soil is greater in plants grown in pots in the greenhouse than from the same soil in the field since pot studies fail to mimic field conditions where the soil is heterogeneous and where the root system possesses a complex topology. It was thought that further field trials might assist in arriving at more satisfactory conclusions.

  20. IL-22 Controls Iron-Dependent Nutritional Immunity Against Systemic Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kei; Kim, Yun-Gi; Hara, Hideki; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Caballero-Flores, Gustavo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Soares, Miguel P.; Puente, José L.; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Host immunity limits iron availability to pathogenic bacteria, but whether immunity limits pathogenic bacteria from accessing host heme, the major source of iron in the body, remains unclear. Using Citrobacter rodentium, a mouse enteric pathogen and Escherichia coli, a major cause of sepsis in humans as models, we find that interleukin-22, a cytokine best known for its ability to promote epithelial barrier function, also suppresses the systemic growth of bacteria by limiting iron availability to the pathogen. Using an unbiased proteomic approach to understand the mechanistic basis of IL-22 dependent iron retention in the host, we have identified that IL-22 induces the production of the plasma hemoglobin scavenger haptoglobin and heme scavenger hemopexin. Moreover, the anti-microbial effect of IL-22 depends on the induction of hemopexin expression, while haptogloblin is dispensable. Impaired pathogen clearance in infected Il22−/− mice was restored by hemopexin administration and hemopexin-deficient mice had increased pathogen loads after infection. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized host defense mechanism regulated by IL-22 that relies on the induction of hemopexin to limit heme availability to bacteria leading to suppression of bacterial growth during systemic infections. PMID:28286877

  1. Biofortified indica rice attains iron and zinc nutrition dietary targets in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are the most prevalent micronutrient malnutrition globally1. Fe in rice has proven efficacious in improving serum ferritin concentration and body Fe levels2. Rapid progress in biofortification demonstrates the feasibility to enhance Fe in polished rice by expre...

  2. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  3. Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

  4. Effect of pollution by particulate iron on the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and bioaccumulation of three mangrove plant species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara da Costa; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Conti, Melina Moreira; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias

    2015-05-01

    In Brazil, some mangrove areas are subjected to air pollution by particulate iron from mining activities. However, the effect of this pollutant on mangrove plants is not well known. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and iron accumulation in leaves of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. Samples were collected from five mangrove sites of Espírito Santo state, each of which is exposed to different levels of particulate iron pollution. The amount of particulate material settled on the leaf surface was greater in A. schaueriana and L. racemosa, which contain salt glands. High iron concentrations were found in leaves of this species, collected from mangrove areas with high particulate iron pollution, which suggests the foliar absorption of this element. None of the samples from any of the sites showed morphological or structural damage on the leaves. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to X-ray diffraction rendered a good method for evaluating iron on leaves surfaces. A histochemical test using Prussian blue showed to be an appropriate method to detect iron in plant tissue, however, proved to be an unsuitable method for the assessment of the iron bioaccumulation in leaves of A. schaueriana and R. mangle. So far, this study demonstrates the need of evaluating the pathway used by plants exposed to contaminated particulate matter to uptake atmospheric pollutants.

  5. A novel NAC transcription factor, IDEF2, that recognizes the iron deficiency-responsive element 2 regulates the genes involved in iron homeostasis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi Itai, Reiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Kakei, Yusuke; Takahashi, Michiko; Toki, Seiichi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2008-05-09

    Iron is essential for most living organisms, and thus iron deficiency poses a major abiotic stress in crop production. Plants induce iron utilization systems under conditions of low iron availability, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation under iron deficiency remain largely unknown. We identified a novel transcription factor of rice and barley, IDEF2, which specifically binds to the iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element 2 (IDE2) by yeast one-hybrid screening. IDEF2 belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the NAC transcription factor family and exhibits novel properties of sequence recognition. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cyclic amplification and selection of targets experiment revealed that IDEF2 predominantly recognized CA(A/C)G(T/C)(T/C/A)(T/C/A) within IDE2 as the core-binding site. IDEF2 transcripts are constitutively present in rice roots and leaves. Repression of the function of IDEF2 by the RNA interference (RNAi) technique and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) caused aberrant iron homeostasis in rice. Several genes up-regulated by iron deficiency, including the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, were less induced by iron deficiency in the RNAi rice of IDEF2, suggesting that IDEF2 is involved in the regulation of these genes. Many genes with repressed expression in IDEF2 RNAi rice possessed the IDEF2-binding core sites in their promoters, and the flanking sequences were also highly homologous to IDE2. IDEF2 bound to OsYSL2 promoter region containing the binding core site, suggesting direct regulation of OsYSL2 expression. These results reveal novel cis-element/trans-factor interactions functionally associated with iron homeostasis.

  6. Effects of Biomass Ashes on Plant Nutrition in Tropical and Temperate Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Lopez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The drastic rise of prices for commercial fertilizers is one of the main obstacles to increase the productivity in crop production, mainly in poor countries. The search for alternatives therefore becomes very important. The reutilization of residues from bionergy processes for plant nutrition is an important concern to save fertilizers and to implement nutrient cycling in agriculture. For this study ashes derived from bioenergy production were investigated. The effect of sugar cane ash (SCA on lettuce and cucumber was investigated in Cuba and the effects of ashes from wood (WA, poultry litter (PLA, and rape meal (RMA on ryegrass and oil radish were investigated in Germany. Special attention was given to phosphorus (P availability. Positive yield effects and an increased plant P uptake were found when ashes were applied (mainly SCA and RMA. Investigation regarding the effect of PLA on soil P pools showed that the ash application may also result in an increase of readily available P contents in soil. Furthermore, an increased plant uptake of potassium was found. The results indicate that ashes derived from the energetic use of biomass may provide a suitable source for plant nutrition.

  7. Progresses in plant iron metabolism and the structure and function of phytoferritin%植物铁代谢及植物铁蛋白结构与功能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云少君; 赵广华

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential microelement for growth and development in human beings. Plant iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, so it is of significant importance to elucidate the iron nutrition in plants and explore a safe and efficient functional factor for iron supplement. In legume seeds, more than 90% of iron is stored in the form of ferritin in amyloplasts. Therefore, phytoferritin from legume seeds is considered as a promising iron squrce to combat IDA. Compared to animal ferritin, phytoferritins exhibit two major distinctive features in structure. First, phytoferritin contains a specific extension peptide (EP) at the N-terminal while animal ferritin lacks. Second, only H-type subunit has been identified in phytoferritin which is usually a heteropolymer consisting of two different subunits, H-l and H-2, sharing about 80% amino acid sequence identity. This review focuses on recent progresses in iron metabolism of plants and the structure, function and nutrition of phytoferritin.%铁在生命过程中起着很重要的作用,植物缺铁后叶绿素合成受阻而导致的黄化症状已成为世界性植物营养失调问题.与之相随,人类铁营养的缺乏也极为严重,因此研究植物铁代谢并且开发安全、天然、高效的补铁因子具有重要的意义.到目前为止,在已经发现的植物中,只有豆科类植物是将其种子中~90%的铁储藏在铁蛋白中,所以来源于豆科类植物的铁蛋白是一个理想的补铁资源.与动物铁蛋白相比,植物铁蛋白具有两个显著的特点:首先,植物铁蛋白在其N端具有一个独特的EP肽段;其次,植物铁蛋白只含有H型亚基,且有两种不同的H型亚基组成.主要阐述有关植物铁代谢及铁蛋白的结构、功能的最新研究进展.

  8. Photosynthetic Determinants of Growth in Maize Plants: Effects of Nitrogen Nutrition on Growth, Carbon Fixation and Photochemical Features

    OpenAIRE

    S. C., Huber; Tatsuo, SUGIYAMA; R.S, Alberte; Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University; Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants were grown in a greenhouse with different levels of nitrate-N (2 to 20 millimolar). Nitrogen nutrition had dramatic effects on plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics of mature leaves. Increasing nitrogen resulted in greater biomass production, shoot/root ratios, and rates of leaf expansion during the day. The elongating zone of high-N plants had higher activities (per gram fresh weight) of sucrose synthase and neutral invertase than low-N plants, suggesting...

  9. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizer on plant nutritional status and soil fertility of tomatoes grown under greenhouse condition

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRTAŞ, Elif Işıl; ÖKTÜREN ASRİ, Filiz; Cevdet Fehmi ÖZKAN; Nuri ARI

    2012-01-01

    The effect of some plant originated liquid organic fertilizer on soil fertility and plant nutritional status of tomato plants were investigated. The experiment was planned to compare the control, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, 1/1chemical+organic fertilizer, ½chemical+organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer+foliar organic fertilizer application. The trial was conducted in randomised complete block design with four replications. Plant and soil samples were analyzed. According to the ...

  10. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-11-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon's involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Iron Uptake,Translocation and Storage in Plants%植物对铁元素吸收、运输和储存的分子机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓今; 陈茹梅; 范云六

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential for growth and development of all plants. Since the soil salinity keeps increasing, the availability of iron in soils is limited. Therefore, plants usually suffer from iron deficiency, which reduces the yield and quality of crops, and in tum affects essential mineral nutrition of human. During long - term evolution, higher plants established an adequate system to absorb and utilize iron. In this article, research status on molecular mechanism of iron uptake, translocation and storage in plants were reviewed. In addition, research progresses on enrichment of iron content and environmental suitability of plant by biofortification were summarized. Research perspectives in this field were also discussed in this review.%铁是植物生长发育所必需的微量矿物元素之一.随着土壤盐碱化程度加剧,植物缺铁现象愈发普遍,导致作物产量和品质降低,进而影响人们的营养健康.植物在长期的进化过程中,形成了较完善的铁吸收和利用系统.本文对植物铁吸收、运输和储存等方面的研究现状进行了综述,总结了近年来通过生物加强提高植物铁元素含量和环境适应性的研究成果,并对未来可能的研究领域提出了展望.

  12. Increasing ascorbate levels in crops to enhance human nutrition and plant abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknight, Richard C; Laing, William A; Bulley, Sean M; Broad, Ronan C; Johnson, Alexander At; Hellens, Roger P

    2017-02-20

    Ascorbate (or vitamin C) is an essential human micronutrient predominantly obtained from plants. In addition to preventing scurvy, it is now known to have broader roles in human health, for example as a cofactor for enzymes involved in epigenetic programming and as regulator of cellular iron uptake. Furthermore, ascorbate is the major antioxidant in plants and underpins many environmentally induced abiotic stress responses. Biotechnological approaches to enhance the ascorbate content of crops therefore have potential to improve both human health and abiotic stress tolerance of crops. Identifying the genetic basis of ascorbate variation between plant varieties and discovering how some 'super fruits' accumulate extremely high levels of ascorbate should reveal new ways to more effectively manipulate the production of ascorbate in crops.

  13. Enhanced Iron and Selenium Uptake in Plants by Volatile Emissions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BF06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.

  14. Modulation of copper toxicity-induced oxidative damage by excess supply of iron in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Parma Nand

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we examined the modulation of Cu toxicity-induced oxidative stress by excess supply of iron in Zea mays L. plants. Plants receiving excess of Cu (100 microM) showed decreased water potential and simultaneously showed wilting in the leaves. Later, the young leaves exhibited chlorosis and necrotic scorching of lamina. Excess of Cu suppressed growth, decreased concentration of chloroplastic pigments and fresh and dry weight of plants. The activities of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; POD), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11; APX) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) were increased in plants supplied excess of Cu. However, activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6; CAT), was depressed in these plants. In gel activities of isoforms of POD, APX and SOD also revealed upregulation of these enzymes. Excess (500 microM)-Fe-supplemented Cu-stressed plants, however, looked better in their phenotypic appearance, had increased concentration of chloroplastic pigments, dry weight, and improved leaf tissue water status in comparison to the plants supplied excess of Cu. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes including CAT were further enhanced and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and H(2)O(2) concentrations decreased in excess-Fe-supplemented Cu-stressed plants. In situ accumulation of H(2)O(2), contrary to that of O(2)(*-) radical, increased in both leaf and roots of excess-Cu-stressed plants, but Cu-excess plants supplied with excess-Fe showed reduced accumulation H(2)O(2) and little higher of O(2)(*-) in comparison to excess-Cu plants. It is, therefore, concluded that excess-Cu (100 microM) induces oxidative stress by increasing production of H(2)O(2) despite of increased antioxidant protection and that the excess-Cu-induced oxidative damage is minimized by excess supply of Fe.

  15. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants are one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant biotechnology has dramatically changed the concepts about food, health and agriculture, and brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as new concepts and healing systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. With these trends, improving the dietary nutritional values of fruits, vegetables and other crops or even bioactive components in folk herbals has become targets of the blooming plant biotechnology industry. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, phytotherapy, and their related epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. It also covers markets of these health-promoting products and disease-preventing or healing systems, as well as regulations behind them that direct the development of biotechnology study and application. Finally, related patents are listed and briefly analyzed, regarding of plant biotechnological research and progress on transgenic crops to improve nutritional value, phytotherapy efficiency, or to produce pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites or high-valued protein medicines such as vaccines and antibodies.

  17. Intervenções nutricionais na anemia ferropriva Nutritional strategies for controlling iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly A. Cardoso

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo de revisão bibliográfica é fornecer subsídios para o planejamento e avaliação de medidas de combate à anemia ferropriva. A necessidade de intervenções para o controle da prevalência da anemia ferropriva deve ser determinada pela magnitude da defi ciência nutricional e pelo conhecimento de seus efeitos na qualidade de vida, morbidade e mortalidade. A abordagem mais usual é fornecer ferro suplementar a gestantes, nutrizes e lactentes em programas de assistência primária à saúde, reconhecidamente os grupos de maior vulnerabilidade. A fortificação de alimentos e orientações sobre modificações da dieta representam medidas complementares e devem ser incrementadas.This review was elaborated in order to contribute to the planning of strategies for controlling iron deficiency anemia in developing countries. The need for intervention should be determined by the degree of iron deficiency in the individual group and knowledge of its effects on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The most frequent approach is to provide iron supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood as a basic primary healthcare measure. Fortification and dietary modification are complementary approaches, and should be developed.

  18. Growth Promotion, Increase of Iron, Potassium and Cell Wall Components following Silicon Application in Rice under Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Kiani Chalmardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is one of the most important stress reducing crop growth and yields. Silicon is also an essential element in most grasses including rice that may reduces biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, the interactions of silicon and iron nutrition were studied in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tarem. The plants cultivated in greenhouse under iron treatments of 0, 2 and 10 mg l-1 as a Fe-EDTA (first factor and silicon treatments of 0 and 1.5 mM sodium silicate (second factor. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks as a factorial experiment. The plants were harvested after 5 weeks. Iron deficiency resulted in reduction of dry mater and height of plants. In addition, cellulose content in shoots and lignin and soluble proteins in roots and shoots decreased, however, potassium content in roots increased due to iron deficiency. On the contrary, silicon application caused significant increase in dry mater and height of plants. Besides, iron and potassium contents increased in iron deficient plants following silicon application. Also, cellulose, lignin, and soluble proteins in roots and shoots and phenolic compounds in shoots enhanced in silicon fed plants. The results indicated that silicon nutrition could ameliorate harmful effects of iron deficiency by increase of iron and potassium contents and increment of cell wall components and phenolic compounds

  19. Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Plant Phosphorus Nutrition: Interactions between Pathways of Phosphorus Uptake in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots Have Important Implications for Understanding and Manipulating Plant Phosphorus Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, S.E.; Jakobsen, Iver; Grønlund, Mette

    2011-01-01

    In this Update, we review new findings about the roles of the arbuscular mycorrhizas (mycorrhiza = fungus plus root) in plant growth and phosphorus (P) nutrition. We focus particularly on the function of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses with different outcomes for plant growth (from positive...

  20. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) by two plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xingmao, E-mail: ma@engr.siu.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Gurung, Arun [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Deng, Yang [Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, NJ 07403 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Use of nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of various environmental pollutants has been proven successful. However, large scale introduction of engineered nanomaterials such as nZVI into the environment has recently attracted serious concerns. There is an urgent need to investigate the environmental fate and impact of nZVI due to the scope of its application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and accumulation of bare nZVI by two commonly encountered plant species: cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid poplars (Populous deltoids × Populous nigra). Plant seedlings were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse and dosed with different concentrations of nZVI (0–1000 mg/L) for four weeks. The nZVI exhibited strong toxic effect on Typha at higher concentrations (> 200 mg/L) but enhanced plant growth at lower concentrations. nZVI also significantly reduced the transpiration and growth of hybrid poplars at higher concentrations. Microscopic images indicated that large amount of nZVI coated on plant root surface as irregular aggregates and some nZVI penetrated into several layers of epidermal cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) confirmed the internalization of nZVI by poplar root cells but similar internalization was not observed for Typha root cells. The upward transport to shoots was minimal for both plant species. - Highlights: ► nZVI may exert phytotoxic effects on plants at concentrations (> 200 mg/L) often encountered in site remediation practices. ► nZVI deposits on plant root surface as aggregates and some could internalize in plant root cells. ► Plant uptake and accumulation of nZVI are plant species-dependent. ► Upward transport from roots to shoots was not observed.

  1. Microstructure of a Planting Material Consisting of Nutrition-Expansive Perlitic-Cement Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; LIU Zu-de

    2003-01-01

    An ecotypic revetment material consisting of nutrition-expansive perlitic-cement composites is introduced. This planting material can combine vegetation recovery with slope protection. The XRD, SEM and image analysis techniques were used to study its composition and microstructure. Its strength was measured by an electro-hydraulic servo-controlled testing machine. The results show the unconfined compressive strength is about 393.6 kPa, and the average elastic modulus is about 47.0 MPa. The quartz, felspar, chlorite and calcite are the main non-clay minerals in the planting material. Its particles are mainly spherical,and the range of the equivalent diameter is 1.83 to 15.96 μm. The results also show the planting material contains a large amount of micro non-capillary and capillary pores, and has a microstructure characteristic of honeycomb and coralline. CSH gel produced by hydration of cement increases the strength and water stability of the particles. The anisotropy and slight orientation of the particles increase the void cross-section area,providing an explanation of the high permeability for the planting material.The better porosity of the planting material is apt tokeep moisture and nutriment, provides oxygen for plant root breathing, and aids to exhaust the carbon dioxide by means of exchanging with atmosphere, hence it can facilitate vegetation.

  2. Advances in RNA interference technology and its impact on nutritional improvement, disease and insect control in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Rajan; Thakur, Neelam

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the advances in the knowledge of RNA interference (RNAi) and discusses recent progress on the functionality of different components RNAi machinery operating in the organisms. The silencing of genes by RNA interference has become the technology of choice for investigation of gene functions in different organisms. The refinement in the knowledge of the endogenous RNAi pathways in plants along with the development of new strategies and applications for the improvement of nutritional value of important agricultural crops through suppression of genes in different plants have opened new vistas for nutritional security. The improvement in the nutritional status of the plants and reduction in the level of toxins or antinutrients was desired for long, but the available technology was not completely successful in achieving the tissue specific regulation of some genes. In the recent years, a number of economically important crop plants have been tested successfully for improving plant nutritional value through metabolic engineering using RNAi. The implications of this technology for crop improvement programs, including nutritional enrichment, reduction of antinutrients, disease, and insect control have been successfully tested in variety of crops with commercial considerations. The enhancement of the nutraceutical traits for the desired health benefits in common crop plants through manipulation of gene expression has been elaborated in this article. The tremendous potential with RNAi technology is expected to revolutionize the modern agriculture for meeting the growing challenges is discussed.

  3. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl. Soil samples were taken from the depths 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm at planting and 14 months after. Nutritional status of pineapple plants was assessed by means of tissue analysis. Soil K availability increased with application of K fertilizer, regardless of K sources. Soil chlorine and Cl concentration in pineapple leaves increased with application of KCl or K2SO4+KCl. Plant uptake of potassium was shaped by soil K availability and by the application rates of K fertilizer, independently of K sources.

  4. Pollination and plant resources change the nutritional quality of almonds for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Kremen, Claire; Garber, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Insect-pollinated crops provide important nutrients for human health. Pollination, water and nutrients available to crops can influence yield, but it is not known if the nutritional value of the crop is also influenced. Almonds are an important source of critical nutrients for human health such as unsaturated fat and vitamin E. We manipulated the pollination of almond trees and the resources available to the trees, to investigate the impact on the nutritional composition of the crop. The pollination treatments were: (a) exclusion of pollinators to initiate self-pollination and (b) hand cross-pollination; the plant resource treatments were: (c) reduced water and (d) no fertilizer. In an orchard in northern California, trees were exposed to a single treatment or a combination of two (one pollination and one resource). Both the fat and vitamin E composition of the nuts were highly influenced by pollination. Lower proportions of oleic to linoleic acid, which are less desirable from both a health and commercial perspective, were produced by the self-pollinated trees. However, higher levels of vitamin E were found in the self-pollinated nuts. In some cases, combined changes in pollination and plant resources sharpened the pollination effects, even when plant resources were not influencing the nutrients as an individual treatment. This study highlights the importance of insects as providers of cross-pollination for fruit quality that can affect human health, and, for the first time, shows that other environmental factors can sharpen the effect of pollination. This contributes to an emerging field of research investigating the complexity of interactions of ecosystem services affecting the nutritional value and commercial quality of crops.

  5. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319.

  6. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRENE eMURGIA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of Somatic Homologous Recombination (SHR events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants.Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

  7. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Irene; Giacometti, Sonia; Balestrazzi, Alma; Paparella, Stefania; Pagliano, Cristina; Morandini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe) deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of somatic homologous recombination (SHR) events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants. Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however, this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

  8. Concentrations of manganese and iron in some woody and herbs plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Dragica M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the substances that indicate environmental pollution. The plants polluted with heavy metals may endanger natural environment and cause health problems in humans. In our multidisciplinary research of the concentrations of pollutants in forest ecosystems and natural environment in Belgrade, we examined the contents of heavy metals essential for plants but harmful in greater concentrations on a long-term basis. The fact that heavy metals manganese and iron are accumulated in plants to the greatest extent focused our work on determination of the level of concentrations of Mn and Fe in the vegetative parts of 8 plant types on three locations on the Avala Mountain and one location in the centre of the city of Belgrade. The analyses of heavy metals contents in plants were performed by the method of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The examination of the existence of important differences between the average values was performed by implementation of Duncan’s test for the level of significance of 95%. The current contents of heavy metals in plants in the area of the protected natural resource Avala do not represent danger that would presently cause notable damage to forests but show the tendency of the increase of concentrations. Therefore, this issue should be constantly monitored.

  9. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eCouturier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles.

  10. Soil nitrogen availability and plant genotype modify the nutrition strategies of M. truncatula and the associated rhizosphere microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Zancarini

    Full Text Available Plant and soil types are usually considered as the two main drivers of the rhizosphere microbial communities. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both N availability and plant genotype on the plant associated rhizosphere microbial communities, in relation to the nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions, for six contrasted Medicago truncatula genotypes. The plants were provided with two different nutrient solutions varying in their nitrate concentrations (0 mM and 10 mM. First, the influence of both nitrogen availability and Medicago truncatula genotype on the genetic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities was determined by DNA fingerprint using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA. Secondly, the different nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions were evaluated using an ecophysiological framework. We observed that nitrogen availability affected rhizosphere bacterial communities only in presence of the plant. Furthermore, we showed that the influence of nitrogen availability on rhizosphere bacterial communities was dependent on the different genotypes of Medicago truncatula. Finally, the nutritional strategies of the plant varied greatly in response to a modification of nitrogen availability. A new conceptual framework was thus developed to study plant-microbe interactions. This framework led to the identification of three contrasted structural and functional adaptive responses of plant-microbe interactions to nitrogen availability.

