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Sample records for plant intake quantification

  1. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Water intaking facility of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuhito; Iwata, Nobukatsu; Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a water intaking facility of a nuclear power plant, a dam is disposed at a position near a sea shore for preventing sea water introduced in open conduit from flowing to the outer sea upon ebbing of tsunamis. The upper end of the dam is set lower than the lower end of a water-intake pipe of a sea water pump of an ordinary system. A water-intake pipe is disposed to such a length that a sea water pump of an emergency system continues to suck the sea water when the water level of the introduced sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam during the ebb tide. In addition, a means for stopping the operation of the sea water pump of the ordinary system upon starting of the ebb is disposed. Upon reactor scram for occurrence of earthquakes and the like, either the sea water pump in the ordinary system or the seawater pump in the emergency system operates to ensure required amount of sea water for cooling the reactor. In addition, even if the level of the sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam, since the sea water pump in the emergency system continues to suck sea water, unnecessary suction for sea water by the ordinary sea water pumps can be eliminated. (N.H.)

  3. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  4. Wireless, intraoral hybrid electronics for real-time quantification of sodium intake toward hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Howe, Connor; Mishra, Saswat; Lee, Dong Sup; Mahmood, Musa; Piper, Matthew; Kim, Youngbin; Tieu, Katie; Byun, Hun-Soo; Coffey, James P; Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae; Costanzo, Richard M; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Recent wearable devices offer portable monitoring of biopotentials, heart rate, or physical activity, allowing for active management of human health and wellness. Such systems can be inserted in the oral cavity for measuring food intake in regard to controlling eating behavior, directly related to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, existing devices using plastic circuit boards and rigid sensors are not ideal for oral insertion. A user-comfortable system for the oral cavity requires an ultrathin, low-profile, and soft electronic platform along with miniaturized sensors. Here, we introduce a stretchable hybrid electronic system that has an exceptionally small form factor, enabling a long-range wireless monitoring of sodium intake. Computational study of flexible mechanics and soft materials provides fundamental aspects of key design factors for a tissue-friendly configuration, incorporating a stretchable circuit and sensor. Analytical calculation and experimental study enables reliable wireless circuitry that accommodates dynamic mechanical stress. Systematic in vitro modeling characterizes the functionality of a sodium sensor in the electronics. In vivo demonstration with human subjects captures the device feasibility for real-time quantification of sodium intake, which can be used to manage hypertension.

  5. New water intake systems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, T.B.; Samodel'nikov, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Problems arising during design of water intake and spillway structures for the auxiliary water supply system of thermal and nuclear power plants connected with the provision of their reliable operation and with the effect on the temperature condition of reservoirs and their ecology are investigated. Design providing for the connection of intake channel and catch drain for a through (transition) channel and supplying a water transition flow by ejecting water outputs is suggested. The variant considered is effective for seas, lakes and reservoirs with adverse conditions for natural cooling and it is suitable for regions with seismicity up to 5-6 balls

  6. Serendipity: Global Detection and Quantification of Plant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Verma, M.; Drewry, D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying plant stress is a grand challenge for remote sensing, and is important for understanding climate impacts on ecosystems broadly and also for early warning systems supporting food security. The long record from moderate resolution sensors providing frequent data has allowed using phenology to detect stress in forest and agroecosystems, but can fail or give ambiguous results when stress occurs during later phases of growth and in high leaf area systems. The recent recognition that greenhouse gas satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2 observe Solar-Induced Fluorescence has added a new and complementary tool for the quantification of stress but algorithms to detect and quantify stress using SIF are in their infancy. Here we report new results showing a more complex response of SIF to stress by evaluating spaceborne SIF against in situ eddy covariance data. The response observed is as predicted by theory, and shows that SIF, used in conjunction with moderate resolution remote sensing, can detect and likely quantify stress by indexing the nonlinear part of the SIF-GPP relationship using the photochemical reflectance index and remotely observed light absorption. There are several exciting opportunities on the near horizon for the implementation of SIF, together with syngeristic measurements such as PRI and evapotranspiration that suggest the next few years will be a golden age for global ecology. Adancing the science and associated algorithms now is essential to fully exploiting the next wave of missions.

  7. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272

  8. Effects of intake interruptions on dune infiltration systems in the Netherlands, their quantification and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J; van der Schans, Martin L

    2018-07-15

    In the coastal dunes of the Western Netherlands, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is applied for drinking water supply since 1957. The MAR systems belong to the Aquifer Transfer Recovery (ATR) type, because recharge and recovery are operated without interruption. This makes these systems very vulnerable to intake interruptions, which are expected to increase in frequency and duration due to climate change. Such interruptions are problematic, because: (i) groundwater recovery from dunes needs to continue to supply fresh drinking water to the Western Netherlands; (ii) risks of salt water intrusion are high, and (iii) MAR bordering wet dune slacks with an EU Natura 2000 status cannot survive for long without MAR. In this paper, effects of intake stops are discussed and quantified. The hydrological effects consist of the decline of water tables, disappearance of flow-through dune lakes, reservoir depletion, salt water intrusion, disruption of rainwater lenses, and entrapped air hampering a rapid refill of the groundwater reservoir. Water quality effects include changes in (i) redox environment of the flushed aquifer, impacting the behavior of nutrients, calcium, sulfate and organic micro-pollutants, and (ii) the mixing ratio of water types. The main ecological impacts comprise the dying of organisms in recharge ponds and dune lakes, and a decline of biodiversity. Effects of very long intake interruptions (years) are predicted via historical observations during the long overexploitation period (1900-1957) prior to MAR. A closed form analytical solution for safe yield of a semiconfined aquifer is proposed, together with a related upconing risk index. Both also apply to the pumping from any fresh water lens without MAR. Some mitigation strategies are discussed, such as a dual intake, raising the storage capacity, earlier mud removal, and accelerated refilling of the reservoir. A magnitude scale for intake stops (MIS) is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Fish entrapment of the seawater intake of a power plant at Karachi coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, M.; Niaz Risvi, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with the entrapment of fishes in the intake of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 62 species of marine fishes belonging to 43 genera were observed entrapped in the seawater intake. Therapon puta, Liza waigiensis, Abudefduf septemfasciatus, and Lagoceptalus inermis were the most common. Mass mortalities of the juveniles of Sardinella sindensis were recorded in September and October of 1974, 1975, and 1977. Commercially important fishes such as sardines, mullets and anchovies, were entrapped in the intake of the power plant in considerable numbers at various times of the year. The majority of fishes removed from the screen washes of the power plants were killed by impingement. (Auth.)

  10. Computational analysis of turbulent flow in hydroelectric plant intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhadji, L.; Lemon, D.D.; Billenness, D.; Fissel, D. [ASL Environmental Sciences Inc., Sidney, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: lbouhadji@aslenv.com; Djilali, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: ndjilali@uvic.ca

    2003-07-01

    Turbulent flows in the Lower Monumental powerhouse intake are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Simulations are carried out to gain an understanding into the impact of a grid-like trash rack on the downstream turbulent flow characteristics within the intake. (author)

  11. The Associations of Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause Mortality in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Wei, Guo; Jalili, Thunder; Metos, Julie; Giri, Ajay; Cho, Monique E; Boucher, Robert; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    Plant protein intake is associated with lower production of uremic toxins and lower serum phosphorus levels. Therefore, at a given total protein intake, a higher proportion of dietary protein from plant sources might be associated with lower mortality in chronic kidney disease. Observational study. 14,866 NHANES III participants 20 years or older without missing data for plant and animal protein intake and mortality. Plant protein to total protein ratio and total plant protein intake. Patients were stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)protein intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls. Mortality was ascertained by probabilistic linkage with National Death Index records through December 31, 2000. Mean values for plant protein intake and plant protein to total protein ratio were 24.6±13.2 (SD) g/d and 33.0% ± 14.0%, respectively. The prevalence of eGFRsprotein intake, and physical inactivity, each 33% increase in plant protein to total protein ratio was not associated with mortality (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.04) in the eGFR≥60mL/min/1.73m(2) subpopulation, but was associated with lower mortality risk (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96) in the eGFRprotein itself or to other factors associated with more plant-based diets is difficult to establish. A diet with a higher proportion of protein from plant sources is associated with lower mortality in those with eGFRprotein intake in reducing mortality in those with eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m(2). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Chloroplast DNA Supports DNA Barcoding of Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2016-03-01

    Species identification from extracted DNA is sometimes needed for botanical samples. DNA quantification is required for an accurate and effective examination. If a quantitative assay provides unreliable estimates, a higher quantity of DNA than the estimated amount may be used in additional analyses to avoid failure to analyze samples from which extracting DNA is difficult. Compared with conventional methods, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) requires a low amount of DNA and enables quantification of dilute DNA solutions accurately. The aim of this study was to develop a qPCR assay for quantification of chloroplast DNA from taxonomically diverse plant species. An absolute quantification method was developed using primers targeting the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene using SYBR Green I-based qPCR. The calibration curve was generated using the PCR amplicon as the template. DNA extracts from representatives of 13 plant families common in Japan. This demonstrates that qPCR analysis is an effective method for quantification of DNA from plant samples. The results of qPCR assist in the decision-making will determine the success or failure of DNA analysis, indicating the possibility of optimization of the procedure for downstream reactions.

  13. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erven, Van Gijs; Visser, de Ries; Merkx, Donny W.H.; Strolenberg, Willem; Gijsel, de Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric

  14. QUANTIFICATION OF TRANSGENIC PLANT MARKER GENE PERSISTENCE IN THE FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed to monitor persistence of genomic DNA in decaying plants in the field. As a model, we used recombinant neomycin phosphotransferase II (rNPT-II) marker genes present in genetically engineered plants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed, com...

  15. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units...... in international guidelines. This study showed that measured CH4 and N2O emission rates from wastewater treatment plants were plant-specific and that emission rates estimated using models in current guidelines, mainly meant for reporting emissions on the country scale, were unsuitable for Scandinavian plant...

  16. Comparison of trace metals in intake and discharge waters of power plants using clean techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvito, D.T.; Allen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the impact to receiving waters of trace metals potentially discharged from a once-through, non-contact cooling water system from a power plant, a study was conducted utilizing clean sampling and analytical techniques for a series of metals. Once-through, non-contact cooling water at power plants is frequently discharged back to the fresh or saline waterbody utilized for its intake water. This water is used to cool plant condensers. Intake and discharge data were collected and evaluated using paired t-tests. Study results indicate that there is no measurable contribution of metals from non-contact cooling water from this power plant

  17. Quantification of growth benefit of carnivorous plants from prey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0190-9215 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mineral cost and benefit * stimulation of roots * growth stimulation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  18. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normén, A.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Voorrips, L.E.; Andersson, H.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. Design: The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and

  19. Quantification of effective plant rooting depth: advancing global hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Donohue, R. J.; McVicar, T.

    2017-12-01

    Plant rooting depth (Zr) is a key parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models, yet the global spatial distribution of Zr is largely unknown due to the difficulties in its direct measurement. Moreover, Zr observations are usually only representative of a single plant or several plants, which can differ greatly from the effective Zr over a modelling unit (e.g., catchment or grid-box). Here, we provide a global parameterization of an analytical Zr model that balances the marginal carbon cost and benefit of deeper roots, and produce a climatological (i.e., 1982-2010 average) global Zr map. To test the Zr estimates, we apply the estimated Zr in a highly transparent hydrological model (i.e., the Budyko-Choudhury-Porporato (BCP) model) to estimate mean annual actual evapotranspiration (E) across the globe. We then compare the estimated E with both water balance-based E observations at 32 major catchments and satellite grid-box retrievals across the globe. Our results show that the BCP model, when implemented with Zr estimated herein, optimally reproduced the spatial pattern of E at both scales and provides improved model outputs when compared to BCP model results from two already existing global Zr datasets. These results suggest that our Zr estimates can be effectively used in state-of-the-art hydrological models, and potentially biogeochemical models, where the determination of Zr currently largely relies on biome type-based look-up tables.

  20. Biosensors Used for Quantification of Nitrates in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Galindo Raul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is essential for the plant because it is used for the production of chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, and other cellular compounds; nitrogen is available in two forms: ammonium and nitrate. Several tools have been used to quantify nitrates in plants such as the Kjeldahl method and Dumas combustion digestion; however, they are destructive and long time-consuming methods. To solve these disadvantages, methods such as selective electrodes, optical sensors, reflectometers, and images based sensors have been developed; nonetheless, all these techniques show interference when carrying out measurements. Currently, biosensors based on genetic constructions, based on the response of promoter gene fused to Gene Fluorescent Protein (GFP, are gaining popularity, because they improve the accuracy of measurements of nitrate by avoiding the interference of carriers ion, high salt conditions, and other factors. The present review shows the different methods to quantify the nitrogen in plants; later, a biosensors perspective is presented, mainly focused on biosensors based on organism genetically modified. The review presents a list of promoter and reporter genes that could be used to develop different kind of sensors, and a perspective of sensors to measure quantitatively the nitrogen is presented.

  1. Rapid quantification of plant-powdery mildew interactions by qPCR and conidiospore counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weßling, Ralf; Panstruga, Ralph

    2012-08-31

    The powdery mildew disease represents a valuable patho-system to study the interaction between plant hosts and obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens. Numerous discoveries have been made on the basis of the quantitative evaluation of plant-powdery mildew interactions, especially in the context of hyper-susceptible and/or resistant plant mutants. However, the presently available methods to score the pathogenic success of powdery mildew fungi are laborious and thus not well suited for medium- to high-throughput analysis. Here we present two new protocols that allow the rapid quantitative assessment of powdery mildew disease development. One procedure depends on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based evaluation of fungal biomass, while the other relies on the quantification of fungal conidiospores. We validated both techniques using the powdery mildew pathogen Golovinomyces orontii on a set of hyper-susceptible and resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and found that both cover a wide dynamic range of one to two (qPCR) and four to five (quantification of conidia) orders of magnitude, respectively. The two approaches yield reproducible results and are easy to perform without specialized equipment. The qPCR and spore count assays rapidly and reproducibly quantify powdery mildew pathogenesis. Our methods are performed at later stages of infection and discern mutant phenotypes accurately. The assays therefore complement currently used procedures of powdery mildew quantification and can overcome some of their limitations. In addition, they can easily be adapted to other plant-powdery mildew patho-systems.

  2. Smart Sensor for Real-Time Quantification of Common Symptoms Present in Unhealthy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus R. Millan-Almaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to physiological function disorders are called symptoms and they are caused principally by pathogens and nutritional deficiencies. Plant symptoms are commonly used as indicators of the health and nutrition status of plants. Nowadays, the most popular method to quantify plant symptoms is based on visual estimations, consisting on evaluations that raters give based on their observation of plant symptoms; however, this method is inaccurate and imprecise because of its obvious subjectivity. Computational Vision has been employed in plant symptom quantification because of its accuracy and precision. Nevertheless, the systems developed so far lack in-situ, real-time and multi-symptom analysis. There exist methods to obtain information about the health and nutritional status of plants based on reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, but they use expensive equipment and are frequently destructive. Therefore, systems able of quantifying plant symptoms overcoming the aforementioned disadvantages that can serve as indicators of health and nutrition in plants are desirable. This paper reports an FPGA-based smart sensor able to perform non-destructive, real-time and in-situ analysis of leaf images to quantify multiple symptoms presented by diseased and malnourished plants; this system can serve as indicator of the health and nutrition in plants. The effectiveness of the proposed smart-sensor was successfully tested by analyzing diseased and malnourished plants.

  3. Smart sensor for real-time quantification of common symptoms present in unhealthy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Medina, Luis M; Osornio-Rios, Roque A; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de J; Guevara-González, Ramon G; Millan-Almaraz, Jesus R

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to physiological function disorders are called symptoms and they are caused principally by pathogens and nutritional deficiencies. Plant symptoms are commonly used as indicators of the health and nutrition status of plants. Nowadays, the most popular method to quantify plant symptoms is based on visual estimations, consisting on evaluations that raters give based on their observation of plant symptoms; however, this method is inaccurate and imprecise because of its obvious subjectivity. Computational Vision has been employed in plant symptom quantification because of its accuracy and precision. Nevertheless, the systems developed so far lack in-situ, real-time and multi-symptom analysis. There exist methods to obtain information about the health and nutritional status of plants based on reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, but they use expensive equipment and are frequently destructive. Therefore, systems able of quantifying plant symptoms overcoming the aforementioned disadvantages that can serve as indicators of health and nutrition in plants are desirable. This paper reports an FPGA-based smart sensor able to perform non-destructive, real-time and in-situ analysis of leaf images to quantify multiple symptoms presented by diseased and malnourished plants; this system can serve as indicator of the health and nutrition in plants. The effectiveness of the proposed smart-sensor was successfully tested by analyzing diseased and malnourished plants.

  4. Human error probability quantification using fuzzy methodology in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Claudio Souza do

    2010-01-01

    This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations a hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN. It was also obtained a Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) evaluation in order to classify them according to their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine these PSF actual states over the plant. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on Specialists Evaluation using interviews and questionnaires. Specialists group was composed from selected IEA-R1 operators. Specialist's knowledge representation into linguistic variables and group evaluation values were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set Theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). (author)

  5. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  6. Quantification of severe accident source terms of a Westinghouse 3-loop plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Min; Ko, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated severe accident analysis codes are used to quantify the source terms of the representative sequences identified in PSA study. The characteristics of these source terms depend on the detail design of the plant and the accident scenario. A historical perspective of radioactive source term is provided. The grouping of radionuclides in different source terms or source term quantification tools based on TID-14844, NUREG-1465, and WASH-1400 is compared. The radionuclides release phenomena and models adopted in the integrated severe accident analysis codes of STCP and MAAP4 are described. In the present study, the severe accident source terms for risk quantification of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company are quantified using MAAP 4.0.4 code. A methodology is developed to quantify the source terms of each source term category (STC) identified in the Level II PSA analysis of the plant. The characteristics of source terms obtained are compared with other source terms. The plant analyzed employs a Westinghouse designed 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with large dry containment

  7. Application of radioanalytical methods in the quantification of solute transport in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornik, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present habilitation thesis is elaborated as a compilation of published scientific papers supplemented with a commentary. The primary objective of the work was to bring the results and knowledge applicable to the further development of application possibilities of nuclear analytical chemistry, especially in the field of radioindication methods and application of positron emitters in connection with the positron emission tomography (PET) as well. In the work, these methods and techniques are developed mainly in the context of the solution of environmental issues related to the analysis and remediation of contaminated or degraded environment (water and soil), but also partially in the field of plant production or plant research. In terms of the achieved results and knowledge, the work is divided into three separated sections. The first part is dedicated to the application of radioindication methods, as well as others, non-radioanalytical methods and approaches in the characterization of plant biomass (biomass of terrestrial and aquatic mosses, and waste plant biomass) as alternative sorbents served to the separation and removal of (radio)toxic metals from contaminated or waste waters, as well as in the quantification and description of the sorption processes proceed under conditions of batch or continuous flow systems. The second part describes the results concerning on the quantification and visual description of the processes of (radio)toxic metals and microelements uptake and translocation in plant tissues using radioisotopes (β- and γ-emitters) of these metals and application of the methods of direct gamma spectrometry and autoradiography as well. The main aim of these experiments was to evaluate the possibilities of utilization of selected plant species in phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters, as well as the possibilities affecting the effectiveness of uptake and translocation of these metals in the plant tissues mainly in dependence on their

  8. Improved intake design for downstream migrating fish at hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mih, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroelectric power projects on the Columbia River which provided low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest. However, they are detrimental to anadromous fisheries resources. Anadromous fish are migratory. They begin their life in shallow mountain streams. After several months, they migrate to the ocean, where the fish grow to maturity before their return migration. Remarkably, most anadromous fish return to spawn in their natal streams. At dams, the upstream migration of grown salmon and steelhead is accomplished through fishways. The downstream migration of juveniles remains a serious problem. Juvenile fish follow the water flow during their sea-ward migration. When passing through a turbine, fish can be severely injured due to the sudden pressure drop, high velocity shear zones, and rotating turbine blades. Stunned fish that survive the gauntlet of the turbine are easy prey for sea gulls and squawfish in the tailrace of the powerhouse. Fish mortality per turbine passage is estimated at 15 percent. With nine hydropower projected on the main steam of the Columbia River, their combined mortality is very serious. The historical Columbia River anadromous run of about 12 million fish has declined to 2.5 million in recent years. Modern high-output hydraulic turbines are designed to be placed at a lower elevation to minimize cavitation damage to turbine blades. The modern design trend of deep intake submergence has caused parallel and unsteady vortex flow patterns in the forebay, resulting in a decrease in the guiding efficiency of the screens, such as at Bonneville Second Powerhouse and at Rocky Reach Project

  9. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Longo, Valter D; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-10-01

    Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality. This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was not associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05; P for trend = .33) but was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04). Plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (95% CI

  10. Spatially resolved quantification of agrochemicals on plant surfaces using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2009-12-01

    In the present study the principle of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), i.e. the detection of elements based on their characteristic X-rays, was used to localise and quantify organic and inorganic pesticides on enzymatically isolated fruit cuticles. Pesticides could be discriminated from the plant surface because of their distinctive elemental composition. Findings confirm the close relation between net intensity (NI) and area covered by the active ingredient (AI area). Using wide and narrow concentration ranges of glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, results showed that quantification of AI requires the selection of appropriate regression equations while considering NI, peak-to-background (P/B) ratio, and AI area. The use of selected internal standards (ISs) such as Ca(NO(3))(2) improved the accuracy of the quantification slightly but led to the formation of particular, non-typical microstructured deposits. The suitability of SEM-EDX as a general technique to quantify pesticides was evaluated additionally on 14 agrochemicals applied at diluted or regular concentration. Among the pesticides tested, spatial localisation and quantification of AI amount could be done for inorganic copper and sulfur as well for the organic agrochemicals glyphosate, glufosinate, bromoxynil and mancozeb. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 ...

  12. Plant-Based Lunch at Work: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Environmental Impact and Tastiness—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the environmental impact, nutrient intake, appreciation and tastiness of three buffet-style lunches served at the workplace, consisting of (1 animal-based foods; (2 plant-based foods; and (3 both animal-based and plant-based foods. Employees of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands participated in the study. Participants scored the lunch for appreciation and tastiness (scores from 1 to 10. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and land use associated with foods consumed were calculated using life cycle assessments. Nutrient intake was calculated using food composition data. The results show that both the plant-based and the combination lunch received higher scores for tastiness than the animal-based lunch. GHG emissions and land use were lowest for the plant-based lunch and highest for the animal-based lunch. The combination lunch was associated with increased fiber and decreased saturated fat intake compared to the animal-based lunch, but also lead to increased energy intake. The plant-based lunch did not increase energy intake, while increasing fiber intake and decreasing sodium (salt and saturated fat intakes. These initial results show that plant-based lunches have the potential to improve nutrient intake and tastiness while reducing environmental impact. Additional research in this field is worthwhile.

  13. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Rebecca E; Hazen, Elliott L; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J; Foley, David G; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2014-04-30

    This report describes research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  15. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  16. Stochastic study on entrainment of floating particles with intake of cooling water of a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoyu, Masatake; Wada, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The mortality of ichthyoplanktons, contained in the sea water passing through the cooling water systems of a power plant, may be associated with rising temperature and mechanical effect. In this study, the range and the rate of entrainment of the organisms like ichthyoplanktons floating in the sea caused by the intake of cooling water were stochastically investigated by simulating the average current as well as the flow caused by the intake of water and by taking into consideration random velocity fluctuation without these flows, using a mathematical model. An intake was set along the straight coastline in semi-infinite sea, and the rate of inflow of particles into the intake was simulated by a mathematical model. In the numerical simulation, the average flow as coastal current component and the flow caused by the intake of water were obtained with the hydrodynamic equations of motion and continuity, and the rate of entrainment of floating particles was examined by giving turbulence to the particles in the sea and by calculating the position of each particle every moment. The results are as follows; 1) The range of entrainment of floating particles by the intake of cooling water and its probability were obtained in consideration of the flow rate of cooling water, coast current velocity and diffusion coefficient as parameters. 2) The extent of inflow of floating particles considerably varied with tidal amplitude, diffusion coefficient and the flow rate of cooling water in the sea where the coastal flow has clear periodicity. 3) The extent of entrainment was considerably influenced by the steady current velocity, the velocity distribution in offshore direction and the intake volume in the sea where periodicity is not observed. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M. Pasiakos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years. Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  18. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  19. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  20. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the I nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  1. An Overview of Risk Quantification Issues for Digitalized Nuclear Power Plants using a Static Fault Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Kim, Man Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Ho Jung; Eom, Heung Seop; Chol, Jong Gyun; Jang, Seung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Risk caused by safety-critical instrumentation and control (I and C) systems considerably affects overall plant risk. As digitalization of safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants progresses, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required and must be included in a plant safety model in order to assess this risk effect on the plant. Unique features of a digital system cause some challenges in risk modeling. This article aims at providing an overview of the issues related to the development of a static fault-tree-based risk model. We categorize the complicated issues of digital system probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) into four groups based on their characteristics: hardware module issues, software issues, system issues, and safety function issues. Quantification of the effect of these issues dominates the quality of a developed risk model. Recent research activities for addressing various issues, such as the modeling framework of a software-based system, the software failure probability and the fault coverage of a self monitoring mechanism, are discussed. Although these issues are interrelated and affect each other, the categorized and systematic approach suggested here will provide a proper insight for analyzing risk from a digital system

  2. Power plant intake quantification of wheat straw composition for 2nd generation bioethanol optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Carina J.; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2010-01-01

    to error of prediction levels at 8–9%. Models for arabinan and lignin were marginally less good, and especially for lignin a further expansion of the feasibility dataset was deemed necessary. The results are related to significant influences from sub-sampling/mass reduction errors in the laboratory regimen...

  3. Electrochemical Quantification of the Antioxidant Capacity of Medicinal Plants Using Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Rodríguez-Sevilla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The working area of a screen-printed electrode, SPE, was modified with the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr using different immobilization methods, namely entrapment with water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, cross-linking using glutaraldehyde (GA, and cross-linking using GA and human serum albumin (HSA; the resulting electrodes were termed SPE/Tyr/PVA, SPE/Tyr/GA and SPE/Tyr/HSA/GA, respectively. These biosensors were characterized by means of amperometry and EIS techniques. From amperometric evaluations, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Km′, of each biosensor was evaluated while the respective charge transfer resistance, Rct, was assessed from impedance measurements. It was found that the SPE/Tyr/GA had the smallest Km′ (57 ± 7 µM and Rct values. This electrode also displayed both the lowest detection and quantification limits for catechol quantification. Using the SPE/Tyr/GA, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was determined from infusions prepared with “mirto” (Salvia microphylla, “hHierba dulce” (Lippia dulcis and “salve real” (Lippia alba, medicinal plants commonly used in Mexico.

  4. Electrochemical Quantification of the Antioxidant Capacity of Medicinal Plants Using Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Erika; Ramírez-Silva, María-Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Ibarra-Escutia, Pedro; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The working area of a screen-printed electrode, SPE, was modified with the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr) using different immobilization methods, namely entrapment with water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cross-linking using glutaraldehyde (GA), and cross-linking using GA and human serum albumin (HSA); the resulting electrodes were termed SPE/Tyr/PVA, SPE/Tyr/GA and SPE/Tyr/HSA/GA, respectively. These biosensors were characterized by means of amperometry and EIS techniques. From amperometric evaluations, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Km′, of each biosensor was evaluated while the respective charge transfer resistance, Rct, was assessed from impedance measurements. It was found that the SPE/Tyr/GA had the smallest Km′ (57 ± 7) μM and Rct values. This electrode also displayed both the lowest detection and quantification limits for catechol quantification. Using the SPE/Tyr/GA, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) was determined from infusions prepared with “mirto” (Salvia microphylla), “hHierba dulce” (Lippia dulcis) and “salve real” (Lippia alba), medicinal plants commonly used in Mexico. PMID:25111237

  5. Electrochemical quantification of the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plants using biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Erika; Ramírez-Silva, María-Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Ibarra-Escutia, Pedro; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel

    2014-08-08

    The working area of a screen-printed electrode, SPE, was modified with the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr) using different immobilization methods, namely entrapment with water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cross-linking using glutaraldehyde (GA), and cross-linking using GA and human serum albumin (HSA); the resulting electrodes were termed SPE/Tyr/PVA, SPE/Tyr/GA and SPE/Tyr/HSA/GA, respectively. These biosensors were characterized by means of amperometry and EIS techniques. From amperometric evaluations, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Km', of each biosensor was evaluated while the respective charge transfer resistance, Rct, was assessed from impedance measurements. It was found that the SPE/Tyr/GA had the smallest Km' (57 ± 7) µM and Rct values. This electrode also displayed both the lowest detection and quantification limits for catechol quantification. Using the SPE/Tyr/GA, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) was determined from infusions prepared with "mirto" (Salvia microphylla), "hHierba dulce" (Lippia dulcis) and "salve real" (Lippia alba), medicinal plants commonly used in Mexico.

  6. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra, Mercè; Bulló, Mónica; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Zazpe, Itziar; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    Phytosterols in natural foods are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption. The Mediterranean diet is rich in phytosterol-containing plant foods. To assess whether increasing phytosterol intake from natural foods was associated with a cholesterol-lowering effect in a substudy of a randomized trial of nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets for primary cardiovascular prevention (PREDIMED study). One hundred and six high cardiovascular risk subjects assigned to two Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, which are phytosterol-rich foods, or advice on a low-fat diet. Outcomes were 1-year changes in nutrient intake and serum levels of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols. Average phytosterol intake increased by 76, 158 and 15 mg/day in participants assigned VOO, nuts and low-fat diets, respectively. Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, changes in outcome variables were observed only in those in the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, with increases in intake of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (P natural foods appear to be bioactive in cholesterol lowering.

  7. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy

    2016-01-01

    to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...

  8. Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.; Vickerman, M. B.; Keith, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of plants, animals and humans is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by larger plants and animals with humans is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

  9. Isolation and quantification of pinitol in Argyrolobium roseum plant, by 1H-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigations on ethanolic extract of Argyrolobium roseum led to the isolation of Pinitol as the major constituent of the plant. Pinitol is chemically known as 3-O-methyl-D-Chiro-inositol and has been found to possess anti-diabetic activity. It helps in the regeneration of beta cells, present in the areas of the pancreas called as islets – of Langerhans. These cells make and release insulin, a hormone which controls the level of glucose in the blood. Pinitol was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the plant and a sensitive & reliable method, based on Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PNMR, was developed and used as an analytical tool for quantification and identification of this relatively UV insensitive compound in the alcoholic extract of the plant. The method involves the use of pyrazinamide (an anti-tuberculosis drug, as a reference. Validation of the method was carried out by preparing a known concentration of an artificial mixture of pinitol and pyrazinamide. The recovery of pinitol in the mixture was in the range of 98.5–101.3%. Pinitol in pure form was isolated from the ethanolic extract of A. roseum by repeated column chromatography over silica gel followed by crystallization in methanol. Pinitol isolated from the plant was identified on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT (45°, 90° and 135° experiments and mass spectral data. The method was successfully applied for the quantitation of pinitol in various extracts of the said plant.

  10. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  11. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification of urinary proanthocyanin A2 dimer and its potential use as a biomarker of cranberry intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason M; Ren, Xiaobai; Zampariello, Carly; Polasky, Daniel A; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a biomarker for the consumption of cranberries has confounded the interpretation of several studies investigating the effect of cranberry products, especially juices, on health outcomes. The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of the proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in human urine and validate urinary proanthocyanin dimer A-2 as a biomarker of cranberry intake. Five healthy, nonsmoking, premenopausal women (20-30 years of age, body mass index: 18.5-25 kg/m(2) ) were assigned to consume a cranberry beverage containing 140 mg proanthocyanin and 35 kilocalories at 237 mL/day, according to a weekly dosing schedule for 7 weeks. Eleven 24 h and morning spot urine samples each were collected from each subject. A reliable, sensitive method for the detection of proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in urine using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed with a limit of quantitation of 0.25 ng/mL and a relative standard deviation of 7.26%, precision of 5.7%, and accuracy of 91.7%. While proanthocyanin dimer A-2 was quantifiable in urine, it did not appear to be excreted in a concentration that corresponded to the dosing schedule and intake of cranberry juice. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Plan of intakes for establish more Shimane-3 in Shimane Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Tsuyoshi; Nakamoto, Kenji; Fukumoto, Tadashi; Kanda, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Shimane-3 reactor (ABWR) has been constructed to aim at operating in December, 2011. Outline of intakes works are stated. The environmental loads and cost were reduced by changing intake works from the embedded steel pipe method to the undersea tunnel method. Plan of intakes, development of Pneumatic Caisson intake, and investigation of bedrock of submarine in the surrounding of intake are reported. The construction planning of Pneumatic Caisson intake consists of the foundation work, installation of intake unit, connection of intake tunnels and flow of water. The uniformity intake structure was investigated by the hydraulic model tests and the numerical analysis. Dredging of rocks in the foundation spot of intake and construction of intakes on land are under construction. A construction work plan, design for intakes, the embedded steel pipe method, the undersea tunnel method, Pneumatic Caisson intake, topographic features and intake tanks are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. Optical technologies applied alongside on-site and remote approaches for climate gas emission quantification at a wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Jerker; Delre, Antonio; Tumlin, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Plant-integrated and on-site gas emissions were quantified from a Swedish wastewater treatment plant by applying several optical analytical techniques and measurement methods. Plant-integrated CH4 emission rates, measured using mobile ground-based remote sensing methods, varied between 28.5 and 33.......5 kg CH4 h−1, corresponding to an average emission factor of 5.9% as kg CH4 (kg CH4production) −1, whereas N2O emissions varied between 4.0 and 6.4 kg h−1, corresponding to an average emission factor of 1.5% as kg N2O-N (kg TN influent) −1. Plant-integrated NH3 emissions were around 0.4 kg h−1...... quantifications were approximately two-thirds of the plant-integrated emission quantifications, which may be explained by the different timeframes of the approaches and that not all emission sources were identified during on-site investigation. Off-site gas emission quantifications, using ground-based remote...

  14. Feasibility Analysis of a Seabed Filtration Intake System for the Shoaiba III Expansion Reverse Osmosis Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez, Luis Raúl

    2012-06-01

    The ability to economically desalinate seawater in arid regions of the world has become a vital advancement to overcome the problem on freshwater availability, quality, and reliability. In contrast with the major capital and operational costs for desalination plants represented by conventional open ocean intakes, subsurface intakes allow the extraction of high quality feed water at minimum costs and reduced environmental impact. A seabed filter is a subsurface intake that consists of a submerged slow sand filter, with benefits of organic matter removal and pathogens, and low operational cost. A site investigation was carried out through the southern coast of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia, from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology down to 370 kilometers south of Jeddah. A site adjacent to the Shoaiba desalination plant was selected to assess the viability of constructing a seabed filter. Grain sieve size analysis, porosity and hydraulic conductivity permeameter measurements were performed on the collected sediment samples. Based on these results, it was concluded that the characteristics at the Shoaiba site allow for the construction of a seabed filtration system. A seabed filter design is proposed for the 150,000 m3/d Shoaiba III expansion project, a large-scale Reverse Osmosis desalination plant. A filter design with a filtration rate of 7 m/d through an area of 6,000 m2 is proposed to meet the demand of one of the ten desalination trains operating at the plant. The filter would be located 90 meters offshore where hydraulic conductivity of the sediment is high, and mud percentage is minimal. The thin native marine sediment layer is insufficient to provide enough water filtration, and consequently the proposed solution involves excavating the limestone rock and filling it with different layers of non-native sand and gravel of increasing grain size. An initial assessment of the area around Shoaiba showed similar sedimentological conditions that could

  15. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Brown, P; Morrison, M; Krause, L; Davies, P S W

    2016-10-03

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype.

  16. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  17. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  18. Quantification of bisphenol A, 353-nonylphenol and their chlorinated derivatives in drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Antoine; Migeot, Virginie; Cariot, Axelle; Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Legube, Bernard; Rabouan, Sylvie

    2012-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are of major concern to public health due to their high potential for human exposure and to their demonstrated toxicity (endocrine disruptor effect). A limited number of studies have shown that BPA and NP are present in drinking water. The chlorinated derivatives that may be formed during the chlorination step in drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) exhibit a higher level of estrogenic activity than their parent compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate BPA, 353NP, and their chlorinated derivative concentrations using an accurate and reproducible method of quantification. This method was applied to both surface and treated water samples from eight French DWTPs producing from surface water. Solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed in order to quantify target compounds from water samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 ng/L for BPA and chlorinated BPA and from 1.4 to 63.0 ng/L for 353NP and chlorinated 353NP. BPA and 353NP were found in most analyzed water samples, at a level ranging from 2.0 to 29.7 ng/L and from 0 to 124.9 ng/L, respectively. In most of DWTPs a decrease of BPA and 353NP was observed between surface water and treated water (36.6 to 78.9 % and 2.2 to 100.0 % for BPA and 353NP, respectively). Neither chlorinated BPA nor chlorinated 353NP was detected. Even though BPA and 353NP have been largely removed in the DWTPs studied, they have not been completely eliminated, and drinking water may consequently remain a source of human exposure.

  19. Increases in plasma plant sterols stabilize within four weeks of plant sterol intake and are independent of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, R T; Koppenol, W P; Garczarek, U; Otten-Hofman, A; Fuchs, D; Wagner, F; Trautwein, E A

    2016-04-01

    Plant sterols (PS) lower plasma LDL-cholesterol through partial inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Although PS themselves are poorly absorbed, increased intakes of PS result in elevated plasma concentrations. In this paper, we report time curves of changes in plasma PS during 12 weeks of PS intake. Furthermore, the impact of cholesterol synthesis and absorption on changes in plasma PS is explored. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with the main aim to investigate the effects of PS on vascular function (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01803178). Hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy men and women (n = 240) consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (3 g/d) for 12 weeks after a 4-week run-in period. Blood sampling was performed at week 0, 4, 8 and 12. Basal cholesterol-standardized concentrations of lathosterol and sitosterol + campesterol were used as markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. In the PS group, plasma sitosterol and campesterol concentrations increased within the first 4 weeks of intervention by 69% (95%CI: 58; 82) starting at 7.2 μmol/L and by 28% (95%CI: 19; 39) starting at 11.4 μmol/L, respectively, and remained stable during the following 8 weeks. Placebo-corrected increases in plasma PS were not significantly different between high and low cholesterol synthesizers (P-values >0.05). Between high and low cholesterol absorbers, no significant differences were observed, except for the cholesterol-standardized sum of four major plasma PS (sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol) showing larger increases in low absorbers (78.3% (95%CI: 51.7; 109.5)) compared to high absorbers (40.8% (95%CI: 19.9; 65.5)). Increases in plasma PS stabilize within 4 weeks of PS intake and do not seem impacted by basal cholesterol synthesis or absorption efficiency. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01803178). Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of

  20. Application of large-scaled pre-cast components for the construction of water intake for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnicki, M.

    1976-01-01

    Problem of the construction of water intake for a 4000 MW nuclear power plant located at the seashore is solved. The advantages of application of large-size pre-cast components are presented,. The constructional solutions and proposed technologies are described in detail. (A.S.)

  1. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  2. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  3. Retrospective dosimetry of an accidental intake case of radioruthenium-106 at the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Osamu; Kanai, Katsuta; Takada, Chie; Ito, Kimio; Momose, Takumaro; Miyabe, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    On November 30, 1978, two workers in the acid recovery cell of the nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plant of JAEA-NFCEL were involved in an accident in which they became unconscious due to lack of oxygen. They were rescued immediately by other workers and were given artificial respiration to restore their normal breathing. Subsequent measurements by the whole-body counter showed that they were contaminated internally with 106 Ru. Prolonged lung monitoring was carried out for one of them. A significantly high activity of 106 Ru was obtained in the lung monitoring on the day of the accident. The physicochemical characteristics of the incorporated radioactive materials were not observed. In order to perform more reasonable internal dose assessment, the interpretation of the bioassay datasets of the worker was made based on the guideline demonstrated in the EU project IDEAS. The effective half-life of the materials in the lungs was determined to be 140 days which leads to the default Type S absorption type in the HRTM and the f 1 value was estimated to be less than 0.005 which is one-tenth of the default value. Simultaneous intakes via inhalation and ingestion were also suggested from several pieces of evidence although pure inhalation was assumed for internal dose assessment at the time of the accident. The aerosol size of the materials was not determined due to a lack of information if assuming simultaneous intakes; however, the resulting committed effective dose was about 1 mSv and its variation was small against the aerosol size ranging from 1 μm to 20 μm. (author)

  4. Extraction and quantification of "condensed tannins" as a measure of plant anti-herbivore defence? Revisiting an old problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Baumann, Birgit; Andary, Claude; Linsenmair, K Eduard; McKey, Doyle

    2002-11-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds in leaf extracts often serve as a measure of plant anti-herbivore defence. This method suffers from the multifunctionality of phenolics and from problems with their colorimetric quantification. Here we present further evidence for the pertinence of these problems. Contents of condensed tannins (CCT) were spectrophotometrically quantified in leaf extracts of 11 closely related mimosoid species, and Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars were reared on artificial diet containing these extracts. The relationship of CCT with caterpillar growth differed considerably among plant species, since both positive and negative correlations were detected. There was, however, a negative correlation of CCT with fungal spore germination, indicating a role of these compounds in resistance to fungi. Detailed knowledge on the structure and biological function of defensive compounds and on the overall composition of leaves is required to estimate a plant's defensive efficacy against a particular group of enemies.

  5. Detection and Quantification of the Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophyte Beauveria bassiana in Plants by Nested and Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Landa, Blanca B; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The described protocol allows detecting as low as 10 fg the entomopathogenic fungal endophyte Beauveria bassiana in host plants by using a two-step nested PCR with the ITS1F/ITS4 and BB.fw and BB.rv primer pairs. On the other hand, a qPCR protocol using BB.fw and BB.rv primers is also available allowing the quantification of up to 26 fg of B. bassiana DNA per 20 ng of leaf DNA.

  6. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  7. Water intake and fish protection sytems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, D.O.; Lukashevich, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Various designs of water intake and fish protection systems for TPP and NPP are considered. Water intake systems are divided into shore and outside shore types. There are two main modifications of the latter - opened and closed. The closed systems are more complex for construction and maintenance, but their negative influence on environment is considerably weaker. In disigning of water intake systems basic efforts are directed at optimization of a water intake device disposition, development of reliable repellents for fish, as well as devices for fish catch and return from the water intake region. A special attention is paid to the problem of preventing their icing. The conclusion of expedience of introducing into the water purification system reliable, soft mechanical barriers for fish equipped with means affecting its behaviour and preventing contacts of fish and water intake system elements was drawn

  8. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in potato plants with zebra chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Abad, Jorge A; French-Monar, Ronald D; Rascoe, John; Wen, Aimin; Gudmestad, Neil C; Secor, Gary A; Lee, Ing-Ming; Duan, Yongping; Levy, Laurene

    2009-07-01

    The new Liberibacter species, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) recently associated with potato/tomato psyllid-transmitted diseases in tomato and capsicum in New Zealand, was found to be consistently associated with a newly emerging potato zebra chip (ZC) disease in Texas and other southwestern states in the USA. A species-specific primer LsoF was developed for both quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) to detect and quantify Lso in infected samples. In multiplex qPCR, a plant cytochrome oxidase (COX)-based probe-primer set was used as a positive internal control for host plants, which could be used to reliably access the DNA extraction quality and to normalize qPCR data for accurate quantification of the bacterial populations in environment samples. Neither the qPCR nor the cPCR using the primer and/or probe sets with LsoF reacted with other Liberibacter species infecting citrus or other potato pathogens. The low detection limit of the multiplex qPCR was about 20 copies of the target 16S rDNA templates per reaction for field samples. Lso was readily detected and quantified in various tissues of ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas. A thorough but uneven colonization of Lso was revealed in various tissues of potato plants. The highest Lso populations were about 3x10(8) genomes/g tissue in the root, which were 3-order higher than those in the above-ground tissues of potato plants. The Lso bacterial populations were normally distributed across the ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas, with 60% of ZC-affected potato plants harboring an average Lso population from 10(5) to 10(6) genomes/g tissue, 4% of plants hosting above 10(7) Lso genomes/g tissue, and 8% of plants holding below 10(3) Lso genomes/g tissue. The rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable multiplex qPCR showed its potential to become a powerful tool for early detection and quantification of the new Liberibacter species associated

  9. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24?hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, p...

  10. Targeted LC-MS/MS method for quantification of Plant Lignans and Enterolignans in Biofluids from Humans and Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lignans have gained nutritional interest due to their promising role in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. However, epidemiological studies are in need of more evidence to link the intake of lignans to this promising role. In this context, it is necessary to study large population groups...... to obtain sufficient statistical power. Therefore, there is a demand for fast, sensitive, and accurate methods for quantitation with high throughput of samples. This paper presents a validated LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of eight plant lignans (matairesinol, hydroxymatairesinol...

  11. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  12. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas

  13. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  14. Quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in North American plants and honey by LC-MS: single laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Brown, Paula N

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of naturally occurring compounds produced by many flowering plants around the World. Their presence as contaminants in food systems has become a significant concern in recent years. For example, PAs are often found as contaminants in honey through pollen transfer. A validated method was developed for the quantification of four pyrrolizidine alkaloids and one pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide in plants and honey grown and produced in British Columbia. The method was optimised for extraction efficiency from the plant materials and then subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ and method linearity. The PA content in plants ranged from1.0 to 307.8 µg/g with repeatability precision between 3.8 and 20.8% RSD. HorRat values were within acceptable limits and ranged from 0.62 to 1.63 for plant material and 0.56-1.82 for honey samples. Method accuracy was determined through spike studies with recoveries ranging from 84.6 to 108.2% from the raw material negative control and from 82.1-106.0 % for the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in corn syrup. Based on the findings in this single-laboratory validation, this method is suitable for the quantitation of lycopsamine, senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, heliosupine and echimidine in common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), blueweed (Echium vulgare) and hound's tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and for PA quantitation in honey and found that PA contaminants were present at low levels in BC honey.

  15. Simultaneous intake of beta-glucan and plant stanol esters affects lipid metabolism in slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2007-03-01

    Intake of food products rich in water-soluble fiber beta-glucan and products enriched with plant stanol esters lower serum cholesterol. Combining 2 functional food ingredients into one food product may achieve additional reductions of serum cholesterol. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous intake of beta-glucan plus plant stanol esters on lipid metabolism in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. In a randomized, controlled, 3-period crossover study, 40 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women received muesli in random order twice a day for 4 wk, which provided, in total, 5 g control fiber from wheat (control muesli), 5 g oat beta-glucan (beta-glucan muesli), or 5 g oat beta-glucan plus 1.5 g plant stanols (combination muesli). beta-Glucan muesli decreased serum LDL cholesterol by 5.0% compared with control muesli (P = 0.013). Combination muesli reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.6% compared with control muesli (P < 0.001), and by 4.4% compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.036). Serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ after the 3 treatments. Compared with control muesli, beta-glucan muesli increased bile acid synthesis (P = 0.043) and decreased cholesterol absorption (P = 0.011). Addition of plant stanols did not influence bile acid synthesis but decreased cholesterol absorption (P < 0.001) and raised cholesterol synthesis (P = 0.016) compared with control muesli, and the plant stanols decreased cholesterol absorption compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.004). The combination muesli decreased serum concentrations of sitostanol compared with control muesli (P = 0.010). Plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants did not differ after the 3 treatments. beta-Glucan muesli effectively lowered serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. The addition of plant stanol esters to beta-glucan-enriched muesli further lowered serum LDL cholesterol, although effects were slightly less than predicted.

  16. Microstructure, quantification and control of dislocations in bast-type plant fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lester, Catherine L.; Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Bast-type plant fibres are increasingly being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A central aspect for this application is the existence of dislocations in the cell wall of plant fibres, i.e. regions of misaligned...... cellulose microfibrils, which are believed to form weak points leading to reduced mechanical properties. In the present study, microstructural observations of dislocations are made using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy. An experimental protocol using polarized optical microscopy and image...... that this leads to a reduction in the content of dislocations. This is indicating that dislocations in the cell wall of plant fibres are changeable structures. Preliminary work is presented where plant fibres are exposed to physical treatments involving moisture and mechanical straining in order to change...

  17. Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli

    2013-01-01

    Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries...

  18. Consequences of a plant-based diet with low dairy consumption on intake of bone-relevant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the extent to which a plant-based dietary intervention that discourages consumption of dairy products and meat influences bone-relevant nutrients. A randomized controlled study design was used to evaluate the Coronary Health Improvement Project. The Project is a heart disease prevention intervention administered in an intensive 40-hour educational course delivered over a 4-week period. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. After 6 weeks, participants in the intervention group compared with the control group experienced significant increases in magnesium and daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains but significant decreases in dairy servings per day and calcium and vitamin D from food. After 6 months, those in the intervention group showed significant increases in daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains and significant decreases in dairy servings per day, daily meat consumption, and protein, phosphorous, calcium, total calcium, and vitamin D from food. Serum calcium levels are the primary determinant of parathyroid hormone (PTH) release, and within 6 weeks, the intervention group's PTH levels were elevated from baseline and significantly different from the control group's PTH levels. At 6 months, urinary type I collagen N-telopeptide (NTx) levels were significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. The Coronary Health Improvement Project increases the intake of important food items but decreases calcium and vitamin D consumption. There is also some evidence of an increase in NTx biomarkers, consistent with increased bone resorption.

  19. Mesocosm-Scale Experimental Quantification of Plant-Fungi Associations on Carbon Fluxes and Mineral Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M. Y.; Palmer, B.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Beerling, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The rise of land plants in the Paleozoic is classically implicated as driving lower atmospheric CO2 levels through enhanced weathering of Ca and Mg bearing silicate minerals. However, this view overlooks the fact that plants coevolved with associated mycorrhizal fungi over this time, with many of the weathering processes usually ascribed to plants actually being driven by the combined activities of roots and mycorrhizal fungi. Here we present initial results from a novel mesocosm-scale laboratory experiment designed to allow investigation of plant-driven carbon flux and mineral weathering at different soil depths under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (1500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. Four species of plants were chosen to address evolutionary trends in symbiotic mycorrhizal association and rooting depth on biologically driven silicate weathering under the different CO2 regimes. Gymnosperms were used to investigate potential differences in weathering capabilities of two fungal symbioses: Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides (arbuscular mycorrhizal, AM) and Pinus sylvestris (ectomycorrhizal, EM), and the shallow rooted ancient fern, Osmunda regalis, used to provide a contrast to the three more deeply rooted trees. Plants were grown in a cylindrical mesocosm with four horizontal inserts at each depth. These inserts are a mesh-covered dual-core unit whereby an inner core containing silicate minerals can be rotated within an outer core. The mesh excludes roots from the cylinders allowing fungal-rock pairings to be examined at each depth. Each core contains either basalt or granite, each with severed (rotated cores) or intact (static cores) mycorrhizae. This system provides a unique opportunity to examine the ability of a plant to weather minerals with and without its symbiotic fungi. Preliminary results indicate marked differences in nutritional and water requirements, and response to elevated CO2 between the species. The bulk solution chemistries (p

  20. Cadmium localization and quantification in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana using micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, F. J.; Ynsa, M. D.; Domínguez-Solís, J. R.; Gotor, C.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Romero, L. C.

    2002-04-01

    Remediation of metal-contaminated soils and waters poses a challenging problem due to its implications in the environment and the human health. The use of metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals, including Cd, from soil and aqueous streams has been proposed as a possible solution to this problem. The process of using plants for environmental restoration is termed phytoremediation. Cd is a particularly favourable target metal for this technology because it is readily transported and accumulated in the shoots of several plant species. This paper investigates the sites of metal localization within Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, when plants are grown in a cadmium-rich environment, by making use of nuclear microscopy techniques. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses were performed on the scanning proton microprobe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), showing that cadmium is sequestered within the trichomes on the leaf surface. Additionally, regular PIXE analyses were performed on samples prepared by an acid digestion method in order to assess the metal accumulation of such plants.

  1. Validation for The Quantification of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata Nees Plant Using HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandi Syukri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to develop quantitative analysis of isolated andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata and different solvent for prelimenary studies to preperation Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS using HPLC. The separation was acquired on Sunfire C18 column with an isocratic mixture of methanol and water at a ratio of 6:4, v/v as a mobile phase. The method to determine the content of isolated andrographolide showed an adequate precision, with a RSD smaller than 1%. The accuracy was analyzed by adding the standard andrographolide, and good recovery values were obtained for all concentrations used. The HPLC method developed in this study showed specificity and selectivity with linearity in the working range and good precision and accuracy, making it very suitable for the quantification of isolated andrographolide. Compared to the standard, the purity of the isolated andrographolide was 95.74 ± 0.29 %. Prelimenary study to determined the highest solubility of isolated andrographolide in oil, surfactant and co-surfactant phases for preperation of SNEDDS were obtained 1.226 ± 0.009 of Capryol-90, 2.965 ± 0.014 of tween 20, and  6.074 ± 0.101 mg mL-1 of PEG 400, respectively. Conclusion, this method suitable used to determination solublity of isolated andrographolide for preperation SNEDDS.

  2. Uncertainty Quantification of the Real-Time Reserves for Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göçmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    In order to retain the system stability, the wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services. One of those services is reserve power. Here in this study, we focus on the real-time reserves which can be traded in the balancing markets and are currently used for compensation under...... mandatory downregulation stated by the transmission system operators (TSOs). The PossPOW project (Possible Power of down-regulated Offshore Wind power plants) developed a real-time power curve of available power for offshore wind farms for use during down-regulation. The follow-up Concert project......(control and uncertainties in real-time power curves of offshore wind power plants) aims to quantify and finally reduce the uncertainty in reserve power, bringing the PossPOW algorithm and the state of the art forecasting methods together. The experiments designed to test the available power estimated by the Poss...

  3. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  4. Quantification of protein and total nitrogen in some plant foods of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are consumed as fruits and vegetables. The study involved the comparison of these plant protein values by selecting them and subjecting them to heat processing and to preparation of canned vegetables. The estimated protein values estimated are 57.0% for Arum, 44.86% for Portulaca, 28.47% for Chlorophytum, 22.69% ...

  5. A quick and robust method for quantification of the hypersensitive response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar N. Johansson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most studied defense reactions of plants against microbial pathogens is the hypersensitive response (HR. The HR is a complex multicellular process that involves programmed cell death at the site of infection. A standard method to quantify plant defense and the HR is to measure the release of cellular electrolytes into water after infiltration with pathogenic bacteria. In this type of experiment, the bacteria are typically delivered into the plant tissue through syringe infiltration. Here we report the development of a vacuum infiltration protocol that allows multiple plant lines to be infiltrated simultaneously and assayed for defense responses. Vacuum infiltration did not induce more wounding response in Arabidopsis leaf tissue than syringe inoculation, whereas throughput and reproducibility were improved. The method was used to study HR-induced electrolyte loss after treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 harboring the effector AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2 or AvrRps4. Specifically, the influence of bacterial titer on AvrRpm1-induced HR was investigated. Not only the amplitude, but also the timing of the maximum rate of the HR reaction was found to be dose-dependent. Finally, using vacuum infiltration, we were able quantify induction of phospholipase D activity after AvrRpm1 recognition in leaves labeled with 33PO4.

  6. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  7. Sea-water intake tower works for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Norimoto; Sugaya, Yoshinobu; Sugimoto, Tadao

    1976-01-01

    It was determined to adopt tunnel system based on the conclusion of negotiation with local people, specifically fishermen, for the sea water intake arrangement in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. The main factors for determining the location of the intake tower included marine conditions such as waves and littoral sand drift, and the sea-bottom topographic features and geology of tunnel route, for which field examination, hydraulic experiments and the research and investigation on the method of construction were carried out. These results in the No.2 tower installation at the point 65 m to the east of the No.1 tower. The construction of the tower is described on the manufacture and conveyance of steel caisson, land works at Omaezaki and temporary assembly works on the sea. Then the details of tower installation and the works on site are reported. Fortunately the difficult sea works have been satisfactorily completed earlier than planned, without any accident. The construction facilities utilizing a pilot tunnel seem to have made the better achievement than expected. In spite of the results, the lifting up, off-shore conveyance, and installation of the intake tower caisson, a superheavy structure of weighting up to total 2900 ton, were critical works. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Sea-water intake tower works for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sataki, N; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1976-01-01

    It was determined to adopt tunnel system based on the conclusion of negotiation with local people, specifically fishermen, for the sea water intake arrangement in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. The main factors for determining the location of the intake tower included marine conditions such as waves and littoral sand drift, and the sea-bottom topographic features and geology of tunnel route, for which field examination, hydraulic experiments and the research and investigation on the method of construction were carried out. These results in the No.2 tower installation at the point 65 m to the east of the No.1 tower. The construction of the tower is described on the manufacture and conveyance of steel caisson, land works at Omaezaki and temporary assembly works on the sea. Then the details of tower installation and the works on site are reported. Fortunately the difficult sea works have been satisfactorily completed earlier than planned, without any accident. The construction facilities utilizing a pilot tunnel seem to have made the better achievement than expected. In spite of the results, the lifting up, off-shore conveyance, and installation of the intake tower caisson, a superheavy structure of weighting up to total 2900 ton, were critical works.

  9. Quantification of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula in composting plants: assessment of the relevance of S. rectivirgula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jenny; Klug, Kerstin; van Kampen, Vera; Jäckel, Udo

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols in composting plants can lead to negative health effects on compost workers. Health complaints vary between cough, irritation of the eyes and the skin, sinusitis, or dyspnea among others. It is fact that compost materials harbor high concentrations of microorganisms, which were aerosolized during handling compost. Within the present study, total cell numbers between 3.4 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(8) cell counts per m(3) air were determined after 4',6-Diamidin-2-phenylindol DAPI staining in 124 samples from German composting plants. Special attention should be paid to some specific microorganisms, which are able to cause health complaints. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, known to be one of the major causes of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA, also called hypersensitivity pneumonitis, HP), was often found in environments of agricultural production, where the classical form of EAA ('farmer's lung disease') is common, but also in composting plants. In Germany, cases are known where workers had to terminate their work due to this disease. However, up to now, the relevance of S. rectivirgula at composting plants is unexplained. This study showed that high concentrations of airborne S. rectivirgula were found in composting plants similar to that found in agricultural production. Altogether, in 86.7% of the 124 analyzed samples, S. rectivirgula was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Estimated concentrations ranged between 1.24 × 10(2) cell counts of S. rectivirgula per cubic meter air next to the rotted residues and 1.5 × 10(7) cell counts next to a converter. Furthermore, our methodical proceedings were verified. To analyze DNA extraction limits through the amount of cells within one sample, the DNA concentration was compared with total cell counts (TCCs). Altogether, when TCC was DNA extraction assay, no DNA was measurable; when TCC reached 3.5 × 10(6) cells, DNA was always detectable by fluorometric method. To

  10. Identification and Quantification of Several Mammalian Steroid Hormones in Plants by UPLC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simerský, Radim; Novák, Ondřej; Morris, David; Pouzar, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2009), s. 125-136 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) * Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) * Immunoaffinity purification * Steroids * Plant extracts * Digitalis purpurea * Nicotiana tabacum * Inula helenium Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2009

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-90) - Naches River Water Treatment Plant Intake Screening Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Shannon C. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-09-26

    BPA is proposing to fund the upgrade of the intake structure for the City of Yakima’s Water Treatment Plant. The existing traveling water screen at the intake does not achieve the current fish screening criteria as defined by Washington State Law and as provided in guidance from the National Marine Fisheries Service. Permanent modifications to the intake system including installation of a fish screen and bypass system are necessary to eliminate mortality and take of ESA listed and non-listed salmonids, as well as resident fish at this location. This project will include: modifications to bypass the existing intake system; the construction of a new intake structure with approved fish screens; installation of a 48-inch diameter pipeline connecting the new intake to the existing intake structure; a reduced intake channel separating PacifiCorp Powerhouse return water/ Naches River water from the irrigation and Wapatox waste ditch return water; modifications to the auxiliary headgates; increased height on the upstream end of the channel wall; and a new outfall structure with plunge pool and upstream migrant barriers.