  11. Soil nitrogen availability and plant genotype modify the nutrition strategies of M. truncatula and the associated rhizosphere microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancarini, Anouk; Mougel, Christophe; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Prudent, Marion; Salon, Christophe; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Plant and soil types are usually considered as the two main drivers of the rhizosphere microbial communities. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both N availability and plant genotype on the plant associated rhizosphere microbial communities, in relation to the nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions, for six contrasted Medicago truncatula genotypes. The plants were provided with two different nutrient solutions varying in their nitrate concentrations (0 mM and 10 mM). First, the influence of both nitrogen availability and Medicago truncatula genotype on the genetic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities was determined by DNA fingerprint using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA). Secondly, the different nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions were evaluated using an ecophysiological framework. We observed that nitrogen availability affected rhizosphere bacterial communities only in presence of the plant. Furthermore, we showed that the influence of nitrogen availability on rhizosphere bacterial communities was dependent on the different genotypes of Medicago truncatula. Finally, the nutritional strategies of the plant varied greatly in response to a modification of nitrogen availability. A new conceptual framework was thus developed to study plant-microbe interactions. This framework led to the identification of three contrasted structural and functional adaptive responses of plant-microbe interactions to nitrogen availability.

  12. Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, B; Krishnamurthy, V; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2008-01-01

    A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m;{3}; energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m;{3}; sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m;{3}; continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m;{3}. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels.

  13. Exposure studies of core-shell Fe/Fe(3)O(4) and Cu/CuO NPs to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants: Are they a potential physiological and nutritional hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Majumdar, S; Botez, C E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2014-02-28

    Iron and copper nanomaterials are widely used in environmental remediation and agriculture. However, their effects on physiological parameters and nutritional quality of terrestrial plants such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are still unknown. In this research, 18-day-old hydroponically grown lettuce seedlings were treated for 15 days with core-shell nanoscale materials (Fe/Fe(3)O(4), Cu/CuO) at 10 and 20mg/L, and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O at 10mg/L. At harvest, Fe, Cu, micro and macronutrients were determined by ICP-OES. Also, we evaluated chlorophyll content, plant growth, and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Our results showed that iron ions/NPs did not affect the physiological parameters with respect to water control. Conversely, Cu ions/NPs reduced water content, root length, and dry biomass of the lettuce plants. ICP-OES results showed that nano-Cu/CuO treatments produced significant accumulation of Cu in roots compared to the CuSO(4)·5H(2)O treatment. In roots, all Cu treatments increased CAT activity but decreased APX activity. In addition, relative to the control, nano-Cu/CuO altered the nutritional quality of lettuce, since the treated plants had significantly more Cu, Al and S but less Mn, P, Ca, and Mg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant polyphenols to enhance the nutritional and sensory properties of chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Shaun Y J; Ng, Jun Wei; Ng, Wai Kiong; Forde, Ciarán G; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    A relatively unexplored method to enhance the sensory and nutritional properties of chocolate is to use plant polyphenols. In this study, a low cost agricultural waste product - mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp - was added as powder in graded amounts (1%, 2% and 3%w/w) to dark and compound chocolates during the mixing stage and evaluated. The particle size distributions of the chocolates were mostly within 30 μm and the chocolates displayed a homogeneous morphology. The polyphenols (procyanidins and xanthones) in mangosteen pericarp powder were also stable to simulated chocolate processing. The 3% pericarp powder concentration significantly expanded the bioactive profile and total phenolic content (13% in dark chocolates and 50% in compound chocolates) compared to their plain counterparts without affecting sensory qualities. Such low cost plant polyphenols could enhance the bioactive and flavor profile of chocolates, especially in low cocoa content compound chocolates.

  15. Knocking down mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) reprograms primary and secondary metabolism in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Lehmann, Martin; Casiraghi, Fabio Marco; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Seki, Motoaki; Geigenberger, Peter; Zocchi, Graziano; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and its reduced bioavailability strongly impairs mitochondrial functionality. In this work, the metabolic adjustment in the rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial Fe transporter knockdown mutant (mit-2) was analysed. Biochemical characterization of purified mitochondria from rice roots showed alteration in the respiratory chain of mit-2 compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In particular, proteins belonging to the type II alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases accumulated strongly in mit-2 plants, indicating that alternative pathways were activated to keep the respiratory chain working. Additionally, large-scale changes in the transcriptome and metabolome were observed in mit-2 rice plants. In particular, a strong alteration (up-/down-regulation) in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism was found in mutant plants. This was reflected by changes in the metabolic profiles in both roots and shoots of mit-2 plants. Significant alterations in the levels of amino acids belonging to the aspartic acid-related pathways (aspartic acid, lysine, and threonine in roots, and aspartic acid and ornithine in shoots) were found that are strictly connected to the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, some metabolites (e.g. pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, ornithine, and oligosaccharides of the raffinose family) accumulated only in the shoot of mit-2 plants, indicating possible hypoxic responses. These findings suggest that the induction of local Fe deficiency in the mitochondrial compartment of mit-2 plants differentially affects the transcript as well as the metabolic profiles in root and shoot tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. To Explore the Clinical Nutritional Iron Deficiency Anemia of Infantile%小儿营养性缺铁性贫血的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze nutritional iron deficiency anemia of infantile.Methods Selected 90 cases nutritional iron deficiency anemia of infantile with clinical data retrospective summary, analysis the clinical characteristics and related risk factors. Results 61.11% of nutritional iron deifciency anemia children at age 7 months to 1 year old, Rural children more than city children, exclusive breastfeeding not add side dish was susceptible to ischemic anemia.Conclusion 7 months to 1 year old belongs to infantile nutritional iron deifciency anemia intensiifes period, prevention timely, diagnosis, treatment and reduce the incidence of the disease.%目的:分析小儿营养缺铁性贫血情况。方法回顾性总结90例小儿营养缺铁性贫血患者临床资料,分析其临床发病特点和相关危险因素。结果61.11%儿童营养缺铁性贫血年龄为7个月~1岁;农村儿童多于城市儿童;纯母乳喂养未添加辅食儿童易患缺血性贫血。结论7个月~1岁属于小儿营养缺铁性贫血高发期,应该及时预防、诊断、治疗,降低该病发生率。

  17. Co-expression analysis reveals a group of genes potentially involved in regulation of plant response to iron-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Lei; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and development. Iron deficiency results in abnormal metabolisms from respiration to photosynthesis. Exploration of Fe-deficient responsive genes and their networks is critically important to understand molecular mechanisms leading to the plant adaptation to soil Fe-limitation. Co-expression genes are a cluster of genes that have a similar expression pattern to execute relatively biological functions at a stage of development or under a certain environmental condition. They may share a common regulatory mechanism. In this study, we investigated Fe-starved-related co-expression genes from Arabidopsis. From the biological process GO annotation of TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource), 180 iron-deficient responsive genes were detected. Using ATTED-II database, we generated six gene co-expression networks. Among these, two modules of PYE and IRT1 were successfully constructed. There are 30 co-expression genes that are incorporated in the two modules (12 in PYE-module and 18 in IRT1-module). Sixteen of the co-expression genes were well characterized. The remaining genes (14) are poorly or not functionally identified with iron stress. Validation of the 14 genes using real-time PCR showed differential expression under iron-deficiency. Most of the co-expression genes (23/30) could be validated in pye and fit mutant plants with iron-deficiency. We further identified iron-responsive cis-elements upstream of the co-expression genes and found that 22 out of 30 genes contain the iron-responsive motif IDE1. Furthermore, some auxin and ethylene-responsive elements were detected in the promoters of the co-expression genes. These results suggest that some of the genes can be also involved in iron stress response through the phytohormone-responsive pathways.

  18. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Varanini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These values are even smaller for phosphorus fertilizers (estimate of use efficiency between 10 and 30%, worsen by the fact that, with the present technology and on the basis of present knowledge, it is expected that the phosphorus reserves used for fertilizer production will be sufficient for less than 100 years. Efficiency problems have also been recently raised concerning the use of synthetic chelates to alleviate deficiency of micronutrients: these compounds have been shown to be extremely mobile along soil profile and to be only partially utilizable by plants. The low uptake efficiency of nutrients from soil is, in one hand, caused by several intrinsic characteristics of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients, by the other, seems to be limited by biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient absorption. Only recently, the complexity of these aspects has been apprehended and it has been realized that the programs of breeding had neglected these problematic. In this review aspects related to the acquisition of a macro- (N and a micro- (Fe nutrient, will be discussed. The aim is to show that improvements of mineral nutrient use efficiency can be achieved only through a scientific approach, considering the whole soil-plant system. Particularly emphasis will be put on aspect of molecular physiology relevant to the improvement of nutrient capture efficiency; furthermore, the role of naturally occurring organic molecules in optimizing the nutritional capacity of

  19. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pinton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These values are even smaller for phosphorus fertilizers (estimate of use efficiency between 10 and 30%, worsen by the fact that, with the present technology and on the basis of present knowledge, it is expected that the phosphorus reserves used for fertilizer production will be sufficient for less than 100 years. Efficiency problems have also been recently raised concerning the use of synthetic chelates to alleviate deficiency of micronutrients: these compounds have been shown to be extremely mobile along soil profile and to be only partially utilizable by plants. The low uptake efficiency of nutrients from soil is, in one hand, caused by several intrinsic characteristics of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients, by the other, seems to be limited by biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient absorption. Only recently, the complexity of these aspects has been apprehended and it has been realized that the programs of breeding had neglected these problematic. In this review aspects related to the acquisition of a macro- (N and a micro- (Fe nutrient, will be discussed. The aim is to show that improvements of mineral nutrient use efficiency can be achieved only through a scientific approach, considering the whole soil-plant system. Particularly emphasis will be put on aspect of molecular physiology relevant to the improvement of nutrient capture efficiency; furthermore, the role of naturally occurring organic molecules in optimizing the nutritional capacity of

  20. [Vegetarian nutrition: Preventive potential and possible risks. Part 1: Plant foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Today vegetarian nutrition is more accepted and widespread in Europe than in former years. For a long time scientific research on vegetarian diets has focused mostly on malnutrition, whereas nowadays research centers increasingly on the preventive potential of plant-based diets. We followed a nutritive and a metabolic-epidemiological approach to obtain dietary recommendations. A MEDLINE research was performed for all plant food groups relevant for a vegetarian diet (key words: all relevant food groups, "vegetarian diet", "chronic disease", "cancer", "cardiovascular disease", "diabetes mellitus", "osteoporosis"). All relevant food groups were characterized regarding their nutrient content and rated with respect to the available metabolic-epidemiological evidence. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAO, cancer risk reduction by a high intake of vegetables and fruits is assessed as probable or possible, while a lowered risk of cardiovascular disease is convincing and a lowered risk of osteoporosis is probable. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible, whereas it is probable relating to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. There is an insufficient risk-reducing effect of legumes like soja relating to epithelial tumours and cardiovascular disease. The evidence of a risk-reducing effect of nuts to cardiovascular disease is assessed as probable, and in relation to cholelithiasis and diabetes mellitus type 2 as possible and insufficient, respectively. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts can lower the risk for several chronic diseases.

  1. Application of nanoelements in plant nutrition and its impact in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenice Morales-Díaz, América; Ortega-Ortíz, Hortensia; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Cadenas-Pliego, Gregorio; González-Morales, Susana; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2017-03-01

    Agriculture stands to benefit from nanotechnology in areas such as combating pests and pathogens, regulating the growth and quality of crops, and developing intelligent materials and nanosensors. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the use of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in plant nutrition, highlighting their advantages and potential uses, but also reviewing their possible environmental destination and effects on ecosystems and consumers. NPs and NMs have been shown to be an attractive alternative for the manufacture of nanofertilizers (NFs), which are more effective and efficient than traditional fertilizers. Because of their impact on crop nutritional quality and stress tolerance in plants, the application of NFs is increasing. However, there are virtually no studies on the potential environmental impact of NPs and NMs when used in agriculture. These studies are necessary because NPs and NMs can be transferred to ecosystems by various pathways where they can cause toxicity to organisms, affecting the biodiversity and abundance of these ecosystems, and may ultimately even be transferred to consumers.

  2. Progress of molecular and physiological mechanism of iron uptake and translocation in plants%植物吸收和转运铁的分子生理机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红芸; 熊宏春; 郭笑彤; 左元梅

    2011-01-01

    Fe is essential for plant growth.However,plants show severe iron deficiency due to low availability of Fe in soils,which affects the yield and quality of crops and ultimately affects human nutrition.Therefore,it is the hot research area to improve human nutritional status through biofortification.This review covers the research progress on the molecular mechanism of Fe uptake and translocation in plants and deposition in seeds in the past five years,and includes new discovery of combination of reduction and chelation strategies of iron uptake in Rice and the importance of YSL family in the three biological processes in plants.Furthermore,the technical ways of iron nutrition improvement and iron enrichment in seeds by genetic engineering and agronomic measures based on the studies on molecular mechanism of iron uptake and translocation in plants are discussed.%铁是植物正常生命活动过程中的必需微量元素之一。由于土壤中铁的有效性很低,导致植物极易缺铁,不仅影响作物的产量和品质,而且影响人类微量元素健康,因此如何通过生物强化达到人类铁营养状况改善的目的是目前该研究领域关注的热点。本文就近5年来植物铁吸收、体内转运、子粒中积累等重要生物过程的分子生理机制的研究进展进行了详细阐述,其中对水稻兼备机理Ⅰ和机理Ⅱ铁吸收机制有了新的认识,而且发现YSL蛋白家族在植物铁吸收、转运和子粒积累过程中的重要性。同时,讨论了利用上述机制的研究结果通过基因工程和农学措施改善植物铁营养和提高作物子粒铁富集的技术途径。

  3. Iron interference in arsenic absorption by different plant species, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand, United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities have been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Among other elements, iron is capable to interfere with the arsenic absorption by plants; iron ore has been proposed to remediate areas contaminated by the mentioned metalloid. In order to verify if iron can interfere with arsenic absorption by different taxa of plants, specimens of Brassicacea and Equisetaceae were kept in a 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S), with 10 {mu}gL{sup -1} of arsenic acid. And varying concentrations of iron. The specimens were analysed by neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-method, a routine technique in CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. The preliminary results were quite surprising, showing that iron can interfere with arsenic absorption by plants, but in different ways, according to the species studied. (author)

  4. Three nicotianamine synthase genes isolated from maize are differentially regulated by iron nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Daichi; Higuchi, Kyoko; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2003-08-01

    Nicotianamine synthase (NAS) is an enzyme that is critical for the biosynthesis of the mugineic acid family of phytosiderophores in graminaceous plants, and for the homeostasis of metal ions in nongraminaceous plants. We isolated one genomic NAS clone, ZmNAS3, and two cDNA NAS clones, ZmNAS1 and ZmNAS2, from maize (Zea mays cv Alice). In agreement with the increased secretion of phytosiderophores with Fe deficiency, ZmNAS1 and ZmNAS2 were positively expressed only in Fe-deficient roots. In contrast, ZmNAS3 was expressed under Fe-sufficient conditions, and was negatively regulated by Fe deficiency. This is the first report describing down-regulation of NAS gene expression in response to Fe deficiency in plants, shedding light on the role of nicotianamine in graminaceous plants, other than as a precursor in phytosiderophore production. ZmNAS1-green fluorescent protein (sGFP) and ZmNAS2-sGFP were localized at spots in the cytoplasm of onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, whereas ZmNAS3-sGFP was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of these cells. ZmNAS1 and ZmNAS3 showed NAS activity in vitro, whereas ZmNAS2 showed none. Due to its duplicated structure, ZmNAS2 was much larger (65.8 kD) than ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3, and previously characterized NAS proteins (30-38 kD) from other plant species. We reveal that maize has two types of NAS proteins based on their expression pattern and subcellular localization.

  5. Orientação nutricional do paciente com deficiência de ferro Nutritional guidelines for patients with iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Bortolini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de ferro ocorre quando as reservas nutricionais de ferro são esgotadas, principalmente devido ao balanço negativo entre ingestão e requerimentos de ferro. Quando a deficiência de ferro é severa desenvolve-se então a anemia por deficiência de ferro. A reposição dos estoques deve ser feita por meio de suplementação medicamentosa. A estratégia de educação nutricional, que visa o consumo quantitativo e qualitativo adequado de alimentos, fontes dos diversos nutrientes, é uma alternativa que possui baixo custo e não produz efeitos indesejáveis. O presente trabalho apresenta as recomendações nutricionais para a prevenção da deficiência de ferro e para o paciente com deficiência de ferro. A avaliação da ingestão alimentar e posterior orientação alimentar são importantes para contribuir com o tratamento e para mudar práticas alimentares, evitando assim a reocorrência da deficiência de ferro. Os grupos mais vulneráveis para a deficiência de ferro e que merecem atenção especial são as crianças, gestantes e mulheres em idade fértil.Iron deficiency occurs when nutritional iron reserves are used up mainly as a result of a negative balance between intake and requirements. When iron deficiency is severe, the patient evolves with iron deficiency anaemia. Replacement of iron reserves is normally by means of a medicinal supplement. One low cost alternative that does not present unwanted side effects is nutritional education which aims at quantitatively and qualitatively improving the consumption of foods and thus provide a healthy diet. The current study presents nutritional guidelines both for the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. It is important that an evaluation of dietary intake is made and that dietary counseling is followed to assist treatment and to change eating habits, thereby preventing the recurrence of iron deficiency. The most vulnerable groups for iron deficiency warrant

  6. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, pIron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.

  7. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Brozyna, Jeremy R; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity".

  8. Distribution of Leaf Color and Nitrogen Nutrition Diagnosis in Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-hua; CAO Wei-xing; WANG Qiang-sheng; DING Yan-feng; HUANG Pi-sheng; LING Qi-hong

    2002-01-01

    Greenness and nitrogen content of each leaf on main stem of different japonica and indica ricevarieties under different nitrogen levels were investigated. Results showed that the fourth leaf from the top ex-hibited active changes with the change of plant nitrogen status. When the plant nitrogen content was low, itscolor and nitrogen content were obviously lower than those of the three top leaves. With the increase of plantnitrogen content, the color and nitrogen content of the fourth leaf increased quickly, and the differences ofcolor and nitrogen content between the fourth leaf and the three top leaves decreased. So, the fourth leaf wasan ideal indication of plant nutrition status. In addition, color difference between the fourth and the third leaffrom the top was highly related to the plant nitrogen content regardless of the variety and development stage.Therefore, color difference between the fourth and the third leaf could be widely used for diagnosis of plantnutrition. Results also indicated that the minimized color difference between the fourth and the third leaf at the criticaleffective tillering, the emergence of the second leaf from the top, and the heading was the symbol of high yield. Plantnitrogen content of 27 g kg-1 DW for japonica rice and 25 g kg-1 DW for indica were the critical nitrogen concentrations.

  9. Relating nutritional and physiological characteristics to growth of Pinus radiata clones planted on a range of sites in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Barbara J; Xue, Jianming; Bown, Horacio E; Clinton, Peter W

    2010-09-01

    Six clones of radiata pine with known differences in growth rate were examined for clonal nutritional characteristics and for physiological determinants of clonal growth rate. We compared growth, foliar characteristics and nutrient, ¹³C and ¹⁵N concentration data for the six clones in 4- to 6-year-old field trials planted over a range of nutritionally contrasting sites. These data were also compared with growth, nutrient uptake and remobilization, foliar characteristic and gas exchange data from intensive physiological glasshouse experiments using 1- and 2-year-old plants of the same clones. Significant genotype x environment interactions in our field experiments conducted over strong nutritional gradients allowed us to identify radiata pine clones with consistent, superior growth and nutritional characteristics and clones that may be suited to particular site conditions. Our results suggest that the opportunity exists to exploit clone x site variation for site-specific clonal deployment and planting of fast-growing clones could be accompanied by planting of clones able to take relative advantage of site nutritional characteristics. Faster tree growth was not strongly related to any physiological characteristic, and the factors influencing growth rate differed among clones. The fastest-growing clone had consistent, high uptake of all nutrients, high fascicle weights and high water-use efficiency.

  10. Iron deficiency chlorosis in plants as related to Fe sources in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I.; Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; del Campillo, M. C.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a relevant agricultural problem in many areas of the World where calcareous soils are dominant. Although this problem has been traditionally ascribed to the pH-buffering effect of soil carbonates, the content and type of Fe oxides in soil contribute to explain Fe uptake by plants and the incidence of this problem. During the last two decades, it has been demonstrated Fe extraction with oxalate, related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides, was well-correlated with the chlorophyll content of plants and thus with the incidence of IDC. This reveals the contribution of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil to Fe availability to plants in calcareous soils, previously shown in microcosm experiments using ferrihydrite as Fe source in the growing media. In order to supply additional information about the contribution of Fe sources in soil to explain the incidence of IDC and to perform accurate methods to predict it, a set of experiments involving different methods to extract soil Fe and plant cultivation in pots to correlate amounts of extracted Fe with the chlorophyll content of plants (measured using the SPAD chlorophyll meter) were performed. The first experiment involved 21 soils and white lupin cultivation, sequential Fe extraction in soil to study Fe forms, and single extractions (DTPA, rapid oxalate and non-buffered hydroxylamine). After that, a set of experiments in pot involving growing of grapevine rootstocks, chickpea, and sunflower were performed, although in this case only single extractions in soil were done. The Fe fraction more closely related to chlorophyll content in plants (r = 0.5, p citrate + ascorbate (CA) extraction, which was the fraction that releases most of the Fe related to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, thus revealing the key role of these compounds in Fe supply to plants. Fe extracted with CA was more correlated with chlorophyll content in plants that oxalate extractable Fe, probably due to a more

  11. Iron Metabolism in Higher Plants%高等植物中铁的代谢机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士平; 郑录庆; 田伟; 薛艳红; 寿惠霞

    2011-01-01

    Fe plays an important role in plant growth and development as an essential micronutrient. With the management and cultivation of soil, iron limitation becomes a worldwide agricultural problem on calcareous soils. In order to overcome iron deficiency stress, plants have evolved a prefect system responding to the environmental iron signal. Here, by focusing on recent researches related to the interaction between plants and environment, we give an overview on the iron absorbance, transport, distribution and storage, and summarize the probable regulation mechanism of iron metabolism in plants.%铁在高等植物的生长发育中发挥着重要作用,但随着人类的耕作及土壤的盐碱化,缺铁已成为一个世界性植物营养问题.高等植物在长期的进化过程中,形成了完善的对环境铁信号响应的体系.本文围绕植物与环境的相互作用,综述了近年来植物铁营养的吸收、转运、分配和储存的研究进展,并总结了植物中铁营养代谢调控的相关机理.

  12. Response to nitrate/ammonium nutrition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants overexpressing a prokaryotic NH4(+)-dependent asparagine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen availability is an important limiting factor for plant growth. Although NH4(+) assimilation is energetically more favorable than NO3(-), it is usually toxic for plants. In order to study if an improved ammonium assimilatory metabolism could increase the plant tolerance to ammonium nutrition, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv P-73) plants were transformed with an NH4(+)-dependent asparagine synthetase (AS-A) gene from Escherichia coli (asnA) under the control of a PCpea promoter (pea isolated constitutive promotor). Homozygous (Hom), azygous (Az) asnA and wild type (WT) plants were grown hydroponically for 6 weeks with normal Hoagland nutrition (NO3(-)/NH4(+)=6/0.5) and high ammonium nutrition (NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3). Under Hoagland's conditions, Hom plants produced 40-50% less biomass than WT and Az plants. However, under NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3 the biomass of Hom was not affected while it was reduced by 40-70% in WT and Az plants compared to Hoagland, respectively. The Hom plants accumulated 1.5-4 times more asparagine, glycine, serine and soluble proteins and registered higher glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities in the light-adapted leaves than the other genotypes, but had similar NH4(+) and NO3(-) levels in all conditions. In the dark-adapted leaves, a protein catabolism occurred in the Hom plants with a concomitant 25-40% increase in organic acid concentration, while asparagine accumulation registered the highest values. The aforementioned processes might be responsible for a positive energetic balance as regards the futile cycle of the transgenic protein synthesis and catabolism. This explains growth penalty under standard nutrition and growth stability under NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Using modern plant breeding to improve the nutritional and technological qualities of oil crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Denis J.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades have seen huge advances in our understanding of plant biology and in the development of new technologies for the manipulation of crop plants. The application of relatively straightforward breeding and selection methods made possible the “Green Revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s that effectively doubled or trebled cereal production in much of the world and averted mass famine in Asia. During the 2000s, much attention has been focused on genomic approaches to plant breeding with the deployment of a new generation of technologies, such as marker-assisted selection, next-generation sequencing, transgenesis (genetic engineering or GM and automatic mutagenesis/selection (TILLING, TargetIng Local Lesions IN Genomes. These methods are now being applied to a wide range of crops and have particularly good potential for oil crop improvement in terms of both overall food and non-food yield and nutritional and technical quality of the oils. Key targets include increasing overall oil yield and stability on a per seed or per fruit basis and very high oleic acid content in seed and fruit oils for both premium edible and oleochemical applications. Other more specialised targets include oils enriched in nutritionally desirable “fish oil”-like fatty acids, especially very long chain !-3 acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, or increased levels of lipidic vitamins such as carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienes. Progress in producing such oils in commercial crops has been good in recent years with several varieties being released or at advanced stages of development.

  14. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J., E-mail: j.millett@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Foot, G.W. [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Svensson, B.M. [Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  15. Environmental selection pressures related to iron utilization are involved in the loss of the flavodoxin gene from the plant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierella Karlusich, Juan J; Ceccoli, Romina D; Graña, Martín; Romero, Héctor; Carrillo, Néstor

    2015-02-16

    Oxidative stress and iron limitation represent the grim side of life in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The versatile electron transfer shuttle ferredoxin, an iron-sulfur protein, is particularly sensitive to these hardships, and its downregulation under adverse conditions severely compromises survival of phototrophs. Replacement of ferredoxin by a stress-resistant isofunctional carrier, flavin-containing flavodoxin, is a widespread strategy employed by photosynthetic microorganisms to overcome environmental adversities. The flavodoxin gene was lost in the course of plant evolution, but its reintroduction in transgenic plants confers increased tolerance to environmental stress and iron starvation, raising the question as to why a genetic asset with obvious adaptive value was not kept by natural selection. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the evolutionary history of flavodoxin is intricate, with several horizontal gene transfer events between distant organisms, including Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. The flavodoxin gene is unevenly distributed in most algal lineages, with flavodoxin-containing species being overrepresented in iron-limited regions and scarce or absent in iron-rich environments. Evaluation of cyanobacterial genomic and metagenomic data yielded essentially the same results, indicating that there was little selection pressure to retain flavodoxin in iron-rich coastal/freshwater phototrophs. Our results show a highly dynamic evolution pattern of flavodoxin tightly connected to the bioavailability of iron. Evidence presented here also indicates that the high concentration of iron in coastal and freshwater habitats may have facilitated the loss of flavodoxin in the freshwater ancestor of modern plants during the transition of photosynthetic organisms from the open oceans to the firm land.

  16. Isolation of iron-oxidizing bacteria from corroded concretes of sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Komoto, H; Oshima, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-six strains of iron-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from corroded concrete samples obtained at eight sewage treatment plants in Japan. All of the strains isolated grew autotrophically in ferrous sulfate (3.0%), elemental sulfur (1.0%) and FeS (1.0%) media (pH 1.5). Washed intact cells of the 36 isolates had activities to oxidize both ferrous iron and elemental sulfur. Strain SNA-5, a representative of the isolated strains, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6x0.9-1.5 microm). The mean G+C content of its DNA was 55.9 mol%. The pH and temperature optima for growth were 1.5 and 30 degrees C, and the bacterium had activity to assimilate 14CO2 into the cells when ferrous iron or elemental sulfur was used as a sole source of energy. These results suggest that SNA-5 is Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strain. The pHs and numbers of iron-oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete samples obtained by boring to depths of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-5 cm below the concrete surface were respectively 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0, and 1.2 x 10(8), 5 x 10(7), and 5 x 10(6) cells/g concrete. The degree of corrosion in the sample obtained nearest to the surface was more severe than in the deeper samples. The findings indicated that the levels of acidification and corrosion of the concrete structure corresponded with the number of iron-oxidizing bacteria in a concrete sample. Sulfuric acid produced by the chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus thiooxidansis known to induce concrete corrosion. Since not only T. thiooxidans but also T. ferrooxidans can oxidize reduced sulfur compounds and produce sulfuric acid, the results strongly suggest that T. ferrooxidans as well as T. thiooxidans is involved in concrete corrosion.

  17. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified.

  18. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizer on plant nutritional status and soil fertility of tomatoes grown under greenhouse condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Işıl DEMİRTAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some plant originated liquid organic fertilizer on soil fertility and plant nutritional status of tomato plants were investigated. The experiment was planned to compare the control, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, 1/1chemical+organic fertilizer, ½chemical+organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer+foliar organic fertilizer application. The trial was conducted in randomised complete block design with four replications. Plant and soil samples were analyzed. According to the results of analysis, combinations of organic and chemical fertilizer generally gave more positive results.

  19. Nutrient Release, Plant Nutrition, and Potassium Leaching from Polymer-Coated Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Bley

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increase in food consumption and limitations in food production areas requires improved fertilizer efficiency. Slow- or controlled-release fertilizers are an alternative for synchronizing nutrient availability with the plant demands, reducing losses to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polymer-coated KCl compared with conventional KCl. The products were incubated in soil under controlled conditions to evaluate the time required for nutrient release. A greenhouse experiment was performed with corn plants in pots with loamy sand- or clay-textured soil types to evaluate plant nutrition and losses due to leaching. The K application rates were 0, 18, 36, and 54 mg dm-3. The pots were irrigated, and the percolated liquid was collected. The plants were harvested 30 days after sowing to quantify dry matter (DM and its K content. In the incubation study, the K release from the coated fertilizer was found to be 42 % over 154 days. The data were fit to a linear function from which a period of 315 days was estimated as required for the release of 75 % of the nutrient. Meanwhile, conventional KCl releases 85 % of the K nutrient in the first 48h. In the cultivation of plants in pots, the coating reduced K losses due to leaching in the loamy sand soil; however, only the application rate of 54 mg dm-3 promoted DM production equivalent to conventional KCl. It is possible that the need for K in the early stages of corn development was not met by a coated KCl.

  20. Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Davoodi, Homa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations.

  1. An exogenous source of nitric oxide modulates zinc nutritional status in wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buet, Agustina; Moriconi, Jorge I; Santa-María, Guillermo E; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2014-10-01

    The effect of addition of the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on the Zn nutritional status was evaluated in hydroponically-cultured wheat plants (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring). Addition of GSNO in Zn-deprived plants did not modify biomass accumulation but accelerated leaf senescence in a mode concomitant with accelerated decrease of Zn allocation to shoots. In well-supplied plants, Zn concentration in both roots and shoots declined due to long term exposure to GSNO. A further evaluation of net Zn uptake rate (ZnNUR) during the recovery of long-term Zn-deprivation unveiled that enhanced Zn-accumulation was partially blocked when GSNO was present in the uptake medium. This effect on uptake was mainly associated with a change of Zn translocation to shoots. Our results suggest a role for GSNO in the modulation of Zn uptake and in root-to-shoot translocation during the transition from deficient to sufficient levels of Zn-supply.

  2. Cerium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles alter the nutritional value of soil cultivated soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Zhao, Lijuan; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Ge, Yuan; Priester, John H; Holden, Patricia Ann; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine nutrient elements in soybean (Glycine max) plants cultivated in farm soil amended with nCeO2 at 0-1000 mg kg(-1) and nZnO at 0-500 mg kg(-1). Digested samples were analyzed by ICP-OES/MS. Compared to control, pods from nCeO2 at 1000 mg kg(-1) had significantly less Ca but more P and Cu, while pods from 100 mg kg(-1)nZnO had more Zn, Mn, and Cu. Plants treated with nZnO showed significant correlations among Zn, P, and S in pods with Zn in roots. Correlations among pod Zn/root Zn was r = 0.808 (p ≤ 0.01) and pod P/root P was r = 0.541 (p ≤ 0.05). The correlation among pod S/root S was r = -0.65 (p ≤ 0.01). While nCeO2 treatments exhibited significant correlations between pod Ca/root Ca (r = 0.645, p ≤ 0.05). The data suggest that nCeO2 and nZnO alter the nutritional value of soybean, which could affect the health of plants, humans, and animals.

  3. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  4. Control of Leaf Expansion by Nitrogen Nutrition in Sunflower Plants : ROLE OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND TURGOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, J W; Boyer, J S

    1982-04-01

    Nitrogen nutrition strongly affected the growth rate of young sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. When plants were grown from seed on either of two levels of N availability, a 33% decrease in tissue N of expanding leaves was associated with a 75% overall inhibition of leaf growth. Almost all of the growth inhibition resulted from a depression of the daytime growth rate. Measurements of pressure-induced water flux through roots showed that N deficiency decreased root hydraulic conductivity by about half. Thus, N deficiency lowered the steady-state water potential of expanding leaves during the daytime when transpiration was occurring. As a result, N-deficient leaves were unable to maintain adequate turgor for growth in the daytime. N deficiency also decreased the hydraulic conductivity for water movement into expanding leaf cells in the absence of transpiration, but growth inhibition at night was much less than in the daytime. N nutrition had no detectable effects on plastic extensibility or the threshold turgor for growth.

  5. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-06-23

    Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries.

  6. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  7. Effects of Juniperus species and stage of maturity on nutritional, in vitro digestibility, and plant secondary compound characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Naumann, H D; Cherry, N M; Muir, J P; Lambert, B D; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Estell, R E

    2015-08-01

    Rising feed costs and recurring feed shortages necessitate the investigation into alternative and underutilized feed resources. Nutritional characteristics of species are either unknown or limited to leaves and ground material from small stems. Therefore, the objective was to quantify nutritional characteristics, 48-h true IVDMD (tIVDMD), microbial gas production, and secondary compound characteristics of entire woody plant material of 4 species-, , , and -at immature and mature stages of growth. Immature plants had greater CP concentrations and lower NDF concentrations ( < 0.001) than mature plants regardless of species. Mature plants also had greater ( < 0.001) concentrations of ADF compared with immature plants with the exception of . In general, immature , , and had greater ( < 0.02) tIVDMD and total 48-h and asymptotic gas production than mature plants. Immature and plants were more digested (tIVDMD; < 0.001) than immature and , but tIVDMD did not differ in mature plant material across species. Condensed tannins (CT) were greater ( < 0.001) in immature and than mature plants; differences in CT concentrations among immature species were also detected ( < 0.04). Volatile oil yields were similar across maturity and species with 1 exception: immature yielded more ( < 0.02) volatile oil than mature material. Volatile oil composition across species varied and contained a range of 65 to 70 terpene compounds. The dominant terpenes across species were generally greater ( < 0.05) in immature vs. mature plant material with the exception of . Labdane acids were negligible in , , and and greater in ( < 0.001). Ground material from mature juniper species, although inferior in nutritional quality compared with immature plants, is comparable to traditional low-quality roughage ingredients. Given that has been successfully fed in lamb feedlot diets, the similarities of , and suggest that all three species have potential to be effective roughage ingredients.

  8. Disruption of OsYSL15 leads to iron inefficiency in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sichul; Chiecko, Jeff C; Kim, Sun A; Walker, Elsbeth L; Lee, Youngsook; Guerinot, Mary Lou; An, Gynheung

    2009-06-01

    Uptake and translocation of metal nutrients are essential processes for plant growth. Graminaceous species release phytosiderophores that bind to Fe(3+); these complexes are then transported across the plasma membrane. We have characterized OsYSL15, one of the rice (Oryza sativa) YS1-like (YSL) genes that are strongly induced by iron (Fe) deficiency. The OsYSL15 promoter fusion to beta-glucuronidase showed that it was expressed in all root tissues when Fe was limited. In low-Fe leaves, the promoter became active in all tissues except epidermal cells. This activity was also detected in flowers and seeds. The OsYSL15:green fluorescent protein fusion was localized to the plasma membrane. OsYSL15 functionally complemented yeast strains defective in Fe uptake on media containing Fe(3+)-deoxymugineic acid and Fe(2+)-nicotianamine. Two insertional osysl15 mutants exhibited chlorotic phenotypes under Fe deficiency and had reduced Fe concentrations in their shoots, roots, and seeds. Nitric oxide treatment reversed this chlorosis under Fe-limiting conditions. Overexpression of OsYSL15 increased the Fe concentration in leaves and seeds from transgenic plants. Altogether, these results demonstrate roles for OsYSL15 in Fe uptake and distribution in rice plants.

  9. The role of inflammation, iron, and nutritional status in cancer-related anemia: results of a large, prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Mulas, Carlo; Tanca, Luciana; Cherchi, Maria Cristina; Floris, Carlo; Omoto, Itaru; Barracca, Antonio; Ganz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Anemia in oncology patients is often considered a side effect of cancer therapy; however, it may occur before any antineoplastic treatment (cancer-related anemia). This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cancer-related anemia in a large cohort of oncology patients and whether inflammation and malnutrition were predictive of its development and severity. The present study included 888 patients with cancer at different sites between May 2011 and January 2014. Patients were assessed at diagnosis before any cancer treatment. The prevalence of anemia according to the main clinical factors (tumor site, stage and performance status) was analyzed. In each patient markers of inflammation, iron metabolism, malnutrition and oxidative stress as well as the modified Glasgow prognostic score, a combined index of malnutrition and inflammation, were assessed and their role in predicting hemoglobin level was evaluated. The percentage of anemic patients was 63% with the lowest hemoglobin levels being found in the patients with most advanced cancer and compromised performance status. Hemoglobin concentration differed by tumor site and was lowest in patients with ovarian cancer. Hemoglobin concentration was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers, hepcidin, ferritin, erythropoietin and reactive oxygen species, and positively correlated with leptin, albumin, cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes. In multivariate analysis, stage, interleukin-6 and leptin were independent predictors of hemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, hemoglobin was inversely dependent on modified Glasgow Prognostic Score. In conclusion, cancer-related anemia is a multifactorial problem with immune, nutritional and metabolic components that affect its severity. Only a detailed assessment of the pathogenesis of cancer-related anemia may enable clinicians to provide safe and effective individualized treatment.

  10. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffolo, Marina Dello; Martino, Miriam; Bevilacqua, Alicia; Montero, Mirta; Rodríguez, María Susana; Albertengo, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0). The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2) and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min) interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work. PMID:21845102

  11. Battery engineering problems in designing an electrical load leveling plant for lithium/iron-sulfide cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivi, S. M.; Pollack, I.; Kacinskas, H.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Barney, D. L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, I.; Grieve, W.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a lithium/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is strongly dependent on the energy capacity selected for the cells. Battery hardware costs are minimized by the selection of large cells, with 30-kWh cells being the largest that would be consistent with system constraints in a 100-MWh load leveling plant. However, it is anticipated that such large cells may be precluded by system reliability and maintainability considerations, and cell capacities on the order of 1 kWh may be needed to satisfy those requirements. Large cells can be protected against overcharge by electronically controlled charge equalization systems that have been developed for experimental eV batteries. The economics of electronically controlled equalization becomes unfavorable for small load-leveling cells; and if small cells are selected, it will be necessary to develop inherent protective means within each cell, with respect to overcharge.

  12. Sensory and nutritional effects of amino acids and phenolic plant compounds on the caterpillars of two Pieris species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships between caterpillars of Pierisbrassicae L. and Pierisrapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and a common host plant Brassicaoleracea L. were studied using chemosensory and nutritional techniques. Attention was focussed on amino acids, which are i

  13. Food science meets plant science: A case study on improved nutritional quality by breeding for glucosinolate retention during food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional quality of vegetables is affected by several steps in the food chain. Up to now the effects of these different steps are mostly studied separately. We propose the cooperation between plant breeding and food technology by using food technological parameters as breeding traits to identify

  14. Concentration of lead, cadmium, and iron in sediment dust and total suspended particles before and after initialisation of integral production in iron and steel work plant Zenica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prcanović, Halim; Duraković, Mirnes; Beganović, Sanela

    2012-06-01

    Poor air quality is a common fact for all areas with base industry. The city of Zenica was once the metallurgical centre of Ex-Yugoslavia and is therefore highly polluted at present. Air pollution peaked in 1987 when average concentration of pollutants was extremely high (daily average concentration of SO(2) was 1800 μg m(-3)). With the beginning of the war in 1992, integral production in the steel work plant was shut down, to be re-launched in 2008. Limit values for iron do not exist, but iron has been monitored in Zenica for the past 28 years because of the presence of steel works. Concentrations of cadmium and lead have also been measured because they are very much present in polluted areas with steel works. The concentration of mentioned elements in air deposit and total suspended particles before and after integral production in the steel work plant was re-launched is the subject of this paper. Total suspended particles were measured in two locations using German standard VDI 2463 Blatt 4. Sediment dust was measured in nine locations using Bergerhoff method. The concentration of iron, lead, and cadmium was performed in the chemical laboratory of the Metallurgical Institute "Kemal Kapetanović" Zenica using standard methods. Higher concentrations of these parameters during the period of integral production clearly point to the impact of steel works on Zenica valley.

  15. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    or abolishing the corresponding inhibitory activity, along with associated molecular markers for breeding programmes. The potential for making large changes to plant protein profiles for improved and sustainable food production through diversity is illustrated. The strategy employed here to reduce anti-nutritional proteins in seeds may be extended to allergens and other seed proteins with negative nutritional effects. Additionally, the novel variants described for pea will assist future studies of the biological role and health-related properties of so-called anti-nutrients.

  16. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Elke; Janneck, Eberhard; Glombitza, Franz; Schlömann, Michael; Seifert, Jana

    2009-08-15

    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species "Ferrovum myxofaciens" and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems.

  17. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elke Heinzel; Eberhard Janneck; Franz Glombitza; Michael Schlmann; Jana Seifert [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Interdisciplinary Ecological Center

    2009-08-15

    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species 'Ferrovum myxofaciens' and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems. 32 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.

  18. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  19. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimabadi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After mine's total reserves are excavated, the mine requires to be permanently closed and reclaimed. Mine reclamation and post-mining land-use are the main issues in the phase of mine closure. In general, among various scenarios for mine reclamation process, i.e. planting, agriculture, forestry, residency, tourist attraction, etc., planting is the oldest and commonly-used technology for the reclamation of lands damaged by mining activities. Planting and vegetation play a major role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability and biological diversity to degraded areas, therefore the main goal of this research work is to choose proper and suitable plants compatible with the conditions of Chadormaloo mined area, providing consistent conditions for future use. To ensure the sustainability of the reclaimed landscape, the most suitable plant species adapted to the mine conditions are selected. Plant species selection is a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a fuzzy MCDM technique, namely Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is developed to assist chadormaloo iron mine managers and designers in the process of plant type selection for reclamation of the mine under fuzzy environment where the vagueness and uncertainty are taken into account with linguistic variables parameterized by triangular fuzzy numbers. The results achieved from using FAHP approach demonstrate that the most proper plant species are ranked as Artemisia sieberi, Salsola yazdiana, Halophytes types, and Zygophyllum, respectively for reclamation of Chadormaloo iron mine.

  20. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Dalai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used in BSL for one decade. Direct reduction is a process, which extracts high metallic solid iron by removing oxygen from iron ore or any other iron oxides without passing through molten stage, i.e. solid state reduction. The product, so formed is known as directly reduced tron (DRI or Sponge Iron. Due to shortage of raw material or any other problem in DRI sections, the DRI section undergoes a temporary short down. During the shutdown period the equipments tend to be idle. To keep the equipment ready for operation as well as to maintain the plants economy an alternate methodology is used in this research. Various operations are: CO gas from Coke Oven, DRI, Steam Generation, and Power Generation.

  1. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  2. AtNRAMP3, a multispecific vacuolar metal transporter involved in plant responses to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomine, Sébastien; Lelièvre, Françoise; Debarbieux, Elise; Schroeder, Julian I; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    2003-06-01

    Metal homeostasis is critical for the survival of living organisms, and metal transporters play central roles in maintaining metal homeostasis in the living cells. We have investigated the function of a metal transporter of the NRAMP family, AtNRAMP3, in Arabidopsis thaliana. A previous study showed that AtNRAMP3 expression is upregulated by iron (Fe) starvation and that AtNRAMP3 protein can transport Fe. In the present study, we used AtNRAMP3 promoter beta-glucoronidase (GUS) fusions to show that AtNRAMP3 is expressed in the vascular bundles of roots, stems, and leaves under Fe-sufficient conditions. This suggests a function in long-distance metal transport within the plant. Under Fe-starvation conditions, the GUS activity driven by the AtNRAMP3 promoter is upregulated without any change in the expression pattern. We analyze the impact of AtNRAMP3 disruption and overexpression on metal accumulation in plants. Under Fe-sufficient conditions, AtNRAMP3 overexpression or disruption does not lead to any change in the plant metal content. Upon Fe starvation, AtNRAMP3 disruption leads to increased accumulation of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in the roots, whereas AtNRAMP3 overexpression downregulates Mn accumulation. In addition, overexpression of AtNRAMP3 downregulates the expression of the primary Fe uptake transporter IRT1 and of the root ferric chelate reductase FRO2. Expression of AtNRAMP3::GFP fusion protein in onion cells or Arabidopsis protoplasts shows that AtNRAMP3 protein localizes to the vacuolar membrane. To account for the results presented, we propose that AtNRAMP3 influences metal accumulation and IRT1 and FRO2 gene expression by mobilizing vacuolar metal pools to the cytosol.

  3. Polyphenolic compounds appear to limit the nutritional benefit of biofortified higher iron black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Beebe, Steve E; Reed, Spenser; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2014-03-26

    Our objective was to determine if a biofortified variety of black bean can provide more bioavailable-iron (Fe) than a standard variety. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus-vulgaris L.), a standard (DOR500; 59μg Fe/g) and biofortified (MIB465; 88μg Fe/g) were used. The DOR500 is a common commercial variety, and the MIB465 is a line developed for higher-Fe content. Given the high prevalence of Fe-deficiency anemia worldwide, it is important to determine if Fe-biofortified black beans can provide more absorbable-Fe. Black bean based diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for the broiler (Gallus-gallus) except for Fe (dietary Fe-concentrations were 39.4±0.2 and 52.9±0.9 mg/kg diet, standard vs. biofortified, respectively). Birds (n=14) were fed the diets for 6-weeks. Hemoglobin-(Hb), liver-ferritin and Fe-related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency and total-body-Hb-Fe values were used to estimate Fe-bioavailability. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency values were higher (P0.05). Such extremely-low in-vitro Fe-bioavailability measurement is indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenolic-compounds that may inhibit Fe-absorption. High levels of these compounds would be expected in the black bean seed-coats. The parameters of Fe-status measured in this study indicate that only a minor increase in absorbable-Fe was achieved with the higher-Fe beans. The results also raise the possibility that breeding for increased Fe-concentration elevated the levels of polyphenolic-compounds that can reduce bean Fe-bioavailability, although the higher levels of polyphenolics in the higher-Fe beans may simply be coincidental or an environmental effect. Regardless, Fe-biofortified beans remain a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable-Fe in human populations that consume high levels of these beans as a dietary staple, and the bean polyphenol profile must be further evaluated and modified if

  4. Overexpression of OsDPR, a novel rice gene highly expressed under iron deficiency, suppresses plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naren; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Dengke; Wang, Yi; Li, Shuang; Yin, Liping

    2012-12-01

    Preliminary microarray analysis of cDNA from rice roots revealed an up-regulated transcript that was highly expressed in a five-day iron deficiency treatment. The entire sequence of this gene was determined by bioinformatics analysis. There were no proteins with significant levels of similarity detected in public databases. This novel gene with unknown biological function was designated as OsDPR (dwarf phenotype-related gene). We constructed a stable plant expression vector pCAMBIA1302-OsDPR::GFP and produced transgenic tobacco plants. The phenotypes suggested that OsDPR restrained the growth of transformed plants. To understand the mechanisms of this suppression effect, cell size and number were compared between transformants and wild-type plants. The cell proliferation rate was lower in OsDPR transgenic BY-2 cells than in wild-type cells, but OsDPR expression did not affect cell size. Moreover, the cell division-related gene CyclinD2.1, which is involved in plant growth, was down-regulated in transgenic tobacco plants. These findings suggested that the novel iron-regulated gene OsDPR is responsible for the nanism phenotype of transgenic seedlings because of the inhibition of plant cell proliferation.