  12. Quality factors quantification/assurance for software related to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance plan is needed to guarantee the software quality. The use of such a plan involves activities that should take place all along the life cycle, and which can be evaluated using the so called quality factors. This is due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be measured, but some of its manifestations can be used for this purpose. In the present work, a methodology to quantify a set of quality factors is proposed, for software based systems to be used in safety related areas in nuclear power plants. (author) [es

  13. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  14. Shadow prices of emerging pollutants in wastewater treatment plants: Quantification of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver-Domingo, A; Fuentes, R; Hernández-Sancho, F

    2017-12-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designed to remove mainly the organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and suspended solids from wastewater but are not capable of removing chemicals of human origin, such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The presence of PPCPs in wastewater has environmental effects on the water bodies receiving the WWTP effluents and renders the effluent as unsuitable as a nonconventional water source. Considering PPCPs as non-desirable outputs, the shadow prices methodology has been implemented using the output distance function to measure the environmental benefits of removing five PPCPs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, carbamazepine and trimethoprim) from WWTP effluents discharged to three different ecosystems (wetland, river and sea). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen show the highest shadow prices of the sample for wetland areas. Their values are 128.2 and 11.0 €/mg respectively. These results represent a proxy in monetary terms of the environmental benefit achieved from avoiding the discharge of these PPCPs in wetlands. These results suggest which PPCPs are urgent to remove from wastewater and which ecosystems are most vulnerable to their presence. The findings of this study will be useful for the plant managers in order to make decisions about prioritization in the removal of different pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vivo Quantification of Cell Coupling in Plants with Different Phloem-Loading Strategies[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Uptake of photoassimilates into the leaf phloem is the key step in carbon partitioning and phloem transport. Symplasmic and apoplasmic loading strategies have been defined in different plant taxa based on the abundance of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem. For apoplasmic loading to occur, an absence of plasmodesmata is a sufficient but not a necessary criterion, as passage of molecules through plasmodesmata might well be blocked or restricted. Here, we present a noninvasive, whole-plant approach to test symplasmic coupling and quantify the intercellular flux of small molecules using photoactivation microscopy. Quantification of coupling between all cells along the prephloem pathways of the apoplasmic loader Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum showed, to our knowledge for the first time in vivo, that small solutes like sucrose can diffuse through plasmodesmata up to the phloem sieve element companion cell complex (SECCC). As expected, the SECCC was found to be symplasmically isolated for small solutes. In contrast, the prephloem pathway of the symplasmic loader Cucurbita maxima was found to be well coupled with the SECCC. Phloem loading in gymnosperms is not well understood, due to a profoundly different leaf anatomy and a scarcity of molecular data compared with angiosperms. A cell-coupling analysis for Pinus sylvestris showed high symplasmic coupling along the entire prephloem pathway, comprising at least seven cell border interfaces between mesophyll and sieve elements. Cell coupling together with measurements of leaf sap osmolality indicate a passive symplasmic loading type. Similarities and differences of this loading type with that of angiosperm trees are discussed. PMID:22422939

  16. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  17. Quantification of plant cell coupling with three-dimensional photoactivation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, J; Schulz, A

    2012-07-01

    Plant cells are directly connected by plasmodesmata that form channels through the cell wall and enable the intercellular movement of cytosolic solutes, membrane lipids and signalling molecules. Transport through plasmodesmata is regulated not only by a fixed size-exclusion limit, but also by physiological and pathological adaptation. To understand plant cell communication, carbon allocation and pathogen attack, the capacities for a specific molecule to pass a specific cell-wall interface is an essential parameter. So far, the degree of cell coupling was derived from frequency and diameter of plasmodesmata in relevant tissues as assessed by electron microscopy of fixed material. However, plasmodesmata functionality and capacity can only be determined in live material, not from electron microscopy, which is static and prone to fixation artefacts. Plasmodesmata functionality was a few times assessed using fluorescent tracers with diffusion properties similar to cytosolic solutes. Here, we used three-dimensional photoactivation microscopy to quantify plasmodesmata-mediated cell-wall permeability between living Cucurbita maxima leaf mesophyll cells with caged fluorescein as tracer. For the first time, all necessary functional and anatomical data were gathered for each individual cell from three-dimensional time series. This approach utilized a confocal microscope equipped with resonant scanner, which provides the high acquisition speed necessary to record optical sections of whole cells and offers time resolution high enough to follow the kinetics of photoactivation. The results were compared to two-dimensional measurements, which are shown to give a good estimate of cell coupling adequate for homogenous tissues. The two-dimensional approach is limited whenever tissues interfaces are studied that couple different cell types with diverse cell geometries. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Intake of the plant lignans secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol and pinoresinol in Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milder, I.E.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Arts, I.C.W.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    Enterolignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) are phytoestrogens that are formed by the colonic microflora from plant lignans. They may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Initially, only secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were considered to be enterolignan

  19. Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a ground-based remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The direct release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is important because it contributes to the global greenhouse gases (GHGs) release and strongly effects the WWTP carbon footprint. Biological nitrogen removal technologies could increase the direct emission of N2O (IPCC, 2006), while CH4 losses are of environmental, economic and safety concern. Currently, reporting of N2O and CH4 emissions from WWTPs are performed mainly using methods suggested by IPCC which are not site specific (IPCC, 2006). The dynamic tracer dispersion method (TDM), a ground based remote sensing approach implemented at DTU Environment, was demonstrated to be a novel and successful tool for full-scale CH4 and N2O quantification from WWTPs. The method combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the facility with concentration measurements downwind of the plant (Mønster et al., 2014; Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM in general is based on the assumption that a tracer gas released at an emission source, in this case a WWTP, disperses into the atmosphere in the same way as the GHG emitted from process units. Since the ratio of their concentrations remains constant along their atmospheric dispersion, the GHG emission rate can be calculated using the following expression when the tracer gas release rate is known: EGHG=Qtr*(CGHG/Ctr)*(MWGHG/MWtr) EGHG is the GHG emission in mass per time, Qtr is the tracer release in mass per time, CGHG and Ctr are the concentrations measured downwind in parts per billion subtracted of their background values and integrated over the whole plume, and MWGHG and MWtr are the molar weights of GHG and tracer gas respectively (Mønster et al. 2014). In this study, acetylene (C2H2) was used as tracer. Downwind plume concentrations were measured driving along transects with two cavity ring down spectrometers (Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM was successfully applied in different seasons at several Scandinavian WWTPs characterized by

  20. Quantification of tomato and Arabidopsis mobile RNAs trafficking into the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Patel, Beneeta; Stromberg, Verlyn; Westwood, James

    2013-12-01

    The cross-species movement of mRNA from hosts to the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona has been reported previously, but has not been characterized quantitatively or with attention to uptake patterns and the fate of specific mRNAs. Real-time PCR and RNA-Seq approaches were used to identify and characterize mobile transcripts from tomato and Arabidopsis hosts into C. pentagona. Tomato transcripts of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive (SlGAI) and Cathepsin D Proteinase Inhibitor (SlPI) differed significantly in the rate of uptake into the parasite, but were then distributed over the length of the parasite shoot. When parasite shoots were detached from the hosts, the SlPI transcript concentrations in the parasite showed the greatest decrease within the first 8 h. Arabidopsis transcripts also varied in mobility into the parasite, and assay of specific regions of a Salt-inducible Zinc Finger Protein (AtSZF1) transcript revealed distinct patterns of abundance in the parasite. The uptake and distribution of host mRNAs into C. pentagona appears to vary among mRNAs, and perhaps even with the region of the mRNA under investigation. We propose that mRNAs traffic into the parasite via multiple routes, or that other mechanisms for selective uptake and mobility exist between host and parasite. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  2. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using 13C Lignin as Internal Standard for Pyrolysis-GC-SIM-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erven, Gijs; de Visser, Ries; Merkx, Donny W H; Strolenberg, Willem; de Gijsel, Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2017-10-17

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric 13 C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS). In addition, relative response factors (RRFs) for the various pyrolysis products obtained were determined and applied. First, 12 C and 13 C lignin were isolated from nonlabeled and uniformly 13 C labeled wheat straw, respectively, and characterized by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and py-GC/MS. The two lignin isolates were found to have identical structures. Second, 13 C-IS based lignin quantification by py-GC-SIM-MS was validated in reconstituted biomass model systems with known contents of the 12 C lignin analogue and was shown to be extremely accurate (>99.9%, R 2 > 0.999) and precise (RSD corn stover, and sugar cane bagasse), and lignin contents were in good agreement with the total gravimetrically determined lignin contents. Our robust method proves to be a promising alternative for the high-throughput quantification of lignin in milled biomass samples directly and simultaneously provides a direct insight into the structural features of lignin.

  3. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M. [Electricite De France (France)

    2000-05-01

    EDF (Electricite de France) owns 57 operating reactors distributed on 20 sites. Individual monitoring for intakes of radionuclides is done by whole body gamma countings and excretion bioassays. This monitoring concerns all EDF workers (about 20,000), and also subcontractor personnel (about 40,000 people per year). The aim of monitoring is to detect any intake above the recording level and to assess, as precisely as possible, internal doses. ICRP publications no.30 and 54 are used for internal dose calculations. Whole body countings (approximately 200,000 per year) are made by occupational health services on each nuclear site. The equipment consists of: 1. two whole body counters with two large NaI detectors, the approximate detection limit is 150 Bq in Co-60 for a 1-minute count. 2. one shielded chair with two smallers NaI detectors (one for thyroid and one for thoraco-abdominal region), specially designed for iodine contamination case, or casualties on stretchers. A special medical software program incorporates: 3. an operating system containing a module to ensure the quality control of measurements. 4. a measurement interpretation system with a screening histogram facility for activity alarm levels and spectrometry gamma analysis. 5. an administrative database for nationwide monitoring of all EDF and non-EDF workers. An EDF central radiotoxicology laboratory, located in the suburbs of Paris, analyses all the biological samples (about 8,000 per year, urines, faeces or nose blows) and centralises the results. At the occupational health service's request, the following analyses can be done: 1. tritium activity measurements (liquid scintillation) with a detection limit of 75 Bq per litre, 2. gamma spectrometry (HPGe detectors) on urines and faeces ash samples with a detection limit of 0.5 Bq per sample for one hours of counting. 3. alpha spectrometry (after chemical treatment) on urines and faeces ash samples with a lower detection limit of 0.2 mBq per sample

  4. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M.

    2000-01-01

    EDF (Electricite de France) owns 57 operating reactors distributed on 20 sites. Individual monitoring for intakes of radionuclides is done by whole body gamma countings and excretion bioassays. This monitoring concerns all EDF workers (about 20,000), and also subcontractor personnel (about 40,000 people per year). The aim of monitoring is to detect any intake above the recording level and to assess, as precisely as possible, internal doses. ICRP publications no.30 and 54 are used for internal dose calculations. Whole body countings (approximately 200,000 per year) are made by occupational health services on each nuclear site. The equipment consists of: 1. two whole body counters with two large NaI detectors, the approximate detection limit is 150 Bq in Co-60 for a 1-minute count. 2. one shielded chair with two smallers NaI detectors (one for thyroid and one for thoraco-abdominal region), specially designed for iodine contamination case, or casualties on stretchers. A special medical software program incorporates: 3. an operating system containing a module to ensure the quality control of measurements. 4. a measurement interpretation system with a screening histogram facility for activity alarm levels and spectrometry gamma analysis. 5. an administrative database for nationwide monitoring of all EDF and non-EDF workers. An EDF central radiotoxicology laboratory, located in the suburbs of Paris, analyses all the biological samples (about 8,000 per year, urines, faeces or nose blows) and centralises the results. At the occupational health service's request, the following analyses can be done: 1. tritium activity measurements (liquid scintillation) with a detection limit of 75 Bq per litre, 2. gamma spectrometry (HPGe detectors) on urines and faeces ash samples with a detection limit of 0.5 Bq per sample for one hours of counting. 3. alpha spectrometry (after chemical treatment) on urines and faeces ash samples with a lower detection limit of 0.2 mBq per sample for 72

  5. Evaluation of a barrier net used to mitigate fish impingement at a Hudson River power plant intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.; Matousek, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A multifilament nylon net of 0.95-cm bar mesh was deployed as a physical barrier to fish in front of the Bowline Point power plant cooling water intake on the Hudson River from 1976 to 1985. The barrier net was deployed during the historical peak impingement months of October-May. The primary species impinged on the intake screens during this period were young-of-year and yearling white perch, striped bass, rainbow smelt, alewife, blue-back herring, and American shad, generally ranging from 5 to 10 cm in total length. When the barrier net was deployed, median impingement of all fish was 91% lower than during comparable periods before the net was installed. A mark-recapture population estimate indicated that 230,000 yearling striped bass and white perch were in the embayment outside the net in April 1982; over a 9-d study period, only 1.6% of this estimated population was impinged. Concurrent survival probability studies of fish marked and released at locations inside and outside the barrier net showed that fish released inside had 72% lower survival (P

  6. Dose estimation from food intake due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Takahashi, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, concerns have arisen about the radiation safety of food raised at home and abroad. Therefore, many measures have been taken to address this. To evaluate the effectiveness of these measures, dose estimation due to food consumption has been attempted by various methods. In this paper, we show the results of dose estimation based on the monitoring data of radioactive materials in food published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Radioactive Material Response Working Group in the Food Sanitation Subcommittee of the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council reported such dose estimation results on October 31, 2011 using monitoring data from immediately after the accident through September, 2011. Our results presented in this paper were the effective dose and thyroid equivalent dose integrated up to December 2012 from immediately after the accident. The estimated results of committed effective dose by age group derived from the radioiodine and radiocesium in food after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed the highest median value (0.19 mSv) in children 13-18 years of age. The highest 95% tile value, 0.33 mSv, was shown in the 1-6 years age range. These dose estimations from food can be useful for evaluation of radiation risk for individuals or populations and for radiation protection measures. It would also be helpful for the study of risk management of food in the future. (author)

  7. Intake and transformation to a glycoside of (Z)-3-hexenol from infested neighbors reveals a mode of plant odor reception and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koichi; Matsui, Kenji; Iijima, Yoko; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Muramoto, Shoko; Ozawa, Rika; Uefune, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Alamgir, Kabir Md.; Akitake, Shota; Nobuke, Tatsunori; Galis, Ivan; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Takabayashi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Plants receive volatile compounds emitted by neighboring plants that are infested by herbivores, and consequently the receiver plants begin to defend against forthcoming herbivory. However, to date, how plants receive volatiles and, consequently, how they fortify their defenses, is largely unknown. In this study, we found that undamaged tomato plants exposed to volatiles emitted by conspecifics infested with common cutworms (exposed plants) became more defensive against the larvae than those exposed to volatiles from uninfested conspecifics (control plants) in a constant airflow system under laboratory conditions. Comprehensive metabolite analyses showed that only the amount of (Z)-3-hexenylvicianoside (HexVic) was higher in exposed than control plants. This compound negatively affected the performance of common cutworms when added to an artificial diet. The aglycon of HexVic, (Z)-3-hexenol, was obtained from neighboring infested plants via the air. The amount of jasmonates (JAs) was not higher in exposed plants, and HexVic biosynthesis was independent of JA signaling. The use of (Z)-3-hexenol from neighboring damaged conspecifics for HexVic biosynthesis in exposed plants was also observed in an experimental field, indicating that (Z)-3-hexenol intake occurred even under fluctuating environmental conditions. Specific use of airborne (Z)-3-hexenol to form HexVic in undamaged tomato plants reveals a previously unidentified mechanism of plant defense. PMID:24778218

  8. Plant protein intake is associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 and serum bicarbonate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M; Miller, Edgar R; Bazzano, Lydia A; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Porter, Anna C; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2012-07-01

    Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of the lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Observational cross-sectional study. A total of 2,938 participants with CKD and information on their dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Percentage of total protein intake from plant sources (percent plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items using the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO₃), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin levels. We modeled the association between percent plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes status, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, income, smoking status, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24-hour urinary sodium concentration, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and use of diuretics. Higher percent plant protein was associated with lower FGF-23 (P = .05) and higher HCO₃ (P = .01) levels, but not with serum phosphate or parathyroid hormone concentrations (P = .9 and P = .5, respectively). Higher percent plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (P = .2), lower serum albumin (P = .2), or lower hemoglobin (P = .3) levels. The associations of percent plant protein with FGF-23 and HCO₃ levels did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5), or total protein intake (≤0.8 g/kg/day vs. >0.8 g/kg/day; P-interaction >.10 for each). This is a cross-sectional study; determination of percent plant protein using the Diet History Questionnaire has not been validated. Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF-23 and

  9. The influence of acid rain on the intake of trace elements into rice plant from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Maeno, Tomokazu

    1995-01-01

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots by irrigation using the six conditions of artificial acid rain waters (pH: 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5) and tap water (pH: 7.5). The rice grain yielded were separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff, and they were reduced to powder one by one. Twenty six element contents in the three parts of grain (each 14 samples) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. The contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Rb, Mo in the polished rice increased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for the elements Na, Al, Cl, Sc, Mn, Co, V. The enrichment factor of trace elements to soils were calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff. The high enrichments of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se, Cu and Ni were observed in the polished rice. The elements K, Rb, Mn, Mg and Cr were highly concentrated in the bran. (author)

  10. Real-time PCR quantification of the plant growth promoting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1 in maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tomás Pellizzaro; do Amaral, Fernanda Plucani; Dall'Asta, Pamela; Brod, Fábio Cristiano Angonesi; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2014-07-01

    The plant growth promoting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 is an endophytic diazotroph found in several economically important crops. Considering that methods to monitor the plant-bacteria interaction are required, our objective was to develop a real-time PCR method for quantification of PGPB H. seropedicae in the rhizosphere of maize seedlings. Primer pairs were designed, and their specificity was verified using DNA from 12 different bacterial species. Ten standard curves of qPCR assay using HERBAS1 primers and tenfold serial dilutions of H. seropedicae SmR1 DNA were performed, and PCR efficiency of 91 % and correlation coefficient of 0.99 were obtained. H. seropedicae SmR1 limit of detection was 10(1) copies (corresponding to 60.3 fg of bacterial DNA). qPCR assay using HERBAS1 was used to detect and quantify H. seropedicae strain SmR1 in inoculated maize roots, cultivated in vitro and in pots, harvested 1, 4, 7, and 10 days after inoculation. The estimated bacterial DNA copy number per gram of root was in the range 10(7)-10(9) for plants grown in vitro and it was around 10(6) for plants grown in pots. Primer pair HERBAS1 was able to quantify H. seropedicae SmR1, and this assay can be useful for monitoring plant-bacteria interaction.

  11. High throughput multiplex real time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants

    OpenAIRE

    Otti, Gerald; Bouvaine, Sophie; Kimata, Bernadetha; Mkamillo, Geoffrey; Kumar, Lava; Tomlins, Keith; Maruthi, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause t...

  12. Distribution of a pelagic tunicate, Salpa fusiformis in warm surface current of the eastern Korean waters and its impingement on cooling water intakes of Uljin nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jinho; Choi, Hyun Woo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dongsung; Lee, Jae Hac

    2008-07-01

    Impingement of a large amount of gelatinous plankton, Salpa fusiformis on the seawater intake system-screens in a nuclear power plant at Uljin was firstly recorded on 18th June 2003. Whole amount of the clogged animals was estimated were presumptively at 295 tons and the shortage of cooling seawater supply by the animal clogging caused 38% of decrease in generation capability of the power plant. Zooplankton collection with a multiple towing net during the day and at night from 5 to 6 June 2003 included various gelatinous zooplanktons known to be warm water species such as salps and siphonophores. Comparatively larger species, Salpa fusiformis occupied 25.4% in individual density among the gelatinous plankton and showed surface distribution in the depth shallower than thermocline, performing little diel vertical migration. Temperature, salinity and satellite data also showed warm surface current predominated over the southern coastal region near the power plant in June. The results suggested that warm surface current occasionally extended into the neritic region may transfer S. fusiformis, to the waters off the power plant. The environmental factors and their relation to ecobiology of the large quantity of salpa population that are being sucked into the intake channel of the power plant are discussed.

  13. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  14. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  15. Calibration transfer of a Raman spectroscopic quantification method for the assessment of liquid detergent compositions between two at-line instruments installed at two liquid detergent production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouckaert, D; Uyttersprot, J-S; Broeckx, W; De Beer, T

    2017-09-01

    Calibration transfer of partial least squares (PLS) quantification models is established between two Raman spectrometers located at two liquid detergent production plants. As full recalibration of existing calibration models is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly, it is investigated whether the use of mathematical correction methods requiring only a handful of standardization samples can overcome the dissimilarities in spectral response observed between both measurement systems. Univariate and multivariate standardization approaches are investigated, ranging from simple slope/bias correction (SBC), local centring (LC) and single wavelength standardization (SWS) to more complex direct standardization (DS) and piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The results of these five calibration transfer methods are compared reciprocally, as well as with regard to a full recalibration. Four PLS quantification models, each predicting the concentration of one of the four main ingredients in the studied liquid detergent composition, are aimed at transferring. Accuracy profiles are established from the original and transferred quantification models for validation purposes. A reliable representation of the calibration models performance before and after transfer is thus established, based on β-expectation tolerance intervals. For each transferred model, it is investigated whether every future measurement that will be performed in routine will be close enough to the unknown true value of the sample. From this validation, it is concluded that instrument standardization is successful for three out of four investigated calibration models using multivariate (DS and PDS) transfer approaches. The fourth transferred PLS model could not be validated over the investigated concentration range, due to a lack of precision of the slave instrument. Comparing these transfer results to a full recalibration on the slave instrument allows comparison of the predictive power of both Raman

  16. Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method for quantification of trans-resveratrol in the plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Žika S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New, simple, cost effective, accurate and reproducible RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of trans-resveratrol in the extracts of grape exocarp and seeds. The method has proved to be simpler and faster than available methods. Methanol was used as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 cm3 min-1, while the quantification was effected at 306 nm. The separation was performed at 35°C using a C18 column. The results showed that the peak area response was linear in the concentration range of 1-40 μg cm-3. The values of LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.125 and 0.413 μg cm-3, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined using DPPH assay. The ability of DPPH radicals inhibition decreases in the following order: the extract of grape exocarp > trans-resveratrol standard > the extract of grape seeds. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRp-34012

  17. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  18. Study on the extraction, purification and quantification of jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng Juan; Jin, You Ju; Xu, Xing You; Lu, Rong Chun; Chen, Hua Jun

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are important plant hormones. Plant hormones are difficult to analyse because they occur in small concentrations and other substances in the plant interfere with their detection. To develop a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid extraction and purification of IAA, ABA and JA from various plant species. Samples were prepared by extraction of plant tissues with methanol and ethyl acetate. Then the extracts were further purified and enriched with C(18) cartridges. The final extracts were derivatised with diazomethane and then measured by GC-MS. The results of the new methodology were compared with those of the Creelman and Mullet procedure. Sequential elution of the assimilates from the C(18 )cartridges revealed that IAA and ABA eluted in 40% methanol, while JA subsequently eluted in 60% methanol. The new plant hormone extraction and purification procedure produced results that were comparable to those obtained with the Creelman and Mullet's procedure. This new procedure requires only 0.5 g leaf samples to quantify these compounds with high reliability and can simultaneously determine the concentrations of the three plant hormones. A simple, inexpensive method was developed for determining endogenous IAA, ABA and JA concentrations in plant tissue.

  19. Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Omar, Jone; Navarro, Patricia; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2014-11-01

    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants.

  20. Simultaneous flow cytometric quantification of plant nuclear DNA contents over the full range of described angiosperm 2C values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry provides a rapid, accurate, and simple means to determine nuclear DNA contents (C-value) within plant homogenates. This parameter is extremely useful in a number of applications in basic and applied plant biology; for example, it provides an important starting point for projects involving whole genome sequencing, it facilitates characterization of plant species within natural and agricultural settings, it allows facile identification of engineered plants that are euploid or that represent desired ploidy classes, it points toward studies concerning the role of C-value in plant growth and development and in response to the environment and in terms of evolutionary fitness, and, in uncovering new and unexpected phenomena (for example endoreduplication), it uncovers new avenues of scientific enquiry. Despite the ease of the method, C-values have been determined for only around 2% of the described angiosperm (flowering plant) species. Within this small subset, one of the most remarkable observations is the range of 2C values, which spans at least two orders of magnitude. In determining C-values for new species, technical issues are encountered which relate both to requirement for a method that can provide accurate measurements across this extended dynamic range, and that can accommodate the large amounts of debris which accompanies flow measurements of plant homogenates. In this study, the use of the Accuri C6 flow cytometer for the analysis of plant C-values is described. This work indicates that the unusually large dynamic range of the C6, a design feature, coupled to the linearity of fluorescence emission conferred by staining of nuclei using propidium iodide, allows simultaneous analysis of species whose C-values span that of almost the entire described angiosperms. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Assessment of iodine in the diet of people living around a nuclear reprocessing plant. Dose-related consequences of an intake of 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Berard, P.; Malarbet, J.L.; Exmelin, L.; Royer, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is important that in radioiodine dosimetry for low levels of daily intake, allowance must be made for the normal daily intake of stable iodine. This intake varies from one region to another, and variations are observed from one person to the next within a region, depending on eating habits. Measuring iodine in the urine over 24 hours can indirectly assess these variations. Analysis of the total iodine in the urine was carried out for 69 French people living in a temperate maritime region on in mainland France. This study justifies individual assessment of the coefficient of iodine transfer to the thyroid by means of this survey based on the urinary iodine analysis. The consequences for man of the release of 129 I around a nuclear reprocessing plant were analyzed by applying the methodology published previously by the authors. A software program based on the iodine biokinetic model recommended by the ICRP was used to calculate the daily urine excretion of 129 I for five different diets of total iodide in a ratio of 10 -4 for 129 I/ 127 I. This model makes it possible to set a practical detection limit of 20 mBq (0.003 μg). This approach is important from a practical point of view for health physicists involved in routine monitoring of workers in the nuclear field and members of the public exposed to radioiodine released into the environment. (author)

  2. Lowered risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and intake of plant vitamin, fresh fish, green tea and coffee: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lun Hsu

    Full Text Available A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of adult diet on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC in Taiwan.A total of 375 incident NPC cases and 327 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and residence were recruited between July 1991 and December 1994. A structured questionnaire inquiring complete dietary history, socio-demographic characteristics, and other potential confounding factors was used in the personal interview. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj with 95% confidence interval (CI after accounting for known risk factors.Fresh fish (OR(adj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake, green tea (OR(adj, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.91 for drinking ≥1 times/week vs. never and coffee (OR(adj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.85 for drinking ≥0.5 times/week vs. never were inversely associated with the NPC risk. No association with NPC risk was observed for the intake of meats, salted fish, fresh vegetables, fruits and milk. Intake of vitamin A from plant sources was associated with a decreased NPC risk (OR(adj, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94 for the highest vs. lowest tertile.The study findings suggest that certain adult dietary patterns might protect against the development of NPC.

  3. Detection, characterization and quantification of salicylic acid conjugates in plant extracts by ESI tandem mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Victoria; Vicent, Cristian; Cerezo, Miguel; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Dean, John; Flors, Victor

    2012-04-01

    An approach for the detection and characterization of SA derivatives in plant samples is presented based on liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometric techniques. Precursor ion scan methods using an ESI triple quadrupole spectrometer for samples from plants challenged with the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 allowed us to detect two potential SA derivatives. The criterion used to consider a potential SA derivative is based on the detection of analytes in the precursor ion scan chromatogram upon selecting m/z 137 and m/z 93 that correspond to the salicylate and its main product ion, respectively. Product ion spectra of the newly-detected analytes as well as accurate m/z determinations using an ESI Q-time-of-flight instrument were registered as means of characterization and strongly suggest that glucosylated forms of SA at the carboxylic and at the phenol functional groups are present in plant samples. The specific synthesis and subsequent chromatography of salicylic glucosyl ester (SGE) and glucosyl salicylate (SAG) standards confirmed the chemical identity of both peaks that were obtained applying different tandem mass spectrometric techniques and accurate m/z determinations. A multiple reaction monitoring method has been developed and applied to plant samples. The advantages of this LC-ESI-MS/MS methods with respect to the traditional analysis of glucosyl conjugates are also discussed. Preliminary results revealed that SA and the glucosyl conjugates are accumulated in Arabidopsis thaliana in a time dependent manner, accordingly to the up-regulation of SA-dependent defenses following P. syringae infection. This technique applied to plant hormones or fragment ions may be useful to obtain chemical family members of plant metabolites and help identify their contribution in the signaling of plant defenses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of five phytohormones in medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis under abscisic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Song, Xiaona; Qiao, Jing; Zang, Yimei; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-07-01

    An efficient simplified method was developed to determine multiple classes of phytohormones simultaneously in the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative mode was used for quantification. The five studied phytohormones are gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid (SA). Only 100 mg of fresh leaves was needed, with one purification step based on C18 solid-phase extraction. Cinnamic acid was chosen as the internal standard instead of isotope-labeled internal standards. Under the optimized conditions, the five phytohormones with internal standard were separated within 4 min, with good linearities and high sensitivity. The validated method was applied to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the five phytohormones in G. uralensis under ABA stress. The levels of GA3, ABA, JA, and SA in leaves of G. uralensis were increased at different times and with different tendencies in the reported stress mode. These changes in phytohormone levels are discussed in the context of a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Understanding this mechanism will provide a good chance of revealing the mutual interplay between different biosynthetic routes, which could further help elucidate the mechanisms of effective composition accumulation in medicinal plants.