  5. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L.; Temmink, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Loosdrecht, Van M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  6. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L.; Temmink, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Loosdrecht, Van M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  7. Transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H N; Kanni, K L Paranjothy; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency disorders. Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to decreased absorption of iron from diet, chronic blood loss and other associated diseases. The importance of iron and deleterious effects of iron deficiency anemia are discussed briefly in this review followed by the transdermal approaches to deliver iron. Transdermal delivery of iron would be able to overcome the side effects associated with conventional oral and parenteral iron therapy and improves the patient compliance. During preliminary investigations, ferric pyrophosphate and iron dextran were selected as iron sources for transdermal delivery. Different biophysical techniques were explored to assess their efficiency in delivering iron across the skin, and in vivo studies were carried out using anemic rat model. Transdermal iron delivery is a promising approach that could make a huge positive impact on patients suffering with iron deficiency.

  8. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  9. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Janet R

    2003-09-01

    Iron and zinc are currently the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, the absorption of both iron and zinc is lower with vegetarian than with nonvegetarian, diets. The health consequences of lower iron and zinc bioavailability are not clear, especially in industrialized countries with abundant, varied food supplies, where nutrition and health research has generally supported recommendations to reduce meat and increase legume and whole-grain consumption. Although it is clear that vegetarians have lower iron stores, adverse health effects from lower iron and zinc absorption have not been demonstrated with varied vegetarian diets in developed countries, and moderately lower iron stores have even been hypothesized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Premenopausal women cannot easily achieve recommended iron intakes, as modified for vegetarians, with foods alone; however, the benefit of routine iron supplementation has not been demonstrated. It may be prudent to monitor the hemoglobin of vegetarian children and women of childbearing age. Improved assessment methods are required to determine whether vegetarians are at risk of zinc deficiency. In contrast with iron and zinc, elements such as copper appear to be adequately provided by vegetarian diets. Although the iron and zinc deficiencies commonly associated with plant-based diets in impoverished nations are not associated with vegetarian diets in wealthier countries, these nutrients warrant attention as nutritional assessment methods become more sensitive and plant-based diets receive greater emphasis.

  10. Nitrosamines and Heme Iron and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Key, Timothy J.; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Tjonneland, Anne; Fons-Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Huerta, Jose M.; Ardanaz, Eva; Arguelles, Marcial V.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Wirfaelt, Elisabet; Wallstrom, Peter; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Paer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer a

  11. Sensorial evaluation of nutritional supplements (PROGRESA) enriched with 3 different forms of iron in a rural Mexican community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J; Vargas, F; Cassís, L; Sánchez, E; Villalpando, S

    2008-01-01

    As part of the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia (IDA), the Mexican Federal program PROGRESA distributes complementary foods to toddlers and pregnant women living in extreme poverty. Complementary foods were originally fortified with hydrogen-reduced iron, which proved a limited efficacy. The supplement was reformulated to provide higher iron bioavailability. This investigation aims to assess the sensory changes and the acceptance of new versions of the complementary foods fortified with either reduced iron, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, stored at room temperature for 2, 4, and 6 mo. Complementary foods were presented without flavor (plain) or flavored with either chocolate or vanilla. The complementary foods were evaluated in toddlers and their mothers using a hedonic scale. The percentage of overall acceptance for the baby foods was higher in toddlers (80% to 88%) than in their mothers (63% to 68%). The complementary foods with a better acceptance were those fortified with reduced iron (63% to 68%) and ferrous fumarate (61% to 80%) independently of the flavoring added. The acceptance of the beverage intended for women was better for those fortified with reduced iron (52% to 63%) or ferrous fumarate (44% to 63%) in their vanilla-flavored version. For women, the most accepted sources of iron were reduced iron (50% to 60%) and ferrous fumarate (50% to 58%).

  12. History, achievements, and future challenges of Japanse Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Modern soil science was introduced just after the reformation of Japan in 1867 by Max Fesca, Oskar Kellner and other German teachers together with their Japanese students, who were traced back to Justus von Liebig and thus started studying and teaching soils based on agrogeology and agricultural chemistry. After the German teachers left, the graduates from agricultural colleges formed the Foundation of Agricultural Sciences in 1887, based on which the Society of the Science of Soil and Manure, Japan, was established in 1927. The research, education and extension activities then expanded to Korea, Manchuria and Inner Mongolia as well as Taiwan and Sakhalin in accordance with a military invasion to China and Southeast Asian countries until the end of WWII. After WWII together with the reformation guided by the General Headquarters (GHQ) of the Allied Forces, soils research and educational units increased in number in the universities and governmental institutions. The society started publication of the journal in English, "Soils and Plant Food" in 1955, which was renamed to "Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (SSPN)" in 1961. There formed a variety of discussion groups in the society such as soil microbiology, pedology, clay science, soil physics, plant physiology, and forest environment, which became independent in the 1960s. Economic growth of Japan in the 1970s accomplished self-sufficiency in rice production and extended the range of crop to grow, however, a variety of environmental issues came out. A new division was established in the society for solving soil-related environmental problems. The society became more involved in international activities and hosted a number of international conferences, workshops, etc., the most significant of which was the 14th International Congress of Soil Science at Kyoto in 1990. The society proposed there a regional organization to cope with the unique issues, e.g. improvement of paddy rice cultivation, for Asian countries and

  13. Characterization of PAHs within PM 10 fraction for ashes from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant stacks in Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Shi, Jianwu; Lu, Bing; Qiu, Weiguang; Zhang, Baosheng; Peng, Yue; Zhang, Bowen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within PM 10 fraction of ashes from two coke production plants, one iron smelt plant, one heating station and one power plant were analyzed with GC-MS technique in 2009. The sum of 17 selected PAHs varied from 290.20 to 7055.72 μg/g and the amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 140.33 and 3345.46 μg/g. The most toxic ash was from the coke production plants and then from the iron smelt plant, coal-fired power plant and heating station according to BaP-based toxic equivalent factor (BaPeq) and BaP-based equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE). PAHs profile of the iron smelt ash was significantly different from others with coefficient of divergence value higher than 0.40. Indicatory PAHs for coke production plants, heating station and coal-fired power plant were mainly 3-ring species such as Acy, Fl and Ace. While for iron smelt plant, they were Chr and BbF. Diagnostic ratios including Ant/(Ant + Phe), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaA/Chr, BbF/BkF, Ind/BghiP, IND/(IND + BghiP), BaP/BghiP, BaP/COR, Pyr/BaP, BaA/(BaA + Chr), BaA/BaP and BaP/(BaP + Chr) were calculated which were mostly different from other stacks for the iron smelt plant.

  14. Nutritional anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, F A

    1979-10-01

    The role of the metals, iron and copper, and the vitamins E, folic acid, and B12 in the genesis of nutritional anemias in infancy have been reviewed. All are preventable. The precise requirements for each of these trace elements and vitamins in the small premature infant remain to be defined. The nonhematologic consequences of these nutritional deficiencies require further study. Anemia may prove to be the least important manifestation of the deficiency states.

  15. Nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Di Maro, Antimo; Bernasconi, Silvana; Burlini, Nedda; Simonetti, Paolo; Picchi, Valentina; Panigada, Cinzia; Gerosa, Giacomo; Parente, Augusto; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-14

    The effect of chronic exposure to ozone pollution on nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) seeds from plants grown in filtered and nonfiltered open-top chambers (OTCs) has been investigated. Results showed that, among seed macronutrients, ozone significantly raised total lipids, crude proteins, and dietary fiber and slightly decreased total free amino acid content, although with a significant reduction of asparagine, lysine, valine, methionine, and glycine, compensated by a conspicuous augmentation of ornithine and tryptophan. Phytosterol analysis showed a marked increase of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol in seeds collected from nonfiltered OTCs. With regard to secondary metabolites, ozone exposure induced a slight increase of total polyphenol content, although causing a significant reduction of some flavonols (aglycone kaempferol and its 3-glucoside derivative) and hydroxycinnamates (caffeic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids). Total anthocyanins decreased significantly, too. Nevertheless, ozone-exposed seeds showed higher antioxidant activity, with higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values than those measured in seeds collected from filtered air.

  16. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  17. Iron-[S,S']-EDDS (FeEDDS) Chelate as an Iron Source for Horticultural Crop Production: Marigold Growth and Nutrition, Spectral Properties, and Photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones, commonly referred to as ligands or chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to p...

  18. Leaching of aluminum and iron from boiler slag generated from a typical Chinese Steel Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinping; Gan, Jinhua; Li, Xianwang

    2009-07-30

    This paper presents a new way of recycling aluminum and iron in boiler slag derived from coal combustion plants, which integrates efficient extraction and reuse of the leached pellets together. The boiler slag was pelletized together with washed coal and lime prior to sintering and then was sintered at 800-1200 degrees C for different periods to produce sintered pellets for the leaching test. An elemental analysis of aqueous solutions leached by sulfuric acid was determined by EDTA-Na(2)-ZnCl(2) titration method. The components and microstructures of the samples, sintered pellets and leached residue were examined by means of XRF, XRD and SEM. XRD analysis indicates that predominate minerals such as kaolinite, quartz, calcium silicide, hematate and metakoalin exist in the boiler slag. An aluminum extraction efficiency of 86.50% was achieved. The maximum extraction efficiency of Fe was 94.60% in the same conditions of that for the maximum extraction efficiency of Al. The extraction efficiencies of Al and Fe increased with an increase in temperature, leaching time and acidity. High Al extraction efficiency was obtained for pellets with high CaO content. The final product of alumina would be used directly for the production of metallic aluminum.

  19. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  20. Changing the zinc:iron ratio in a cereal-based nutritional supplement has no effect on percent absorption of iron and zinc in Sri Lankan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Thriposha program is a community-level nutrition intervention in Sri Lanka that provides a combination of energy, protein, and micronutrients as a 'ready-to-eat' cereal-based food. We measured the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from Thriposha formula at two different molar ratios of Zn: Fe in orde...

  1. Associations of dietary, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors with iron status in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study in the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peter J; Ley, Sylvia H; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Li, Yanping; Wang, Dong D

    2017-02-01

    Although a high prevalence of anemia and related disease burden have been documented in China, limited evidence is available on the current population-level iron status and risk factors for iron imbalance. We explored the associations of dietary, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors with iron status in Chinese adults. Our study population consisted of 7672 adults aged 18-65 y from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Diet was assessed with the use of 3 consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured. The geometric means ± SDs for ferritin concentrations were 135.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL in men and 42.7 ± 3.1 ng/mL in women. After adjustment for potential risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, the association between age and ferritin concentration was inverse in men (P-trend ferritin concentration in both men and women (both P-trends ferritin concentration in men (P-trend = 0.002) but not in women. Red meat consumption was positively associated with ferritin concentration both in men (P-trend = 0.002) and in older women (P-trend = 0.009). Lower intakes of grains and higher intakes of pork and poultry were associated with higher ferritin concentrations (all P-trends ≤ 0.05) in men but not in women. We observed variations in ferritin concentrations across different geographic regions (both P ≤ 0.01). Serum ferritin concentrations varied across different sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors in this Chinese population. A higher intake of red meat was associated with higher ferritin concentrations in men and older women. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. A Superoxide Dismutase Capable of Functioning with Iron or Manganese Promotes the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Calprotectin and Nutritional Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yuritzi M; Barwinska-Sendra, Anna; Tarrant, Emma; Skaar, Eric P; Waldron, Kevin J; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a devastating mammalian pathogen for which the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. During infection pathogens must overcome the dual threats of host-imposed manganese starvation, termed nutritional immunity, and the oxidative burst of immune cells. These defenses function synergistically, as host-imposed manganese starvation reduces activity of the manganese-dependent enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). S. aureus expresses two SODs, denoted SodA and SodM. While all staphylococci possess SodA, SodM is unique to S. aureus, but the advantage that S. aureus gains by expressing two apparently manganese-dependent SODs is unknown. Surprisingly, loss of both SODs renders S. aureus more sensitive to host-imposed manganese starvation, suggesting a role for these proteins in overcoming nutritional immunity. In this study, we have elucidated the respective contributions of SodA and SodM to resisting oxidative stress and nutritional immunity. These analyses revealed that SodA is important for resisting oxidative stress and for disease development when manganese is abundant, while SodM is important under manganese-deplete conditions. In vitro analysis demonstrated that SodA is strictly manganese-dependent whereas SodM is in fact cambialistic, possessing equal enzymatic activity when loaded with manganese or iron. Cumulatively, these studies provide a mechanistic rationale for the acquisition of a second superoxide dismutase by S. aureus and demonstrate an important contribution of cambialistic SODs to bacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, they also suggest a new mechanism for resisting manganese starvation, namely populating manganese-utilizing enzymes with iron.

  3. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  4. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  5. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2) expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta W; Clemente, Thomas E; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg, and Mo), pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu, and Ni), leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni, and Mg) and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni). Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves, and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and distribution.

  6. Gas production and nutritive value of the whole plant and its components in four hybrids of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galassi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is by far the most popular forage in the Po plain, due to its very high DM yield (20-25 t/ha and the high nutritive value (6.40 MJ NEl/kg DM, on av. derived mainly from its starch content. Some studies were performed on the gas production (GP of maize whole plant and its isolated NDF (Deaville and Givens, 2001; Calabrò et al., 2002. However, little is known about the relative feed value of the different plant fractions (Tolera and Sundstol, 1999. Moreover, genetic selection makes available hybrids with specific characteristics in terms of length of maturity, stay-green, grain yield, type of starch, etc. Therefore, it seemed interesting to evaluate the chemical composition and the rumen fermentation (measured as GP of the whole plant (WP and the various plant fractions in different commercial maize hybrids........

  7. Diversity and Efficiency of Rhizobia Communities from Iron Mining Areas Using Cowpea as a Trap Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Luísa de Castro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mining is an important economic activity. However, its impact on environment must be accessed, mainly on relevant processes for their sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial communities in soils under different types of vegetation in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero: ironstone outcrops, Atlantic Forest, neotropical savanna, and a rehabilitated area revegetated with grass. Suspensions of soil samples collected under each type of vegetation were made in a saline solution to capture rhizobia communities that were then inoculated on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], which was used as a trap plant. The symbiotic efficiency of the communities was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment and the data obtained were correlated to the chemical and physical properties of the soils under each type of vegetation. At the end of the experiment, the bacteria present in the nodules were isolated to evaluate their diversity. The highest numbers of nodules occurred in the treatment inoculated with soil samples from rehabilitated area revegetated with grass and neotropical savanna vegetation, and the lowest numbers were observed in the treatment inoculated with soil samples from ironstone outcrops and Atlantic Forest. In relation to root dry matter, the treatment inoculated with soil samples from Neotropical savanah was superior to those inoculated with soil samples from the other areas; already, in relation to the shoot dry matter, no significant difference among the treatments was observed. The soil properties with the greatest influence on the microbial communities were Al3+ content, considered as high in the Atlantic Forest and neotropical savanna vegetation, as intermediate in the iron outcrops, and as very low in the rehabilitated area revegetated with grass; organic matter, considered as very high in the ironstone outcrops and neotropical savanna, as high in the

  8. Matrix effects for calcium and potassium K-X-rays, in fenugreek plants grown in iron rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Kanan; Rao, Preeti; Bansal, Himani; Mittal, Raj

    2014-08-01

    The present work comprises the matrix effects study of the plant system (plant and soil) for macronutrients Ca and K with elevated levels of iron in the soil. The earlier derived matrix effect terms from fundamental relations of intensities of analyte and substrate elements with basic atomic and experimental setup parameters had led to iterative determination of enhanced elements rather than avoiding their enhancement. The relations also facilitated the evaluations of absorption for close Z interfering constituents (like Ca and K) in samples of a lot of particular category with interpolation of matrix terms with elemental amounts. The process has already been employed successfully for potato, radish, rice and maize plants. On similar lines, the observed prominent change in interpolation parameters for the plants in the present experiment serves as a tool to check the toxicity/contamination of the growing medium.

  9. Resolving the 'nitrogen paradox' of arbuscular mycorrhizas: fertilization with organic matter brings considerable benefits for plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, Tom J; Cameron, Duncan D; Hodge, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can transfer nitrogen (N) to host plants, but the ecological relevance is debated, as total plant N and biomass do not generally increase. The extent to which the symbiosis is mutually beneficial is thought to rely on the stoichiometry of N, phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) availability. While inorganic N fertilization has been shown to elicit strong mutualism, characterized by improved plant and fungal growth and mineral nutrition, similar responses following organic N addition are lacking. Using a compartmented microcosm experiment, we determined the significance to a mycorrhizal plant of placing a (15) N-labelled, nitrogen-rich patch of organic matter in a compartment to which only AMF hyphae had access. Control microcosms denied AMF hyphal access to the patch compartment. When permitted access to the patch compartment, the fungus proliferated extensively in the patch and transferred substantial quantities of N to the plant. Moreover, our data demonstrate that allowing hyphal access to an organic matter patch enhanced total plant N and P contents, with a simultaneous and substantial increase in plant biomass. Furthermore, we demonstrate that organic matter fertilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants can foster a mutually beneficial symbiosis based on nitrogen transfer, a phenomenon previously thought irrelevant.

  10. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PLANT SUPPLEMENTS APPLIED IN CHICKEN NUTRITION ON QUALITY OF THEIR MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the experiment, three groups were created (one control and two experimental groups. We studied the influence of following supplements: alfalfa (Medicago sativa meal (4% - experimental group I and origanum (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp. oils together (0.05% - experimental group II in mutual rate of 3:2:1, on technological and sensorial parameters of poultry meat in nutrition of chickens of Ross 308. Broilers were fattening for 36 days. Chickens were fed by the system ad libitum by the feed mixture HYD-01 from the 1st to the 18th day of age, by the feed mixture HYD-02 from the 19th to the 31st day of age and by the feed mixture HYD-03 from the 32nd day of age to the end of fattening (36th day of age in loose form. By application of plant oils into the feed mixture, we recorded slightly positive influence on decrease of losses of cooling after 24 and 48 h, on decrease of losses of freezing and on shear force in mammary muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of breast and thigh muscle (P≥0.05. Conversely, slightly negative influence was recorded on baking losses and on shear force in thigh muscle (P≥0.05 in compare with control group. In application of alfalfa meal, positive influence (P≥0.05 on losses of cooling (24 and 48 h, losses of freezing, baking losses, on shear force of breast muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of thigh muscle was found. Conversely, shear force of thigh muscle and overall sensorial evaluation of breast muscle after application of alfalfa meal showed slightly negative values (P≥0.05 in compare with control group.

  11. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Scharmann

    Full Text Available Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15N/(14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15N when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna. Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  12. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  13. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  14. Inclusion of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes as a source of higher plant mineral nutrition in BTLSS mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Anischenko, Olesya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Human exometabolites inclusion into an intrasystem mass exchange will allow increasing of a closure level of a biological-technical life support system (BTLSS). Previously at the IBP SB RAS it was shown that human mineralized exometabolites could be incorporated in the BTLSS mass exchange as a mineral nutrition source for higher plants. However, it is not known how that combined use of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes in the capacity of nutrient medium, being a part of the BTLSS consumer wastes, will affect the plant productivity. Several wheat vegetations were grown in an uneven-aged conveyor on a neutral substrate. A mixture of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes was used as a nutrient solution in the experiment treatment and human mineralized exometabolites were used in the control. Consequently, a high wheat yield in the experiment treatment practically equal to the control yield was obtained. Thus, mineralized fish wastes can be an additional source of macro-and micronutrients for plants, and use of such wastes for the plant mineral nutrition allows increasing of BTLSS closure level.

  15. Iron fortification and iron supplementation are cost-effective interventions to reduce iron deficiency in four subregions of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Knai; M. Sharan; R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, affecting millions of people in both nonindustrialized and industrialized countries. We estimated the costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and iron

  16. Iron fortification and iron supplementation are cost-effective interventions to reduce iron deficiency in four subregions of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Knai; M. Sharan; R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, affecting millions of people in both nonindustrialized and industrialized countries. We estimated the costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and iron fortificati

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia A A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  19. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  20. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway.

  1. THE CENTRAL ROLES OF IRON AND CALCIUM FOR PLANT/MICROBE INTERACTION AND SHAPING MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN THE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sherameti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roots are associated with a large number of different microbes, which can form beneficial, neutral or pathogenic interactions. “Infochemicals” from the microbial community, released into the soil or plants, induce signaling processes in the root cells which determine the fitness of a plant and its response to the environment. The plant integrates the information from the different microbes for an appropriate and balanced response. On the other hand, the microbial community is shaped by signals from the roots. We have established a symbiotic interaction system, in which the information exchange between the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and a beneficial, plant-growth promoting endophytic fungus, called Piriformospora indica, can be studied and compared with other root-interacting microbes. Biochemical and molecular-genetic data indicate that two ions, calcium and iron, are major players in determining the fitness of the plant and the response to microbial signals. We will highlight the central role of these two ions in plant/microbe interactions.

  2. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants’ prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  3. Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Heather A; Gayle, Alicia; Jakszyn, Paula;

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample siz...

  4. Growth Promotion, Increase of Iron, Potassium and Cell Wall Components following Silicon Application in Rice under Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    z Kiani Chalmardi; Ahmad Abdolzadeh; Hamid Reza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most important stress reducing crop growth and yields. Silicon is also an essential element in most grasses including rice that may reduces biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, the interactions of silicon and iron nutrition were studied in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tarem). The plants cultivated in greenhouse under iron treatments of 0, 2 and 10 mg l-1 as a Fe-EDTA (first factor) and silicon treatments of 0 and 1.5 mM sodium silicate (second factor). The...

  5. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  6. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  7. Roles for root iron plaque in sequestration and uptake of heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rudra D; Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet S; Norton, Gareth J; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2014-10-01

    Toxic metal(loid) contamination of soil and sediment poses long term risk to soil and human health through plant-human or plant-animal-human food chain pathways. Iron plaque (IP) formation is frequent in aquatic and wetland plant species and is responsible for the sequestration of various metal(loids). The presence of IP may act as a buffer or barrier and may thus enhance or reduce the uptake of potentially phytotoxic metals and metalloids by plants. If IP acts as a barrier, then low IP producing macrophytes/aquatic plants may be better accumulators of toxic metals and may find use in constructed wetlands for remediation of pollutants, while high IP forming edible plant species could be safer for human consumption. Conversely, if IP acts as a buffer for mineral nutrients and toxic elements then those cultivars may be rich in nutrients, but may also cause toxicity. However, an ecotoxicological risk is also inevitable if IP rich macrophyte roots containing heavy metals are consumed by herbivores. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of IP in metal and metalloid sequestration, uptake, and transport. Furthermore, we will address the role of root IP in Oryza sativa for arsenic (As) sequestration leading to lower grain As translocation, reducing the risk of human exposure.

  8. Effects of different zinc nutritional status on iron metabolism in rats%不同锌营养状况对大鼠铁代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 王朝旭; 肖飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of different zinc nutritional status on iron metabolism and explore the potential role of iron regulator protein 2 (IRP2) under conditions of zinc deficiency.Methods Forty clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to the weight and every group included 10 rats.The rats were administrated normal iron and zinc control group (ZA group),normal iron and slight deficient group (ZD group),Paired fed group (PF group),normal iron and zinc excessive group (ZE group).Rats were sacrificed by sodium pentobarbital anesthesia after 8 weeks and serum,liver and spleen of the rats were collected.The serum zinc,serum iron,hemoglobin,serum transferrin receptor,serum ferritin,iron and zinc in the liver,iron and zinc in the spleen were determined.The level of IRP2 mRNA expression,liver transferring receptor (TfR)mRNA expression and ferritin (Fn) mRNA expression were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.Results Compared with that of the control group,iron content both in the liver and spleen,and the concentration of serum iron in ZE group was significantly decreased (P <0.05).Compared with the control group,zinc deficiency increased iron content in the liver and the concentration of serum transferrin receptor significantly(P < 0.05),while the concentration of serum iron was significantly decreased (P <0.05).Compared with the control group,zinc deficiency increased the level of IRP2 mRNA and TfR mRNA expression in the liver significantly (P < 0.05).Conclusion Zinc may affect ironnutritional status by influencing absorption,storage and transportation of iron.Zinc deficiency influences iron homeostasis in cells through affecting the expression of IRP2 and the activity of IRP-RNA combination and then change the expressions of ferritin and transferrin mRNA.%目的 研究不同锌营养状况对大鼠铁代谢和肝脏铁调节蛋白(IRP)mRNA、铁蛋白(Fn)m

  9. An Investigation of the Levels and Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediments and Plant Species within the Vicinity of Ex-Iron Mine in Bukit Besi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Kutty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the abandoned mine impacts on the concentrations and distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments and plant species within the vicinity of an ex-iron mine in Malaysia was conducted. The sequential extraction method was used to extract anthropogenic metals in sediments. The results showed that metals in EFLE, AR, and OO fractions were higher than ambient concentrations which indicate that heavy metals have been loaded from ex-iron mining area into the surrounding aquatic environments. The metal accumulation in the four dominant plant species grown naturally within the vicinity of Bukit Besi ex-iron mining was investigated. Exceptional elevated concentrations of metal were found in plants and surface sediments. Several established criteria were applied to determine the hyperaccumulator plants. The results revealed that Melastoma malabathricum and Pityrogramma calomelanos are classified as Fe and Al hyperaccumulators, while Scirpus triqueter, Melastoma malabathricum, and Pityrogramma calomelanos were undoubtedly hyperaccumulator for Cd.