  5. Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Omar, Jone; Navarro, Patricia; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2014-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means

  6. A quantification of predation rates, indirect positive effects on plants, and foraging variation of the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Dyer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available While a clear consensus is emerging that predators can play a major role in shaping terrestrial communities, basic natural history observations and simple quantifications of predation rates in complex terrestrial systems are lacking. The potential indirect effect of a large predatory ant, Paraponera clavata Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae, on herbivores was determined on rainforest trees at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Prey and other food brought back to nests by 75 colonies of P. clavata were quantified, taking into account temporal, seasonal, and microhabitat variation for both foraging activity and composition of foraging booty. The dispersion and density of ant colonies and combined density with the mean amounts of prey retrieval were used to calculate rates of predation per hectare in the two forests. In addition, herbivory was measured on trees containing P. clavata and on trees where the ants were not foraging. Colonies at La Selva brought back significantly more nectar plus prey than those at Barro Colorado Island, but foraging patterns were similar in the two forests. At both forests, the ants were more active at night, and there was no significant seasonal or colonial variation in consumption of nectar, composition of foraging booty, and overall activity of the colonies. At La Selva, trees containing P. clavata colonies had the same levels of folivory as nearest neighbor trees without P. clavata but had significantly lower folivory than randomly selected trees. Predation by this ant was high in both forests, despite its omnivorous diet. This insect predator is part of potentially important top-down controls in these wet and moist forests.

  7. Confirmation and quantification of strigolactones, germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche, produced by cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Awad, Ayman A; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    The germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were examined in detail. Seeds of cotton were germinated and grown on glass wool wetted with sterile distilled water in sterile filter units. The root exudate was collected daily and extracted with ethyl acetate. Each of these ethyl acetate extracts was analyzed directly by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results demonstrate that cotton roots exuded strigol and strigyl acetate, but no other known strigolactones such as orobanchol and alectrol. The production of strigol was detected even in the root exudate collected during the first 24 h of incubation and reached a maximum 5-7 days later. The average exudation of strigol and strigyl acetate during the incubation period was ca. 15 and 2 pg/plant/day, respectively, indicating that strigol mainly contributed to germination stimulation by the cotton root exudate.

  8. Uprooting force balance for pioneer woody plants: A quantification of the relative contribution of above- and below-ground plant architecture to uprooting susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Skorko, K.; Stella, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Cottonwood (Populus), willow (Salix), and tamarisk (Tamarix) populate riparian areas in many dryland regions, and their recruitment depends heavily on hydrogeomorphic conditions. The survival of pioneer woody seedlings depends in part on the establishment of root systems capable of anchoring plants in subsequent floods, and this root system development in turn influences the cohesion that plants provide to bars. The factors influencing the anchoring ability and resistance to scour of woody seedlings include plant frontal area and flexibility, root structure, and water table elevation. This study aims to quantify the factors comprising the force balance to uproot woody seedlings and saplings in two field sites characterized by different hydrologic conditions. The Bill Williams River (AZ) is an impounded river with elevated water table elevations produced by dam-released base flows. The Bitterroot River (MT) is an unimpounded river with a snowmelt hydrograph and seasonal fluctuations in river and water table elevation. We simulate uprooting from flooding events by saturating substrates and applying force near the base of the plant in a lateral, downstream direction until uprooting occurs, for a range of plant sizes but with a focus on small (plants, with cottonwood and tamarisk seedlings showing greater variability than willow. In contrast, root length and stem diameter are only weakly correlated with pull-out force. By combining pull test results with measurements of geomorphic and groundwater conditions, this study provides insights into the relative contribution of a plant's above-ground and below-ground architecture to uprooting potential and into the feedbacks between vegetation and morphodynamics on river bars.

  9. Development of Wall-Thinning Evaluation Procedure for Nuclear Power Plant Piping—Part 1: Quantification of Thickness Measurement Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs. Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  10. Enhancing sediment distribution at the vicinity of power plant intakes using double rows of vanes and groins (Case study: New tebbin power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahgoub

    2013-12-01

    The study results showed that, in case of vanes absence, sediments with rates 1–2 m3/week were stuck within the sediment trap under the winter conditions. Also, the results indicated that the submerged vanes play an important role in preventing the sediment intrusion. Also, it was clear that using groins might lead to enhancing the sediment distribution at the intake vicinity.

  11. An approach for assessing potential sediment-bound contaminant threats near the intake of a drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    To assist in assessing a potential contaminated sediment threat near a drinking water intake in a large lake, a technique known as the fingerprint analysis of leachate contaminants (FALCON), was investigated and enhanced to help draw more statistically significant definitive conclusions. This represents the first application of this approach, originally developed by the USEPA to characterize and track leachate penetration in groundwater and contaminant migration from waste and landfill sites, in a large lake from the point-of-view of source water protection. FALCON provided valuable information regarding contaminated sediment characterization, source attribution, and transport within a surface water context without the need for knowledge of local hydrodynamic conditions, potentially reducing reliance on complicated hydrodynamic analysis. A t-test to evaluate the significance of correlations was shown to further enhance the FALCON procedure. In this study, the sensitivity of FALCON was found to be improved by using concentration data from both conserved organics and heavy metals in combination. Furthermore, data analysis indicated that it may be possible to indirectly assess the success of remediation efforts (and the corresponding need to plan for a treatment upgrade in the event of escalating contaminant concentrations) by examining the temporal change in correlation between the source and intake sediment fingerprints over time. This method has potential for widespread application in situations where conserved contaminants such as heavy metals and higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are being or have previously been deposited in sediment somewhere in, or within range of, an intake protection zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid and novel discrimination and quantification of oleanolic and ursolic acids in complex plant extracts using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-Comparison with HPLC methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G.; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Troganis, Anastassios; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

    2009-01-01

    A novel strategy for NMR analysis of mixtures of oleanolic and ursolic acids that occur in natural products is described. These important phytochemicals have similar structure and their discrimination and quantification is rather difficult. We report herein the combined use of proton-carbon heteronuclear single-quantum coherence ( 1 H- 13 C HSQC) and proton-carbon heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation ( 1 H- 13 C HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in the identification and quantitation of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)in plant extracts of the Lamiaceae and Oleaceae family. The combination of 1 H- 13 C HSQC and 1 H- 13 C HMBC techniques allows the connection of the proton and carbon-13 spins across the molecular backbone resulting in the identification and, thus, discrimination of oleanolic and ursolic acid without resorting to physicochemical separation of the components. The quantitative results provided by 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR data were obtained within a short period of time (∼14 min) and are in excellent agreement with those obtained by HPLC, which support the efficiency of the suggested methodology

  13. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  14. Detection and quantification of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea in bait plants and potato fields in Colombia using QPCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Bastidas, Nevar; Morales, Juan Gonzalo; Gonzalez Jaimes, Paola; Gutierrez, Pablo Andres; Marin Montoya, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, potato crops (Solanum tuberosum, S. phureja) have been seriously affected by powdery scab; a disease caused by Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (Sss). In Colombia, asymptomatic detection of Sss has been achieved with bait plants, PCR of its regions and ELISA tests. Unfortunately, these techniques have low sensitivity and may require long processing times. In this work, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was tested for detection of Sss using different sets of primers. Primers SsTQF1-SsTQR1, Spon421F-Spon494R and SscolF-SscolR (designed in this study), were tested using SYBR green, while primers sponfsponr were tested using the Taqman probe sponp. Primers Spon421F-Spon494R was discarded due to lack of specificity. Standard curves were obtained from serial dilutions of Cystosori. the 20 N. benthamiana and potato bait plants evaluated tested positive for Sss using primers SsTQF1-SsTQR1 (Ct: 10.57-29.34) and Sscolf-SscolR (Ct: 14.39-34.08) and 19 samples were positive with primers SponF-SponR-SponP, with Ct values ranging between 15,63 and 38,93. Sss was detected in 17 out of 20 root samples from potato crops in la Union (Antioquia) using primers SscolF-SscolRt with an estimated concentration of 6470 to 1,39x10 1 0 cystosori/ mL. these results suggest high levels of sss in the potato fields from this region and recall the importance of strengthening seed-certification programs in Colombia.

  15. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991

  16. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  17. A systematic methodology for the robust quantification of energy efficiency at wastewater treatment plants featuring Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S; Hospido, A; Lema, J M; Mauricio-Iglesias, M

    2018-05-10

    This article examines the potential benefits of using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for conducting energy-efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). WWTPs are characteristically heterogeneous (in size, technology, climate, function …) which limits the correct application of DEA. This paper proposes and describes the Robust Energy Efficiency DEA (REED) in its various stages, a systematic state-of-the-art methodology aimed at including exogenous variables in nonparametric frontier models and especially designed for WWTP operation. In particular, the methodology systematizes the modelling process by presenting an integrated framework for selecting the correct variables and appropriate models, possibly tackling the effect of exogenous factors. As a result, the application of REED improves the quality of the efficiency estimates and hence the significance of benchmarking. For the reader's convenience, this article is presented as a step-by-step guideline to guide the user in the determination of WWTPs energy efficiency from beginning to end. The application and benefits of the developed methodology are demonstrated by a case study related to the comparison of the energy efficiency of a set of 399 WWTPs operating in different countries and under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Neurological syndromes linked with the intake of plants and fungi containing a toxic component (I). Neurotoxic syndromes caused by the ingestion of plants, seeds and fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    A wide range of plants, seeds and fruits used for nutritional and medicinal purposes can give rise to neurotoxic symptoms. We review the neurological pathology associated with the acute or chronic consumption of plants, seeds and fruits in human beings and in animals. Of the plants that can trigger acute neurotoxic syndromes in humans, some of the most notable include Mandragora officinalis, Datura stramonium, Conium maculatum (hemlock), Coriaria myrtifolia (redoul), Ricinus communis, Gloriosa superba, Catharanthus roseus, Karwinskia humboldtiana and Podophyllum pelatum. We also survey different neurological syndromes linked with the ingestion of vegetable foodstuffs that are rich in cyanogenic glycosides, Jamaican vomiting sickness caused by Blighia sapida, Parkinson dementia ALS of Guam island and exposition to Cycas circinalis, Guadeloupean parkinsonism and exposition to Annonaceae, konzo caused by ingestion of wild manioc and neurolathyrism from ingestion of Lathyrus sativus, the last two being models of motor neurone disease. Locoism is a chronic disease that develops in livestock feeding on plants belonging to Astragalus and Oxytropis sp., Sida carpinifolia and Ipomea carnea, which are rich in swainsonine, a toxin that inhibits the enzyme alpha mannosidase and induces a cerebellar syndrome. The ingestion of neurotoxic seeds, fruits and plants included in the diet and acute poisoning by certain plants can give rise to different neurological syndromes, some of which are irreversible.

  19. A study on quantification of the information flow and effectiveness of information aids for diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    2004-02-01

    Diagnosis is one of the most complex and mental resource-demanding tasks in nuclear power plants (NPPs), especially, to main control room (MCR) operators. Diagnosis is a crucial part of disturbance control in NPPs, since it is a prerequisite task for initiating operating procedures. In order to design a control room feature for NPPs, three elements need to be considered: 1) the operational tasks that must be performed, 2) a model of human performance for these tasks, and 3) a model of how control room features are intended to support performance. The operational tasks define the classes of performance that must be considered. A model of human performance makes more explicit the requirements for accurate and efficient performance and reveals potential sources of error. Finally, the model of support allows the generation of specific hypotheses about how performance is facilitated in the control room. The model of support needs to be developed based on the human performance model. This paper proposes three approaches for the system design of operator support systems to aid MCR operators' diagnosis tasks in NPPs, considering the above three elements. This paper presents 1) a quantitative approach to modeling the information flow of diagnosis tasks, 2) strategy-based evaluation of information aids for diagnosis tasks, and 3) quantitative evaluation of NPP decision support systems. As an analysis of diagnosis tasks, this paper presents a method to quantify the cognitive information flow of diagnosis tasks, integrating a stage model (a qualitative approach) with information theory (a quantitative approach). The method includes: 1) constructing the information flow model, which consists of four stages based on operating procedures of NPPs: and 2) quantifying the information flow using Conant's model, a kind of information theory. Then, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to predicting human performances, especially in

  20. Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future.

  1. Quantification and characterization of β-lactam resistance genes in 15 sewage treatment plants from East Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Liang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Da-Wen; Zhu, He-Guang; Huang, Qing-Guo; Fang, Herbert H P

    2012-09-01

    The emerging antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic environment have aroused public concern. As β-lactam is the most widely used group of antibiotics, β-lactam resistance genes were selected to investigate their distribution and diversity in the activated sludge from 15 geographically different sewage treatment plants (STPs) of China, Singapore, USA, and Canada. Specific PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) were used to investigate the occurrence and abundance of nine β-lactam resistance genes. Five genes (OXA-1, OXA-2, OXA-10, ampC, and TEM-1) were detected in most of the sludge collected, while three genes (mecA, CTX-M-1, and SME) were not found in any sludge sample. The total abundances of the six detected β-lactam resistance genes in the 15 STPs varied from 5.34 × 10(1) copies/ng DNA (ampC) to 5.49 × 10(4) copies/ng DNA (OXA-1). Overall, OXA-1 had the highest total concentration, followed by IMP and OXA-10. Noticeably, the abundances of TEM-1 in Chinese STPs were generally higher than those in the STPs of other countries, while the abundances of OXA-2 and IMP in the STPs of North America were much greater than those of East Asia. A total of 78 clones carrying β-lactam resistance genes were randomly selected from six clone libraries for phylogenetic diversity analysis; the similarity of these cloned genes to known β-lactam resistance genes with sequence identities ranged from 96% to 100%. Furthermore, OXA-1, ampC, and IMP were found to be more diverse than the other β-lactam resistance genes.

  2. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Murga, L.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Williamson, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as

  3. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  4. Advantages of the appropriate selection of reverse osmosis membranes in desalination plants with open intake; Ventajs de una adecuada seleccion de membranas de osmosis inversa en plants desaladoras con captacion superficial abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Elguera, A.; Nishida, M.

    2001-07-01

    It is hoped to make it sufficiently clear with this article that it is of fundamental importance that the reverse osmosis membranes and the conditions under which they will operate be appropriately selected. It is obvious that this choice must be made primarily in function of the quality of the water that will be processed in the water treatment plant ( for which reason it is of vital importance that a detailed study and careful characterisation of this water be carried out previously). This article report the highly encouraging results achieved with Cellulose Tri-acetate membranes in a singular Hollow fibre configuration, known commercially as Hollosep HM 10255FI (of Japanese manufacture), which were evaluated in parallel with LP3 potabilisation membranes that process sea water collected using an open intake system with high levels of microbiological pollution. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Superposition Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Na; Luo, Shun-Long; Sun, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    The principle of superposition is universal and lies at the heart of quantum theory. Although ever since the inception of quantum mechanics a century ago, superposition has occupied a central and pivotal place, rigorous and systematic studies of the quantification issue have attracted significant interests only in recent years, and many related problems remain to be investigated. In this work we introduce a figure of merit which quantifies superposition from an intuitive and direct perspective, investigate its fundamental properties, connect it to some coherence measures, illustrate it through several examples, and apply it to analyze wave-particle duality. Supported by Science Challenge Project under Grant No. TZ2016002, Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, Key Laboratory of Random Complex Structures and Data Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant under No. 2008DP173182

  6. Thyroid equivalent doses due to radioiodine-131 intake for evacuees from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo [Hirosaki University, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan); Hosoda, Masahiro [Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan); Akiba, Suminori [Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Balonov, Mikhail [Protection Laboratory, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively. (author)

  7. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results; Analisis de eventos internos para la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde. Cuantificacion de secuencias de accidente y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta B, A; Aguilar T, O; Nunez C, A; Lopez M, R [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the {sup I}nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  9. Lignan intake in the Netherlands and its relation with mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milder, I.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    KEYWORDS:lignans, phytoestrogens, secoisolariciresinol, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, food composition, intake, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, mortalityPlant lignans are diphenolic compounds that are present in many plant foods. The plant lignans

  10. Quantification of allochthonous nutrient input into freshwater bodies by herbivorous waterbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Bauer, S.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Waterbirds are considered to import large quantities of nutrients to freshwater bodies but quantification of these loadings remains problematic. We developed two general models to calculate such allochthonous nutrient inputs considering food intake, foraging behaviour and digestive performance of

  11. At same leucine intake, a whey/plant protein blend is not as effective as whey to initiate a transient post prandial muscle anabolic response during a catabolic state in mini pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Revel

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation.Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS, whey (WHEY or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state.Adult male Yucatan mini pigs were infused with U-13C-Phenylalanine and fed either CAS, WHEY or BLEND. A catabolic state was induced by a glucocorticoid treatment for 8 days (DEX. Muscle protein synthesis, proteolysis and balance were measured with the hind limb arterio-venous differences technique. Repeated time variance analysis were used to assess significant differences.In a catabolic situation, whey proteins were able to initiate muscle anabolism which remained transient in contrast to the stimulated muscle protein accretion with WHEY, CAS or BLEND in healthy conditions. Despite the same leucine intake compared to WHEY, BLEND did not restore a positive protein balance in DEX animals.Even with WHEY, the duration of the anabolic response was not optimal and has to be improved in a catabolic state. The use of BLEND remained of lower efficiency even at same leucine intake than whey.

  12. High-throughput multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, G; Bouvaine, S; Kimata, B; Mkamillo, G; Kumar, P L; Tomlins, K; Maruthi, M N

    2016-05-01

    To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa. The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause the economically important cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) respectively. Our method, developed by analysing PCR products of viruses, was highly sensitive to detect target viruses from very low quantities of 4-10 femtograms. Multiplexing did not diminish sensitivity or accuracy compared to uniplex alternatives. The assay reliably detected and quantified four cassava viruses in field samples where CBSV and UCBSV synergy was observed in majority of mixed-infected varieties. We have developed a high-throughput qPCR diagnostic assay capable of specific and sensitive quantification of predominant DNA and RNA viruses of cassava in eastern Africa. The qPCR methods are a great improvement on the existing methods and can be used for monitoring virus spread as well as for accurate evaluation of the cassava varieties for virus resistance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Johnson screen for cooling water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Johnson surface-water screens provide an alternative to vertical traveling screens for power plant cooling water intakes. In this paper, flow field modeling is discussed, and a series of case studies is presented. The hydraulic information obtained is discussed as it applies to the exclusion of biota and debris from cooling water intake systems

  14. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  16. Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods: estimated effects on land use, iron and SFA intakes in young Dutch adult females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, E.H.M.; Voet, van der H.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Nonhebel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reduction in the current high levels of meat and dairy consumption may contribute to environmental as well as human health. Since meat is a major source of Fe, effects on Fe intake need to be evaluated, especially in groups vulnerable to negative Fe status. In the present study we

  17. Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods : estimated effects on land use, iron and SFA intakes in young Dutch adult females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H. M.; van der Voet, Hilko; Thissen, Jac T. N. M.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reduction in the current high levels of meat and dairy consumption may contribute to environmental as well as human health. Since meat is a major source of Fe, effects on Fe intake need to be evaluated, especially in groups vulnerable to negative Fe status. In the present study we

  18. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  19. In vivo quantification of plant starch reserves at micrometer resolution using X-ray microCT imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Knipfer, Thorsten; Tixier, Aude; Orozco, Jessica; Reyes, Clarissa; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Brodersen, Craig R; McElrone, Andrew J

    2018-03-08

    Starch is the primary energy storage molecule used by most terrestrial plants to fuel respiration and growth during periods of limited to no photosynthesis, and its depletion can drive plant mortality. Destructive techniques at coarse spatial scales exist to quantify starch, but these techniques face methodological challenges that can lead to uncertainty about the lability of tissue-specific starch pools and their role in plant survival. Here, we demonstrate how X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) and a machine learning algorithm can be coupled to quantify plant starch content in vivo, repeatedly and nondestructively over time in grapevine stems (Vitis spp.). Starch content estimated for xylem axial and ray parenchyma cells from microCT images was correlated strongly with enzymatically measured bulk-tissue starch concentration on the same stems. After validating our machine learning algorithm, we then characterized the spatial distribution of starch concentration in living stems at micrometer resolution, and identified starch depletion in live plants under experimental conditions designed to halt photosynthesis and starch production, initiating the drawdown of stored starch pools. Using X-ray microCT technology for in vivo starch monitoring should enable novel research directed at resolving the spatial and temporal patterns of starch accumulation and depletion in woody plant species. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Development and full validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the plant-derived alkaloid indirubin in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, Evelyn A; Sampath, Chethan; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-09-05

    An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of indirubin in lithium heparinized rat plasma was developed and validated according to current international guidelines. Indirubin was extracted from rat plasma by using Waters Ostro™ pass-through sample preparation plates. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 5.00ng/mL and an ULOQ of 500ng/mL. The calibration curve was fitted by least-square quadratic regression, and a weighting factor of 1/X was applied. Recoveries of indirubin and I.S. were consistent and ≥75.5%. Stability studies demonstrated that indirubin was stable in lithium heparinized rat plasma for at least 3 freeze/thaw cycles, for 3h at RT, for 96h in the autosampler at 10°C, and for 84days when stored below -65°C. Preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) data were obtained from Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous administration of indirubin (2mg/kg b.w.) and blood sampling up to 12h after injection. PK parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Indirubin had a half-life (t1/2) of 35min, and a relatively high clearance (CL) of 2.71L/h/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental costs and benefits case study: nuclear power plant. Quantification and economic valuation of selected environmental impacts/effects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This case study is an application, to a nuclear power plant, of the methodology for quantifying environmental costs and benefits, contained in the regional energy plan, adopted in April, 1983, by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to Public Law 96-501.The study is based on plant number 2 of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WNP-2), currently nearing completion on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. This report describes and documents efforts to quantify and estimate monetary values for the following seven areas of environmental effects: radiation/health effects, socioeconomic/infrastructure effects, consumptive use of water, psychological/health effects (fear/stress), waste management, nuclear power plant accidents, and decommissioning costs. 103 references

  2. Results of about a seven years lysimeter study to the quantification of the mobility of radionuclides into the system soil-water-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Strebl, F.; Temmel, B.

    1999-04-01

    The result of seven years lysimeter experiments (twelve soil monoliths, four soil types) to determine the uptake of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra into agricultural crops and the leaching behaviour are presented. The mobility of the artificial radionuclides in soil profiles decreased in the following order: 60 Co ≥ 22 6Ra > 137 Cs. Total median values of soil-plant transfer factors (dry matter basis) for the three radionuclides decreased from 226 Ra (0.068 kg kg -1 ) to 137 Cs (0.043 kg kg -1 ) and 60 Co (0.018 kg kg -1 ). The physical and chemical properties of the experimental soils resulted in significant differences in transfer factors or fluxes between the investigated soils for 137 Cs and 226 Ra, but not for 60 Co. Differences in transfer between plant species and plant parts are distinct, with graminaceous species showing 5.8 and 15 times lower values for 137 Cs and 60 Co than dicodyle-donean species. In model calculations radionuclide losses through the different pathways (physical decay, leaching plant uptake and removal) were quantified. (author)

  3. Capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting, quantification and mass-identification of various 9-aminopyrene-1,4,6-trisulfonate-derivatized oligomers derived from plant polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Heijnis, W.H.; Bakx, E.J.; Kuijpers, I.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Various plant polysaccharide derived mono- and oligosaccharides were derivatized with the fluorescent 9-aminopyrene-1,4,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and subjected to capillary electrophoresis (CE) in combination with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. CE-LIF was suitable for mol-based

  4. Quantification of microplastic mass and removal rates at wastewater treatment plants applying Focal Plane Array (FPA)-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marta; van Alst, Nikki; Vollertsen, Jes

    2018-01-01

    in the environment. It concludes that MP mass should be included when quantifying MP pollution in the environment, supplementing the conventional approach of reporting particle numbers. Applying mass as the unit of MP measurement, the paper presents data showing that Danish wastewater treatment plants discharge...

  5. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com, E-mail: lucarla24@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  6. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abzazou, Tarik; Araujo, Rosa M.; Auset, María; Salvadó, Humbert

    2016-01-01

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L"−"1), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH_4"+ removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. - Highlights: • Partial nitrification process in a MBBR fed with ammonium-rich liquor was achieved. • The operational key parameters were the HRT and temperature. • DAPI and FISH were useful to monitoring microbial composition of MBBR pilot plant. • The AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria, presenting 11.3% of total bacteria. • A significant correlation (R = 0.68) between AOB and ammonia removal was found.

  7. Standardization of phytopharmaceuticals: qualitative evaluation and quantification of carbohydrates in medicinal plants using tlc, matrix free meldi-tof-ms and gc-ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.N.; Bonn, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry requires reliable and less time consuming procedures for the quality control analysis of raw materials and finished products. The study was focused on thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and matrix free material enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Standards and microwave assisted water extracts from Achillea milleffolium (herb), Althaea officinalis (roots), Equisetum arvense (herb), Juglans regia (leaves), Matricaria chamomella (flowers) and Taraxacum officinale (herb) were the samples used for this study. The presence of mono- (fructose and glucose) and disaccharide (sucrose) in all the plants under study was proved through the TLC analysis. These results were confirmed by the Mf-MELDI-MS experiments. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the data obtained via TLC and mf-MELDI-MS, delivering additionally quantified values, but needed a long time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerization degree could not be found. Among the six plants, glucose was found in highest concentration in Taraxacum officinale. Fructose is present in appreciable quantity in Matricaria chamomella while Althaea officinalis has the highest amount of sucrose among the plants under study. (author)

  8. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  9. License renewal - an idea whose time has come. Hatch nuclear plant license renewal program: an actual example of application of the license renewal rule to the Intake Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandiwala, F.; Evans, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    After the NRC issued a revised license renewal rule in May 1995, the nuclear industry focussed on developing generic industry for implementing the rule and testing the guidance through various demonstration programs and work products in conjunction with the NRC. In addition, plant-specific programs also proceeded forward. These activities show that implementation issues continue to exist. Since the issuance of the rule, the NRC has issued a draft standard review plan for license renewal (SRP-LR), working draft, September 1997. Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) has begun development work on a license renewal application for Plant Hatch Units 1 and 2. Plant Hatch Units 1 and 2 are BWR 4, Mark I plants whose operating licenses expire in 2014 and 2018, respectively. The Plant Hatch initiative also involves teaming with other boiling water reactors (BWRs) to develop the license renewal technology within the BWR fleet, and to support Plant Hatch by providing an oversight role for the application process. The teaming effort involved two other utilities, each being assigned to prepare a common report on a mechanical system or a structure. The common report could be presented to the NRC with modifications to suit the individual plants, thereby saving time and money, and hopefully resulting in quicker approval by the NRC. The desired license renewal process end result is a renewed license with up to a 20 year extension (10CFR 54.31(b)). (orig.)

  10. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: II. Application to quantification of endogenous gibberellins in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-11-23

    The phenomenon and benefits of osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) were theoretically discussed in part I of this study. In this work, HF-LLLME with osmosis was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-triple quadrupole MS/MS) to analyze eight gibberellins (gibberellin A(1), gibberellin A(3), gibberellin A(4), gibberellin A(7), gibberellin A(8), gibberellin A(9), gibberellin A(19) and gibberellin A(20)) in rice plant samples. According to the theory of HF-LLLME with osmosis, single factor experiments, orthogonal design experiments and mass transfer simulation of extraction process were carried out to select the optimal conditions. Cyclohexanol - n-octanol (1:3, v/v) was selected as organic membrane. Donor phase of 12 mL was adjusted to pH 2 and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added. Acceptor phase with an initial volume of 20 μL was the solution of 0.12 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3) buffer (pH 9). Temperature was chosen to be 30 °C and extraction time was selected to be 90 min. Under optimized conditions, this method provided good linearity (r, 0.99552-0.99991) and low limits of detection (0.0016-0.061 ng mL(-1)). Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of endogenous gibberellins from plant extract which was obtained with traditional solvent extraction of rice plant tissues, and the relative recoveries were from 62% to 166%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abzazou, Tarik, E-mail: tabzazou@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Araujo, Rosa M., E-mail: raraujo@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Auset, María, E-mail: maria.auset.vallejo@acciona.com [ACCIONA AGUA, S.A., Av de les Garrigues 22, El Prat de Llobregat, 08820 Barcelona (Spain); Salvadó, Humbert, E-mail: hsalvado@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L{sup −1}), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. - Highlights: • Partial nitrification process in a MBBR fed with ammonium-rich liquor was achieved. • The operational key parameters were the HRT and temperature. • DAPI and FISH were useful to monitoring microbial composition of MBBR pilot plant. • The AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria, presenting 11.3% of total bacteria. • A significant correlation (R = 0.68) between AOB and ammonia removal was found.

  12. Quantification in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena 2 - Main problems impacting quantification in PET and SPECT: problems, consequences, correction methods, results (Attenuation, scattering, partial volume effect, movement, un-stationary spatial resolution in SPECT, fortuitous coincidences in PET, standardisation in PET); 3 - Synthesis: accessible efficiency, know-how, Precautions, beyond the activity measurement

  13. PIXE-based quantification of health-proactive trace elements in genetically transformed roots of a multi-medicinal plant, Sida acuta Burm.f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somanatha Jena; Lopamudra Sahu; Chand, P.K.; Ray, D.K.; Mishra, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic element composition of genetically transformed hairy root cultures (HRCs) of a medicinal plant, Sida acuta was determined using PIXE technique. HRCs had a higher accumulation of pro-health trace elements compared to natural roots. It was estimated that < 160 g d.wt. of a selected rhizoclone could suffice to provide nearly all tested essential elements catering to per diem requirement of the human body. The ideal multi-elemental profile ushers a new possibility of integrating hairy root extracts in modern therapeutics ('rhizotherapy') as complementary medicine or a dietary nutraceutical supplement. (author)

  14. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas. Volume 9. Appendices F-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    of Science. 23. 17-22, 1978. Shore. F.L. and G.U. Yuen, "The Absolute Configuration of Methyl 3-0-Acetyl- 2.3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylpropanoate by Nuclear...sample is ignitible at 140 degrees Farenheit or below. If so, it is a hazardous waste. A-19 TABL. 2 Summary oi Site c~ecific Analyses at AF Plant 4...to assess health risks and exposure levels. Therefore a daily calibration check using a zero and a mid-range calibration gas should be sufficient for

  15. Simultaneous quantification of eight bioactive components of Houttuynia cordata and related Saururaceae medicinal plants by on-line high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Dong, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2009-12-01

    An on-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method has been developed to quantify simultaneously eight bioactive chemical components in Houttuynia cordata Thunb and related Saururaceae medicinal plants. Simultaneous separation of these eight compounds was achieved on a C(18) analytical column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.2% acetic acid (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min and being detected at 280 nm. These eight compounds were completely separated within 90 min. Good linear regression relationship (r(2)>0.9978) within test ranges was shown in all calibration curves. Good repeatabilty for the quantification of these eight compounds in H.cordata was also demonstrated in this method, with intra- and inter-day variations less than 3.0%. The method established was successfully applied to quantify eight bioactive compounds in closely related species of H.cordata, which provides a new basis for quality assessment of H.cordata.

  16. The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbout, Amin; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Søren Bechmann

    2012-01-01

    to assimilate 11CO2 for 90 min before PET scanning was initiated. We carried out PET scanning for 60 min. Subsequently, the aerial parts of the plant was cut off and the pot was rescanned using a micro-CT scanner to obtain more detailed information on structure of the root system and the growth medium structure...... of the sand. We found the highest concentration of 11C at the position of the main root. The PET images, at different time intervals, showed the translocation and metabolisation of photo-assimilates from top to root. Using the micro-CT scanner (voxel size of 90 μm), we were able to detect roots down to 100 mm...... demonstrated the simultaneous use of PET (positron emission tomography) and CT (X-ray computed tomography) to (a) non-destructively image a whole plant growing in sand, and (b) to link the observed morphology with recently assimilated C. The PET scanner was used to detect and visualize the location...

  17. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  18. Human error probability quantification using fuzzy methodology in nuclear plants; Aplicacao da metodologia fuzzy na quantificacao da probabilidade de erro humano em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Claudio Souza do

    2010-07-01

    This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations a hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN. It was also obtained a Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) evaluation in order to classify them according to their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine these PSF actual states over the plant. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on Specialists Evaluation using interviews and questionnaires. Specialists group was composed from selected IEA-R1 operators. Specialist's knowledge representation into linguistic variables and group evaluation values were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set Theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). (author)

  19. Quantification of local mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...

  20. Quantification of main and trace metal components in the fly ash of waste-to-energy plants located in Germany and Switzerland: An overview and comparison of concentration fluctuations within and between several plants with particular focus on valuable metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Jasmin; Koralewska, Ralf; Schlumberger, Stefan; Schuster, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The elemental composition of fly ash from six waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Germany and two WTE plants in Switzerland were analyzed. Samples were taken daily over a period of one month and mixed to a composite sample for each German plant. From two Swiss plants, two and three of these composite samples, respectively, were collected for different months in order to assess temporal differences between these months. In total, 61 elements, including rare earth elements, were analyzed using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The analysis method was validated for 44 elements either by reference materials (BCR 176R and NIST 1633c) or analysis with both methods. Good recoveries, mostly ±10%, and high agreements between both methods were achieved. As long as no additives from flue gas cleaning were mixed with the fly ash, quite similar element contents were observed between all of the different incinerators. For most elements, the variations between the different months within the two Swiss plants were lower than differences between various plants. Especially main components show low variations between different months. To get a more detailed insight into temporal fluctuations within the mentioned Swiss plants, the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb, and Sn are presented over a period of three years (Jan. 2015 - Oct. 2017). The concentration profiles are based on weekly composite samples (consisting of daily taken samples) analyzed by the routine control of these plants using ED-XRF. The standard deviations of the average concentrations were around 20% over the three years for the regarded elements. The fluctuations were comparable at both plants. Due to the relatively low temporal concentration fluctuations observed within the plants, fly ash would be a continuous and constant source of secondary raw materials. Beside Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, which were already recovered on an industrial scale, Sb, Sn, and Bi also show a high potential as secondary raw material due to the high

  1. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  2. Flow cytometric estimation on cytotoxic activity of leaf extracts from seashore plants in subtropical Japan: isolation, quantification and cytotoxic action of (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Toshiya; Oyama, Yasuo; Yonemori, Shigetomo; Takeda, Yoshio; Yamazaki, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Shinichi; Nakata, Mami; Tanaka, Tomochika; Chikahisa, Lumi; Inaba, Yuzuru; Okada, Yoshihiko

    2002-06-01

    The cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts of leaves collected from 39 seashore plants in Iriomote Island, subtropical Japan was examined on human leukaemia cells (K562 cells) using a flow cytometer with two fluorescent probes, ethidium bromide and annexin V-FITC. Five extracts (10 microg/mL) from Hernandia nymphaeaefolia, Cerbera manghas, Pongamia pinnata, Morus australis var. glabra and Thespesia populnea greatly inhibited the growth of K562 cells. When the concentration was decreased to 1 microg/mL, only one extract from H. nymphaeaefolia still inhibited the cell growth. A cytotoxic compound was isolated from the leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and was identified as (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT). The fresh leaves of H. nymphaeaefolia contained a remarkably high amount of DPT (0.21 +/- 0.07% of fresh leaf weight), being clarified by a quantitative HPLC analysis. DPT at 70-80 pM started to inhibit the growth of K562 cells in an all-or-none fashion and at 100 pM or more it produced complete inhibition in all cases. Therefore, the slope of the dose-response curve was very steep. DPT at 100 pM or more decreased the cell viability to 50%-60% and increased the number of cells undergoing apoptosis (annexin V-positive cells). The results indicate that DPT contributes to the cytotoxic action of the extract from the leaves of H. nymphaeaefolia on K562 cells. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  4. Quantification of climate and vegetation from southern African Middle Stone Age sites - an application using Late Pleistocene plant material from Sibudu, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Angela A.; Sievers, Christine; Wadley, Lyn

    2012-06-01

    In southern Africa numerous Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites document important steps in technological and behavioural development leading to significant changes in the lifeways of modern humans. To assess whether these cultural changes and developments may be related to environmental changes we need to ascertain past environments. To do this we apply a new quantitative method, the GIS-based Coexistence Approach (CAGIS), on fossil plant material from the MSA site Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Previous qualitative environmental interpretations of the fossil fauna and flora of the site remain ambiguous. Because much of the material is anthropogenically introduced, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of natural changes in the local vegetation and behavioural changes of the people that inhabited the shelter. CAGIS can be applied to such biased assemblages and seems to be an adequate method to directly quantify palaeoclimate and vegetation parameters at an archaeological site. The CAGIS analysis shows that during the Howiesons Poort (HP) Industry winters were slightly colder and drier than present, whereas during summer, temperatures and precipitation were similar to today. Post-HP winters were drier and colder than present, presumably colder than during the HP. Summer temperatures remained the same, but summer precipitation decreased from the HP to post-HP. Vegetation cover was less than today, may be even less than during the HP. The late MSA was observably warmer than the older periods, especially during winter. At the same time summer precipitation slightly increased and vegetation became more dense, but still remained generally open similar to today's anthropogenic landscape. Generally, climatic changes are most pronouncedly reflected in winter temperature parameters, especially in minimum winter temperatures, and to a lesser extent by changes in summer precipitation. The observed ecological trends seem to be affected mainly by variations through

  5. Development of biofilm on materials exposed in coastal waters near to a desalination plant intake at Kudankulam, east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh, S.; Godwin Wesly, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Biofouling is a major problem in power plant cooling systems, desalination plants and navigation etc. As biofouling is a site specific problem, studies on the various aspects of biofouling to a particular region is necessary for taking better antifouling strategy. This study was carried out at Kudankulam coastal waters, with an objective to analyse the process of biofilm formation and its further succession on Perspex test panels. The development of biofilm was observed over a period of 14 days during January and September 2005. Results indicated that the biofilm formation was initiated by bacteria, followed by diatom and macro algal spores. Psuedomonas and Desulphovibrio were the predominant bacterial genera observed during the initial 48 hours of panel exposure. Diatom community was dominated by restricted number of genera such as Navicula, Nitzschia and Amphora. The hydrobiological parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite and nitrate were examined in the context of biofouling activity in the coastal waters

  6. Management system in the dose assessment due to the intake of "1"3"1I in occupationally exposed workers (OEW) in a radioisotope production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Roberto; Jara, Raul; Defilippi, Luis; Osores, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation and management processes due to the incorporation of "1"3"1I in occupationally exposed workers (OEW) of a Radioisotope Production Plant by in vivo measurement of the retained activity of this radionuclide in thyroid. The procedures for the occupational control of the OWE were established, including intermediate checks and calibration of the equipment according to the NTP ISO/IEC 17025:2006 standard. (author)

  7. Fluorescent quantification of melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Matamá, Teresa; Guimarães, Diana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Melanin quantification is reportedly performed by absorption spectroscopy, commonly at 405 nm. Here, we propose the implementation of fluorescence spectroscopy for melanin assessment. In a typical in vitro assay to assess melanin production in response to an external stimulus, absorption spectroscopy clearly overvalues melanin content. This method is also incapable of distinguishing non-melanotic/amelanotic control cells from those that are actually capable of performing melanogenesis. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy is the best method for melanin quantification as it proved to be highly specific and accurate, detecting even small variations in the synthesis of melanin. This method can also be applied to the quantification of melanin in more complex biological matrices like zebrafish embryos and human hair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Real-time PCR for the quantification of fungi in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Methods enabling quantification of fungi in planta can be useful for a variety of applications. In combination with information on plant disease severity, indirect quantification of fungi in planta offers an additional tool in the screening of plants that are resistant to fungal diseases. In this chapter, a method is described for the quantification of DNA from a fungus in plant leaves using real-time PCR (qPCR). Although the method described entails quantification of the fungus Verticillium dahliae in lettuce leaves, the methodology described would be useful for other pathosystems as well. The method utilizes primers that are specific for amplification of a β-tubulin sequence from V. dahliae and a lettuce actin gene sequence as a reference for normalization. This approach enabled quantification of V. dahliae in the amount of 2.5 fg/ng of lettuce leaf DNA at 21 days following plant inoculation.

  9. Disease quantification in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very ...

  10. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  11. Fluctuations and trends in structure of fish community in Koporskaya Bay coastal waters (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea) and influence of water-intake facilities of the Leningrad nuclear power plant on fish fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation is based on data obtained in 1978-1995 in Koporskaya Bay (eastern part of the Gulf of Finland), known as the cooling water-body of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) nuclear power plant Leningrad (NPP). 45 fish species were recorded in this period. The fish species diversity reduced significantly in last decade (from 8-9 in early 1980s up to 4-5 species in the nucleus of fish community in 1990s). Most vulnerable species, such as salmonids and coregonids, tend to disappear. Koporskaya Bay coastal area is now dominated by abundant three-spined and nine-spined sticklebacks. However, the relatively improved situation have occurred after beginning of reparation works at the 1st reactor unit, when the thermal loading was declined significantly. Great amount of fishes were perished at the water-intake facilities (more than 400 ton/year, in average). Changes in fish community structure caused noticeable changes in commercial fishing: the average percentage part of baltic herring (main object of fishing in the eastern Gulf of Finland) in commercial catches ranged from 90 up to 98% in the time before the LNPP started in operating, but from 1975, especially in last decade when LNPP has reached their project electrical capacity in 1981, we can see significant variations in herring's share (29-80%) in catches

  12. Early Intake of Radiocesium by Residents Living Near the Tepco Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant After the Accident. Part 2: Relationship Between Internal Dose and Evacuation Behavior in Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunishima, Naoaki; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nakano, Takashi; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Tani, Kotaro; Furuyama, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shozo; Hachiya, Misao; Naoi, Yutaka; Akashi, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident exposed members of the public to radiation. This study analyses the relation between personal behavior data obtained from 112 out of 174 subjects who underwent whole-body measurements by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period from 27 June to 28 July 2011 and their committed effective doses (CEDs) from Cs and Cs. The whereabouts of the 112 persons living in municipalities near the FDNPP (mainly, Namie town) on several days in March 2011 are graphed on maps. It was confirmed that most subjects started evacuation promptly and had left the 20-km-radius of the FDNPP by the end of 12 March. The individual CEDs were poorly correlated with the person's distances from the FDNPP at any day in March. Meanwhile, the percentage of persons remaining within the 20-km radius of the FDNPP was 100% at 16:00 on 12 March and 42.9% at 0:00 on 15 March for those with CEDs > 0.1 mSv, whereas the corresponding values were much lower for those with CEDs ≤ 0.1 mSv. This suggests that the time of evacuation would be one of the crucial factors for the early intake; however, more personal behavior data are needed to be analyzed to clarify the relevance to the individual internal dose.

  13. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  14. Level 2 probabilistic event analyses and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an example of quantification of a severe accident phenomenological event is given. The performed analysis for assessment of the probability that the debris released from the reactor vessel was in a coolable configuration in the lower drywell is presented. It is also analysed the assessment of the type of core/concrete attack that would occur. The coolability of the debris ex-vessel evaluation by an event in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Containment Event Tree (CET) and a detailed Decomposition Event Tree (DET) developed to aid in the quantification of this CET event are considered. The headings in the DET selected to represent plant physical states (e.g., reactor vessel pressure at the time of vessel failure) and the uncertainties associated with the occurrence of critical physical phenomena (e.g., debris configuration in the lower drywell) considered important to assessing whether the debris was coolable or not coolable ex-vessel are also discussed

  15. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  16. Cutset Quantification Error Evaluation for Shin-Kori 1 and 2 PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) for nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on the minimal cut set (MCS) quantification method. In PSAs, the risk and importance measures are computed from a cutset equation mainly by using approximations. The conservatism of the approximations is also a source of quantification uncertainty. In this paper, exact MCS quantification methods which are based on the 'sum of disjoint products (SDP)' logic and Inclusion-exclusion formula are applied and the conservatism of the MCS quantification results in Shin-Kori 1 and 2 PSA is evaluated

  17. Image cytometry: nuclear and chromosomal DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Abreu, Isabella Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Image cytometry (ICM) associates microscopy, digital image and software technologies, and has been particularly useful in spatial and densitometric cytological analyses, such as DNA ploidy and DNA content measurements. Basically, ICM integrates methodologies of optical microscopy calibration, standard density filters, digital CCD camera, and image analysis softwares for quantitative applications. Apart from all system calibration and setup, cytological protocols must provide good slide preparations for efficient and reliable ICM analysis. In this chapter, procedures for ICM applications employed in our laboratory are described. Protocols shown here for human DNA ploidy determination and quantification of nuclear and chromosomal DNA content in plants could be used as described, or adapted for other studies.

  18. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...

  19. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  20. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

  1. Seed shape quantification in the order Cucurbitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed shape quantification in diverse species of the families belonging to the order Cucurbitales is done based on the comparison of seed images with geometric figures. Quantification of seed shape is a useful tool in plant description for phenotypic characterization and taxonomic analysis. J index gives the percent of similarity of the image of a seed with a geometric figure and it is useful in taxonomy for the study of relationships between plant groups. Geometric figures used as models in the Cucurbitales are the ovoid, two ellipses with different x/y ratios and the outline of the Fibonacci spiral. The images of seeds have been compared with these figures and values of J index obtained. The results obtained for 29 species in the family Cucurbitaceae support a relationship between seed shape and species ecology. Simple seed shape, with images resembling simple geometric figures like the ovoid, ellipse or the Fibonacci spiral, may be a feature in the basal clades of taxonomic groups.

  2. Design and Optimization of a Turbine Intake Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fošumpaur

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate design of the turbine intake structure of a hydropower plant is based on assumptions about its suitable function, and the design will increase the total efficiency of operation. This paper deals with optimal design of the turbine structure of run-of-river hydropower plants. The study focuses mainly on optimization of the hydropower plant location with respect to the original river banks, and on the optimal design of a separating pier between the weir and the power plant. The optimal design of the turbine intake was determined with the use of 2-D mathematical modelling. A case study is performed for the optimal design of a turbine intake structure on the Nemen river in Belarus. 

  3. Daily intake estimation of phenolic compounds in the Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Navarro González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large group of molecules present in plants with a diversity of chemical structures and biological activity. The objective of this study was to quantify the intake of phenolic compounds of the Spanish population. Material and Methods: The most consumed foods from vegetal origin in Spain were selected. These were picked up in the National Survey of Spanish Dietary Intake (ENIDE of 2011, edited by AESAN (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition as a basis for quantifying the intake of phenolic compounds of Spaniards using the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: This database has allowed to estimate the average intake of polyphenols per day of Spaniards, which is 1365.1mg. Conclusions: The average intake of total polyphenols of Spaniards could have a protective effect against the mortality rate and exercise a preventive function on some chronic diseases along with other healthy lifestyle habits.

  4. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  5. Solution of human respiratory tract model for chronic inhalation intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    For the radiation workers of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants, inhalation is one of the major routes of intake of internal contamination. In case of routine monitoring which would result in lung activity above detection limit, it is assumed that intake has occurred at the midpoint of monitoring interval so that underestimation introduced by the unknown time of intake is less than a factor of three. In the plants, chronic intakes of 239 Pu are possible if low levels of 239 Pu activities remain undetected. In ICRP-78, the retention values are given as a function of time for continuous chronic inhalation of 239 Pu at 1.71 Bq/day that would result in Committed Effective Dose (CED) of 20 mSv. Retention values (R) are not given for inhalation intake at any other rate. Therefore, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) is solved for continuous chronic inhalation at 1 Bq/day rate for type M compounds of 239 Pu to estimate R as a function of time. These values will be useful in estimating intake from lung activity measurements in case of chronic intakes

  6. GMO quantification: valuable experience and insights for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavec, Mojca; Dobnik, David; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Gruden, Kristina; Zel, Jana

    2014-10-01

    Cultivation and marketing of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been unevenly adopted worldwide. To facilitate international trade and to provide information to consumers, labelling requirements have been set up in many countries. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently the method of choice for detection, identification and quantification of GMOs. This has been critically assessed and the requirements for the method performance have been set. Nevertheless, there are challenges that should still be highlighted, such as measuring the quantity and quality of DNA, and determining the qPCR efficiency, possible sequence mismatches, characteristics of taxon-specific genes and appropriate units of measurement, as these remain potential sources of measurement uncertainty. To overcome these problems and to cope with the continuous increase in the number and variety of GMOs, new approaches are needed. Statistical strategies of quantification have already been proposed and expanded with the development of digital PCR. The first attempts have been made to use new generation sequencing also for quantitative purposes, although accurate quantification of the contents of GMOs using this technology is still a challenge for the future, and especially for mixed samples. New approaches are needed also for the quantification of stacks, and for potential quantification of organisms produced by new plant breeding techniques.

  7. Quantification of informed opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work

  8. Quantification In Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netravati M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a distinct shift of emphasis in clinical neurology in the last few decades. A few years ago, it was just sufficient for a clinician to precisely record history, document signs, establish diagnosis and write prescription. In the present context, there has been a significant intrusion of scientific culture in clinical practice. Several criteria have been proposed, refined and redefined to ascertain accurate diagnosis for many neurological disorders. Introduction of the concept of impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life has added new dimension to the measurement of health and disease and neurological disorders are no exception. "Best guess" treatment modalities are no more accepted and evidence based medicine has become an integral component of medical care. Traditional treatments need validation and new therapies require vigorous trials. Thus, proper quantification in neurology has become essential, both in practice and research methodology in neurology. While this aspect is widely acknowledged, there is a limited access to a comprehensive document pertaining to measurements in neurology. This following description is a critical appraisal of various measurements and also provides certain commonly used rating scales/scores in neurological practice.

  9. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  10. Survey and Evaluate Uncertainty Quantification Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guang; Engel, David W.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2012-02-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions that will develop and deploy state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately the widespread deployment to hundreds of power plants. The CCSI Toolset will provide end users in industry with a comprehensive, integrated suite of scientifically validated models with uncertainty quantification, optimization, risk analysis and decision making capabilities. The CCSI Toolset will incorporate commercial and open-source software currently in use by industry and will also develop new software tools as necessary to fill technology gaps identified during execution of the project. The CCSI Toolset will (1) enable promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of devices and processes; (2) reduce the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes; (3) quantify the technical risk in taking technology from laboratory-scale to commercial-scale; and (4) stabilize deployment costs more quickly by replacing some of the physical operational tests with virtual power plant simulations. The goal of CCSI is to deliver a toolset that can simulate the scale-up of a broad set of new carbon capture technologies from laboratory scale to full commercial scale. To provide a framework around which the toolset can be developed and demonstrated, we will focus on three Industrial Challenge Problems (ICPs) related to carbon capture technologies relevant to U.S. pulverized coal (PC) power plants. Post combustion capture by solid sorbents is the technology focus of the initial ICP (referred to as ICP A). The goal of the uncertainty quantification (UQ) task (Task 6) is to provide a set of capabilities to the user community for the quantification of uncertainties associated with the carbon

  11. Detection and quantification of Leveillula taurica growth in pepper leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Nonomura, Teruo; Bóka, Károly; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Visser, Richard G F; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Kiss, Levente; Bai, Yuling

    2013-06-01

    Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease on a broad range of plants, including important crops such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, onion, cotton, and so on. The early stage of this disease is difficult to diagnose and the disease can easily spread unobserved; for example, in pepper and tomato production fields and greenhouses. The objective of this study was to develop a detection and quantification method of L. taurica biomass in pepper leaves with special regard to the early stages of infection. We monitored the development of the disease to time the infection process on the leaf surface as well as inside the pepper leaves. The initial and final steps of the infection taking place on the leaf surface were consecutively observed using a dissecting microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The development of the intercellular mycelium in the mesophyll was followed by light and transmission electron microscopy. A pair of L. taurica-specific primers was designed based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence of L. taurica and used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify the fungal DNA during infection. The specificity of this assay was confirmed by testing the primer pair with DNA from host plants and also from another powdery mildew species, Oidium neolycopersici, infecting tomato. A standard curve was obtained for absolute quantification of L. taurica biomass. In addition, we tested a relative quantification method by using a plant gene as reference and the obtained results were compared with the visual disease index scoring. The real-time PCR assay for L. taurica provides a valuable tool for detection and quantification of this pathogen in breeding activities as well in plant-microbe interaction studies.

  12. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience...... of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose only source of caffeine was coffee (>300 mg/d) had a reduced fecundability odds-ratio (FR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.98). An interaction between...

  13. High intake of heterocyclic amines from meat is associated with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A M; Miranda, A M; Santos, F A; Loureiro, A P M; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2015-04-28

    High meat intake has been related to chronic diseases such as cancer and CVD. One hypothesis is that heterocyclic amines (HCA), which are formed during the cooking process of meat, can generate reactive species. These compounds can cause oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and loss of biological function. This association has been seen in vitro; however, it remains unclear in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between oxidative stress and HCA intake, and oxidative stress and meat intake. Data were from the Health Survey for Sao Paulo--ISA-Capital (561 adult and elderly). Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR) complemented by a detailed FFQ with preferences of cooking methods and level of doneness for meat. HCA intake was estimated linking the meat from the 24HR to a database of HCA. Oxidative stress was estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the plasma, after derivatisation with thiobarbituric acid and quantification by HPLC/diode array. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for smoking, sex, age, BMI, skin colour, energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. A positive association between HCA intake and MDA concentration (OR 1·17; 95% CI 1·01, 1·38) was observed, showing that HCA from meat may contribute to increase oxidative stress, and may consequently increase the risk of chronic diseases.

  14. Power plant cooling systems: trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A novel design for an intake and discharge system at the Belle River plant is described followed by a general discussion of water intake screens and porous dikes for screening fish and zooplankton. The intake system for the San Onofre PWR plant is described and the state regulations controlling the use of water for power plants is discussed. The use of sewage effluent as a source of cooling water is mentioned with reference to the Palo Verde plant. Progress in dry cooling and a new wet/dry tower due to be installed at the San Juan plant towards the end of this year, complete the survey

  15. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty

  16. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Measurements of VOC fluxes by dynamic plant and soil chambers in wheat and maize crop near Paris with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS: Quantification and response to environmental and physiological drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Gomez, Lais; Boissard, Christophe; Ciuraru, Raluca; Lafouge, Florence; Zurfluh, Olivier; Buysse, Pauline; Decuq, Céline; Fanucci, Olivier; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Gros, Valérie; Sarda, Roland; Zannoni, Nora; Loubet, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere as precursors of secondary pollutants such as ozone and organic aerosols. A large variety of VOC are exchanged between plants (BVOC) and the atmosphere. Their fluxes are strongly dependent on environmental factors (temperature, light, biotic and abiotic stress) and vary greatly among plant species. Only few studies focused on BVOC emissions by agricultural plants and were mostly carried in North America. However, agricultural lands occupy 51% of the total country area in France, with wheat being one of the most important crop. We used a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS (national instrument within the ANAEE-France framework) and dynamic chambers to measure BVOC emissions from plant and soil compartments of a wheat and a maize crop near Paris (FR-GRI ICOS site). More than 700 masses were detected thanks to the resolution and sensitivity of this new instrument. We analyze the emission response to light, temperature and stomatal aperture in order to explain the mechanisms of BVOC exchanges by wheat plants. We investigate the emission differences between soil and plant compartment, and between wheat and maize crops. Acetone (m/z 59.049) was the predominant volatile compound in the emissions from wheat. Both methanol (m/z 33.033) and acetaldehyde (m/z 45.033) were also quite abundantly emitted but were less than half the acetone emissions. Other masses detected in relative importance in this study were m/z 63.026 (possible DMS), m/z 93.033 (not identified), m/z 69.069 (isoprene), m/z 57.069 (not identified), m/z 83.085 (possible green leaf volatiles), m/z 73.064 (methyl ethyl ketone). Their emissions were around 7 times smaller than the emissions of acetone. On the other hand we observed a deposition for, mainly, m/z 75.044 (hydroxyacetone) and m/z 61.028 (acetic acid). Methanol presented both positive and negative fluxes witch could indicate either emission or absorption of this compound by the

  18. COMPUTER MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT BOUNDARIES OF WATER INTAKE AREA WITH FILTERING INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronina Lyudmila Vladimirovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of water intake technologies are of great importance. These technologies are required to provide high quality water intake and treatment; they must be sufficiently simple and reliable, and they must be easily adjustable to particular local conditions. A mathematical model of a water supply area near the filtering water intake is proposed. On its basis, a software package designated for the calculation of parameters of the supply area along with its graphical representation is developed. To improve the efficiency of water treatment plants, the authors propose a new method of their integration into the landscape by taking account of velocity distributions in the water supply area within the water reservoir where the plant installation is planned. In the proposed relationship, the filtration rate and the scattering rate at the outlet of the supply area are taken into account, and they assure more precise projections of the inlet velocity. In the present study, assessment of accuracy of the mathematical model involving the scattering of a turbulent flow has been done. The assessment procedure is based on verification of the mean values equality hypothesis and on comparison with the experimental data. The results and conclusions obtained by means of the method developed by the authors have been verified through comparison of deviations of specific values calculated through the employment of similar algorithms in MathCAD, Maple and PLUMBING. The method of the water supply area analysis, with the turbulent scattering area having been taken into account, and the software package enable to numerically estimate the efficiency of the pre-purification process by tailoring a number of parameters of the filtering component of the water intake to the river hydrodynamic properties. Therefore, the method and the software package provide a new tool for better design, installation and operation of water treatment plants with respect to filtration and

  19. Assessment of flavonoid and fatty acid intake by chemical analysis of biomarkers and the duplicate diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Dietary intake is important to investigate the relationship between diet and the occurrence of disease. However, it is difficult to assess the intake of nutrients such as flavonoids, minor fatty acids and plant sterols because the data on these nutrients in food composition tables are insufficient

  20. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  1. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and ... Animal productivity and efficiency of production are functions of the level of nutrition, ... among the different parts of a plant, choice of parts can markedly affect a .... is a decline in DM intake per bite and a tendency to increase the time spent grazing.

  2. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  3. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir; Dehwah, Abdullah; Bin Bandar, Khaled; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract

  4. Strain-specific quantification of root colonization by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus firmus I-1582 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 in non-sterile soil and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajeewaka C Mendis

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 and B. firmus I-1582 are bacterial strains which are used as active ingredients of commercially-available soil application and seed treatment products Serenade® and VOTiVO®, respectively. These bacteria colonize plant roots promoting plant growth and offering protection against pathogens/pests. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR protocol to quantitate the dynamics of root colonization by these two strains under field conditions. Primers and TaqMan® probes were designed based on genome comparisons of the two strains with publicly-available and unpublished bacterial genomes of the same species. An optimized qPCR protocol was developed to quantify bacterial colonization of corn roots after seed treatment. Treated corn seeds were planted in non-sterile soil in the greenhouse and grown for 28 days. Specific detection of bacteria was quantified weekly, and showed stable colonization between ~104-105 CFU/g during the experimental period for both bacteria, and the protocol detected as low as 103 CFU/g bacteria on roots. In a separate experiment, streptomycin-resistant QST713 and rifampicin-resistant I-1582 strains were used to compare dilution-plating on TSA with the newly developed qPCR method. Results also indicated that the presence of natural microflora and another inoculated strain does not affect root colonization of either one of these strains. The same qPCR protocol was used to quantitate root colonization by QST713 and I-1582 in two corn and two soybean varieties grown in the field. Both bacteria were quantitated up to two weeks after seeds were planted in the field and there were no significant differences in root colonization in either bacteria strain among varieties. Results presented here confirm that the developed qPCR protocol can be successfully used to understand dynamics of root colonization by these bacteria in plants growing in growth chamber, greenhouse and the field.