  10. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  11. Investigation on Children with Nutritional Iron Deficiency Anemia%小儿营养性缺铁性贫血调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许银辉; 徐丹凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:对小儿营养型缺铁性贫血调查结果进行分析探究。方法选取在该院接受治疗的100例缺铁性贫血患儿的临床资料进行调查,并以调查问卷的形式向家长了解患儿的基本情况。结果营养性缺铁性贫血患儿中,其发病原因多为辅食添加不合理或未添加辅食,发病情况多以轻度贫血为主,患儿家庭中多为农村家庭且母亲文化程度较低,大部分患儿家长未接受任何健康教育,并且对疾病的认识有限。结论在患儿发病早期,对家长的健康教育是预防营养性缺铁性贫血的重要因素,具有十分重要的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the results of the investigation of nutritional deficiency anemia in children. Methods The clinical data of 100 children with iron deficiency anemia treated in our hospital were investigated, and the basic situa-tion of the parents in the form of questionnaire was investigated. Results Nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children and its causes more as a food supplement, add unreasonable or add a food supplement, incidence of mild anemia, children in the family for rural families and mother's education level is low, most parents of children did not receive any health education, and the disease's understanding is limited. Conclusion In patients with early onset of health education for parents is an im-portant factor in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, it has very important clinical significance.

  12. 血红素铁改善缺铁性贫血效果观察%Effect of the heme iron supplement on improving nutritional anemia in women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜林; 胡余明; 李梓民

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解血红素铁对缺铁性贫血的影响.方法 将符合贫血诊断的女性108人随机分为血红素铁组和对照组,并分别给予血红素铁和安慰剂,连续服用45 d,服用开始前和服用结束时对受试者进行膳食营养调查、体格检查和血液生化指标的检测并进行统计学分析.结果 血红素铁组血红蛋白的含量由试验前的(106.43±10.48) g/L上升到(117.34±10.25)g/L,平均升高了10.91 g/L(服用前后配对t检验,P<0.05,服用后与对照组t检验,P<0.05);红细胞游离原卟啉的含量由(942.15±96.34)μg/L下降为(820.53±109.95)μg/L(服用前后配对t检验,P<0.05,服用后与对照组t检验,P<0.05);试验组血清铁蛋白的含量由试验前的(25.19±6.71) ng/ml上升到(25.40±6.69) ng/ml,(服用前后配对t检验,P>0.05).结论 血红素铁对缺铁性贫血具有一定的改善作用.并对受试者健康无不良影响.%Objective To investigate the improvement of nutritional anemia in women treated by heme iron supplement. Methods A total of 108 female subjects with nutritional anemia ( Hb 0.05). Conclusion The heme iron supplement is effective in the treatment of nutritional anemia in women with no serious side effect.

  13. Nano-iron fertilizer effects on some plant traits of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) under different sowing densities

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed YOUSEFZADEH; Naser Sabaghnia

    2016-01-01

    evaluate the effects of iron nano-fertilizer rates (0, 1, 2 and 3 g l-1) and planting density levels (10, 15, 20 and 40 cm) on the fresh herb, essential oil content and other traits under the natural conditions. Traits such as number of flowering branches (NFB), height of first flowering branch (HFB), number of secondary branches (NSB), stem diameter (SD), essential oil content (EOC), dry mass (DM), essential oil yield (EOY), total anthocyanins (TA), chlorophyll a (CA), chlorophyll b (CB), fl...

  14. Nitric oxide accumulation is required to protect against iron-mediated oxidative stress in frataxin-deficient Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mariana; Colman, María José Rodríguez; Gómez-Casati, Diego F; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Zabaleta, Eduardo Julián

    2009-02-04

    Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein that is conserved throughout evolution. In yeast and mammals, frataxin is essential for cellular iron (Fe) homeostasis and survival during oxidative stress. In plants, frataxin deficiency causes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and high sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work we show that a knock-down T-DNA frataxin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (atfh-1) contains increased total and organellar Fe levels. Frataxin deficiency leads also to nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in both, atfh-1 roots and frataxin null mutant yeast. Abnormally high NO production might be part of the defence mechanism against Fe-mediated oxidative stress.

  15. Increased nutritional quality of plants for long-duration spaceflight missions through choice of plant variety and manipulation of growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Lombardi, Elizabeth; Adams, William W.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Low levels of radiation during spaceflight increase the incidence of eye damage and consumption of certain carotenoids (especially zeaxanthin), via a whole-food-based diet (rather than from supplements), is recommended to protect human vision against radiation damage. Availability of fresh leafy produce has, furthermore, been identified as desirable for morale during long spaceflight missions. We report that only trace amounts of zeaxanthin are retained post-harvest in leaves grown under conditions conducive to rapid plant growth. We show that growth of plants under cool temperatures and very high light can trigger a greater retention of zeaxanthin, while, however, simultaneously retarding plant growth. We here introduce a novel growth condition—low growth light supplemented with several short daily light pulses of higher intensity—that also triggers zeaxanthin retention, but without causing any growth retardation. Moreover, two plant varieties with different hardiness exhibited a different propensity for zeaxanthin retention. These findings demonstrate that growth light environment and plant variety can be exploited to simultaneously optimize nutritional quality (with respect to zeaxanthin and two other carotenoids important for human vision, lutein and β-carotene) as well as biomass production of leafy greens suitable as bioregenerative systems for long-duration manned spaceflight missions.

  16. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-07

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.

  17. Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 controls Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants in soilless culture through competition for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Casanova, Eva; Avilés, Manuel; Trillas, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM provided as EDTA/Fe(III)] in a biological control experiment with T34 and Fol in tomato plants. The reduction of the Fusarium-infected shoot by T34 was only significant at 10 microM Fe. We hypothesized that Fe competition is one of the key factors in the biocontrol activity exerted by T34 against Fol, as an increase in Fe concentration over 10 microM would lead to the suppression of T34 siderophore synthesis and thus inhibition of Fe competition with Fol. T34 significantly reduced the populations of Fol at all the doses of Fe assayed. In contrast, Fol enhanced the populations of T34 at 1 and 10 microM Fe. Nevertheless, several plant physiological parameters like net CO(2) assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), relative quantum efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reactive centers (Fv'/Fm') demonstrated the protection against Fol damage by treatment with T34 at 100 microM Fe. The first physiological parameter affected by the disease progression was g(s). Plant dry weight was decreased by Fe toxicity at 100 and 1,000 microM. T34-treated plants had significantly greater heights and dry weights than control plants at 1,000 microM Fe, even though T34 did not reduce the Fe content in leaves or stems. Furthermore, T34 enhanced plant height even at the optimal Fe concentration (10 microM) compared to control plants. In conclusion, T. asperellum strain T34 protected tomato plants from both biotic (Fusarium wilt disease) and abiotic stress [Fe(III) toxic effects].

  18. PCDD/F and "Dioxin-like" PCB emissions from iron ore sintering plants in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aries, Eric; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Raymond; Fray, Trevor A T; Hemfrey, Derek

    2006-11-01

    Investigations have been carried out at the three Corus UK sinter plants over the period 2002-2004 to characterise the emissions of both 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs, to estimate annual mass releases of these organic micro-pollutants using the I-TEF and WHO-TEF schemes, and to investigate the formation of PCBs in the iron ore sintering process. Results showed that the sintering of iron ore produces a characteristic WHO-12 PCB and PCDD/F congener pattern that is substantially the same for all UK sinter plants. With regard to WHO-12 PCBs, the most abundant congeners were typically PCBs 118 (6-9 ngNm(-3)), 105 (2-4 ngNm(-3)) and 77 (2-3 ngNm(-3)). All other WHO-12 PCBs were also detected at concentrations around 1 ngNm(-3). All sinter plants investigated exhibited very similar TEQ concentrations. WHO-12 PCB emissions were in the range 0.042-0.111 ngWHO-TEQNm(-3), whereas PCDD/F emissions ranged from 0.39 to 1.62 ngWHO-TEQNm(-3). PCDF congeners were the main contributors to the overall TEQ in sintering emissions (ca. 85%). Amongst WHO-12 PCBs, PCB 126 was the only noteworthy contributor to total TEQ (ca. 5-7%), a similar contribution to that from PCDDs. Based on the measurements that Corus UK has undertaken at these three sinter plants, annual mass releases of WHO-12 PCBs and PCDD/Fs have been calculated. For UK sinter plants, a total mass release of 29.5 g WHO-TEQ per annum [WHO-12 PCBs+PCDD/Fs] has been estimated, representing 9% of the total PCDD/F emissions to the UK atmosphere. Measurements were also carried out at a UK sinter plant to determine the windleg emission profile of WHO-12 PCBs. Results showed that WHO-12 PCBs were formed in the same regions of the sinter strand as 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs, indicating that there was a strong correlation between the formation of WHO-12 PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the iron ore sintering process.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  20. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich

    2017-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gibberellins producing Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 supports plant growth and enhances nutritional metabolites and food values of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    The nutritional quality of green leafy vegetables can be enhanced by application of plant beneficial micro-organisms. The present study was aimed to increase the food values of lettuce leaves by bacterial treatment. We isolated bacterial strain KE2 from Kimchi food and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus by phylogenetic analysis. The beneficial effect of B. methylotrophicus KE2 on plants was confirmed by increasing the percentage of seed germination of Lactuca sativa L., Cucumis melo L., Glycine max L. and Brassica juncea L. It might be the secretion of array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, GA34 and GA53) and indole-acetic acid from B. methylotrophicus KE2. The mechanism of plant growth promotion via their secreted metabolites was confirmed by a significant increase of GA deficient mutant rice plant growth. Moreover, the bacterial association was favor to enhance shoot length, shoot fresh weight and leaf width of lettuce. The higher concentration of protein, amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Leu, Tyr and His), gama-aminobutric acid and fructose was found in bacterial culture (KE2) applied plants. The macro and micro minerals such as K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Zn and N were also detected as significantly higher quantities in bacteria treated plants than untreated control plants. In addition, the carotenoids and chlorophyll a were also increased in lettuce at bacterial inoculation. The results of this study suggest that B. methylotrophicus KE2 application to soil helps to increase the plant growth and food values of lettuce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional Assessment in a Rural Area of Bolivia. A Study of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies and Bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarte, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    While originally, protein-energy deficiency was considered the main factor of malnutrition, it is now understood that micronutrient deficiencies play a fundamental role in a variety of health and disease outcomes. Zinc and iron deficiencies are still highly prevalent in low-income countries, whereas insufficient intakes and diets with low mineral absorption are the major causes. Sustainable and feasible dietary strategies are needed to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies. The present re...

  3. 小儿营养性缺铁性贫血30例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases of Children With Nutritional Iron Deifciency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀珍

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the nutritional iron deifciency anemia in clinical treatment.Methods 30 cases of nutritional iron deifciency anemia in children with clinical data were analyzed.Results30 cases of children were cured 25 cases, improved in ifve cases. Hb, MCH, RDW, MCV has increased, while the children were all improved clinical performance. ConclusionThe nutritional supplement suitable iron deficiency anemia, zinc and other elements, remove the cause, iron supplements.%目的:探讨营养性缺铁性贫血的临床治疗。方法对30例营养性缺铁性贫血患儿临床资料进行分析。结果30例患儿中,治愈25例,好转5例。Hb、MCH、RDW、MCV均有上升,同时小儿临床表现均有所好转。结论营养性缺铁性贫血适当补充铁、锌等元素,去除病因,给予补充铁剂治疗。

  4. Are ant feces nutrients for plants? A metabolomics approach to elucidate the nutritional effects on plants hosting weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Nanna Hjort; Wollenweber, Bernd; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    interactions involving other ant species that have demonstrated the transfer of nutrients from ants to plants. In this 7-months study, a GC–MS-based metabolomics approach along with an analysis of total nitrogen and carbon levels was used to study metabolic changes in ant-hosting Coffea arabica plants compared......Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are tropical carnivorous ant species living in high numbers in the canopies of trees. The ants excrete copious amounts of fecal matter on leaf surfaces, and these feces may provide nutrients to host trees. This hypothesis is supported by studies of ant-plant...... with control plants. The results showed elevated levels of total nitrogen, amino acids, fatty acids, caffeine, and secondary metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway in leaves from ant-hosting plants. Minor effects were observed for sugars, whereas little or no effect was observed for organic acids, despite...

  5. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: i - plant nutrition and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable-rate nitrogen fertilization (VRF based on optical spectrometry sensors of crops is a technological innovation capable of improving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and mitigate environmental impacts. However, studies addressing fertilization based on crop sensors are still scarce in Brazilian agriculture. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of an optical crop sensor to assess the nutritional status of corn and compare VRF with the standard strategy of traditional single-rate N fertilization (TSF used by farmers. With this purpose, three experiments were conducted at different locations in Southern Brazil, in the growing seasons 2008/09 and 2010/11. The following crop properties were evaluated: above-ground dry matter production, nitrogen (N content, N uptake, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD reading, and a vegetation index measured by the optical sensor N-Sensor® ALS. The plants were evaluated in the stages V4, V6, V8, V10, V12 and at corn flowering. The experiments had a completely randomized design at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The vegetation index was directly related to above-ground dry matter production (R² = 0.91; p<0.0001, total N uptake (R² = 0.87; p<0.0001 and SPAD reading (R² = 0.63; p<0.0001 and inversely related to plant N content (R² = 0.53; p<0.0001. The efficiency of VRF for plant nutrition was influenced by the specific climatic conditions of each site. Therefore, the efficiency of the VRF strategy was similar to that of the standard farmer fertilizer strategy at sites 1 and 2. However, at site 3 where the climatic conditions were favorable for corn growth, the use of optical sensors to determine VRF resulted in a 12 % increase in N plant uptake in relation to the standard fertilization, indicating the potential of this technology to improve NUE.

  6. Nutritional iron deficiency anemia: magnitude and its predictors among school age children, southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Desalegn

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is a global public health problem among school age children, which retards psychomotor development and impairs cognitive performance. There is limited data on prevalence and risk factors for IDA.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of nutritional IDA in school age children in Southwest Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia from April to July 2013. A total of 616 school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the study using multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. Five milliliter venous blood was collected from each child for hematological examinations. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level lower than 11.5 g/dl and 12 g/dl for age group of 5-11 years and 12-15 years, respectively. Iron deficiency anemia was defined when serum iron and ferritin levels are below 10 µmol/l and 15 µg/dl, respectively. Moreover, fresh stool specimen was collected for diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection. Stained thick and thin blood films were examined for detection of Plasmodium infection and study of red blood cell morphology. Dietary patterns of the study subjects were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS V-20.0 for windows.Overall, prevalence of anemia was 43.7%, and that of IDA was 37.4%. Not-consuming protein source foods [AOR = 2.30, 95%CI(1.04,5.14], not-consuming dairy products [AOR = 1.83, 95%CI(1.14,5.14], not-consuming discretionary calories [AOR = 2.77, 95%CI(1.42,5.40], low family income [AOR = 6.14, 95%CI(2.90,12.9] and intestinal parasitic infections [AOR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.23, 5. 27] were predictors of IDA.Iron deficiency anemia is a moderate public health problem in the study site. Dietary deficiencies and intestinal parasitic infections were

  7. Nutritional iron deficiency anemia: magnitude and its predictors among school age children, southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalegn, Amare; Mossie, Andualem; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a global public health problem among school age children, which retards psychomotor development and impairs cognitive performance. There is limited data on prevalence and risk factors for IDA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of nutritional IDA in school age children in Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia from April to July 2013. A total of 616 school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the study using multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. Five milliliter venous blood was collected from each child for hematological examinations. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level lower than 11.5 g/dl and 12 g/dl for age group of 5-11 years and 12-15 years, respectively. Iron deficiency anemia was defined when serum iron and ferritin levels are below 10 µmol/l and 15 µg/dl, respectively. Moreover, fresh stool specimen was collected for diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection. Stained thick and thin blood films were examined for detection of Plasmodium infection and study of red blood cell morphology. Dietary patterns of the study subjects were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS V-20.0 for windows. Overall, prevalence of anemia was 43.7%, and that of IDA was 37.4%. Not-consuming protein source foods [AOR = 2.30, 95%CI(1.04,5.14)], not-consuming dairy products [AOR = 1.83, 95%CI(1.14,5.14)], not-consuming discretionary calories [AOR = 2.77, 95%CI(1.42,5.40)], low family income [AOR = 6.14, 95%CI(2.90,12.9)] and intestinal parasitic infections [AOR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.23, 5. 27)] were predictors of IDA. Iron deficiency anemia is a moderate public health problem in the study site. Dietary deficiencies and intestinal parasitic infections were predictors of IDA

  8. Iron, Meat and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Geissler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN to the U.K. Government (2010, which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research.

  9. Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea: A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g and calcium (65 mg/100 g and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3 (4 mg/g fresh weight of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp. of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.. The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671–869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.

  10. Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) intake and preference by mammalian herbivores: the role of plant secondary compounds and nutritional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J; Burritt, Elizabeth A; St Clair, Samuel B

    2014-10-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) has evolved a chemical defense system comprised of phenolic glycosides (PG), which effectively deter insect herbivory. However, much less is known about the role of PG and the nutritional quality of the associated plant community on aspen browse susceptibility to mammalian herbivores. In three successive periods during the growing season, we conducted experiments with sheep by offering leaves from two aspen stands with different concentrations of PG (LOW, HIGH) or aspen leaves vs. leaves from a forb (Utah pea, Lathyrus pauciflorus) or a grass (smooth brome, Bromus inermis Leyss.) growing in an aspen understory. Intake of aspen (19 to 35 % PG) was low in all periods (1 to 6 g/Kg(0.75) in 2 hr) supporting the notion that aspen's defense system may contribute to its ecological success. However, lambs ate larger amounts of LOW than of HIGH suggesting that sheep could discriminate between aspen stands with different concentrations of PG, even when both stands were relatively well defended. Concentration of nutrients and chemical defenses in aspen leaves remained fairly stable across the growing season, and preference for aspen increased over the growing season. In contrast, preference for the forb and the grass decreased across the growing season in concert with a decline in the nutritional quality of these plants. The data suggest that nutritional context of aspen and associated forage species drove preference more than contrasts in defense chemistry of aspen. There may be periods of "susceptibility" of aspen use by mammalian herbivores, despite high concentrations of chemical defenses, which can potentially be targeted by management to reduce aspen herbivory.

  11. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES OF IRON, MANGANESE, ZINC AND COPPER IN PINE BARK COMPOSTED WITH PLANT MASS AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czekała

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to ascertain changes in the total contents, as well as water-soluble forms of iron, manganese, zinc and copper during the process of composting of pine bark with plant material (PM, with or without the addition of effective microorganisms (EM. Experiments were carried out at a forest nursery area and comprised the following treatments: pile 1. pine bark, pile 2. pine bark + PM, pile 3. pine bark + PM + EM. Compost piles were formed from pine bark (4 m3 and as described above, 2 Mg of plant material were added to pile 2 and to pile 3 – plant material and effective microorganisms in the amount of 3 dm3·m-3 bark. All compost files were also supplemented with 0.3 kg P2O5·m-3 (in the form of superphosphate 20% P2O5 and 0,1 kg K2O·m-3 (in the form of potassium salt 60%. The plant material comprised a mixture of buckwheat, field pea, serradella and vetch harvested before flowering. Piles were mixed and formed with the tractor aerator. At defined dates, using the method of atomic spectrophotometry, total contents of iron, manganese, zinc and copper, as well as their water-soluble forms were determined. It was found that all the examined elements underwent changes, albeit with different dynamics. This was particularly apparent in the case of water-soluble forms. This solubility was, in general, high during the initial days of the process and declined with the passage of time. No significant impact of effective microorganisms on the solubility of the examined chemical elements was determined, especially in mature composts.

  12. Nutritional ecology of insect-plant interactions: persistent handicaps and the need for innovative approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Casas, J.; Pincebourde, S.

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying the flow of matter and energy in food webs is indispensable when assessing the effects of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone level and temperature as a result of global climate change. In insect nutritional ecology, quantification of digestive and metabolic efficiency is perf

  13. Nutritional ecology of insect-plant interactions: persistent handicaps and the need for innovative approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Casas, J.; Pincebourde, S.

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying the flow of matter and energy in food webs is indispensable when assessing the effects of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone level and temperature as a result of global climate change. In insect nutritional ecology, quantification of digestive and metabolic efficiency is

  14. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram, E-mail: sadasivams@cardiff.ac.uk; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-15

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  15. AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis thaliana is a functional ortholog of tomato FER involved in controlling iron acquisition in strategy I plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Xi YUAN; Juan ZHANG; Dao Wen WANG; Hong Qing LING

    2005-01-01

    AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis, encoding a bHLH protein, reveals a high similarity to the tomato FER which is proposed as a transcriptional regulator involved in controlling the iron deficiency responses and the iron uptake in tomato. For identification of its biological functions, AtbHLH29 was introduced into the genome of the tomato FER mutant T3238fer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciencs. Transgenic plants were regenerated and the stable integration of AtbHLH29 into their genomes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Molecular analysis demonstrated that expression of the exogenous AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis in roots of the FER mutant T3238fer enabled to complement the defect functions of FER. The transgenic plants regained the ability to activate the whole iron deficiency responses and showed normal growth as the wild type under iron-limiting stress. Our transformation data demonstrate that AtbHLH29 is a functional ortholog of the tomato FER and can completely replace FER in controlling the effective iron acquisition in tomato.Except of iron, FER protein was directly or indirectly involved in manganese homeostasis due to that loss functions of FER in T3238fer resulted in strong reduction of Mn content in leaves and the defect function on Mn accumulation in leaves was complemented by expression of AtbHLH29 in the transgenic plants. Identification of the similar biological functions of FER and AtbHLH29, which isolated from two systematically wide-diverged "strategy I" plants, suggests that FER might be a universal gene presented in all strategy I plants in controlling effective iron acquisition system in roots.

  16. AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis thaliana is a functional ortholog of tomato FER involved in controlling iron acquisition in strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, You Xi; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Dao Wen; Ling, Hong Qing

    2005-08-01

    AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis, encoding a bHLH protein, reveals a high similarity to the tomato FER which is proposed as a transcriptional regulator involved in controlling the iron deficiency responses and the iron uptake in tomato. For identification of its biological functions, AtbHLH29 was introduced into the genome of the tomato FER mutant T3238fer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciencs. Transgenic plants were regenerated and the stable integration of AtbHLH29 into their genomes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Molecular analysis demonstrated that expression of the exogenous AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis in roots of the FER mutant T3238fer enabled to complement the defect functions of FER. The transgenic plants regained the ability to activate the whole iron deficiency responses and showed normal growth as the wild type under iron-limiting stress. Our transformation data demonstrate that AtbHLH29 is a functional ortholog of the tomato FER and can completely replace FER in controlling the effective iron acquisition in tomato. Except of iron, FER protein was directly or indirectly involved in manganese homeostasis due to that loss functions of FER in T3238fer resulted in strong reduction of Mn content in leaves and the defect function on Mn accumulation in leaves was complemented by expression of AtbHLH29 in the transgenic plants. Identification of the similar biological functions of FER and AtbHLH29, which isolated from two systematically wide-diverged "strategy I" plants, suggests that FER might be a universal gene presented in all strategy I plants in controlling effective iron acquisition system in roots.

  17. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients.

  18. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roriz, M.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Wilton Vasconcelos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient defici

  19. Characterization of Iron Oxide Generated in Ruthner Plant of Pickling Unit in Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C.Amiri

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the chloride content in regenerated iron oxides (RIO) from steel-pickling acid waste economically treated by Ruthner process is the most critical issue for the development of RIO as a useful raw material resource. In this paper, the results of a new method for characterization and modification of RIO produced in Mobarakeh Steel Complex were reported.

  20. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  1. A systematic review on phenolic compounds in Passiflora plants: Exploring biodiversity for food, nutrition, and popular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadioli, Izabel Lucena; da Cunha, Marcela de Sá Barreto; de Carvalho, Mariana Veras Oliveira; Costa, Ana Maria; Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira

    2016-09-19

    Passiflora plants are strategic in the context of biodiversity for food and nutrition. We applied the procedures of a systematic review protocol to study the state of the art on identification of phenolic compounds from Passiflora plants. An automated literature search was conducted using six databases and a combination of seven keywords. All the analytical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods were included. The studies were classified according to their method of identification, phenolic classes, and method of extraction. In total, 8,592 abstracts were found, from which 122 studies were selected for complete reading and 82 were selected for further analysis. Techniques of extraction, evaluated parts of the plant and methods of identification were systematized. Studies with leaves were most conspicuous (54.4%), 34 species of Passiflora were evaluated and orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin were commonly found structures. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography-diode array detector was the technique most applied, with which the same structures were identified all through the studies, although other unknown structures were detected, but not elucidated. The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry, which are more sensitive techniques, needs to be intensified, to identify other unconventional compounds detected in Passiflora, to enhance the comprehension of the bioactive compounds in these plants.

  2. Spatially resolved (semi)quantitative determination of iron (Fe) in plants by means of synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Roberto; Alfeld, Matthias; Janssens, Koen; Vekemans, Bart; Schoonjans, Tom; Vincze, Laszlo; Tomasi, Nicola; Pinton, Roberto; Cesco, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and development; hence determining Fe distribution and concentration inside plant organs at the microscopic level is of great relevance to better understand its metabolism and bioavailability through the food chain. Among the available microanalytical techniques, synchrotron μ-XRF methods can provide a powerful and versatile array of analytical tools to study Fe distribution within plant samples. In the last years, the implementation of new algorithms and detection technologies has opened the way to more accurate (semi)quantitative analyses of complex matrices like plant materials. In this paper, for the first time the distribution of Fe within tomato roots has been imaged and quantified by means of confocal μ-XRF and exploiting a recently developed fundamental parameter-based algorithm. With this approach, Fe concentrations ranging from few hundreds of ppb to several hundreds of ppm can be determined at the microscopic level without cutting sections. Furthermore, Fe (semi)quantitative distribution maps were obtained for the first time by using two opposing detectors to collect simultaneously the XRF radiation emerging from both sides of an intact cucumber leaf.

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atif Habib

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey.Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011-2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS.A total of 7138 children aged between 6-59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.55 p <0.05, stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23-1.63 p<0.05, presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93-6.56 p<0.05, having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47-2.01 p<0.05 and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10-1.40 P<0.05 were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65-0.90 p<0.05 and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76-0.98 p<0.05 were associated with reduced odds of IDA.The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation and long term horizontal programs including wheat

  5. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrione Paolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65% out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at

  6. The effects of plant nutritional chemistry on food selection of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): The role of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Nicoletta; Garber, Paul A; Rothman, Jessica M

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the nutritional basis of food selection is fundamental to evaluate dietary patterns and foraging strategies in primates. This research describes the phytochemical composition of the foods consumed by two groups of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) during a 15-month field study, and examines how plant nutritional chemistry affected food choice. Based on indices of selectivity that reflected seasonal changes in the amount of different phenophases of the most consumed plant species and their availability in the environment, we found that, in general, howlers did not preferentially select food items based on their concentrations of protein, sugar, energy, or their protein-to-fiber ratio. During only one season of the year, the nortes (October-January), there was evidence for selectivity. During this period, selectivity indices correlated positively with the lipid content of foods ingested. However, a strategy of selecting fruits high in lipids (21-41% dry matter) coincided with the consumption of a leaf-based diet (based on estimates of the dry weight of food ingested), suggesting that during this season howlers interchanged lipids with sugars to obtain energy and possibly to balance the higher protein intake obtained by the increased leaf consumption. Overall, these data did not support the prediction that food choice in this howler population was strongly correlated with particular nutrients, and suggest that balancing a suite of nutrients by consuming plants that vary widely in their composition may be an important strategy for howler monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22524, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Evaluation of Cnidoscolus aurifolia Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwemedimo Emmanuel Udo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Cnidoscolus aurifolia were analysed for their chemical, antinutrients, proximate and mineral element compositions using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes and tannins while anthraquinones, glycosides and phlobatannins were absent. Proximate analysis indicated high protein content (59.45 ± 0.07% with crude fibre and fat also present in appreciable quantities. Mineral elements determination showed the presence of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Antinutrient analysis of the leaf extract of C. aurifolia indicated low levels of phytic acid and hydrocyanide well below the lethal doses. An unusually high oxalate level of 404.80 ± 0.11 mg/100 g (dry weight was also obtained although still below toxic level. These results support the ethnomedicinal and nutritional uses of this plant and suggest that the consumption of leaves of C. aurifolia is not harmful nutritively.

  8. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a hea......Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth. Iron is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “reduction of excessive hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is non-menopausal women, aged between 19 and 49...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

    2008-11-15

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Fresh perspectives on the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sally E; Smith, F Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on arbuscular mycorrhizas has demonstrated that AM fungi play a significant role in plant phosphorus (P) uptake, regardless of whether the plant responds positively to colonization in terms of growth or P content. Here we focus particularly on implications of this finding for consideration of the balance between organic carbon (C) use by the fungi and P delivery (i.e. the C-P trade between the symbionts). Positive growth responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization are attributed frequently to increased P uptake via the fungus, which results in relief of P deficiency and increased growth. Zero AM responses, compared with non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants, have conventionally been attributed to failure of the fungi to deliver P to the plants. Negative responses, combined with excessive C use, have been attributed to this failure. The fungi were viewed as parasites. Demonstration that the AM pathway of P uptake operates in such plants indicates that direct P uptake by the roots is reduced and that the fungi are not parasites but mutualists because they deliver P as well as using C. We suggest that poor plant growth is the result of P deficiency because AM fungi lower the amount of P taken up directly by roots but the AM uptake of P does compensate for the reduction. The implications of interplay between direct root uptake and AM fungal uptake of P also include increased tolerance of AM plants to toxins such as arsenate and increased success when competing with NM plants. Finally we discuss the new information on C-P trade in the context of control of the symbiosis by the fungus or the plant, including new information (from NM plants) on sugar transport and on the role of sucrose in the signaling network involved in responses of plants to P deprivation.

  12. 血清铁、铁蛋白和转铁蛋白联合检测在儿童营养性缺铁性贫血筛查中的价值%The value of combined detection of serum iron,ferritin and transferrin in children with nutritional iron deficien-cy anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪芳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨血清铁、铁蛋白和转铁蛋白联合检测在儿童营养性缺铁性贫血筛查中的价值。方法:随机抽取营养性缺铁性贫血患儿102例、非营养性缺铁性贫血患儿96例以及健康体检儿童90例作为本次研究对象,采用全自动血液分析仪、化学发光法进行血清SI、SF、TRF检测,分析其检测结果。结果:非营养性缺铁性贫血组SI、SF水平较健康体检者高,TRF降低;营养性缺铁性贫血组SI、SF水平较健康体检者降低,TRF升高(P<0.05);营养性缺铁性贫血组SI、SF水平较非营养性缺铁性贫血组降低,TRF升高(P<0.05);血清SI、SF、TRF联合检测的敏感度均较任何单一检测敏感度高(P<0.05)。结论:血清SI、SF、TRF联合检测的灵敏度较高,能直接反应机体对铁的利用及贮存水平,在营养性缺铁性贫血患儿诊断中具有良好的临床价值。%Objective:To investigate the value of combined detection of serum iron,ferritin and transferrin in children with nutri-tional iron deficiency anemia.Methods:We selected 102 cases of children with nutritional iron deficiency anemia,96 cases of non nutritional iron deficiency anemia and 90 cases of healthy children were taken as the research objects.We detected the serum SI, SF and TRF by automatic hematology analyzer and chemiluminescence method,and analyzed the results.Results: Si and SF levels of non nutritional iron deficiency anemia group were higher than the healthy,and TRF decreased;Si,SF levels of nutritional iron deficiency anemia group were lower than healthy,and TRF was higher(P<0.05);Si,SF levels of nutritional iron deficiency anemia group were lower than non nutritional iron deficiency anemia group,and TRF was higher(P<0.05);serum Si,SF,TRF joint detec-tion sensitivity were higher than any single detection method(P<0.05).Conclusion:The sensitivity of combined detection of serum SI,SF and TRF was higher,which can directly reflect the

  13. Secretive expression of Aspergillus fumigatus phytase in tobacco improves phosphorus nutrition in plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Gao Xiaorong; Su Qiao; An Lijia

    2007-01-01

    To generate transgenic plants capable of utilizing exogenous phytate,an Aspersgillus fumigatus phytase gene(fphyA) was constitutively expressed in tobacco and recombinant enzyme was secreted from plant roots into the rhizosphere using the signal sequence from tobacco calretieulin.After 40 days of plant growth in hydroponic media,phytase activities in leaves,stems,roots and growth media of transgenic plants were 8.6-fold,7.4-fold,12.6-fold and 14.3-fold higher than those of wild-type plants.Signifi-cant improvements in plant growth and phosphoms(P)utilization were observed in the transgenic plants.When phytate was supplied as the sole P source.45-day-old transgenic tobaccos accumulated 1.0-fold and 0.5-fold more shoot and root biomass than wild-type tobaccos.with a concomitant of 1.7-fold increase in total P concentration.These results indicate that secretive expression of the A.fumigatus phytase improves acquisition and use of P from phytate in plants.

  14. Functional roles of melatonin in plants, and perspectives in nutritional and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rudiger; Manchester, Lucien C; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Reiter, Russel J

    2012-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in plants is universal. Evidence has confirmed that a major portion of the melatonin is synthesized by plants themselves even though a homologue of the classic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) has not been identified as yet in plants. Thus, the serotonin N-acetylating enzyme in plants may differ greatly from the animal AANAT with regard to sequence and structure. This would imply multiple evolutionary origins of enzymes with these catalytic properties. A primary function of melatonin in plants is to serve as the first line of defence against internal and environmental oxidative stressors. The much higher melatonin levels in plants compared with those found in animals are thought to be a compensatory response by plants which lack means of mobility, unlike animals, as a means of coping with harsh environments. Importantly, remarkably high melatonin concentrations have been measured in popular beverages (coffee, tea, wine, and beer) and crops (corn, rice, wheat, barley, and oats). Billions of people worldwide consume these products daily. The beneficial effects of melatonin on human health derived from the consumption of these products must be considered. Evidence also indicates that melatonin has an ability to increase the production of crops. The mechanisms may involve the roles of melatonin in preservation of chlorophyll, promotion of photosynthesis, and stimulation of root development. Transgenic plants with enhanced melatonin content could probably lead to breakthroughs to increase crop production in agriculture and to improve the general health of humans.

  15. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis.

  16. Induction of leaf senescence by low nitrogen nutrition in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Eloísa; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación

    2010-03-01

    Different parameters which vary during the leaf development in sunflower plants grown with nitrate (2 or 20 mM) for a 42-day period have been determined. The plants grown with 20 mM nitrate (N+) showed greater leaf area and specific leaf mass than the plants grown with 2 mM nitrate (N-). The total chlorophyll content decreased with leaf senescence, like the photosynthetic rate. This decline of photosynthetic activity was greater in plants grown with low nitrogen level (N-), showing more pronounced senescence symptoms than with high nitrogen (N+). In both treatments, soluble sugars increased with aging, while starch content decreased. A significant increase of hexose to sucrose ratio was observed at the beginning of senescence, and this raise was higher in N- plants than in N+ plants. These results show that sugar senescence regulation is dependent on nitrogen, supporting the hypothesis that leaf senescence is regulated by the C/N balance. In N+ and N- plants, ammonium and free amino acid concentrations were high in young leaves and decreased progressively in the senescent leaves. In both treatments, asparagine, and in a lower extent glutamine, increased after senescence start. The drop in the (Glu+Asp)/(Gln+Asn) ratio associated with the leaf development level suggests a greater nitrogen mobilization. Besides, the decline in this ratio occurred earlier and more rapidly in N- plants than in N+ plants, suggesting that the N- remobilization rate correlates with leaf senescence severity. In both N+ and N- plants, an important oxidative stress was generated in vivo during sunflower leaf senescence, as revealed by lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In senescent leaves, the increase in hydrogen peroxide levels occurred in parallel with a decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In N+ plants, the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased to reach their highest values at 28 days, and later decreased during senescence, whereas

  17. The Effect of Community Nutrition Intervention on Pregnancy Iron Deficiency Anemia%对孕妇缺铁性贫血的社区营养干预病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琪; 叶晓娟; 姚静; 刘毅

    2014-01-01

    目的:对孕妇缺铁性贫血进行社区营养干预,探索有效的孕期社区营养干预模式。方法对140名孕妇采用病例对照研究方法(实验组及对照组各70人),社区干预措施包括膳食调查与监测和健康教育处方,效果评估指标时间分别为孕周<12周、第20和30周,评估指标为铁摄入量、细胞血溶比和血清铁蛋白。结果实验组在干预后各项指标均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义。结论以膳食调查和健康教育处方为代表的社区营养干预对孕妇缺铁性贫血具有较好的效果。%Objectives Community nutrition intervention model for iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy were analyzed to explore effective pregnancy nutrition intervention model.Methods It was a case-control study with 140 patients (70 cases in intervention group and control group 70 cases).Community nutrition intervention model in-cluded nutritional surveillance and health education.Evaluation time were less than 12,20 and 30 gestational weeks. Evaluation indicators included iron intake,Hb,HCT,SF.Results The indicators of intervention group were better than those of control group,and the difference were statistically significant.Conclusions Community nutrition in-terventions for pregnancy with iron deficiency anemia may be a effective intervention model.

  18. Effect of anaerobic digestion and liming on plant availability of phosphorus in iron- and aluminium-precipitated sewage sludge from primary wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Emilio; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Vråle, Lasse

    2017-04-01

    More efficient plant utilisation of the phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge is required because rock phosphate is a limited resource. To meet environmental legislation thresholds for P removal from wastewater (WW), primary treatment with iron (Fe) or aluminium (Al) coagulants is effective. There is also a growing trend for WW treatment plants (WWTPs) to be coupled to a biogas process, in order to co-generate energy. The sludge produced, when stabilised, is used as a soil amendment in many countries. This study examined the effects of anaerobic digestion (AD), with or without liming as a post-treatment, on P release from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludges originating from primary WWTPs. Plant uptake of P from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludge after lime treatment but without AD was also compared. Chemical characterisation with sequential extraction of P and a greenhouse experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) were performed to assess the treatment effects on plant-available P. Liming increased the P-labile fraction in all cases. Plant P uptake increased from 18.5 mg pot(-1) to 53 mg P pot(-1) with liming of Fe-precipitated sludge and to 35 mg P pot(-1) with liming of the digestate, while it increased from 18.7 mg pot(-1) to 39 and 29 mg P pot(-1) for the Al-precipitated substrate and digestate, respectively. Thus, liming of untreated Fe-precipitated sludge and its digestate resulted in higher P uptake than liming its Al-precipitated counterparts. AD had a negative impact on P mobility for both sludges.

  19. Alternative plant protein sources for pigs and chickens in the tropics – nutritional value and constraints: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lascano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, a large number of smallholder farms contribute significantly to food security by raising pigs and poultry for domestic consumption and for sale on local markets. The high cost and, sometimes, the lack of availability of commercial protein supplements is one of the main limitations to efficient animal production by smallholders. Locally-grown forages and grain legumes offer ecological benefits such as nitrogen fixation, soil improvement, and erosion control which contribute to improve cropping efficiency. Besides these agronomical assets, they can be used as animal feeds in mixed farming systems. In this paper we review options to include locally-grown forages and grain legumes as alternative protein sources in the diets of pigs and poultry in order to reduce farmers’ dependence on externally-purchased protein concentrates. The potential nutritive value of a wide range of forages and grain legumes is presented and discussed. The influence of dietary fibre and plant secondary metabolites contents and their antinutritive consequences on feed intake, digestive processes and animal performances are considered according to the varying composition in those compounds of the different plant species and cultivars covered in this review. Finally, methods to overcome the antinutritive attributes of the plant secondary metabolites using heat, chemical or biological treatment are reviewed regarding their efficiency and their suitability in low input farming systems.

  20. Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of positively and negatively charged Fe3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs on the growth of soybean plants (Glycine max. and their root associated soil microbes. Soybean plants were grown in a greenhouse for six weeks after application of different amounts of NPs, and plant growth and nutrient content were examined. Roots were analyzed for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria using DNA-based techniques. We found that plant growth was significantly lower with the application of TiO2 as compared to Fe3O4 NPs. The leaf carbon was also marginally significant lower in plants treated with TiO2 NPs; however, leaf phosphorus was reduced in plants treated with Fe3O4. We found no effects of NP type, concentration, or charge on the community structure of either rhizobia or AM fungi colonizing plant roots. However, the charge of the Fe3O4 NPs affected both colonization of the root system by rhizobia as well as leaf phosphorus content. Our results indicate that the type of NP can affect plant growth and nutrient content in an agriculturally important crop species, and that the charge of these particles influences the colonization of the root system by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

  1. Feasibility of Treatment of the Waters of a Wadi Charged in Iron by Filters Planted of Macrophytes (Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semadi Faten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The context is summarized by the presence of important Steel manufactory close to the wadi Meboudja and its effluents rejected into the wadi which contaminate the water used for irrigation by the local farmer. Approach: The goal is to determine the usefulness of Macrophytes (Phragmites australis to filter some specific industrial effluents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn and Cr present into water of wadi Meboudja. The use of Reeds (Phragmites australis can be considered as a biologic and an economic solution to minimize the concentration of some industrial effluent, especially Iron which is highlighted in this article. An experimental device was built, and considered as pilot, formed of three basins plus reservoir. We use the water of Wadi to irrigate the "Phragmites australis" which are initially appropriated from Oubaiira Lake in a natural medium. Water and Reeds samples are selected for analyses. Results: Iron is found in important concentration compared to the other Elements Metal Traces (ETM. Such a variation seems to be directly related to the rate of industrial production, fluctuations of the climatic factors and the capacities of assimilation of the plants crop. It is essentially concentrated into the roots of Reeds compared to stems and leafs. For example, in one repetition we found difference between the exit sample and the entry one in basin-1of (60-23= 37 mg g-1 into roots. Conclusion: Plantation of Reeds (Phragmites australis seems a natural solution to reduce elements metal traces, in particularly Iron, into water of wadi Meboudja. Other analysis on the garden products of local farmers should be conducted in order to quantify possible hazards on the health of consumers.

  2. Plant science and human nutrition: challenges in assessing health-promoting properties of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Mithen, Richard F

    2011-07-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants.

  3. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira; José Antonio Quaggio; Heitor Cantarella; Estêvão Vicari Mellis

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O) and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl). Soil samp...

  4. Nano-iron fertilizer effects on some plant traits of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L. under different sowing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed YOUSEFZADEH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available evaluate the effects of iron nano-fertilizer rates (0, 1, 2 and 3 g l-1 and planting density levels (10, 15, 20 and 40 cm on the fresh herb, essential oil content and other traits under the natural conditions. Traits such as number of flowering branches (NFB, height of first flowering branch (HFB, number of secondary branches (NSB, stem diameter (SD, essential oil content (EOC, dry mass (DM, essential oil yield (EOY, total anthocyanins (TA, chlorophyll a (CA, chlorophyll b (CB, flavonoid 270 nm (F270, flavonoid 300 nm (F300, and total flavonoid (TF were measured. Results showed that the nano Fe treatment × trait (TT biplot accounted 39 % and 25 % of total variation, respectively. The vertex treatments in polygon biplot were D2-N2 (15 cm density and 1 g l-1 nano-fertilizer was the best in the EOC, DM and EOY, while D4-N3 (40 cm density and 2 g l-1 nano-fertilizer was the best for TA, F270, F300 and TF. Sowing densities (10, 15 and 20 cm with iron nano-fertilizer treatments (1 and 2 g l-1 were the best combinations of evaluated factors for all the measured traits of the dragonhead.

  5. Roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas in plant nutrition and growth: new paradigms from cellular to ecosystem scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sally E; Smith, F Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Root systems of most land plants form arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses in the field, and these contribute to nutrient uptake. AM roots have two pathways for nutrient absorption, directly through the root epidermis and root hairs and via AM fungal hyphae into root cortical cells, where arbuscules or hyphal coils provide symbiotic interfaces. New physiological and molecular evidence shows that for phosphorus the mycorrhizal pathway (MP) is operational regardless of plant growth responses (positive or negative). Amounts delivered cannot be determined from plant nutrient contents because when responses are negative the contribution of the direct pathway (DP) is reduced. Nitrogen (N) is also delivered to roots via an MP, but the contribution to total N requirement and the costs to the plant are not clear. The functional interplay between activities of the DP and MP has important implications for consideration of AM symbioses in ecological, agronomic, and evolutionary contexts.

  6. The Nutritional Value of Selected Moist-soil Plants and Agricultural crops for Canada Geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Migrant and wintering waterfowl commonly utilize both agricultural crops and native plants as food. Producing these foods and making them available for consumption...

  7. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  8. Progress of study on the relationship between sulfur nutrition and plant diseases%硫素营养与植物病害关系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 尹显慧; 龙友华; 田雪莲; 朱流红

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the important nutritional elements for the plant growth and development, and is the structural ingredient of many physiological active substances. Sulfur involves in important physiological and biological process, including in the expression of the plant cellular membrane structure, the protein metabo-lism and regulating enzyme activity. It directly or indirectly affects the ability of plant resistance to diseases in many ways. This article further explains the impact of sulfur nutrition on the ability of plant resistance to dis-eases from the aspects of absorbing, assimilation and redistribution of the sulfur in plants and the influence of sulfur nutrition on plant growth. The review provides useful references for further study on the relationship be-tween sulfur and plant diseases, so that sulfur nutrition would play more important role in controlling plant diseases.%硫是植物生长发育过程中重要的营养元素之一,是许多生理活性物质的组成成分,参与了植物细胞质膜结构的表达、蛋白质代谢和酶活性调节等重要生理生化过程,以多种方式直接或间接地影响植物的抗病性。本文从硫在植物体内的吸收、同化和再分配,硫素营养对植物生长的影响,进一步阐述硫素对植物抗病性的影响,为硫素营养与植物病害关系的深入研究提供借鉴,以期硫素在控制病害方面发挥更大的作用。

  9. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient (adc2-1 and d-arginine-treated plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient (nia1nia2noa1 and c-PTIO-treated plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including FIT1, FRO2, and IRT1 were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions.

  10. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

  11. Application of plant nutrition in non-wood forest research%植物营养学在经济林研究中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军; 谭晓风; 袁德义

    2011-01-01

    Plant nutrition is a subject studying the laws of absorption, transportation, translation and utilization, as well as interchange of nutrient substances and energy between plants and external environment, and it was used widely in agriculture and forestry production. On the base of research progress of plant nutrition, its applications in non-wood forest variety breeding, nutrition diagnosis, fertilization and stress tolerance were introduced in the article , and research directions of non-wood forest nutrition was discussed, rrelationships of mineral elements in the soil or soilless solution their role in plant growth,.%植物营养学是研究植物对营养物质的吸收、运输、转化和利用规律及植物与外界环境之间营养物质和能量交换的学科,在农林生产中运用广泛.文中结合植物营养学科的研究概况及趋势,简要介绍其在经济林品种选育、营养诊断与施肥、树体调控及抗逆研究中的运用,并对今后经济林营养学的研究方向进行了探讨.