  5. Lake Mead Intake No. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a sustained drought in the Southwestern United States, and in order to maintain existing water capacity in the Las Vegas Valley, the Southern Nevada Water Authority constructed a new deep-water intake (Intake No. 3 located in Lake Mead. The project included a 185 m deep shaft, 4.7 km tunnel under very difficult geological conditions, and marine works for a submerged intake. This paper presents the experience that was gained during the design and construction and the innovative solutions that were developed to handle the difficult conditions that were encountered during tunneling with a dual-mode slurry tunnel-boring machine (TBM in up to 15 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa pressure. Specific attention is given to the main challenges that were overcome during the TBM excavation, which included the mode of operation, face support pressures, pre-excavation grouting, and maintenance; to the construction of the intake, which involved deep underwater shaft excavation with blasting using shaped charges; to the construction of the innovative over 1200 t concrete-and-steel intake structure; to the placement of the intake structure in the underwater shaft; and to the docking and connection to an intake tunnel excavated by hybrid TBM. Keywords: Sub-aqueous tunneling, Tunnel-boring machine excavation, Water intakes

  6. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  7. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems

  8. Screening approach by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the blood quantification of thirty-four toxic principles of plant origin. Application to forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Romeuf, Ludovic; Bévalot, Fabien; Boyer, Baptiste; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-15

    Plant poisonings have left their mark on history and still cause many deaths, whether intentional or accidental. The means to show toxicological evidence of such poisonings should be implemented with great care. This article presents a technique for measuring thirty-nine toxic principles of plant origin in the blood, covering a large amount of toxins from local or exotic plants: α-lobeline, α-solanine, aconitine, ajmaline, atropine, brucine, cephalomannine, colchicine, convallatoxin, cymarine, cytisine, digitoxin, digoxin, emetine, gelsemine, ibogaine, jervine, kavain, lanatoside C, lupanine, mitragynine, neriifolin, oleandrin, ouabain, paclitaxel, physostigmine, pilocarpine, podophyllotoxin, proscillaridin A, reserpine, retrorsine, ricinine, scopolamine, senecionine, sparteine, strophanthidin, strychnine, veratridine and yohimbine. Analysis was carried out using an original ultra-high performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Extraction was a standard solid phase extraction performed on Oasis(®) HLB cartridge. Thirty-four of the thirty-nine compounds were put through a validation procedure. The assay was linear in the calibration curve range from 0.5 or 5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L according to the compounds. The method is sensitive (LOD from 0.1 to 1.6 μg/L). The within-day precision of the assay was less than 22.5% at the LLOQ, and the between-day precision was less than 21.5% for 10 μg/L for all the compounds included. The assay accuracy was in the range of 87.4 to 119.8% for the LLOQ. The extraction recovery and matrix effect ranged from 30 to 106% and from -30 to 14%, respectively. It has proven useful and effective in several difficult forensic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.

  10. Quantification of the effects of dependence on human error probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    In estimating the probabilities of human error in the performance of a series of tasks in a nuclear power plant, the situation-specific characteristics of the series must be considered. A critical factor not to be overlooked in this estimation is the dependence or independence that pertains to any of the several pairs of task performances. In discussing the quantification of the effects of dependence, the event tree symbology described will be used. In any series of tasks, the only dependence considered for quantification in this document will be that existing between the task of interest and the immediately preceeding task. Tasks performed earlier in the series may have some effect on the end task, but this effect is considered negligible

  11. Engineering evaluation of porous-dike intake screening systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    As one of many concepts currently under investigation for use in screening fish and larvae from power plant intakes, the porous-dike system presents unique challenges to the designer and constructor. A complete understanding of the hydraulic losses through such a structure is necessary to properly size and locate the intake and to ensure proper pump selection and performance. In the study described in this report, an analogy with frictional losses in conduits was employed, and empirical data on losses were determined for three sizes of filter stone typical of the types used in the construction of a porous-dike intake system. These empirical data were compared with additional information from the literature. The dependence of hydraulic losses through large-diameter media on stone shape and porosity were demonstrated although no empirical expression of this dependence was developed. A hypothetical porous-dike intake installation was developed, demonstrating the fundamental design considerations which must be made for such a structure. Finally, a cursory economic comparison of various intake screening systems demonstrated that the porous-dike intake concept was economically competitive with all others

  12. Intake acoustics of naturally aspirated racing engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinar, A

    2006-01-01

    The intake system is one of the components on the internal combustion engine most linked with the achievement of the high volumetric efficiency required of naturally aspirated engines. High performance racing engine intake systems have unusual geometry with separate intake pipes (often known as intake trumpets) housed in a common airbox. These intake trumpets are short pipes that are sometimes cylindrical but often conical. The flow within the intake system is ve...

  13. Dietary flavonoids of Spanish youth: intakes, sources, and association with the Mediterranean diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowaedh Ahmed Bawaked

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Plant-based diets have been linked to high diet quality and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The health impact of plant-based diets might be partially explained by the concomitant intake of flavonoids. Estimation of flavonoids intake in adults has been important for the development of dietary recommendations and interventions for the prevention of weight gain and its consequences. However, estimation of flavonoids intake in children and adolescents is limited. Methods Average daily intake and sources of flavonoids were estimated for a representative national sample of 3,534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2–24 years. The data was collected between 1998 and 2000 by 24-h recalls. The Phenol-Explorer database and the USDA database on flavonoids content were used. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the KIDMED index. Results The mean and median intakes of total flavonoids were 70.7 and 48.1 mg/day, respectively. The most abundant flavonoid class was flavan-3-ols (35.7%, with fruit being the top food source of flavonoids intake (42.8%. Total flavonoids intake was positively associated with the KIDMED index (p < 0.001. Conclusion The results of this study provide primary information about flavonoids intake and main food sources in Spanish children, adolescents and young adults. Participants with high daily mean intake of flavonoids have higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

  14. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 x 10 -21 m 2 was less than 3.0 m

  15. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  16. Selective intake of potassium from K-bearing silicate minerals by sunflower and upland rice inferred from Eu anomaly. Implication for weathering as a direct consequence of plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagi, Tasuku; Saito, Sakura; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Sugiyama, Megumi; Ae, Noriharu

    2006-01-01

    Two crops (sunflower and upland rice) cultivated using three K-bearing minerals and KCl by Sugiyama and Ae (2000) were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs). The two crops had been reported by them to general more available silica in soil (especially in the case of sunflower) and absorbed silica in plants (especially in the case of upland rice) than that available originally in soil. The K-bearing minerals included biotite, muscovite, and K-feldspar. The REE patterns of individual crop specimens exhibited different extents of Eu anomaly; upland rice exhibited more varying extent of Eu anomaly than sunflower. It is inferred that REEs released from the K-bearing minerals had a longer contact with soil in the case of sunflower than in the case of upland rice. By the scrutiny of the extent of the Eu anomaly, it was found that upland rice took in K and REEs from all the K-bearing minerals, including hardly-soluble feldspar. Eu anomaly can be a good proxy of sources of inorganic nutrients in plants as well as of the directness of absorption of the nutrients. When the present results are viewed from a different angle, they endorse that plant-induced weathering is equivalent to physiological action of plants. (author)

  17. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tieland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from

  18. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  19. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  20. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  1. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  2. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  3. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  4. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  5. Effects of humic substances on fluorometric DNA quantification and DNA hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachoon, DS; Otero, E; Hodson, RE

    2001-01-01

    DNA extracts from sediment and water samples are often contaminated with coextracted humic-like impurities, Estuarine humic substances and vascular plant extract were used to evaluate the effect of the presence of such impurities on DNA hybridization and quantification. The presence of humic

  6. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žel Jana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was

  8. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR--effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-08-14

    Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary criterion by which to

  9. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Štebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary

  10. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  11. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  12. How may a shift towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern affect nutrient intakes of Dutch children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Bakker, Helena M E; Seves, S Marije; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dekkers, Arnold L; van Raaij, Joop M A; Ocké, Marga C

    2015-09-01

    Food has a considerable environmental impact. Diets with less meat and dairy reduce environmental impact but may pose nutritional challenges for children. The current modelling study investigates the impact of diets with less or no meat and dairy products on nutrient intakes. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed for observed consumption patterns (reference) and two replacement scenarios with data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey - Young Children (2005-2006). In the replacement scenarios, 30 % or 100 % of the consumed dairy and meat (in grams) was replaced by plant-derived foods with similar use. The Netherlands. Children (n 1279) aged 2-6 years. Partial and full replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-derived foods reduced SFA intake by 9 % and 26 %, respectively, while fibre intake was 8 % and 29 % higher. With partial replacement, micronutrient intakes were similar, except for lower vitamin B12 intake. After full meat and dairy replacement, mean intakes of Ca, Zn and thiamin decreased by 5-13 %, and vitamin B12 intake by 49 %, while total intake of Fe was higher but of lower bioavailability. With full replacement, the proportion of girls aged 4-6 years with intakes below recommendations was 15 % for thiamin, 10 % for vitamin B12 and 6 % for Zn. Partial replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods is beneficial for children's health by lowering SFA intake, increasing fibre content and maintaining similar micronutrient intakes. When full replacements are made, attention is recommended to ensure adequate thiamin, vitamin B12 and Zn intakes.

  13. Infrared monitoring of power-plant effluents and heat sinks to optimize plant efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.; Seith, David A.

    2000-03-01

    Infrared imaging of the discharge canal and intake pond of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station was initiated to confirm a plant staff suspicion that high water intake temperatures were being influenced by recirculation of discharge flow. To minimize the angle of incidence to the water surface, the inspection was made from the top of the cooling towers. Although there was no evidence of recirculation from the plant discharge to the intake pond, two unexpected inputs of thermal energy were discovered during the inspection. A faulty sluice gate and a damaged cross-around pipe could be seen to be dumping thermal energy into the intake pond. The result was increased temperatures at the intake which threatened plant operation, decreased plant efficiency, and resulted in fewer megawatts available to sell to customers during the critical summer months.

  14. Comparison of five DNA quantification methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hedman, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Six commercial preparations of human genomic DNA were quantified using five quantification methods: UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot hybridization with the probe D17Z1, Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit and RB1 rt-PCR. All methods measured higher DNA concentrations than...... Quantification kit in two experiments. The measured DNA concentrations with Quantifiler were 125 and 160% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. When the Quantifiler human DNA standard (Raji cell line) was replaced by the commercial human DNA preparation G147A (Promega) to generate the DNA...... standard curve in the Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit, the DNA quantification results of the human DNA preparations were 31% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. The results indicate a calibration problem with the Quantifiler human DNA standard for its use...

  15. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  16. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... Therefore this thesis will also present and discuss state-of-the-art tools for computer-assisted compound identification, including: annotation of adducts and fragments, determination of the molecular ion, in silico fragmentation, retention time mapping between analytical systems and de novo retention time...

  17. Novel approaches to the estimation of intake and bioavailability of radiocaesium in ruminants grazing forested areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, R.W.; Lamb, C.S.; Beresford, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    It is difficult to measure transfer of radiocaesium to the tissues of forest ruminants because they can potentially ingest a wide range of plant types. Measurements on undomesticated forest ruminants incur further difficulties. Existing techniques of estimating radiocaesium intake are imprecise when applied to forest systems. New approaches to measure this parameter are discussed. Two methods of intake estimation are described and evaluated. In the first method, radiocaesium intake is estimated from the radiocaesium activity concentrations of plants, combined with estimates of dry-matter (DM) intake and plant species composition of the diet, using plant and orally-dosed hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) as markers. The second approach estimates the total radiocaesium intake of an animal from the rate of excretion of radiocaesium in the faeces and an assumed value for the apparent absorption coefficient. Estimates of radiocaesium intake, using these approaches, in lactating goats and adult sheep were used to calculate transfer coefficients for milk and muscle; these compared favourably with transfer coefficients previously obtained under controlled experimental conditions. Potential variations in bioavailability of dietary radiocaesium sources to forest ruminants have rarely been considered. Approaches that can be used to describe bioavailability, including the true absorption coefficient and in vitro extractability, are outlined

  18. Automatic Segmentation and Quantification of Filamentous Structures in Electron Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Leandro A; Bebis, George; Chang, Hang; Auer, Manfred; Sarkar, Purbasha; Parvin, Bahram

    2012-10-01

    Electron tomography is a promising technology for imaging ultrastructures at nanoscale resolutions. However, image and quantitative analyses are often hindered by high levels of noise, staining heterogeneity, and material damage either as a result of the electron beam or sample preparation. We have developed and built a framework that allows for automatic segmentation and quantification of filamentous objects in 3D electron tomography. Our approach consists of three steps: (i) local enhancement of filaments by Hessian filtering; (ii) detection and completion (e.g., gap filling) of filamentous structures through tensor voting; and (iii) delineation of the filamentous networks. Our approach allows for quantification of filamentous networks in terms of their compositional and morphological features. We first validate our approach using a set of specifically designed synthetic data. We then apply our segmentation framework to tomograms of plant cell walls that have undergone different chemical treatments for polysaccharide extraction. The subsequent compositional and morphological analyses of the plant cell walls reveal their organizational characteristics and the effects of the different chemical protocols on specific polysaccharides.

  19. Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Sik; Min, Jung Joon; Lee, Byeong Il; Choi, Eun Seo; Tak, Yoon O; Choi, Heung Kook; Lee, Ju Young

    2009-01-01

    Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

  20. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  1. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  2. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tse, Man-Chun

    2004-01-01

    In a radial-to-axial intake with inlet guide vanes (IGV) at the entry, a strong flow circulation Gamma can be generated from the tangential flow components created by the IGVs when their setting exceed about halfclosing (approx. 45 deg...

  3. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  4. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  5. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Kammourie, Nizar; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved

  6. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  7. Quantification of plant cell coupling with live-cell microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    by confocal microscopy, loaded tracer is activated by UV illumination in a target cell and its spread to neighboring cells monitored. When combined with high-speed acquisition by resonant scanning or spinning disc confocal microscopy, the high signal-to-noise ratio of photoactivation allows collection...

  8. Daily intake and serum concentration of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) in haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyskida, Katarzyna; Żak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Suchy, Dariusz; Ficek, Rafał; Pośpiech, Kornel; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Okopień, Bogusław; Więcek, Andrzej; Chudek, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    Decreased concentration of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) seems to be an important risk factor of vascular calcification in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Optimal dietary intake, as well as serum MK-4 reference range, in HD has not been determined, yet. The aim of the present study was to assess daily vitamin K1 and MK-4 intakes and their relation to serum MK-4 concentration in HD patients. Daily vitamin K1 and MK-4, micro- and macronutrients and energy intakes were assessed using 3-day food diary completed by patients and serum MK-4 concentration was measured by HPLC [limit of quantification (LOQ): 0.055 ng/mL] in 85 HD patients (51 males) and 22 apparently healthy subjects. Daily MK-4 intake was significantly lower (by 29%) among HD, while K1 consumption was similar in both groups. Daily MK-4 intake was associated with fat and protein consumption in HD (r=0.43, pintakes were weaker in HD (r=0.38 and r=0.30 respectively) than in the control group (r=0.47 and r=0.45, respectively). In multiple regression analysis the variability of serum MK-4 concentrations in HD patients was explained by its daily intake. Decreased serum MK-4 concentration in HD patients is caused by lower dietary MK-4 intake, mainly due to diminished meat consumption, and in addition, probably reduced K1 conversion. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators increased the total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... the exogenous application of flavonoids reports plant growth regulation ... method used for extraction and quantification of endogenous gibberellins was ... 365 nm) while separation was done on a C18 reverse-phase HPLC.

  10. Proposal for intake model for workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP who handle 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.J.; Gaburo, J.C.; Sanches, M.P.; Oliveira, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The intake model for the two groups of workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP is presented. They handle iodine compounds during the processing of irradiated targets and at labeling of radiopharmaceutical compounds. The intake model for the workers are proposed from the knowledge of the activities carried out in the plant and the internal monitoring program of the workers. In this study, the intake is considered to be taken uniformly during the days of major activities carried out by the workers. In practice, the application of this model has be shown suitable, for the studied groups

  11. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  12. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  13. The NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation of an uncertainty quantification challenge problem consisting of five subproblems. These problems focus on key aspects of uncertainty characterization, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, extreme-case analysis, and robust design.

  14. Uncertainty quantification theory, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Ralph C

    2014-01-01

    The field of uncertainty quantification is evolving rapidly because of increasing emphasis on models that require quantified uncertainties for large-scale applications, novel algorithm development, and new computational architectures that facilitate implementation of these algorithms. Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications provides readers with the basic concepts, theory, and algorithms necessary to quantify input and response uncertainties for simulation models arising in a broad range of disciplines. The book begins with a detailed discussion of applications where uncertainty quantification is critical for both scientific understanding and policy. It then covers concepts from probability and statistics, parameter selection techniques, frequentist and Bayesian model calibration, propagation of uncertainties, quantification of model discrepancy, surrogate model construction, and local and global sensitivity analysis. The author maintains a complementary web page where readers ca...

  15. Uncertainty Quantification in Aerodynamics Simulations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work (Phases I and II) is to develop uncertainty quantification methodologies and software suitable for use in CFD simulations of...

  16. Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... alternative for the quantification of the disease' syndromes in regards to this crop. The result of these ..... parison of treatments such as cultivars or control measures and ..... Vascular discoloration and stem necrosis. 2.

  17. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Bekas, C.; Curioni, A.; Fedulova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost

  18. Direct qPCR quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason Yingjie

    2014-11-01

    The effectiveness of a direct quantification assay is essential to the adoption of the combined direct quantification/direct STR workflow. In this paper, the feasibility of using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit for the direct quantification of forensic casework samples was investigated. Both low-level touch DNA samples and blood samples were collected on PE swabs and quantified directly. The increased sensitivity of the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit enabled the detection of less than 10pg of DNA in unprocessed touch samples and also minimizes the stochastic effect experienced by different targets in the same sample. The DNA quantity information obtained from a direct quantification assay using the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit can also be used to accurately estimate the optimal input DNA quantity for a direct STR amplification reaction. The correlation between the direct quantification results (Quantifiler(®) Trio kit) and the direct STR results (GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit(*)) for low-level touch DNA samples indicates that direct quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit is more reliable than the Quantifiler(®) Duo DNA quantification kit for predicting the STR results of unprocessed touch DNA samples containing less than 10pg of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B₁, B₂, B₆, B₁₂, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.

  20. Intake Procedures in College Counseling Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.; And Others

    Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…

  1. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweig...

  2. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    We consider uncertainty quantification problem in aerodynamic simulations. We identify input uncertainties, classify them, suggest an appropriate statistical model and, finally, estimate propagation of these uncertainties into the solution (pressure, velocity and density fields as well as the lift and drag coefficients). The deterministic problem under consideration is a compressible transonic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Strokes flow around an airfoil with random/uncertain data. Input uncertainties include: uncertain angle of attack, the Mach number, random perturbations in the airfoil geometry, mesh, shock location, turbulence model and parameters of this turbulence model. This problem requires efficient numerical/statistical methods since it is computationally expensive, especially for the uncertainties caused by random geometry variations which involve a large number of variables. In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al \\'17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.

  4. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  5. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  6. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.

    2014-01-01

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  7. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-18

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  8. Dietary Cadmium Intake and Its Effects on Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soisungwan Satarug

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd. The metal transporters that mediate absorption of Cd in the gastrointestinal tract are summarized together with glomerular filtration of Cd and its sequestration by the kidneys. The contribution of age differences, gender, and smoking status to Cd accumulation in lungs, liver, and kidneys are highlighted. The basis for use of urinary Cd excretion to reflect body burden is discussed together with the use of urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG levels to quantify its toxicity. The associations of Cd with the development of chronic kidney disease and hypertension, reduced weight gain, and zinc reabsorption are highlighted. In addition, the review addresses how urinary Cd threshold levels have been derived from human population data and their utility as a warning sign of impending kidney malfunction.

  9. Global deposition of fallout radionuclides and their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisawa, Shinsuke

    1993-01-01

    Japanese foods depend largely on foreign countries and domestic food supply now is no more than 30 percents if feedstuffs for live-stocks are included. Therefore not only ecological/natural but also social, e.g., human activities related, transportation of fallout radionuclides are to be taken into accounts for estimation of baseline internal irradiation dose and health risks of Japanese peoples through dietary intake of radionuclides. In this study, mathematical model is developed and examined for practical application on estimating Japanese dietary intake level of fallout strontium-90, which is accumulated in various kinds of foodstuffs and is transported to Japan associated with worldwide trades of foods, under appropriate limitations such that direct deposition on plants and seafood intake pathways are not evaluated. Deposition of strontium-90 onto the surface soil was simulated using the model, the compartment model described by a set ordinary differential equations, and the estimates were examined by comparing them with the observed data colleted and complied by the global scale environmental monitoring networks. Sensitivity analysis is also practised to find possible reduction of dietary intake of fallout radionuclides and the related potential health risks. (author)

  10. Lung involvement quantification in chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcela de; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.; Pina, Diana R.; Pereira, Paulo C.M.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an infectious disease which remains a global health problem. The chest radiography is the commonly method employed to assess the TB's evolution. The methods for quantification of abnormalities of chest are usually performed on CT scans (CT). This quantification is important to assess the TB evolution and treatment and comparing different treatments. However, precise quantification is not feasible for the amount of CT scans required. The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for quantification of lung damage caused by TB through chest radiographs. It was developed an algorithm for computational processing of exams in Matlab, which creates a lungs' 3D representation, with compromised dilated regions inside. The quantification of lung lesions was also made for the same patients through CT scans. The measurements from the two methods were compared and resulting in strong correlation. Applying statistical Bland and Altman, all samples were within the limits of agreement, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed an average variation of around 13% between the two quantification methods. The results suggest the effectiveness and applicability of the method developed, providing better risk-benefit to the patient and cost-benefit ratio for the institution. (author)

  11. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  12. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  13. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA in roots: how important is material preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Hujslová, Martina; Slavíková, Renata; Jansa, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots is a pre-requisite for improving our understanding of AMF ecology and functioning of the symbiosis in natural conditions. Among other approaches, quantification of fungal DNA in plant tissues by quantitative real-time PCR is one of the advanced techniques with a great potential to process large numbers of samples and to deliver truly quantitative information. Its application potential would greatly increase if the samples could be preserved by drying, but little is currently known about the feasibility and reliability of fungal DNA quantification from dry plant material. We addressed this question by comparing quantification results based on dry root material to those obtained from deep-frozen roots of Medicago truncatula colonized with Rhizophagus sp. The fungal DNA was well conserved in the dry root samples with overall fungal DNA levels in the extracts comparable with those determined in extracts of frozen roots. There was, however, no correlation between the quantitative data sets obtained from the two types of material, and data from dry roots were more variable. Based on these results, we recommend dry material for qualitative screenings but advocate using frozen root materials if precise quantification of fungal DNA is required.

  14. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  15. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  16. Uncertainty quantification for environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10

  17. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Cassidy, A; Schwarzschild, M A; Rimm, E B; Ascherio, A

    2012-04-10

    To prospectively examine whether higher intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) were associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). In the current analysis, we included 49,281 men in the Health Professional Follow-up Study and 80,336 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Five major sources of flavonoid-rich foods (tea, berry fruits, apples, red wine, and orange/orange juice) were also examined. Flavonoid intake was assessed using an updated food composition database and a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40%lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both). Our findings suggest that intake of some flavonoids may reduce PD risk, particularly in men, but a protective effect of other constituents of plant foods cannot be excluded.

  19. The quantification of risk and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Croucamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in South Africa comprises 9.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP, but remains an underresearched industry, especially regarding the quantification of the risks prevailing in the social, political and economic environment in which the industry operates. Risk prediction, extrapolation forecasting is conducted largely in the context of a qualitative methodology. This article reflects on the quantification of social constructs as variables of risk in the tourism industry with reference to South Africa. The theory and methodology of quantification is briefly reviewed and the indicators of risk are conceptualized and operationalized. The identified indicators are scaled in indices for purposes of quantification. Risk assessments and the quantification of constructs rely heavily on the experience - often personal - of the researcher and this scholarly endeavour is, therefore, not inclusive of all possible identified indicators of risk. It is accepted that tourism in South Africa is an industry comprising of a large diversity of sectors, each with a different set of risk indicators and risk profiles. The emphasis of this article is thus on the methodology to be applied to a risk profile. A secondary endeavour is to provide for clarity about the conceptual and operational confines of risk in general, as well as how quantified risk relates to the tourism industry. The indices provided include both domesticand international risk indicators. The motivation for the article is to encourage a greater emphasis on quantitative research in our efforts to understand and manage a risk profile for the tourist industry.

  20. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  1. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  2. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  3. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  4. Working group of experts on rare events in human error analysis and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    In dealing with the reference problem of rare events in nuclear power plants, the group has concerned itself with the man-machine system and, in particular, with human error analysis and quantification. The Group was requested to review methods of human reliability prediction, to evaluate the extent to which such analyses can be formalized and to establish criteria to be met by task conditions and system design which would permit a systematic, formal analysis. Recommendations are given on the Fessenheim safety system

  5. Real-time PCR quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: does the use of nuclear or mitochondrial markers make a difference?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voříšková, Alena; Jansa, J.; Püschel, David; Krüger, Manuela; Cajthaml, T.; Vosátka, Miroslav; Janoušková, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2017), s. 577-585 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05466S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : real-time PCR * quantification * arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.047, year: 2016

  6. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  7. Subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis facilities: Capacity limitation, water quality improvement, and economics

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-08-01

    The use of subsurface intake systems for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants significantly improves raw water quality, reduces chemical usage and environmental impacts, decreases the carbon footprint, and reduces cost of treated water to consumers. These intakes include wells (vertical, angle, and radial type) and galleries, which can be located either on the beach or in the seabed. Subsurface intakes act both as intakes and as part of the pretreatment system by providing filtration and active biological treatment of the raw seawater. Recent investigations of the improvement in water quality made by subsurface intakes show lowering of the silt density index by 75 to 90%, removal of nearly all algae, removal of over 90% of bacteria, reduction in the concentrations of TOC and DOC, and virtual elimination of biopolymers and polysaccharides that cause organic biofouling of membranes. Economic analyses show that overall SWRO operating costs can be reduced by 5 to 30% by using subsurface intake systems. Although capital costs can be slightly to significantly higher compared to open-ocean intake system costs, a preliminary life-cycle cost analysis shows significant cost saving over operating periods of 10 to 30. years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...... fatty acids are raised in dairy fat along with the amount of green plant material intake of the cattle. Phytanic acid is one of these minor fatty acids, due to agonist activities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. To determine the effects of both...

  9. Qualification of Food Intake by the Roma Population in the Region of South Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sedova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a correlation study, aimed at quantifying the food intake of the Roma population in the South Bohemian Region. To achieve the goal, we applied the method of one-day dietary recall and frequency food analysis (non-standardized. The quantification was carried out by analysis in the Nutridan program. The study involved 302 Roma persons and 298 persons in the control group. Both groups had the same representation of males and females (50:50. The age categories of both sets differed; the average age of the Roma was lower (39.2 years (p < 0.001. The probands from the Roma population were chosen with the help of the snowball method through known respondents. The statistical analysis shows differences in nutritional estimate between the Roma population and the control sample. The Roma differ in their energy intake. Both groups showed lower intake of sugars, below 50% total energy intake (TEI and higher intake of fats, above 30% TEI. The respondents from both groups consume little fruits and vegetables, which may be connected with their low dietary fiber intake. In addition to the differences in the nutritional estimates, we recorded statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.001, in age (p < 0.001, regular alimentation (p = 0 and demanding physical activities (p = 0. In spite of the fact our groups differed in age (the Roma are younger, it can be assumed that the obesity of the Roma may be caused by unbalanced alimentation and lack of physical activities.

  10. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  11. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47......% and 32%, respectively, of the mean intake of carotenoids of 4.8 mg/day A median value of 4.1 mg/day was found indicating skewed intake distributions. The difference between men and women was 0.4 mg/day (p carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, contributed...

  12. The endocrinology of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes.

  13. A real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae in spinach seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duressa, Dechassa; Rauscher, Gilda; Koike, Steven T; Mou, Beiquan; Hayes, Ryan J; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V; Klosterman, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes Verticillium wilt on multiple crops in central coastal California. Although spinach crops grown in this region for fresh and processing commercial production do not display Verticillium wilt symptoms, spinach seeds produced in the United States or Europe are commonly infected with V. dahliae. Planting of the infected seed increases the soil inoculum density and may introduce exotic strains that contribute to Verticillium wilt epidemics on lettuce and other crops grown in rotation with spinach. A sensitive, rapid, and reliable method for quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed may help identify highly infected lots, curtail their planting, and minimize the spread of exotic strains via spinach seed. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was optimized and employed for detection and quantification of V. dahliae in spinach germplasm and 15 commercial spinach seed lots. The assay used a previously reported V. dahliae-specific primer pair (VertBt-F and VertBt-R) and an analytical mill for grinding tough spinach seed for DNA extraction. The assay enabled reliable quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed, with a sensitivity limit of ≈1 infected seed per 100 (1.3% infection in a seed lot). The quantification was highly reproducible between replicate samples of a seed lot and in different real-time PCR instruments. When tested on commercial seed lots, a pathogen DNA content corresponding to a quantification cycle value of ≥31 corresponded with a percent seed infection of ≤1.3%. The assay is useful in qualitatively assessing seed lots for V. dahliae infection levels, and the results of the assay can be helpful to guide decisions on whether to apply seed treatments.