  12. The Effects of Concept and Vee Mappings under Three Learning Modes on Jamaican Eighth Graders' Knowledge of Nutrition and Plant Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Okechukwu; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate if the experimental students' post-test knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction would be improved more significantly than that of their control group counterparts based on their treatment, attitudes to science, self-esteem, gender and socio-economic background. Treatment involved teaching…

  13. The Effects of Concept and Vee Mappings under Three Learning Modes on Jamaican Eighth Graders' Knowledge of Nutrition and Plant Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Okechukwu; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate if the experimental students' post-test knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction would be improved more significantly than that of their control group counterparts based on their treatment, attitudes to science, self-esteem, gender and socio-economic background. Treatment involved teaching…

  14. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  15. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Baban Ghate

    Full Text Available Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38 cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a

  16. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Das, Abhishek; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME) was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml) and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg) were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38) cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a treatment for

  17. Amelioration of iron toxicity: A mechanism for aluminum-induced growth stimulation in tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiboland, Roghieh; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tolrà, Roser

    2013-11-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) are well adapted to acid soils with high Al availability. These plants not only accumulate high leaf Al concentrations, but also respond to Al with growth stimulation. Decreased oxidative stress has been associated with this effect. Why tea plants not exposed to Al suffer from oxidative stress has not been clarified. In this study, hydroponically grown tea plants treated with 0 to 300 μM Al were analyzed for growth, Al and Fe accumulation, and Al distribution by means of morin and hematoxylin staining. Roots of control plants stained black with hematoxylin. This indicates the formation of a Fe-hematoxylin complex. Young leaves of controls accumulated more than 1000 mg Fe kg(-1) dry weight. This concentration is above the Fe-toxicity threshold in most species. Supply of Al stimulated growth and reduced Fe uptake and transport. These results indicate that Al-induced growth stimulation might be due to alleviation of a latent Fe toxicity occurring in tea plants without Al supply.

  18. Relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Walter M

    2002-12-01

    Levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. Most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than leaves from nonhost species. New leaves and flowers that supported F. occidentalis contained high levels of carbohydrate and protein. The quantity of protein in leaves at the top of the tree, Peumus boldus, was greater than in leaves from lower levels, and the amount of feeding damage accrued by H. haemorrhoidalis was greater on the upper foliage than lower foliage. Oviposition by H. haenmorrhoidalis was positively correlated to levels of protein in host plants but not to levels of carbohydrates. Overall, levels of soluble protein in plants influenced their susceptibility to thrips more than levels of carbohydrates.

  19. Differences between Rice Cultivars in Iron Plaque Formation on Roots and Plant Lead Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmei Ma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand some mechanisms on the variations between rice cultivars in lead (Pb tolerance. Pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice cultivars under different soil Pb levels and the relationships between Pb phytotoxicity, uptake and iron plaque formation on roots were investigated. The results showed that the rice cultivar with indica consanguinity (Shanyou 63 were more sensitive to soil Pb stress than the cultivar with japonica consanguinity (Wuyunjing 7, particularly for the roots. Pb concentrations and distribution ratios in root tissues were higher for Shan you 63 than for Wuyunjing 7, but those in the plaques showed a reverse order. Fe distribution ratios in plaques were also larger for Wuyunjing 7 than for Shanyou 63, but the ratios in root tissues showed a reverse order. The results indicate that iron plaque formation on rice roots can provide a barrier to soil Pb stress in Pb-contaminated soils. The plaque will increase the sequestration of Pb on root surface, providing a means of external exclusion of soil Pb. But the function of the plaque is limited, only effective in relatively lower or moderate levels of soil Pb contamination.

  20. The determination of nutritive value of some rangeland plants using nylon bags technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine of nutritive value of pasture forages (Agropyron intermedium Boiss, Coronilla Varia, Ziziphora Tenuior and Scorzonera grossheimii lipsch using in situ, this study was carried out. In this study two fistulated wetheres (35±1.8 kg were used in in situ method. Ruminal DM and CP disappearances were measured 0,4,8,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradabilities of Coronilla Varia and Agropyron intermedium Boiss at 48 h, were higher and lower, that showed significant differences (P<0.05. Crude protein degradabilities of Coronilla Varia at 96 h was 78.18 % that were higher and showed significant differences (P<0.05. Pasture forages can used largely as a ruminant feeds.

  1. Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Chatzistathis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF genus and, ii if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW/ root dry weight (RDW was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.

  2. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  3. Modelling the Influence of Ectomycorrhizal Decomposition on Plant Nutrition and Carbon Sequestartion in Boreal Forst Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, P.; Hyvönen, R.; Agren, G. I.; Clemmensen, K.; Lindahl, B.; Manzoni, S.

    2016-12-01

    Tree growth in boreal forests is limited by nitrogen availability (N). Most boreal forest trees form symbiotic association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, that improve uptake of inorganic N and also have the capacity to decompose soil organic matter and to mobilize organic N (`ECM decomposition'). To mechanistically understand the effect of `ECM decomposition' on ecosystem C and N balances, we formulated a model of C and N flows to and from plants, SOM, saprotrophs, ECM fungi, and inorganic N stores. Our predictions indicate that the optimal C allocation to ECM fungi, above which the symbiosis switches from mutualism to parasitism, depends strongly on the partitioning of soil organic matter decomposition between ECM fungi and saprotrophs. At high relative ECM decomposition and low N availability, optimal C allocation was estimated to 15% of NPP. The model also predicts a negative correlation between plant production and soil C sequestration, as increased plant belowground C allocation increases ECM mining of organic N which promotes tree growth but decreases soil C storage. In conclusion, our model provides a tool for studying ecosystem productivity and C storage, where ECM decomposition acts as a potential driver of both decomposition of soil organic matter and plant N uptake.

  4. Plant growth, phosphorus nutrition, and root morphological responses to arbuscular mycorrhizas, phosphorus fertilization, and intraspecific density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, M S; Janos, D P

    2005-05-01

    We examined the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), phosphorus fertilization, intraspecific density, and their interaction, on the growth, phosphorus uptake, and root morphology of three facultative mycotrophic crops (Capsicum annuum, Zea mays, and Cucurbita pepo). Plants were grown in pots with or without AM at three densities and four phosphorus availabilities for 10 weeks. AM colonization, plant weight, and shoot phosphorus concentration were measured at harvest. Root morphology was assessed for C. annuum and Z. mays. Phosphorus fertilization reduced but did not eliminate AM colonization of all species. AM, phosphorus, and density interacted significantly to modify growth of C. annuum and C. pepo such that increased density and phosphorus diminished beneficial effects of AM. Increased density reduced positive effects of AM on C. annuum and C. pepo shoot phosphorus concentrations. AM altered both Z. mays and C. annuum root morphology in ways that complemented potential phosphorus uptake by mycorrhizas, but increased density and phosphorus diminished these effects. We infer that increased density predominantly influenced plant responses by affecting whether or not carbon (photosynthate) or phosphorus limited plant growth. By exacerbating carbon limitation, high density reduced the benefit/cost ratio of mycorrhizas and minimized their effects.

  5. Nutritive values of some food plants, fresh and processed fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  6. Effectiveness of fortification of drinking water with iron and vitamin C in the reduction of anemia and improvement of nutritional status in children attending day-care centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniela da Silva; Capanema, Flávio Diniz; Netto, Michele Pereira; de Almeida, Carlos Alberto Nogueira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2011-12-01

    Because of the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in Brazil, individual control measures tend to be ineffective, and fortification of foods with iron is considered the most effective method to fight anemia. To evaluate the effectiveness of fortification of drinking water with iron and vitamin C in the reduction of anemia in children in day-care centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This before-and-after study evaluated 318 children aged 6 to 74 months. Identification data and data on socioeconomic variables were collected; anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed before and after 5 months of fortification of water with 5 mg of elemental iron and 50 mg of ascorbic acid per liter. The fortified water was used for drinking and cooking at the day-care center. Wilcoxon's nonparametric test was used to evaluate the differences in continuous variables, and McNemar's test was used to compare the prevalence rates of anemia. The prevalence of anemia decreased significantly from 29.3% before fortification to 7.9% at the end of the study, with a significant increase in hemoglobin levels. Reductions in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight were observed. Fortification of water with iron and vitamin C significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia and improved nutritional status among children attending day-care centers.

  7. Zinc Nutrition and Metabolism of Plants as Influenced by Supply of Phosphorus and Zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZHIMIN; ZHENGSHAOJIAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    A solution culture experiment was conducted to investigate the growth,the accumulation and translocation of Zn,and the metabolic changes of 24 days old plants of corn and wheat with the varied suply of phosphorus(0,0.12,0.6 and 3.0mmol L-1)and zinc (0.1 and 2.0umol L-1) under controlled environmental conditions.The results showed the highest dry matter production of both corn and wheat under the moder ate combination of phosphorus(0.6mmol L-1) and zinc(2.0 umolL-1) as compared with other imbalance applications of phosphorus and zinc.Excessive P supply significantly inhibited the translocation of Zn from roots of corn to the aboveground part,thus decreasing the content of Zn in the shoots.Application of 3.0 mmolL-1 P could also reduce the water-soluble Zn in plant tissues,leading to an increase in the cell plasma membrane permeability,a decrease in the dehydrogenase activity in roots and the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves,and a decline in the uptake of nitrate by plants.A similar decrease occurred in superoxide dismutase(SOD) and plasma membrane adenosine triphosphatase(ATPase)activity in Zn-deficient plants.But,with increasing P supply the activity of ATP ase in both corn and wheat increased and reached the maximum at the P-supplying level of 3.0 mmolL-1.Similar to the effect of high P supply.no or low P(0.12mmolL-1) supply could be detrimental to dry matter production and physiological functioning of the plants.Corn plants showed a more significant response to the imbalance supply of P and Zn than wheat plants.The possible physiological and biochemical mechanism of phosphorus-zinc antagonistic interaction in corn and wheat might be attributed to decrease in physiological availability and activation of Zn.

  8. Acetones Removal with Fe Doped Titanium Nano Tube Catalysts Prepared from Slag Iron in Steel Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Jung; Wen-ZhiCao; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2016-01-01

    TiO₂ has been studied most commonly because it has high stability, non-toxicity, high catalytic activity, and highly conductivity. Many studies have shown that TiO₂ would generate electron-hole pairs illuminated with UV and surround more energy than that before being illuminated. However, the surface area of TiO₂ is not large enough and the adsorption capacity is small. In this study, the titanium nano tube (TNT) catalysts were prepared to increase the surface area and adsorption capacity. The Fe-TNT was also prepared from slag iron since many slag iron cause waste treatment problems. In this study, the effect of Fe loading, including 0.77%, 1.13%, 2.24% and 4.50%, on acetone removal was also assessed since TNT doped with transitional or precious metals can be used to improve catalytic reaction efficiency. Furthermore, four kinds of VOCs concentration, including 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm were tested. Four kinds of retention time, including 0.4, 0.8, 4.0 and 6.0 sec, and four kinds of dosage, including 0.15, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.45 g cm⁻³, were also assessed. In this study, the adsorption capacity of Fe-TNT was 18.8, 23.3, 28.9 and 32.6 mg g⁻¹ for acetone of 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm, respectively. Four kinds of temperature, including 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C were tested in catalytic reaction system. The results showed removal efficiency increased with increasing temperature. The efficiency can be reached 95% under the conditions with the dosage higher than 0.3 g cm⁻³, temperature higher than 270 °C and retention time higher than 270 °C. Reaction efficiency was 20, 31, 41 and 96% at the temperature of 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C, respectively.

  9. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  10. Plant-mediated synthesis of highly active iron nanoparticles for Cr (VI) removal: Investigation of the leading biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhengli; Yuan, Min; Yang, Bin; Liu, Zhaoyan; Huang, Jiale; Sun, Daohua

    2016-05-01

    The eco-friendly synthesis and application of Fe nanoparticles (Fe NPs) with higher activity and stability has aroused wide attention in the field of pollutant remediation. In this work, 15 plants extracts were selected for the plant-mediated synthesis of Fe NPs. The as-synthesized particles' morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The contents of four main active biomolecules in the 15 extracts were determined, and comparative studies were further carried out to clarify the key component closely related to the reducing capacity. The results demonstrate that polyphenol is the leading ingredient involved in the biosynthesis of Fe NPs. Then Fe products synthesized by three extracts with distinct content of polyphenol were employed to remove Cr (VI) in the aqueous solution, indicating that the activity of the Fe NPs for Cr (VI) removal is consistent with the reducing capacity of the extracts. Furthermore, the Fe NPs synthesized by S. jambos(L.) Alston extract (SJA-Fe NPs) showed significant removal capacity of Cr(VI) with 698.6 mg Cr(VI) per g of iron.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  12. Glutaredoxins in plant development, abiotic stress response, and iron homeostasis: From model organisms to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress require the judicious balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are a group of oxidoreductases that participate in the control of ROS and are traditionally defined as redox regulators. New studies suggest the member...

  13. Evaluation of Biochemical Contents, Trace Elements, Nutritive Value and HPTLC Profiling in Two Edible Food Plants Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both Asparagus officinalis DC and Chlorophytum comosum Linn are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and nutritive values. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis DCChlorophytum comosum Linn, Nutritive values

  14. Calcium-enriched goats' milk aids recovery of iron status better than calcium-enriched cows' milk, in rats with nutritional ferropenic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestares, Teresa; Barrionuevo, Mercedes; Díaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Alférez, Ma José M; Campos, Margarita S

    2008-05-01

    Ca-Fe interactions are known, but no studies are available about the effects of Ca-enriched goat or cow milk on Fe status in nutritional ferropenic anaemia (NFA). To examine this matter, control and Fe-deficient rats were fed for 14 d with goat or cow milk diets containing either normal or high Ca content (5000 or 10,000 mg/kg diet), and different indices and parameters related to iron status were measured. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) and the Fe retention/intake (R/I) ratio were higher in control and anaemic rats fed goat milk diet (G diet), despite high-Ca content. Ca enrichment decreased Fe stores in liver and sternum in anaemic rats fed cow milk diet (C diet), however G diet did not modify Fe content in the organs studied in control and anaemic rats. In anaemic rats, Ca-supplementation decreased haematocrit, but platelets and serum Fe were not affected, however, in control rats platelets increased except for Ca-enriched G diet, this fact reveals that Ca-Fe interaction is minimized with G diet. Serum ferritin was always higher in rats fed G vs. C diet, both in control and anaemic rats fed either normal or Ca-enriched diets. Ca-supplementation decreased ferritin levels in control and anaemic rats fed C diet and also, though to a lesser extent, in those given the G diet. This indicates that with this G diet there is a better recovery of body Fe stores in anaemic rats, despite Ca-supplementation. In this study it is noteworthy that despite high Ca content, a goat milk diet resulted in minimal Ca-Fe interactions and did not adversely affect Fe status in rats with NFA.

  15. The contribution of transgenic plants to better health through improved nutrition: opportunities and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Banakar, Raviraj; Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Farré, Gemma; Rivera, Sol Maiam; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Berman, Judit; Sabalza, Maite; Yuan, Dawei; Bai, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is a prevalent and entrenched global socioeconomic challenge that reflects the combined impact of poverty, poor access to food, inefficient food distribution infrastructure, and an over-reliance on subsistence mono-agriculture. The dependence on staple cereals lacking many essential nutrients means that malnutrition is endemic in developing countries. Most individuals lack diverse diets and are therefore exposed to nutrient deficiencies. Plant biotechnology could play a major rol...

  16. Nutrient Release, Plant Nutrition, and Potassium Leaching from Polymer-Coated Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Bley; Clesio Gianello; Lenio da Silva Santos; Lisiane Priscila Roldão Selau

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increase in food consumption and limitations in food production areas requires improved fertilizer efficiency. Slow- or controlled-release fertilizers are an alternative for synchronizing nutrient availability with the plant demands, reducing losses to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polymer-coated KCl compared with conventional KCl. The products were incubated in soil under controlled conditions to evaluate the time required for nutrient re...

  17. Interaction of plant phenols with food macronutrients: characterisation and nutritional-physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xianting; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols are dietary constituents of plants associated with health-promoting effects. In the human diet, polyphenols are generally consumed in foods along with macronutrients. Because the health benefits of polyphenols are critically determined by their bioavailability, the effect of interactions between plant phenols and food macronutrients is a very important topic. In the present review, we summarise current knowledge, with a special focus on the in vitro and in vivo effects of food macronutrients on the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols. The mechanisms of interactions between polyphenols and food macronutrients are also discussed. The evidence collected in the present review suggests that when plant phenols are consumed along with food macronutrients, the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols can be significantly affected. The protein-polyphenol complexes can significantly change the plasma kinetics profile but do not affect the absorption of polyphenols. Carbohydrates can enhance the absorption and extend the time needed to reach a maximal plasma concentration of polyphenols, and fats can enhance the absorption and change the absorption kinetics of polyphenols. Moreover, as highlighted in the present review, not only a nutrient alone but also certain synergisms between food macronutrients have a significant effect on the bioavailability and biological activity of polyphenols. The review emphasises the need for formulations that optimise the bioavailability and in vivo activities of polyphenols.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal impacts on plant nitrogen nutrition: emerging isotopic patterns, latitudinal variation and hidden mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jordan; Bahram, Mohammad; Henkel, Terry; Buegger, Franz; Pritsch, Karin; Tedersoo, Leho

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM)-mediated nitrogen (N) acquisition is one main strategy used by terrestrial plants to facilitate growth. Measurements of natural abundance nitrogen isotope ratios (denoted as δ(15)N relative to a standard) increasingly serve as integrative proxies for mycorrhiza-mediated N acquisition due to biological fractionation processes that alter (15)N:(14)N ratios. Current understanding of these processes is based on studies from high-latitude ecosystems where plant productivity is largely limited by N availability. Much less is known about the cause and utility of ecosystem δ(15)N patterns in the tropics. Using structural equation models, model selection and isotope mass balance we assessed relationships among co-occurring soil, mycorrhizal plants and fungal N pools measured from 40 high- and 9 low-latitude ecosystems. At low latitudes (15)N-enrichment caused ecosystem components to significantly deviate from those in higher latitudes. Collectively, δ(15)N patterns suggested reduced N-dependency and unique sources of EcM (15)N-enrichment under conditions of high N availability typical of the tropics. Understanding the role of mycorrhizae in global N cycles will require reevaluation of high-latitude perspectives on fractionation sources that structure ecosystem δ(15)N patterns, as well as better integration of EcM function with biogeochemical theories pertaining to climate-nutrient cycling relationships.

  19. The Nutritive Values in Different Varieties of Corn Planted in One Location Fed to Growing Pigs over Three Consecutive Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Li, Y. K.; Li, Z. C.; Li, Q. F.; Lyu, M. B.; Li, D. F.; Lai, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of variety and planting year on the nutritive values of corn fed to growing pigs. Four corn varieties examined in this experiment were planted in the same village located in Longhua County, Heibei Province, China, in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. During each year, corn was hand-harvested in early October and sun dried to about 14% moisture content. Three batches of twenty-four barrows (33.27±4.30, 31.88±2.93, 34.21±3.81 kg body wight [BW] in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively) were used and allotted to a complete block design with 4 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were individually placed in metabolic crates. The four experimental diets were formulated by mixing each variety of corn and vitamins and minerals, respectively. A five-day collection period followed a seven-day diet acclimation period. The results indicated that variety of corn significantly influenced the available energy content (digestible energy [DE] on dry matter basis, p<0.05; metabolizable energy (ME) on dry matter basis, p<0.05, respectively), and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter (p<0.01), dry matter (p<0.05), gross energy (p<0.05), neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), acid detergent fiber and ether extract (p<0.05). The planting year also significantly influenced the available energy contents (DE on dry matter basis, p<0.05; ME on dry matter basis, p<0.01, respectively) and the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), acid detergent fiber (p<0.01), crude protein (p<0.01), and ether extract (p<0.01). No interaction was observed between the variety and planting year in DE and ME contents in corn. In conclusion, the variety and planting year significantly influenced the available energy and nutrient digestibility of corn fed to growing pigs. PMID:27004815

  20. Stabilising metal(loid)s in soil with iron and aluminium-based products: microbial, biochemical and plant growth impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Giovanni; Silvetti, Margherita; Castaldi, Paola; Mele, Elena; Deiana, Pietrino; Deiana, Salvatore

    2014-06-15

    Four iron and aluminium-based products, including red mud (RM), hematite (Fe2O3), an iron-rich water treatment residual (Fe-WTR) and amorphous Al hydroxide (Al-OH), were evaluated for their effectiveness at stabilising As and heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) in a circumneutral contaminated soil [As (2105 mg kg(-1)), Cd (18 mg kg(-1)), Cu (264 mg kg(-1)), Pb (710 mg kg(-1)), Zn (522 mg kg(-1))]. Treatment impacts on soil microbial and biochemical features (i.e. microbial biomass-C, microbial counts, 16S rRNA PCR-TTGE of culturable bacteria, dehydrogenase, urease and β-glucosidase activity, Biolog derived parameters-AWCD and richness) as well as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also assessed. After 6 months equilibration, all the amendments (application rate 3% w/w) but RM reduced labile As while only Al-OH reduced the concentration of water-soluble heavy metals. Despite the highest bioavailability of contaminants, most of the soil microbial and biochemical features monitored (i.e. microbial biomass-C, total bacterial counts, dehydrogenase activity and AWCD) were significantly higher in the RM-soil. Bean germination was completely inhibited in RM-soil while wheat growth was similar to that of the control. The Al-OH treatment was best overall, promoting microbial abundance, diversity and activity while increasing bean and wheat growth and reducing As accumulated in plant shoots. Results suggest that Al-OH is a suitable candidate for field evaluations while the use of RM in the remediation of circumneutral or subalkaline contaminated soils should be reconsidered.

  1. Spatial variability in iron nutritional status of large diatoms in the Sea of Okhotsk with special reference to the Amur River discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sea of Okhotsk is known as one of the most biologically productive regions among the world's oceans, and its productivity is supported in part by the discharge of iron (Fe-rich water from the Amur River. However, little is known about the effect of riverine-derived Fe input on the physiology of the large diatoms which often flourish in surface waters of the productive continental shelf region. We conducted diatom-specific immunochemical ferredoxin (Fd and flavodoxin (Fld assays in order to investigate the spatial variability of Fe nutritional status in the microplankton-sized (20–200 μm; hereafter micro-sized diatoms. The Fd index, defined as the proportion of Fd to the sum of Fd plus Fld accumulations in the cells, was used to assess their Fe nutritional status. Additionally, active chlorophyll fluorescence measurements using pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM fluorometry were carried out to obtain the maximum photochemical quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm of photosystem II for the total micro-sized phytoplankton assemblages including diatoms. During our observations in the summer of 2006, the micro-sized diatoms were relatively abundant (> 10 μg C L−1 in the neritic region, and formed a massive bloom in Sakhalin Bay near the mouth of the Amur River. Values of the Fd index and Fv/Fm were high (> 0.9 and > 0.65, respectively near the river mouth, indicating that Fe was sufficient for growth of the diatoms. However, in oceanic waters of the Sea of Okhotsk, the diatom Fd index declined as cellular Fld accumulation increased. These results suggest that there was a distinct gradient in Fe nutritional status in the micro-sized diatoms from near the Amur River mouth to open waters in the Sea of Okhotsk. A significant correlation between dissolved Fe (D-Fe concentration and the Fd index was found in waters off Sakhalin Island, indicating that D-Fe was a key factor for the photophysiology of this diatom size class. In the vicinity of the Kuril Islands

  2. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation.

  3. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  4. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  5. Uptake of munitions materiels (TNT, RDX) by crop plants and potential interactions of nitrogen nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, W. [USABRDL, Ft. Detrick, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Munitions materiel such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and their combustion/decomposition products can accumulate/cycle in terrestrial environs. High soil organic matter and fertility have been previously shown to negatively correlate with both TNT or RDX uptake in plants such as grass, wheat, and bean. The present study was therefore conducted using low fertility soil to assess uptake and distribution patterns of C-radiolabelled TNT and RDX (15 and 30 {micro}g/g) within corn (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), carrot (Daucus carota), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown to maturity in growth chambers. Uptake by the plants at maturity (90- to 120-days) ranged from 1.8 to 2.7% of total amended {sup 14}C-TNT for carrots and corn respectively and 17 to 33% of total amended {sup 14}C-RDX for corn and carrots respectively. Distribution patterns of total radiolabel indicate that the TNT-derived label was primarily retained within the roots (60 to 85%) while the RDX-derived label was distributed to the shoots (85 to 97%). Less than 0.01 {micro}g/g dry wt. TNT was found in all analyzed shoot tissues with > 90% of the TNT-derived radiolabel in the form of polar metabolites. Concentrations of RDX in shoot tissues of corn exceeded 180 {micro}g/g dry wt. Alfalfa grown in unfertilized, fertilized (NO{sub 3}), or unfertilized-inoculated (Rhizobia) soil exhibited a 70 to 100% increase in dry wt. after 45 days in the TNT-amended (15 {micro}g/g) fertilized and unfertilized-inoculated plants versus the controls. A potential TNT/nitrogen interaction will be discussed.