  14. Terahertz identification and quantification of penicillamine enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Te; Zhao Hongwei; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao; Han Pengyu

    2013-01-01

    Identification and characterization of L-, D- and DL- penicillamine were demonstrated by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To understand the physical origins of the low frequency resonant modes, the density functional theory (DFT) was adopted for theoretical calculation. It was found that the collective THz frequency motions were decided by the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions. Moreover, the quantification of penicillamine enantiomers mixture was demonstrated by a THz spectra fitting method with a relative error of less than 3.5%. This technique can be a valuable tool for the discrimination and quantification of chiral drugs in pharmaceutical industry. (authors)

  15. Phytosterol Profiles of Common Foods and Estimated Natural Intake of Different Structures and Forms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhang, Liangxiao; Shao, Yafang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Ziyan; Mei, Xiaohong; Li, Tao; Wang, Donghui; Liang, Ying; Li, Jing; Huang, Yining; Zhang, Liuquan; Xu, Tao; Song, Huaxin; Zhong, Yongheng; Lu, Baiyi

    2018-03-21

    Phytosterols are well-known for their cholesterol-lowering effects, and the structures and forms of phytosterols affect their bioactivity. We aimed to illustrate the phytosterol profiles in common foods and estimate their natural intake in five geographical regions and among different age groups in China. In total, 12 phytosterols in free and esterified forms of 119 foods from five regions across China were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, the dietary intake of phytosterols was calculated combined with the dietary foods intake data of Chinese people. The total phytosterol content was highest in vegetable oils (150.4-1230.9 mg/100 g), followed by legumes (129.6-275.6 mg/100 g), nuts (18.9-255.2 mg/100 g), and cereals (11.9-93.8 mg/100 g). Vegetables and fruits contained lower contents of total phytosterols. Phytosterols were mainly esterified in most common foods except in nuts. The predominant phytosterols were β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, all of which belonged to plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols. Total phytosterol intake varied across different regions, ranging between 257.7 and 473.7 mg/standard-person (sp)/day, with the highest intake in Beijing, followed by Hangzhou, Wuhan, Chongqing, and Guangzhou. However, phytosterol proportion was similar across regions, with β-sitosterol accounting for 46.5-50.3% of the natural intake. Phytosterol intake was mainly constituted by plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols in esterified form (61.9-74.6%). At the age of 2-70 years, phytosterol intake ranged from 154.3 mg/day to 348.0 mg/day in the national scale.

  16. Internal Dosimetry Intake Estimation using Bayesian Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Martz, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    New methods for the inverse problem of internal dosimetry are proposed based on evaluating expectations of the Bayesian posterior probability distribution of intake amounts, given bioassay measurements. These expectation integrals are normally of very high dimension and hence impractical to use. However, the expectations can be algebraically transformed into a sum of terms representing different numbers of intakes, with a Poisson distribution of the number of intakes. This sum often rapidly converges, when the average number of intakes for a population is small. A simplified algorithm using data unfolding is described (UF code). (author)

  17. Benchmarking common quantification strategies for large-scale phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogrebe, Alexander; von Stechow, Louise; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is now feasible, but reproducible quantification remains challenging, especially for post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Here, we compare the most popular quantification techniques for global phosphoproteomics: label-free...

  18. Fish impingement at Lake Michigan power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1974 to survey the magnitude and to evaluate the impact of fish impingement at 20 power plants on the Great Lakes. Data on impingement rates, site characteristics, intake designs and operational features have been collected and analyzed. Interpretive analyses of these data are in progress. The objectives of this study were: to summarize fish impingement data for Lake Michigan (16/20 plants surveyed are on Lake Michigan); to assess the significance of total and source-related mortalities on populations of forage and predator species; and to expand the assessment of power plant impingement to include all water intakes on Lake Michigan. Data are tabulated

  19. Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and Apparent Digestibility of Forages in Goats Grazing on Introduced Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewei Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient composition of pasture, voluntary intake and digestibility of diet ingested by goats grazing on an introduced Leymus chinensis pasture were measured across spring (May, summer (July, autumn (October and winter (March. In each season, 12 Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats (6 wethers and 6 does with an average live weight of 22.2±1.3 kg and 19.5±0.8 kg, respectively were used to graze on a 2 hectares size paddock. Diet selection was observed and the plant parts selected by grazing goats and whole plant L. chinensis were sampled simultaneously. The alkane pair C32:C33 and C36 were used to estimate intake and digestibility, respectively. The results showed that the plant parts selected by goats had higher crude protein (CP and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF than the whole plant, especially in the autumn and winter. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and metabolizable energy (ME by goats was highest in summer (p<0.05. The goats ingested more CP, ME, and less ADF in spring than in autumn (p<0.05. The intakes of DM, CP, and ME were lowest in winter (p<0.05. There were significant differences in nutrient intake between wethers and does in each season, except for the ADF and ME intake per metabolic weight (LW0.75. The nutrient digestibilities were higher in spring and summer, and decreased significantly during the autumn and winter (p<0.05. Goats, especially wethers, had a relative constant NDF digestibility across seasons, however, the apparent digestibility of CP in both wethers and does, decreased to negative values in winter. The grazing goats experienced relatively sufficient nutrients supply in spring and summer, and a severe deficiency of CP and ME in winter.

  20. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  1. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  2. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibrea, Francisco; Caballero, M. Victoria; Molera, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero

  3. Quantification of coating aging using impedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westing, E.P.M. van; Weijde, D.H. van der; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    This chapter shows the application results of a novel approach to quantify the ageing of organic coatings using impedance measurements. The ageing quantification is based on the typical impedance behaviour of barrier coatings in immersion. This immersion behaviour is used to determine the limiting

  4. Quantification analysis of CT for aphasic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shunzo; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Hojo, Kei; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Hanazono, Toshihide; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi; Totsuka, Motokichi; Oosumi, Noboru.

    1987-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography, for 44 aphasic patients with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized matrices, composed of 10 slices with 3000 points (50 by 60). The relationships between the foci of the lesions and types of aphasia were investigated on the slices numbered 3, 4, 5, and 6 using a quantification theory, Type 3 (pattern analysis). Some types of regularities were observed on Slices 3, 4, 5, and 6. The group of patients with Broca's aphasia and the group with Wernicke's aphasia were generally separated on the 1st component and the 2nd component of the quantification theory, Type 3. On the other hand, the group with global aphasia existed between the group with Broca's aphasia and that with Wernicke's aphasia. The group of patients with amnestic aphasia had no specific findings, and the group with conduction aphasia existed near those with Wernicke's aphasia. The above results serve to establish the quantification theory, Type 2 (discrimination analysis) and the quantification theory, Type 1 (regression analysis). (author)

  5. Quantification analysis of CT for aphasic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Ooyama, H.; Hojo, K.; Tasaki, H.; Hanazono, T.; Sato, T.; Metoki, H.; Totsuka, M.; Oosumi, N.

    1987-02-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography, for 44 aphasic patients with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized matrices, composed of 10 slices with 3000 points (50 by 60). The relationships between the foci of the lesions and types of aphasia were investigated on the slices numbered 3, 4, 5, and 6 using a quantification theory, Type 3 (pattern analysis). Some types of regularities were observed on slices 3, 4, 5, and 6. The group of patients with Broca's aphasia and the group with Wernicke's aphasia were generally separated on the 1st component and the 2nd component of the quantification theory, Type 3. On the other hand, the group with global aphasia existed between the group with Broca's aphasia and that with Wernicke's aphasia. The group of patients with amnestic aphasia had no specific findings, and the group with conduction aphasia existed near those with Wernicke's aphasia. The above results serve to establish the quantification theory, Type 2 (discrimination analysis) and the quantification theory, Type 1 (regression analysis).

  6. Quantification of glycyrrhizin biomarker in Glycyrrhiza glabra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations by validated Reverse Phase HPTLC method. Materials and Methods: RP-HPTLC Method was carried out using glass coated with RP-18 ...

  7. Noninvasive Quantification of Pancreatic Fat in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Esser, Victoria; Legendre, Jaime L.; Price, Angela L.; Wertz, Kristen M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Zhang, Song; Unger, Roger H.; Szczepaniak, Lidia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a tool for non-invasive quantification of pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content and to measure the pancreatic TG content in a diverse human population with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and glucose control.

  8. Cues, quantification, and agreement in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Darren; Bulkes, Nyssa Z

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors that affect the comprehension of subject-verb agreement in English, using quantification as a window into the relationship between morphosyntactic processes in language production and comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with grammatical and ungrammatical verbs, in which the plurality of the subject noun phrase was either doubly marked (via overt plural quantification and morphological marking on the noun) or singly marked (via only plural morphology on the noun). Both acceptability judgments and the ERP data showed heightened sensitivity to agreement violations when quantification provided an additional cue to the grammatical number of the subject noun phrase, over and above plural morphology. This is consistent with models of grammatical comprehension that emphasize feature prediction in tandem with cue-based memory retrieval. Our results additionally contrast with those of prior studies that showed no effects of plural quantification on agreement in language production. These findings therefore highlight some nontrivial divergences in the cues and mechanisms supporting morphosyntactic processing in language production and comprehension.

  9. Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2002-01-01

    The quantification of perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) requires deconvolution to obtain the residual impulse response function (IRF). In this work, a method using the Gaussian process for deconvolution (GPD) is proposed. The fact that the IRF is smooth is incorporated...

  10. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  11. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Hemon, Bertrand; Moskal, Aurelie; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Kyro, Cecilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Katzke, Verena; Kuehn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Peppa, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Hjartaker, Anette; Menendez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Maria Huerta, Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Lu, Yunxia; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    Background/ObjectivesPolyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations.

  12. Trends in linoleic acid intake in the United States adult population: NHANES 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the N...

  13. Fatty acid intake and its dietary sources in relation with markers of type 2 diabetes risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Alssema, M.; Koning, de E.J.P.; Cessie, Le S.; Vries, de J.H.; Zock, P.L.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Heijer, den M.; Mutsert, de R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between intakes of total, saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA), and their dietary sources (dairy, meat and plant) with markers of type 2 diabetes risk. Subjects/Methods: This was

  14. Tuning a 96-Well Microtiter Plate Fluorescence-Based Assay to Identify AGE Inhibitors in Crude Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Séro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Among them, cellular accumulation of AGEs contributes to vascular complications in diabetes. Besides using drugs to lower blood sugar, a balanced diet and the intake of herbal products potentially limiting AGE formation could be considered beneficial for patients’ health. The current paper presents a simple and cheap high-throughput screening (HTS assay based on AGE fluorescence and suitable for plant extract screening. We have already implemented an HTS assay based on vesperlysines-like fluorescing AGEs quickly (24 h formed from BSA and ribose under physiological conditions. However, interference was noted when fluorescent compounds and/or complex mixtures were tested. To overcome these problems and apply this HTS assay to plant extracts, we developed a technique for systematic quantification of both vesperlysines (λexc 370 nm; λem 440 nm and pentosidine-like (λexc 335 nm; λem 385 nm AGEs. In a batch of medicinal and food plant extracts, hits were selected as soon as fluorescence decreased under a fixed threshold for at least one wavelength. Hits revealed during this study appeared to contain well-known and powerful anti-AGE substances, thus demonstrating the suitability of this assay for screening crude extracts (0.1 mg/mL. Finally, quercetin was found to be a more powerful reference compound than aminoguanidine in such assay.

  15. Uncertainties and quantification of common cause failure rates and probabilities for system analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, Jussi K.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous failures of multiple components due to common causes at random times are modelled by constant multiple-failure rates. A procedure is described for quantification of common cause failure (CCF) basic event probabilities for system models using plant-specific and multiple-plant failure-event data. Methodology is presented for estimating CCF-rates from event data contaminated with assessment uncertainties. Generalised impact vectors determine the moments for the rates of individual systems or plants. These moments determine the effective numbers of events and observation times to be input to a Bayesian formalism to obtain plant-specific posterior CCF-rates. The rates are used to determine plant-specific common cause event probabilities for the basic events of explicit fault tree models depending on test intervals, test schedules and repair policies. Three methods are presented to determine these probabilities such that the correct time-average system unavailability can be obtained with single fault tree quantification. Recommended numerical values are given and examples illustrate different aspects of the methodology

  16. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of fat was also low by 53% compared to the recommended intake for adults. The intake of iron, zinc, and calcium was 40, 53 and 64%, respectively, which was not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Low intake of nutrients was generally attributed to inadequate food intake due to low feeding frequency, poorly ...

  17. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.

    The

  18. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  19. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  20. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  1. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  2. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and/or in the intestinal tissue. On the other hand, endogenous OEA and PEA have been suggested to inhibit food intake by acting...... on receptors in the intestine. At present, there is no clear role for endogenous anandamide in controlling food intake via cannabinoid receptors, neither centrally nor in the gastrointestinal tract. However, OEA, PEA and perhaps also LEA may be involved in regulation of food intake by selective prolongation...... OEA is less clear. Prolonged intake of dietary fat (45 energy%) may promote over-consumption of food by decreasing the endogenous levels of OEA, PEA and LEA in the intestine....

  3. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  4. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  5. Total arsenic in selected food samples from Argentina: Estimation of their contribution to inorganic arsenic dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Hilbe, Nandi; Brusa, Lucila; Campagnoli, Darío; Beldoménico, Horacio

    2016-11-01

    An optimized flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (FI-HGAAS) method was used to determine total arsenic in selected food samples (beef, chicken, fish, milk, cheese, egg, rice, rice-based products, wheat flour, corn flour, oats, breakfast cereals, legumes and potatoes) and to estimate their contributions to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values obtained were 6μgkg(-)(1) and 18μgkg(-)(1), respectively. The mean recovery range obtained for all food at a fortification level of 200μgkg(-)(1) was 85-110%. Accuracy was evaluated using dogfish liver certified reference material (DOLT-3 NRC) for trace metals. The highest total arsenic concentrations (in μgkg(-)(1)) were found in fish (152-439), rice (87-316) and rice-based products (52-201). The contribution to inorganic arsenic (i-As) intake was calculated from the mean i-As content of each food (calculated by applying conversion factors to total arsenic data) and the mean consumption per day. The primary contributors to inorganic arsenic intake were wheat flour, including its proportion in wheat flour-based products (breads, pasta and cookies), followed by rice; both foods account for close to 53% and 17% of the intake, respectively. The i-As dietary intake, estimated as 10.7μgday(-)(1), was significantly lower than that from drinking water in vast regions of Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiproliferative Activity of Some Medicinal Plants on Human Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The aerial parts of the plants were successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and ... plants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) while their antiproliferative activity was ... seeds and flavonoid glycosides in the aerial parts. [23]. .... In the present study, quantification of the chosen.

  7. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  8. Numerical simulation of the flow field in pump intakes by means of Lattice Boltzmann methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A; Conrad, D; Böhle, M

    2013-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Methods are nowadays popular schemes for solving fluid flow problems of engineering interest. This popularity is due to the advantages of these schemes: For example, the meshing of the fluid domain can be performed fully automatically which results in great simplicity in handling complex geometries. In this paper a numerical scheme for the flow simulation in pump intakes based on a Lattice Boltzmann large eddy approach is presented. The ability of this scheme to capture the flow phenomena of the intake flow at different operating conditions is analysed. For the operational reliability and efficiency of pumps and pump systems, the incoming flow conditions are crucial. Since the efficiency and reliability requirements of pumps are rising and must be guaranteed, the flow conditions in pump intakes have to be evaluated during plant planning. Recent trends show that pump intakes are built more and more compact, which makes the flow in the intake even more complex. Numerical methods are a promising technique for conduction flow analysis in pump intakes, because they can be realised rapidly and cheaply

  9. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.

  10. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  11. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  12. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  13. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  14. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  15. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  16. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  17. A validated Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method for quantification of total lactones in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivali, Garg; Praful, Lahorkar; Vijay, Gadgil

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a technique widely used for detection and quantification of various chemical moieties. This paper describes the use of the FT-IR spectroscopy technique for the quantification of total lactones present in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata. To validate the FT-IR spectroscopy method for quantification of total lactones in I. racemosa and A. paniculata. Dried and powdered I. racemosa roots and A. paniculata plant were extracted with ethanol and dried to remove ethanol completely. The ethanol extract was analysed in a KBr pellet by FT-IR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectroscopy method was validated and compared with a known spectrophotometric method for quantification of lactones in A. paniculata. By FT-IR spectroscopy, the amount of total lactones was found to be 2.12 ± 0.47% (n = 3) in I. racemosa and 8.65 ± 0.51% (n = 3) in A. paniculata. The method showed comparable results with a known spectrophotometric method used for quantification of such lactones: 8.42 ± 0.36% (n = 3) in A. paniculata. Limits of detection and quantification for isoallantolactone were 1 µg and 10 µg respectively; for andrographolide they were 1.5 µg and 15 µg respectively. Recoveries were over 98%, with good intra- and interday repeatability: RSD ≤ 2%. The FT-IR spectroscopy method proved linear, accurate, precise and specific, with low limits of detection and quantification, for estimation of total lactones, and is less tedious than the UV spectrophotometric method for the compounds tested. This validated FT-IR spectroscopy method is readily applicable for the quality control of I. racemosa and A. paniculata. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Model Uncertainty Quantification Methods In Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, S. D.; Marshall, L. A.; Sharma, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2017-12-01

    Data Assimilation involves utilising observations to improve model predictions in a seamless and statistically optimal fashion. Its applications are wide-ranging; from improving weather forecasts to tracking targets such as in the Apollo 11 mission. The use of Data Assimilation methods in high dimensional complex geophysical systems is an active area of research, where there exists many opportunities to enhance existing methodologies. One of the central challenges is in model uncertainty quantification; the outcome of any Data Assimilation study is strongly dependent on the uncertainties assigned to both observations and models. I focus on developing improved model uncertainty quantification methods that are applicable to challenging real world scenarios. These include developing methods for cases where the system states are only partially observed, where there is little prior knowledge of the model errors, and where the model error statistics are likely to be highly non-Gaussian.

  19. Uncertainty Quantification in Alchemical Free Energy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Agastya P; Wan, Shunzhou; Hu, Yuan; Sherborne, Brad; Coveney, Peter V

    2018-05-02

    Alchemical free energy methods have gained much importance recently from several reports of improved ligand-protein binding affinity predictions based on their implementation using molecular dynamics simulations. A large number of variants of such methods implementing different accelerated sampling techniques and free energy estimators are available, each claimed to be better than the others in its own way. However, the key features of reproducibility and quantification of associated uncertainties in such methods have barely been discussed. Here, we apply a systematic protocol for uncertainty quantification to a number of popular alchemical free energy methods, covering both absolute and relative free energy predictions. We show that a reliable measure of error estimation is provided by ensemble simulation-an ensemble of independent MD simulations-which applies irrespective of the free energy method. The need to use ensemble methods is fundamental and holds regardless of the duration of time of the molecular dynamics simulations performed.

  20. Uncertainty Quantification with Applications to Engineering Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele

    in measurements, predictions and manufacturing, and we can say that any dynamical system used in engineering is subject to some of these uncertainties. The first part of this work presents an overview of the mathematical framework used in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) analysis and introduces the spectral tensor...... and thus the UQ analysis of the associated systems will benefit greatly from the application of methods which require few function evaluations. We first consider the propagation of the uncertainty and the sensitivity analysis of the non-linear dynamics of railway vehicles with suspension components whose......-scale problems, where efficient methods are necessary with today’s computational resources. The outcome of this work was also the creation of several freely available Python modules for Uncertainty Quantification, which are listed and described in the appendix....

  1. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  2. Exploitation of immunofluorescence for the quantification and characterization of small numbers of Pasteuria endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia R; Kerry, Brian R; Bardgett, Richard D; Davies, Keith G

    2006-12-01

    The Pasteuria group of endospore-forming bacteria has been studied as a biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. Techniques have been developed for its detection and quantification in soil samples, and these mainly focus on observations of endospore attachment to nematodes. Characterization of Pasteuria populations has recently been performed with DNA-based techniques, which usually require the extraction of large numbers of spores. We describe a simple immunological method for the quantification and characterization of Pasteuria populations. Bayesian statistics were used to determine an extraction efficiency of 43% and a threshold of detection of 210 endospores g(-1) sand. This provided a robust means of estimating numbers of endospores in small-volume samples from a natural system. Based on visual assessment of endospore fluorescence, a quantitative method was developed to characterize endospore populations, which were shown to vary according to their host.

  3. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems, and the internal mechanisms of potential fouling compounds removal within subsurface intake systems. A new method was developed to assess the feasibility of using different subsurface intake systems in coastal areas and was applied to Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia. The methodology demonstrated that five specific coastal environments could support well intake systems use for small-capacity SWRO plants, whereas large-capacity SWRO facilities could use seabed gallery intake systems. It was also found that seabed intake system could run with no operational constraints based on the high evaporation rates and associated diurnal salinity changes along the coast line. Performance of well intake systems in several SWRO facilities along the Red Sea coast showed that the concentrations of organic compounds were reduced in the feed water, similar or better than traditional pretreatment methodologies. Nearly all algae, up to 99% of bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of TEP were removed during transport through the aquifer. These organics cause membrane biofouling and using well intakes showed a 50-75% lower need to clean the SWRO membranes compared to conventional open-ocean intakes. An assessment of the effectiveness of seabed gallery intake systems was conducted through a long-term bench-scale column experiment. The simulation of the active layer (upper 1 m) showed that it is highly effective at producing feed water quality improvements and acts totally different compared to slow sand filtration systems treating freshwater. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred and treatment was not limited to the top 10 cm, but throughout the full column thickness. Algae and

  4. Uncertainty quantification for hyperbolic and kinetic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pareschi, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    This book explores recent advances in uncertainty quantification for hyperbolic, kinetic, and related problems. The contributions address a range of different aspects, including: polynomial chaos expansions, perturbation methods, multi-level Monte Carlo methods, importance sampling, and moment methods. The interest in these topics is rapidly growing, as their applications have now expanded to many areas in engineering, physics, biology and the social sciences. Accordingly, the book provides the scientific community with a topical overview of the latest research efforts.

  5. Quantification of heterogeneity observed in medical images

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Frank J; Grigsby, Perry W

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been much recent interest in the quantification of visually evident heterogeneity within functional grayscale medical images, such as those obtained via magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography. In the case of images of cancerous tumors, variations in grayscale intensity imply variations in crucial tumor biology. Despite these considerable clinical implications, there is as yet no standardized method for measuring the heterogeneity observed via these imaging mod...

  6. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  7. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...

  8. Fingerprinting and quantification of GMOs in the agro-food sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, I; Van Bockstaele, E; De Loose, M

    2003-01-01

    Most strategies for analyzing GMOs in plants and derived food and feed products, are based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In conventional PCR methods, a 'known' sequence between two specific primers is amplified. To the contrary, with the 'anchor PCR' technique, unknown sequences adjacent to a known sequence, can be amplified. Because T-DNA/plant border sequences are being amplified, anchor PCR is the perfect tool for unique identification of transgenes, including non-authorized GMOs. In this work, anchor PCR was applied to characterize the 'transgene locus' and to clarify the complete molecular structure of at least six different commercial transgenic plants. Based on sequences of T-DNA/plant border junctions, obtained by anchor PCR, event specific primers were developed. The junction fragments, together with endogeneous reference gene targets, were cloned in plasmids. The latter were then used as event specific calibrators in real-time PCR, a new technique for the accurate relative quantification of GMOs. We demonstrate here the importance of anchor PCR for identification and the usefulness of plasmid DNA calibrators in quantification strategies for GMOs, throughout the agro-food sector.

  9. Biosynthesis, natural sources, dietary intake, pharmacokinetic properties, and biological activities of hydroxycinnamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; El-Said, Asmaa M A; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Göransson, Ulf; Bohlin, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Verpoorte, Rob

    2012-11-07

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are the most widely distributed phenolic acids in plants. Broadly speaking, they can be defined as compounds derived from cinnamic acid. They are present at high concentrations in many food products, including fruits, vegetables, tea, cocoa, and wine. A diet rich in hydroxycinnamic acids is thought to be associated with beneficial health effects such as a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The impact of hydroxycinnamic acids on health depends on their intake and pharmacokinetic properties. This review discusses their chemistry, biosynthesis, natural sources, dietary intake, and pharmacokinetic properties.

  10. Artifacts Quantification of Metal Implants in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrachnis, I. N.; Vlachopoulos, G. F.; Maris, T. G.; Costaridou, L. I.

    2017-11-01

    The presence of materials with different magnetic properties, such as metal implants, causes distortion of the magnetic field locally, resulting in signal voids and pile ups, i.e. susceptibility artifacts in MRI. Quantitative and unbiased measurement of the artifact is prerequisite for optimization of acquisition parameters. In this study an image gradient based segmentation method is proposed for susceptibility artifact quantification. The method captures abrupt signal alterations by calculation of the image gradient. Then the artifact is quantified in terms of its extent by an automated cross entropy thresholding method as image area percentage. The proposed method for artifact quantification was tested in phantoms containing two orthopedic implants with significantly different magnetic permeabilities. The method was compared against a method proposed in the literature, considered as a reference, demonstrating moderate to good correlation (Spearman’s rho = 0.62 and 0.802 in case of titanium and stainless steel implants). The automated character of the proposed quantification method seems promising towards MRI acquisition parameter optimization.

  11. PaCeQuant: A Tool for High-Throughput Quantification of Pavement Cell Shape Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Birgit; Poeschl, Yvonne; Plötner, Romina; Bürstenbinder, Katharina

    2017-11-01

    Pavement cells (PCs) are the most frequently occurring cell type in the leaf epidermis and play important roles in leaf growth and function. In many plant species, PCs form highly complex jigsaw-puzzle-shaped cells with interlocking lobes. Understanding of their development is of high interest for plant science research because of their importance for leaf growth and hence for plant fitness and crop yield. Studies of PC development, however, are limited, because robust methods are lacking that enable automatic segmentation and quantification of PC shape parameters suitable to reflect their cellular complexity. Here, we present our new ImageJ-based tool, PaCeQuant, which provides a fully automatic image analysis workflow for PC shape quantification. PaCeQuant automatically detects cell boundaries of PCs from confocal input images and enables manual correction of automatic segmentation results or direct import of manually segmented cells. PaCeQuant simultaneously extracts 27 shape features that include global, contour-based, skeleton-based, and PC-specific object descriptors. In addition, we included a method for classification and analysis of lobes at two-cell junctions and three-cell junctions, respectively. We provide an R script for graphical visualization and statistical analysis. We validated PaCeQuant by extensive comparative analysis to manual segmentation and existing quantification tools and demonstrated its usability to analyze PC shape characteristics during development and between different genotypes. PaCeQuant thus provides a platform for robust, efficient, and reproducible quantitative analysis of PC shape characteristics that can easily be applied to study PC development in large data sets. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  13. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  14. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir

    2014-07-25

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated water with about 13% of the global desalination capacity. Most of these desalination plants use the open-ocean intakes to deliver raw seawater to the desalination facility. Recently, some of the private desalination plants have shifted to subsurface intake systems, either wells or galleries, in order to obtain better water quality with a minimal environmental impact (e.g. minimal entrainment and impingement). The use of these intake types has improved the raw seawater quality extracted from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, providing better protection for the membrane component by eliminating/reducing algae, bacteria and organic matter concentrations from the seawater source. One of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract enough water to produce 10,000 m3/d of product water via the reverse osmosis process. Studies show that quality of seawater significantly improved after shifting to the well system. The use of a larger capacity well system or a seabed gallery intake was investigated at this site for a proposed additional 20,000 m3/d future expansion of the facility. More than 60 sediment samples were collected from the seabed along five different transects in an area of 25,000 m2, starting from shoreline and moving seaward. Grain size analyses, hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage were analyzed in order to determine the characteristic of marine sediments at the studied site. The marine bottom at the selected site contains carbonate sediments which have a high potential of reducing the natural organic matter concentration in the raw seawater. In this study, the laboratory measurements showed that this site has low mud content and moderately high hydraulic conductivity, which

  15. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...

  16. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  17. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  18. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  19. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake Recommend ...

  20. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  1. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  2. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe th...

  3. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  4. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  5. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  6. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  7. Statistical Uncertainty Quantification of Physical Models during Reflood of LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Deog Yeon; Seul, Kwang Won; Woo, Sweng Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The use of the best-estimate (BE) computer codes in safety analysis for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is the major trend in many countries to reduce the significant conservatism. A key feature of this BE evaluation requires the licensee to quantify the uncertainty of the calculations. So, it is very important how to determine the uncertainty distribution before conducting the uncertainty evaluation. Uncertainty includes those of physical model and correlation, plant operational parameters, and so forth. The quantification process is often performed mainly by subjective expert judgment or obtained from reference documents of computer code. In this respect, more mathematical methods are needed to reasonably determine the uncertainty ranges. The first uncertainty quantification are performed with the various increments for two influential uncertainty parameters to get the calculated responses and their derivatives. The different data set with two influential uncertainty parameters for FEBA tests, are chosen applying more strict criteria for selecting responses and their derivatives, which may be considered as the user’s effect in the CIRCÉ applications. Finally, three influential uncertainty parameters are considered to study the effect on the number of uncertainty parameters due to the limitation of CIRCÉ method. With the determined uncertainty ranges, uncertainty evaluations for FEBA tests are performed to check whether the experimental responses such as the cladding temperature or pressure drop are inside the limits of calculated uncertainty bounds. A confirmation step will be performed to evaluate the quality of the information in the case of the different reflooding PERICLES experiments. The uncertainty ranges of physical model in MARS-KS thermal-hydraulic code during the reflooding were quantified by CIRCÉ method using FEBA experiment tests, instead of expert judgment. Also, through the uncertainty evaluation for FEBA and PERICLES tests, it was confirmed

  8. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  9. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  12. Cadmium voltametric quantification in table chocolate produced in Chiquinquira-Boyaca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Vargas Moreno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of heavy metals such as cadmium has been a major concern in scientific communities and international food organizations, given the great toxicological risk to the consumer, and in many places there is no detailed record of its actual content. In this way, the need arises to carry out a study and registration of the concentration of this metal in products such as table chocolate, of great consumption at regional and national level. Likewise, we seek to have effective quantification tools and a reliable and affordable method to achieve the aim of this research. In this research, Cadmium content in powdered and granulated table chocolate was determined, elaborated and commercialized in the municipality of Chiquinquira, Boyacá-Colombia, using the differential pulse voltammetric method of anodic redisolution (DPVMAR. Previously, the parameters of this method were evaluated, selecting selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy with satisfactory results as follows: selective at a potential range of 0.54 to 0.64 V, sensitivity in ppb, R2> 0.95, % CV 80%. Analysis of variance showed no significant statistical differences (P <0.05 between the results. Cadmium quantification in samples of granulated and powder chocolate showed values of concentration between 214 and 260 ppb, with the highest concentrations of powder chocolate. Cadmium level did not exceed the tolerable weekly intake limit for this type of food.