  6. RESPONSE OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN WATER%水生植物对水体中营养因子作用的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅明辉; 陈海林; 李园枚

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an important role in the aquatic ecosystem. Their biochemistry and physiology can be influenced by nutritional factors in water. The response of aquatic plants in growth physiology and molecular physiology to nutritional factors in water is reviewed in this paper. It revealed the physiological and molecular mechanism of aquatic plants to adapt for the environment nutrition. This study can provide the theory foundation for the protection of aquatic ecosystem and the development and utilization of aquatic plants.%水生植物在永生态系统中具有重要作用,水体中营养因子会影响水生植物的生理生化.本文综述了水生植物在生长生理和分子生理方面对水体中营养因子作用的响应,揭示植物适应营养环境的生理和分子机制.这方面的研究能够为水体生态系统的保护和水生植物的开发和利用提供理论基础.

  7. Layered Double Hydroxides: Potential Release-on-Demand Fertilizers for Plant Zinc Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Bruun Hansen, Hans Chr; Schjoerring, Jan K; Magid, Jakob

    2017-10-02

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn-doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthesized, their chemical composition was analyzed, and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake of Zn by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Antonia) was evaluated in short- (8 weeks), medium- (11 weeks), and long-term (28 weeks) experiments in quartz sand and in a calcareous soil enriched with Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs. The Zn release rate of the Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs was described by a first-order kinetics equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents the long-term Zn release capacity of LDHs complying with a release-on-demand behavior and serves as proof-of-concept that Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs can be used as Zn fertilizers.

  8. VERTICAL LEAF SPECTRAL VARIATION AS AN INDICATOR OF NITROGEN NUTRITION STATUS IN RICE PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the response of individual leaf spectral reflectance to five levels of nitrogen fertilizer treatments in rice(Oriza sativa L.) plants. Sampling was combined through a rice canopy at upper, medium and low levels for biomass, nitrogen and water content measurements with spectral signals from the leaves. The vertical gradients of leaf biomass ,nitrogen and water contents were associated with the nitrogen availability during tillering, panicle formation, initial heading and heading. Rice plants treated with the lowest rate of N could be characterized with the lowest value of gradient in leaf biomass and leaf water content and the highest value of gradient in leaf N concentration. A spectral gradient of single reflectance(R),ratio(RVI) and normalized difference(ND) of two individual reflectances was defined as this yielded a better relationship between the spectral data and leaf nitrogen concentration. The results suggested the spectral gradients may be used as an improved diagnostic tool for nitrogen status.

  9. Impairment of respiratory chain under nutrient deficiencies in plants: does it play a role in the regulation of iron and sulfur responsive genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANPIERO eVIGANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant production and plant product quality strongly depends on the availability of mineral nutrients. Among them, sulfur (S and iron (Fe play a central role, as they are needed for many proteins of the respiratory chain. Plant mitochondria play essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic functions as well as they have an important role in signalling processes into the cell. Here, by comparing several transcriptomic data sets from plants impaired in their respiratory function with the genes regulated under Fe or S deficiencies obtained from other data sets, nutrient-responsive genes potentially regulated by hypothetical mitochondrial retrograde signalling pathway are evidenced. It leads us to hypothesize that plant mitochondria could be therefore required for regulating the expression of key genes involved both in Fe and S metabolisms.

  10. Impairment of Respiratory Chain under Nutrient Deficiency in Plants: Does it Play a Role in the Regulation of Iron and Sulfur Responsive Genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Briat, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Plant production and plant product quality strongly depend on the availability of mineral nutrients. Among them, sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) play a central role, as they are needed for many proteins of the respiratory chain. Plant mitochondria play essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic functions as well as they have an important role in signaling processes into the cell. Here, by comparing several transcriptomic data sets from plants impaired in their respiratory function with the genes regulated under Fe or S deficiencies obtained from other data sets, nutrient-responsive genes potentially regulated by hypothetical mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway are evidenced. It leads us to hypothesize that plant mitochondria could be, therefore, required for regulating the expression of key genes involved both in Fe and S metabolisms. PMID:26779219

  11. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Tissue Nutrition and Biomass of Freshwater Wetland Plant in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiguo; YAN Baixing; HE Yan; ZHAI Jinliang; SONG Changchun

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (4, 10, 20 and 40g/m2) and phosphorus (1.2, 4.8 and 9.6g/m2) were applied to tanks to evaluating the effects of N and P additions on plant tissue nutrition and the biomass of two freshwater wetland plants in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China, namely Carex lasiocarpa and Carex meyeriana. For C. lasiocarpa, the total N concentration (TN) of plant tissues under the treatment of 10g/m2 was lower compared with the other N treatments. Initially, C.lasiocarpa exhibited a significant increase of biomass as compared with the control value, reaching the maximum of 31.20±4.01 g/tank under the treatment of 10g/m2, and then dropped to 18.02±1.53g/tank under the treatment of 40g/m2.For C. meyeriana, TN generally increased with increasing amount of N applied. High N applied produced more aboveground biomass than low N applied. C. meyeriana, as the accompanying species, can adapt itself to the wetland enriched by N, and it may replace C. lasiocarpa as the dominant species of wetland. The total P concentration (TP) in tissues of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition. The aboveground biomass of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition,and it changed from 18.77±3.29g/tank to 46.03±3.95g/tank. However, TP of tissue may accelerate the C. meyeriana development under the treatment of 1.2g/m2. P accumulation contributes to the dominance of C. lasiocarpa but limits the production of C. meyeriana, and the latter may disappear gradually from the wetland enriched by P. Increased input of N and P might have an influence on wetland plant community composition and structure, so the effects of nutrient inputs and accumulation should be considered to protect the freshwater wetland.

  12. Soil nutritional status, not inoculum identity, primarily determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Knautia arvensis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubková, Pavla; Kohout, Petr; Sudová, Radka

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is among the factors contributing to plant survival in serpentine soils characterised by unfavourable physicochemical properties. However, AM fungi show a considerable functional diversity, which is further modified by host plant identity and edaphic conditions. To determine the variability among serpentine AM fungal isolates in their effects on plant growth and nutrition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted involving two serpentine and two non-serpentine populations of Knautia arvensis plants grown in their native substrates. The plants were inoculated with one of the four serpentine AM fungal isolates or with a complex AM fungal community native to the respective plant population. At harvest after 6-month cultivation, intraradical fungal development was assessed, AM fungal taxa established from native fungal communities were determined and plant growth and element uptake evaluated. AM symbiosis significantly improved the performance of all the K. arvensis populations. The extent of mycorrhizal growth promotion was mainly governed by nutritional status of the substrate, while the effect of AM fungal identity was negligible. Inoculation with the native AM fungal communities was not more efficient than inoculation with single AM fungal isolates in any plant population. Contrary to the growth effects, a certain variation among AM fungal isolates was revealed in terms of their effects on plant nutrient uptake, especially P, Mg and Ca, with none of the AM fungi being generally superior in this respect. Regardless of AM symbiosis, K. arvensis populations significantly differed in their relative nutrient accumulation ratios, clearly showing the plant's ability to adapt to nutrient deficiency/excess.

  13. Cell Wall Targeted in planta Iron Accumulation Enhances Biomass Conversion and Seed Iron Concentration in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S.; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S. Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McCann, Maureen C.; Murphy, Angus S.; Peer, Wendy A.

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  14. Arsenic stabilization by zero-valent iron, bauxite residue, and zeolite at a contaminated site planting Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X L; Lin, L Y; Liao, X Y; Zhang, W B; Wen, Y

    2013-10-01

    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, a rare traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is a widely used phytomedicine used all over the world. In recent years, the arsenic contamination of the herb and its relative products becomes a serious problem due to elevated soil As concentration. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types and dosages of amendments on As stabilization in soil and its uptake by P. notoginseng. Results showed that comparing to control treatment, the As concentrations of P. notoginseng declined by 49-63%, 43-61% and 52-66% in 0.25% zero-valent iron (Fe(0)), 0.5% bauxite residue, and 1% zeolite treatment, respectively; whereas the biomasses were elevated by 62-116%, 45-152% and 114-265%, respectively. The As(III) proportions of P. notoginseng increased by 8%, 9%, and 8%, and the transfer factors of As from root to shoot increased by 37%, 42% and 84% in the optimal treatments of Fe(0), bauxite residue, and zeolite. For soil As, all the three amendments could transform the non-specifically adsorbed As fraction to hydrous oxides Fe/Al fractions (by Fe(0) and red mud) or specifically adsorbed As fraction (by zeolite), therefore reduced the bioavailability of soil As. With a comprehensive consideration of stabilization efficiency, plant growth, environmental influence, and cost, Fe(0) appeared to be the best amendment, and zeolite could also be a good choice. In conclusion, this study was of significance in developing As contamination control in P. notoginseng planting areas, and even other areas for medicinal herb growing.

  15. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant.

  16. A pilot plant study for CO{sub 2} capture by aqueous ammonia applied to blast furnace gas in iron and steel making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Kim, J.; Han, K.; Dong Chun, H. [CO2 Project, Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was captured from a demonstration iron and steel plant using low concentration aqueous ammonia as the absorbent chemical. The pilot plant was designed to process 50 Nm{sup 3}/h of blast furnace gas (BFG). The feed gas contained more than 20 per cent CO{sub 2} at 35 to 60 degrees C. Test runs revealed that the absorption efficiency of CO{sub 2} exceeded 80 per cent with a CO{sub 2} purity of more than 90 per cent in the product stream. The process parameters are currently being studied along with the various salts needed to prevent salt precipitation. It was determined that the use of waste heat recovery technology in the iron and steel-making process can render ammonia-based CO{sub 2} capture technology more economically feasible for the reduction of CO{sub 2}.

  17. Determination of trace iron in the boiler water used in power generation plants by solid-phase spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarenqiqige; Maeda, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, simple and low-cost determination method for the total iron concentration in boiler water systems of power generation plants was developed by solid phase spectrometry (SPS) using 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) as a coloring agent. The reagents and 0.08 cm(3) of a cation exchanger were added to a 50-cm(3) boiler water sample, then mixed for 30 min to adsorb/concentrate the produced Fe(TPTZ)2(2+) colored complex on the solid beads, resulting in a 625 times concentration of the target analyte without any other procedure. The detection limit of 0.1 μg dm(-3) was obtained, and the optimum conditions for the digestion procedure and color developing reaction was investigated and reported. According to the application of this method to real samples, the present SPS method is the best one because of the shorter analysis time, simpler operation and use of very low-cost equipment compared to the conventional methods, such as TPTZ solution spectrophotometric method after a 16 times concentration, ICP-MS and AAS.

  18. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fugitive PM10 emissions from an integrated iron and steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaparde, V V; Bhanarkar, A D; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Rao, C V Chalapati

    2016-08-15

    Fugitive emissions of PM10 (particles blast furnace and steel manufacturing unit in an integrated iron and steel plant situated in India. Concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound total PAHs, benzo (a) pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs were found to be highest around the sintering unit. Concentrations of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were recorded to be highest in the coking unit whereas 5-and 6-ring PAHs were found to be highest in other units. The following indicatory PAHs were identified: indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, benzo (k) fluoranthene in blast furnace unit; indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, chrysene in sintering unit; Anthracene, fluoranthene, chrysene in coking unit and acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene in steel making unit. Total-BaP-TEQ (Total BaP toxic equivalent quotient) and BaP-MEQ (Total BaP mutagenic equivalent quotient) concentration levels ranged from 2.4 to 231.7ng/m(3) and 1.9 to 175.8ng/m(3), respectively. BaP and DbA (dibenzo (a,h) anthracene) contribution to total-BaP-TEQ was found to be the highest.

  19. Spatial and seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Hyokeun; Kang, Jung-Ho; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2010-04-15

    Four consecutive passive air samplings (September 2006-July 2007) were conducted at 15 sites around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, Korea to investigate the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ultimately the source-receptor relationships. Annual mean values of Sigma(8)PCBs (IUPAC number 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were in the range of 15.1-166 pg/m(3) with an average of 53.0 pg/m(3). The spatial distribution of PCBs for each sampling period clearly suggests that the steel complex is a major source of PCBs in this area, and the prevailing winds facilitated the atmospheric transport and dispersion of PCBs from the steel complex to the surrounding areas. Seasonal patterns of PCBs were observed clearly, which were influenced by meteorological conditions; the highest levels of PCBs were observed with the highest average air temperature, and the influence of rainfall (i.e., wet scavenging) was also observed. In addition, PCB 11, a non-Aroclor congener, was detected in high concentrations at all sites, implying that the sources of PCB 11 are both unique and ubiquitous. This study confirms that passive air sampling is a useful tool to obtain seasonal and spatial distributions of time-averaged POPs data at a local scale.

  20. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the presence of two novel iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H; Moradi-Haghighi, M; Zarrini, G; Javaherdashti, R

    2012-02-01

    In this work, two novel iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB), namely Gordonia sp. MZ-89 and Enterobacter sp. M01101, were isolated from sewage treatment plants and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Then, microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel in the presence of these bacteria was investigated. The electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to measure the corrosion rate and observe the corrosion mechanism. The results showed that the existence of these microorganisms decreased the corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed the ground boundary attacks and pitting on carbon steel samples in the presence of these bacteria after polarization. Corrosion scales were identified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was demonstrated that these bacteria can greatly affect the crystalline phase of corrosion products that also confirmed by SEM results. It was inferred that these bacteria were responsible for the corrosion of carbon steel, especially in the form of localized corrosion.

  1. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis.

  2. Growth and nutrition of baldcypress families planted under varying salinity regimes in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Chambers, J.L.; Allen, J.A.; Soileau, D.M.; DeBosier, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico is one important factor in the destruction of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) swamps along the Louisiana Gulf Coast, USA. Recent restoration efforts have focused on identification of baldcypress genotypes with greater tolerance to saline conditions than previously reported. To date, salt tolerance investigations have not been conducted under saline field conditions. In 1996, therefore, three plantations were established with 10 half-sib genotype collections of baldcypress in mesohaline wetlands. Tree survival and growth were measured at the end of two growing seasons, and foliar ion concentrations of Na, Cl, K, and Ca and available soil nutrients were measured during the 1996 growing season. In general, soil nutrient concentrations exceeded averages found in other baldcypress stands in the southeastern United States. Seedlings differed among sites in all parameters measured, with height, diameter, foliar biomass, and survival decreasing as site salinity increased. Average seedling height at the end of two years, for example, was 196.4 cm on the lowest salinity site and 121.6 cm on the highest. Several half-sib families maintained greater height growth increments (ranging from 25.5 to 54.5 cm on the highest salinity site), as well as lower foliar ion concentrations of K, Cl, and Ca. Results indicate that genotypic screening of baldcypress may improve growth and vigor of seedlings planted within wetlands impacted by saltwater intrusion.

  3. [20-Hydroxyecdysone--plant adaptogen: an anabolic effect, possible use in sports nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V V; Sidorova, Iu S; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    In the review the presentation about plant adaptogens--biologically active compounds is given. Its administration can help to achieve non-specific state of high resistance. The hypothetical mechanism of action: adaptogens are prostressors, reducing excessive increase of stress mediators in the following stress exposure. The features of adaptogenic effect of phytoecdysteroids, polyhydroxylated sterols, which are analogs of hormones of molting and metamorphosis of arthropodas, and are structurally similar to glucocorticoids on the example of the most widely studied phytoecdysteroid--20-hydroxyecdysone--are described. The results of studies of anabolic action of 20-hydroxyecdysone in experiments on laboratory animals and the possible explanation (existing in the modern scientific literature) of the mechanism of this phenomenon are discussed. Scientific publication testifying on the application of phytoecdysteroids to remove chronic fatigue syndrome, reducing nerve and muscle fatigue, improve memory and attention processes are presented. The prospects of using the 20-hydroxyecdysone in the composition of food supplements and specialized products for athletes are discussed.

  4. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (Pdiets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, Pdiets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection.

  5. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in l...

  6. The Analysis of Clinical Features and Risk Factors of Children's Nutritional Iron Deficiency Anemia%儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的临床特征及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的临床表现症状并分析患病的相关危险因素。方法搜集2012年10月至2014年10月经我院确诊的288例营养性缺铁性贫血患儿资料,回顾性总结他们的临床表现特征,并分析造成儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的危险因素。结果288例营养性缺铁性贫血患儿,轻度贫血146例(50.69%),中度贫血113例(39.24%),重度贫血29例(10.07%),结果显示,年龄、孕周、是否接受育儿教育、是否为儿童添加辅食、儿童生活环境是否良好或稳定,是儿童患营养性缺铁性贫血的危险因素,结果具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论加强育儿知识教育和对小儿进行科学、合理的喂养,确保小儿良好、稳定的生活环境,是预防小儿营养性缺铁性贫血的有力措施。%Objective To observe the clinical features of children's nutritional iron deficiency anemia, and to analyze the risk factors.Methods The information of 288 cases confirmed nutritional deficiency anemia from October 2012 to October 2014 in our hospital were collected, and their clinical features were retrospectively summarized, and the risk factors of children's nutritional iron deficiency anemia were analyzed.Results Among the 288 children with nutritional iron deficiency anemia, mild anemia happened in 146 cases (50.69%), moderate anemia in 113 cases (39.24%) and severe anemia in 29 cases (10.07%).The results showed:Age, gestational weeks, whether to accept the parenting education, whether to add a side dish for children, and children's living en-vironment were the risk factors for children to suffer from nutritional iron deficiency anemia, and the results had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion Strengthening the child rearing knowledge education, the scientific and rational feeding of children, and ensuring children to have good and stable living environment are effective measures for the

  7. Photosynthesis, plant growth and nitrogen nutrition in Alaskan tussock tundra: Response to experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, E.; Welker, J. M.; Moore, D. J.; Sullivan, P.; Ebbs, L.; Pattison, R.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature is predicted to rise significantly in northern latitudes over the next century. The Arctic tundra is a fragile ecosystem with low rates of photosynthesis and low nutrient mineralisation. Rising temperatures may increase photosynthetic capacity in the short term through direct stimulation of photosynthetic rates and also in the longer term due to enhanced nutrient availability. Different species and plant functional types may have different responses to warming which may have an impact on plant community structure. As part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) to investigate the effects of warming on arctic vegetation, a series of open top chambers (OTCs) have been established at the Toolik Field Station (68°38’N, 149°36’W, elevation 720 m). This study employs 12 plots; 6 control plots and 6 warming plots covered with OTCs which maintain a temperature on average +1.54 °C degrees higher than ambient temperatures. The response of photosynthesis to temperature was measured using an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA) with a cooling adaptor to manipulate leaf temperature and determine AMAX in two contrasting species, Eriophorum vaginatum (sedge) and Betula nana (shrub). Temperature within the chamber head of the IRGA was manipulated from 10 through 25 °C. We also measured the leaf area index of plots using a Decagon Accupar Ceptometer to provide insights into potential differences in canopy cover. In both OTC and control plots the photosynthetic rate of B. nana was greater than that of E. vaginatum, with the AMAX of B. nana peaking at 20.08°C and E. vaginatum peaking slightly lower at 19.7°C in the control plots. There was no apparent difference in the temperature optimum of photosynthesis of either species when exposed to the warming treatment. Although there was no difference in temperature optimum there were differences in the peak values of AMAX between treatment and control plots. In the case of B. nana, AMAX was higher in the OTCs than in

  8. Mechanical properties of dust collected by dust separators in iron ore sinter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The flow-related mechanical properties of dusts from the de-dusting systems of several sinter plants were investigated. The mass median diameters of the dusts were in the range from approximately 3 to 100 µm. Also, the bulk density of the dusts varied in a wide range (approximately 400 to 2300 kg/m³). A good correlation between the bulk density and the mass median diameter for most of the dusts was found. In contrast, the angles of repose did not vary very much, only for the coarsest dust a significantly lower value was measured. The angles of internal friction as well as the wall friction angles were lower for coarse dust and higher for fine dust. The shear tests showed that both angles depend considerably on the stress level. At low stress, the angles decreased significantly with increasing values of stress, whereas at higher stress, the dependence was small or even disappeared. The only exception to this behaviour was shown by the finest dust. The flowability decreased with the particle size. The flowability categories suggested by the three flowability indicators were passable only for the coarser dusts. For the finer dusts, the flowability was overestimated by all flowability indicators.

  9. The influence of hydrous ferric oxide, earthworms, and a hypertolerant plant on arsenic and iron bioavailability, fate, and transport in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Benjamin C; Hodges, Kathryn R; Ford, Scott C; Sofield, Ruth M

    2016-10-24

    Historic applications of lead arsenate pesticides and smelting activities have resulted in elevated concentrations of arsenic in Washington State soils. For example, old orchard topsoils in Washington have concentrations reaching upwards of 350 mg As/kg soil with an estimated 187,590 acres of arsenic contamination from pesticide application alone. Iron oxides have been indicated as a key factor in modulating the fate and transport of arsenic in the soil environment. We employed a factorial design to investigate the role of a specific iron oxide, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), and terrestrial organisms on the mobility, bioavailability, and fate of arsenic and iron in locally collected soils. Earthworms in soils amended with both arsenic and HFO had 47.2 % lower arsenic tissue concentrations compared to those in soils only amended with arsenic. Similarly, arsenic leachate concentrations and plant tissue concentrations were lower when HFO was present, although this was with a reduced magnitude and was not consistently significant. A lack of significance of HFO in three of the linear models for leachate and plant bioavailability, however, indicates that the role of HFO in arsenic mobility, bioavailability, and fate is more complicated than can be explained by the simple addition or not of HFO. For example, our analyses showed that earthworms decreased pH and increased bioavailability for both arsenic and iron as demonstrated by increases in leachate and plant tissue concentrations. The mechanisms for this could include a biotransformation of earthworm-ingested arsenic combined with an earthworm-induced change in pH. We also found that arsenic amendments increased the mobility and bioavailability of iron, evidenced by increased iron concentrations in earthworms, plants, and leachate. A mechanistic explanation for this change in bioavailability is not readily apparent but does support a need for more work on bioavailability when mixtures are present. From these results

  10. Integration of P, S, Fe and Zn nutrition signals in Arabidopsis thaliana : potential involvement of PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1 (PHR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois eBRIAT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate and sulfate are essential macro-elements for plant growth and development, and deficiencies in these mineral elements alter many metabolic functions. Nutritional constraints are not restricted to macro-elements. Essential metals such as zinc and iron have their homeostasis strictly genetically controlled, and deficiency or excess of these micro-elements can generate major physiological disorders, also impacting plant growth and development. Phosphate and sulfate on one hand, and zinc and iron on the other hand, are known to interact. These interactions have been partly described at the molecular and physiological levels, and are reviewed here. Furthermore the two macro-elements phosphate and sulfate not only interact between themselves but also influence zinc and iron nutrition. These intricated nutritional cross-talks are presented. The responses of plants to phosphorus, sulfur, zinc or iron deficiencies have been widely studied considering each element separately, and some molecular actors of these regulations have been characterized in detail. Although some scarce reports have started to examine the interaction of these mineral elements two by two, a more complex analysis of the interactions and cross-talks between the signaling pathways integrating the homeostasis of these various elements is still lacking. However, a MYB-like transcription factor, PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1 (PHR1, emerges as a common regulator of phosphate, sulfate, zinc and iron homeostasis, and its role as a potential general integrator for the control of mineral nutrition is discussed.

  11. PCDD/Fs removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Ettore; Guarnieri, Alessandra; Mosca, Silvia; Rossetti, Gianluca; Rotatori, Mauro

    2009-12-30

    This study investigates the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dib