  13. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  14. Quantification and Sequencing of Crossover Recombinant Molecules from Arabidopsis Pollen DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Yelina, Nataliya E; Serra, Heïdi; Henderson, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo recombination, which can result in formation of reciprocal crossover molecules. Crossover frequency is highly variable across the genome, typically occurring in narrow hotspots, which has a significant effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Here we describe methods to measure crossover frequency in plants at the hotspot scale (bp-kb), using allele-specific PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from the pollen of F 1 heterozygous plants. We describe (1) titration methods that allow amplification, quantification and sequencing of single crossover molecules, (2) quantitative PCR methods to more rapidly measure crossover frequency, and (3) application of high-throughput sequencing for study of crossover distributions within hotspots. We provide detailed descriptions of key steps including pollen DNA extraction, prior identification of hotspot locations, allele-specific oligonucleotide design, and sequence analysis approaches. Together, these methods allow the rate and recombination topology of plant hotspots to be robustly measured and compared between varied genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions.

  15. Quantification of human error and common-mode failures in man-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Quantification of human performance, particularly the determination of human error, is essential for realistic assessment of overall system performance of man-machine systems. This paper presents an analysis of human errors in nuclear power plant systems when measured against common-mode failures (CMF). Human errors evaluated are improper testing, inadequate maintenance strategy, and miscalibration. The methodology presented in the paper represents a positive contribution to power plant systems availability by identifying sources of common-mode failure when operational functions are involved. It is also applicable to other complex systems such as chemical plants, aircraft and motor industries; in fact, any large man-created, man-machine system could be included

  16. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  17. Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Teenage Girls Attending Ante-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standardised interviewer administered Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to asses the dietary intake. Nutrient calculator was used to determine the nutrient intake of the study participant. Results: The intakes of all selected nutrients were significantly lower than the RDA. Protein intake was significantly associated ...

  18. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurements at each intake, use an average value for verifying compliance to § 1065.520(b)(2). (2) Humidity. You may use a single shared humidity measurement for intake air as long as your equipment for handling... engines with multiple intakes with separate humidity measurements at each intake, use a flow-weighted...

  20. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air... type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system...

  1. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Low calcium intake may adversely affect bone health in adults. Recognizing the presence of low calcium intake is necessary to develop national strategies to optimize intake. To highlight regions where calcium intake should be improved, we systematically searched for the most representative ...

  2. Quantification in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena; 2 - quantification in SPECT, problems and correction methods: Attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration; 3 - Synthesis: actual quantification accuracy; 4 - Beyond the activity concentration measurement

  3. Digital PCR for direct quantification of viruses without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič, Jernej; Žel, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction before amplification is considered an essential step for quantification of viral DNA using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, this can directly affect the final measurements due to variable DNA yields and removal of inhibitors, which leads to increased inter-laboratory variability of qPCR measurements and reduced agreement on viral loads. Digital PCR (dPCR) might be an advantageous methodology for the measurement of virus concentrations, as it does not depend on any calibration material and it has higher tolerance to inhibitors. DNA quantification without an extraction step (i.e. direct quantification) was performed here using dPCR and two different human cytomegalovirus whole-virus materials. Two dPCR platforms were used for this direct quantification of the viral DNA, and these were compared with quantification of the extracted viral DNA in terms of yield and variability. Direct quantification of both whole-virus materials present in simple matrices like cell lysate or Tris-HCl buffer provided repeatable measurements of virus concentrations that were probably in closer agreement with the actual viral load than when estimated through quantification of the extracted DNA. Direct dPCR quantification of other viruses, reference materials and clinically relevant matrices is now needed to show the full versatility of this very promising and cost-efficient development in virus quantification.

  4. Development of a VHH-Based Erythropoietin Quantification Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Stefan; Beuchert Kallehauge, Thomas; Adema, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) quantification during cell line selection and bioreactor cultivation has traditionally been performed with ELISA or HPLC. As these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, we developed a novel EPO quantification assay. A camelid single-domain antibody fragment directed against...... human EPO was evaluated as a capturing antibody in a label-free biolayer interferometry-based quantification assay. Human recombinant EPO can be specifically detected in Chinese hamster ovary cell supernatants in a sensitive and pH-dependent manner. This method enables rapid and robust quantification...

  5. Quantification procedures in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    For the quantification in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis standardfree quantification procedures have become especially important. An introduction to the basic concepts of these quantification procedures is given, followed by a short survey of the procedures which are available now and what kind of experimental situations and analytical problems are addressed. The last point is extended by the description of an own development for the fundamental parameter method, which renders the inclusion of nonparallel beam geometries possible. Finally, open problems for the quantification procedures are discussed

  6. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  7. Quantification of competitive value of documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šimek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Internet users use the global network to search for different information using fulltext search engines such as Google, Yahoo!, or Seznam. The web presentation operators are trying, with the help of different optimization techniques, to get to the top places in the results of fulltext search engines. Right there is a great importance of Search Engine Optimization and Search Engine Marketing, because normal users usually try links only on the first few pages of the fulltext search engines results on certain keywords and in catalogs they use primarily hierarchically higher placed links in each category. Key to success is the application of optimization methods which deal with the issue of keywords, structure and quality of content, domain names, individual sites and quantity and reliability of backward links. The process is demanding, long-lasting and without a guaranteed outcome. A website operator without advanced analytical tools do not identify the contribution of individual documents from which the entire web site consists. If the web presentation operators want to have an overview of their documents and web site in global, it is appropriate to quantify these positions in a specific way, depending on specific key words. For this purpose serves the quantification of competitive value of documents, which consequently sets global competitive value of a web site. Quantification of competitive values is performed on a specific full-text search engine. For each full-text search engine can be and often are, different results. According to published reports of ClickZ agency or Market Share is according to the number of searches by English-speaking users most widely used Google search engine, which has a market share of more than 80%. The whole procedure of quantification of competitive values is common, however, the initial step which is the analysis of keywords depends on a choice of the fulltext search engine.

  8. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stereo-particle image velocimetry uncertainty quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Charonko, John J

    2017-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are subject to multiple elemental error sources and thus estimating overall measurement uncertainty is challenging. Recent advances have led to a posteriori uncertainty estimation methods for planar two-component PIV. However, no complete methodology exists for uncertainty quantification in stereo PIV. In the current work, a comprehensive framework is presented to quantify the uncertainty stemming from stereo registration error and combine it with the underlying planar velocity uncertainties. The disparity in particle locations of the dewarped images is used to estimate the positional uncertainty of the world coordinate system, which is then propagated to the uncertainty in the calibration mapping function coefficients. Next, the calibration uncertainty is combined with the planar uncertainty fields of the individual cameras through an uncertainty propagation equation and uncertainty estimates are obtained for all three velocity components. The methodology was tested with synthetic stereo PIV data for different light sheet thicknesses, with and without registration error, and also validated with an experimental vortex ring case from 2014 PIV challenge. Thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the relative impact of the various parameters to the overall uncertainty. The results suggest that in absence of any disparity, the stereo PIV uncertainty prediction method is more sensitive to the planar uncertainty estimates than to the angle uncertainty, although the latter is not negligible for non-zero disparity. Overall the presented uncertainty quantification framework showed excellent agreement between the error and uncertainty RMS values for both the synthetic and the experimental data and demonstrated reliable uncertainty prediction coverage. This stereo PIV uncertainty quantification framework provides the first comprehensive treatment on the subject and potentially lays foundations applicable to volumetric

  10. Plant toxicity, adaptive herbivory, and plant community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z.; Liu, R.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Bryant, J.P.; Kielland, K.; Stuart, Chapin F.; Swihart, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We model effects of interspecific plant competition, herbivory, and a plant's toxic defenses against herbivores on vegetation dynamics. The model predicts that, when a generalist herbivore feeds in the absence of plant toxins, adaptive foraging generally increases the probability of coexistence of plant species populations, because the herbivore switches more of its effort to whichever plant species is more common and accessible. In contrast, toxin-determined selective herbivory can drive plant succession toward dominance by the more toxic species, as previously documented in boreal forests and prairies. When the toxin concentrations in different plant species are similar, but species have different toxins with nonadditive effects, herbivores tend to diversify foraging efforts to avoid high intakes of any one toxin. This diversification leads the herbivore to focus more feeding on the less common plant species. Thus, uncommon plants may experience depensatory mortality from herbivory, reducing local species diversity. The depensatory effect of herbivory may inhibit the invasion of other plant species that are more palatable or have different toxins. These predictions were tested and confirmed in the Alaskan boreal forest. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  12. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  13. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  14. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  15. Automated Quantification of Pneumothorax in CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Synho; Salvaggio, Kristen; Gupta, Supriya; Kalra, Mannudeep; Ali, Nabeel U.; Pien, Homer

    2012-01-01

    An automated, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithm for the quantification of pneumothoraces from Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) images has been developed. Algorithm performance was evaluated through comparison to manual segmentation by expert radiologists. A combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional processing techniques was incorporated to reduce required processing time by two-thirds (as compared to similar techniques). Volumetric measurements on relative pneumothorax size were obtained and the overall performance of the automated method shows an average error of just below 1%. PMID:23082091

  16. Uncertainty quantification for PZT bimorph actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Nikolas; Smith, Ralph C.; Crews, John

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of a high fidelity model for a PZT bimorph actuator used for micro-air vehicles, which includes the Robobee. We developed a high-fidelity model for the actuator using the homogenized energy model (HEM) framework, which quantifies the nonlinear, hysteretic, and rate-dependent behavior inherent to PZT in dynamic operating regimes. We then discussed an inverse problem on the model. We included local and global sensitivity analysis of the parameters in the high-fidelity model. Finally, we will discuss the results of Bayesian inference and uncertainty quantification on the HEM.

  17. Linking probe thermodynamics to microarray quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuzhao; Pozhitkov, Alexander; Brouwer, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the difference in probe properties holds the key to absolute quantification of DNA microarrays. So far, Langmuir-like models have failed to link sequence-specific properties to hybridization signals in the presence of a complex hybridization background. Data from washing experiments indicate that the post-hybridization washing has no major effect on the specifically bound targets, which give the final signals. Thus, the amount of specific targets bound to probes is likely determined before washing, by the competition against nonspecific binding. Our competitive hybridization model is a viable alternative to Langmuir-like models. (comment)

  18. Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification with MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifried, Jeffrey E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This work serves to quantify the instantaneous uncertainties in neutron transport simulations born from nuclear data and statistical counting uncertainties. Perturbation and adjoint theories are used to derive implicit sensitivity expressions. These expressions are transformed into forms that are convenient for construction with MCNP6, creating the ability to perform adjoint-based uncertainty quantification with MCNP6. These new tools are exercised on the depleted-uranium hybrid LIFE blanket, quantifying its sensitivities and uncertainties to important figures of merit. Overall, these uncertainty estimates are small (< 2%). Having quantified the sensitivities and uncertainties, physical understanding of the system is gained and some confidence in the simulation is acquired.

  19. Uncertainty quantification and stochastic modeling with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Souza de Cursi, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a relatively new research area which describes the methods and approaches used to supply quantitative descriptions of the effects of uncertainty, variability and errors in simulation problems and models. It is rapidly becoming a field of increasing importance, with many real-world applications within statistics, mathematics, probability and engineering, but also within the natural sciences. Literature on the topic has up until now been largely based on polynomial chaos, which raises difficulties when considering different types of approximation and does no

  20. Plant protein and secondary metabolites influence diet selection in a mammalian specialist herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Ulappa; Rick G. Kelsey; Graham G. Frye; Janet L. Rachlow; LIsa A. Shipley; Laura Bond; Xinzhu Pu; Jennifer Sorensen. Forbey

    2014-01-01

    For herbivores, nutrient intake is limited by the relatively low nutritional quality of plants and high concentrations of potentially toxic defensive compounds (plant secondary metabolites [PSMs]) produced by many plants. In response to phytochemical challenges, some herbivores selectively forage on plants with higher nutrient and lower PSM concentrations relative to...

  1. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  2. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  3. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Stoppelenburg, J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Mars, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives - Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially

  4. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language.

  5. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    Background : Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  6. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki; Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul

    2014-01-01

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language

  7. A case-control field study on the relationships among type 2 diabetes, sleepiness and habitual caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, Emily; Jetter, Alexander; Holst, Sebastian C; Berger, Wolfgang; Spinas, Giatgen A; Langhans, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible links between type 2 diabetes, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and caffeine consumption. In this case-control field study, comparing type 2 diabetic ( n=134) and non-type 2 diabetic ( n=230) participants, subjects completed detailed and validated questionnaires to assess demographic status, health, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and timing, diurnal preference, mistimed circadian rhythms and habitual caffeine intake. All participants gave saliva under standardised conditions for CYP1A2 genotyping and quantification of caffeine concentration. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined whether type 2 diabetes status was associated with caffeine consumption. Type 2 diabetic participants reported greater daytime sleepiness ( p=0.001), a higher prevalence of sleep apnoea ( p=0.005) and napping ( p=0.008), and greater habitual caffeine intake ( pcaffeine concentration at bedtime ( p=0.01). Multiple regression analyses revealed that type 2 diabetes status was associated with higher self-reported caffeine consumption ( pcaffeine ( pcaffeine intake. Subjective sleep and circadian estimates were similar between case and control groups. Type 2 diabetic patients may self-medicate with caffeine to alleviate daytime sleepiness. High caffeine intake reflects a lifestyle factor that may be considered when promoting type 2 diabetes management.

  8. Direct quantification of fungal DNA from soil substrate using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Martin; St-Arnaud, Marc; Jabaji-Hare, Suha H

    2003-04-01

    Detection and quantification of genomic DNA from two ecologically different fungi, the plant pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, was achieved from soil substrate. Specific primers targeting a 362-bp fragment from the SSU rRNA gene region of G. intraradices and a 562-bp fragment from the F. solani f. sp. phaseoli translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene were used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays conjugated with the fluorescent SYBR(R) Green I dye. Standard curves showed a linear relation (r(2)=0.999) between log values of fungal genomic DNA of each species and real-time PCR threshold cycles and were quantitative over 4-5 orders of magnitude. Real-time PCR assays were applied to in vitro-produced fungal structures and sterile and non-sterile soil substrate seeded with known propagule numbers of either fungi. Detection and genomic DNA quantification was obtained from the different treatments, while no amplicon was detected from non-seeded non-sterile soil samples, confirming the absence of cross-reactivity with the soil microflora DNA. A significant correlation (Pgenomic DNA of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli or G. intraradices detected and the number of fungal propagules present in seeded soil substrate. The DNA extraction protocol and real-time PCR quantification assay can be performed in less than 2 h and is adaptable to detect and quantify genomic DNA from other soilborne fungi.

  9. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert; Pratt, Jon; Shaw, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale resolution of both inorganic and biological surfaces and nanomaterials. We present a framework to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. We demonstrate the framework by quantifying uncertainty in AFM-based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), an abundant, plant-derived nanomaterial whose mechanical properties are comparable to Kevlar fibers. For a single, isolated CNC the transverse elastic modulus was found to have a mean of 8.1 GPa and a 95% confidence interval of 2.7–20 GPa. A key result is that multiple replicates of force–distance curves do not sample the important sources of uncertainty, which are systematic in nature. The dominant source of uncertainty is the nondimensional photodiode sensitivity calibration rather than the cantilever stiffness or Z-piezo calibrations. The results underscore the great need for, and open a path towards, quantifying and minimizing uncertainty in AFM-based material property measurements of nanoparticles, nanostructured surfaces, thin films, polymers and biomaterials.

  10. Improvement of High-throughput Genotype Analysis After Implementation of a Dual-curve Sybr Green I-based Quantification and Normalization Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to rapidly screen a large number of individuals is the key to any successful plant breeding program. One of the primary bottlenecks in high throughput screening is the preparation of DNA samples, particularly the quantification and normalization of samples for downstream processing. A ...

  11. Comprehensive review on herbal medicine for energy intake suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, N D; Jahangir, M; Korthout, H; Choi, Y H; Kim, H K; Verpoorte, R

    2011-07-01

    The obesity drug development is present not a bright and successful story. So far, drugs reported to be effective, either from synthetic or natural sources, mostly stimulated controversy because of serious adverse effects, which ended with stopping clinical trials or even withdrawal from the market. However, obesity and its comorbidities have become rapidly a major problem in both developed and developing countries. This has encouraged pharmaceutical companies and academia to keep on struggling on developing novel effective but safe obesity drugs, and on characterizing novel obesity drug targets. From existing scientific work on obesity drug discovery and commercial slimming preparations, compounds originating from nature, especially from plants, seem to be the first choice. Traditional belief that herbal medicine is safer than synthetic ones is one of the classical arguments, although scientifically this is not always true (e.g. ban on Ephedra). But in general, it has been widely acknowledged that a plant compound, with its unique scaffolds and rich diversity is an unlimited source of novel lead compounds. This paper aims to summarize all works focused on screening plant materials by targeting important pathways related to energy intake regulation, either by in vivo or in vitro experiments. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  13. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  14. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  15. Quantification of human reliability in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dankg, Vinh N.

    1996-01-01

    Human performance may substantially influence the reliability and safety of complex technical systems. For this reason, Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) constitutes an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSAs) or Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs). The results of these studies as well as analyses of past accidents and incidents clearly demonstrate the importance of human interactions. The contribution of human errors to the core damage frequency (CDF), as estimated in the Swedish nuclear PSAs, are between 15 and 88%. A survey of the FRAs in the Swiss PSAs shows that also for the Swiss nuclear power plants the estimated HE contributions are substantial (49% of the CDF due to internal events in the case of Beznau and 70% in the case of Muehleberg; for the total CDF, including external events, 25% respectively 20%). Similar results can be extracted from the PSAs carried out for French, German, and US plants. In PSAs or QRAs, the adequate treatment of the human interactions with the system is a key to the understanding of accident sequences and their relative importance to overall risk. The main objectives of HRA are: first, to ensure that the key human interactions are systematically identified and incorporated into the safety analysis in a traceable manner, and second, to quantify the probabilities of their success and failure. Adopting a structured and systematic approach to the assessment of human performance makes it possible to provide greater confidence that the safety and availability of human-machine systems is not unduly jeopardized by human performance problems. Section 2 discusses the different types of human interactions analysed in PSAs. More generally, the section presents how HRA fits in the overall safety analysis, that is, how the human interactions to be quantified are identified. Section 3 addresses the methods for quantification. Section 4 concludes the paper by presenting some recommendations and pointing out the limitations of the

  16. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Temporal change in radiocesium intake for USSR residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1993-01-01

    The body burden of 137 Cs in individuals from the USSR who visited Japan and Japanese who returned from the USSR after various periods of stay there, was measured with a whole-body counter at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. A compartment model was used to describe the temporal change in radiocesium body burden following the continuous ingestion of radiocesium. The daily amount of radiocesium intake in mBq per kg of body weight was estimated to have decreased with a half-time ranging from 391 to 920 days for adults in Kiev Ukraine after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Countermeasures against the consequences of the accident appear to have exempted the inhabitants from aggregation of radiocesium in their bodies. Differences in foodstuffs consumed should be taken into account when radiation health risks are compared with different age groups. (author)

  18. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  20. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  1. CT quantification of central airway in tracheobronchomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Won Hyeong; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To know which factors help to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) using CT quantification of central airway. From April 2013 to July 2014, 19 patients (68.0 ± 15.0 years; 6 male, 13 female) were diagnosed as TBM on CT. As case-matching, 38 normal subjects (65.5 ± 21.5 years; 6 male, 13 female) were selected. All 57 subjects underwent CT with end-inspiration and end-expiration. Airway parameters of trachea and both main bronchus were assessed using software (VIDA diagnostic). Airway parameters of TBM patients and normal subjects were compared using the Student t-test. In expiration, both wall perimeter and wall thickness in TBM patients were significantly smaller than normal subjects (wall perimeter: trachea, 43.97 mm vs. 49.04 mm, p = 0.020; right main bronchus, 33.52 mm vs. 42.69 mm, p < 0.001; left main bronchus, 26.76 mm vs. 31.88 mm, p = 0.012; wall thickness: trachea, 1.89 mm vs. 2.22 mm, p = 0.017; right main bronchus, 1.64 mm vs. 1.83 mm, p = 0.021; left main bronchus, 1.61 mm vs. 1.75 mm, p = 0.016). Wall thinning and decreased perimeter of central airway of expiration by CT quantification would be a new diagnostic indicators in TBM.

  2. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Hoareau, Murielle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Dintinger, Jacques; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-05

    Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, including two strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Mld and IL strains), the Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus-like viruses (ToLCKMV-like viruses) and the two molecules of the bipartite Potato yellow mosaic virus. These diagnostic tools have a unique standard quantification, comprising the targeted viral and internal report amplicons. These duplex real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants to monitor and compare their viral development. Real-time PCRs were optimized for accurate detection and quantification over a range of 2 × 10(9) to 2 × 10(3) copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for TYLCV-Mld, TYLCV-IL and PYMV-B and 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(3) copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for PYMV-A and ToLCKMV-like viruses. These real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants and viral loads were compared at 10, 20 and 30 days post-inoculation. Different patterns of viral accumulation were observed between the bipartite and the monopartite begomoviruses. Interestingly, PYMV accumulated more viral DNA at each date for both genomic components compared to all the monopartite viruses. Also, PYMV reached its highest viral load at 10 dpi contrary to the other viruses (20 dpi). The accumulation kinetics of the two strains of emergent TYLCV differed from the ToLCKMV-like viruses in the higher quantities of viral DNA produced in the early phase of the infection and in the shorter time to reach this peak viral load. To detect and quantify a wide range of begomoviruses, five duplex

  3. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lett Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, including two strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Mld and IL strains, the Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus-like viruses (ToLCKMV-like viruses and the two molecules of the bipartite Potato yellow mosaic virus. These diagnostic tools have a unique standard quantification, comprising the targeted viral and internal report amplicons. These duplex real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants to monitor and compare their viral development. Results Real-time PCRs were optimized for accurate detection and quantification over a range of 2 × 109 to 2 × 103 copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for TYLCV-Mld, TYLCV-IL and PYMV-B and 2 × 108 to 2 × 103 copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for PYMV-A and ToLCKMV-like viruses. These real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants and viral loads were compared at 10, 20 and 30 days post-inoculation. Different patterns of viral accumulation were observed between the bipartite and the monopartite begomoviruses. Interestingly, PYMV accumulated more viral DNA at each date for both genomic components compared to all the monopartite viruses. Also, PYMV reached its highest viral load at 10 dpi contrary to the other viruses (20 dpi. The accumulation kinetics of the two strains of emergent TYLCV differed from the ToLCKMV-like viruses in the higher quantities of viral DNA produced in the early phase of the infection and in the shorter time to reach this peak viral load. Conclusions To detect and

  4. [Comparison of the dietary phytosterols intake and serum lipids content in elderly women from three cities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-hua; Li, Yan-ping; Men, Jian-hua; Yu, Wen-tao; Yang, Yue-xin

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the dietary phytosterol intake of elderly women in three different cities of China, and to compare the main dietary sources, so that to discuss the relationship of dietary phytosterol intake and serum lipids. Based on the dietary pattern, women more than 50 years old from Beijing, Hefei and Urumchi were chosen as testers, 80 - 100 people for each city respectively. The dietary survey was done by continues 24 hours review of two days, the plant food were collected and the phytosterol content (include beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitostanol) were analyzed by GC methods, the total phytosterols content were calculated. The dietary phytosterol intake were calculated and serum lipids were also analyzed in all the testers. Testers from Beijing, Hefei and Urumchi were 100, 101 and 84 respectively. The average dietary phytosterol intake of people in Beijing and Hefei were 340.3 mg/d and 313.5 mg/d, the main sources were plant oil and cereals, while the average dietary phytosterol intake of people in Urumchi were 550.4 mg/d, higher than the other two cities (t values were 9.369, 10.420, respectively, both P values phytosterol intake). The laboratory results showed, testers in Urumchi had significantly lower serum TC content ((4.04 +/- 0.78) mmol/L) than that in Beijing ((4.89 +/- 0.91) mmol/L) and Hefei ((4.71 +/- 0.83) mmol/L) (t value were 6.766 and 5.401 respectively, both P values phytosterol intake in elder women in three cities, higher, phytosterol intake seemed to contribute to lower serum lipids.

  5. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  6. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  7. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  8. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  9. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  10. Online dietary intake estimation: the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-06-09

    Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the "Food4Me" study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the food group level was highest for "other

  11. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breastmilk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.; Roohi, S.; Sajjad, M.I.; Abbas, K.A.; Latif, Z.

    2000-01-01

    We established the deuterium dilution method in our laboratory and have applied it in the field for quantification of milk intake of babies. A comparison of the test weighing (TW) data with the D 2 O data is also being made. The growth of children fed exclusively on breast milk is also being monitored. The method once established will be made available for various projects where correct estimation of milk intake/out put is desired. First year of the project was devoted to standardization of the D/H preparation from biological fluids using Zn shot method. During the report period, the D 2 O dilution methodology for measuring the breast milk intake of infants was streamlined. 21 infant-mother pairs have been recruited and data including deuterium dilution assay was collected at 4 weeks of age. Growth of the infants is being followed up-till six month. Analysis of 21 infant mothers data is presented. Samples of six infant mother pairs collected at 13. week of age are waiting to be analyzed. The mean breast milk intake of infants measured by deuterium dilution method is 801 ± 262 gm at first sampling at 31.15 ± 7.7 days of age (n=18). The milk intake determined by test weighing was significantly higher than estimated by D 2 O dilution. The values were 1169 ± 384 per day as compared to 705 ± 129 per day for TW and D 2 O method respectively (n=13). The growth data collected over six month period for 21 infants showed that they fall within 5 percentile of NCHS for weight. The height of boys is in 50 percentile whereas for girls it at 5 percentile. The data collected so far suggest that although majority of infants are exclusively breast fed and the intake values are normal yet their growth is far from optimum. This emphasizes the need to take up the studies involving quality of milk in relation to the nutritional status of the mothers. (author)

  12. Genomic DNA-based absolute quantification of gene expression in Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Gregory A; McElrone, Andrew J; Matthews, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Many studies in which gene expression is quantified by polymerase chain reaction represent the expression of a gene of interest (GOI) relative to that of a reference gene (RG). Relative expression is founded on the assumptions that RG expression is stable across samples, treatments, organs, etc., and that reaction efficiencies of the GOI and RG are equal; assumptions which are often faulty. The true variability in RG expression and actual reaction efficiencies are seldom determined experimentally. Here we present a rapid and robust method for absolute quantification of expression in Vitis where varying concentrations of genomic DNA were used to construct GOI standard curves. This methodology was utilized to absolutely quantify and determine the variability of the previously validated RG ubiquitin (VvUbi) across three test studies in three different tissues (roots, leaves and berries). In addition, in each study a GOI was absolutely quantified. Data sets resulting from relative and absolute methods of quantification were compared and the differences were striking. VvUbi expression was significantly different in magnitude between test studies and variable among individual samples. Absolute quantification consistently reduced the coefficients of variation of the GOIs by more than half, often resulting in differences in statistical significance and in some cases even changing the fundamental nature of the result. Utilizing genomic DNA-based absolute quantification is fast and efficient. Through eliminating error introduced by assuming RG stability and equal reaction efficiencies between the RG and GOI this methodology produces less variation, increased accuracy and greater statistical power. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. La quantification en Kabiye: une approche linguistique | Pali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which is denoted by lexical quantifiers. Quantification with specific reference is provided by different types of linguistic units (nouns, numerals, adjectives, adverbs, ideophones and verbs) in arguments/noun phrases and in the predicative phrase in the sense of Chomsky. Keywords: quantification, class, number, reference, ...

  14. Quantification of carbonate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine

    2010-10-01

    Carbon dioxide and carbonates are widely distributed in nature, are constituents of inorganic and organic matter, and are essential in vegetable and animal organisms. CO(2) is the principal greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In human blood, CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) is an important buffering system. Quantification of bicarbonate and carbonate in inorganic and organic matter and in biological fluids such as blood or blood plasma by means of the GC-MS technology has been impossible so far, presumably because of the lack of suitable derivatization reactions to produce volatile and thermally stable derivatives. Here, a novel derivatization reaction is described for carbonate that allows for its quantification in aqueous alkaline solutions and alkalinized plasma and urine. Carbonate in acetonic solutions of these matrices (1:4 v/v) and added (13)C-labeled carbonate for use as the internal standard were heated in the presence of the derivatization agent pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide for 60 min and 50 °C. Investigations with (12)CO(3)(2-), (13)CO(3)(2-), (CH(3))(2)CO, and (CD(3))(2)CO in alkaline solutions and GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analyses under negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) or electron ionization (EI) conditions of toluene extracts of the reactants revealed formation of two minor [i.e., PFB-OCOOH and O=CO(2)-(PFB)(2)] and two major [i.e., CH(3)COCH(2)-C(OH)(OPFB)(2) and CH(3)COCH=C(OPFB)(2)] carbonate derivatives. The latter have different retention times (7.9 and 7.5 min, respectively) but virtually identical EI and NICI mass spectra. It is assumed that CH(3)COCH(2)-C(OH)(OPFB)(2) is formed from the reaction of the carbonate dianion with two molecules of PFB bromide to form the diPFB ester of carbonic acid, which further reacts with one molecule of acetone. Subsequent loss of water finally generates the major derivative CH(3)COCH=C(OPFB)(2). This derivatization reaction was utilized to quantify total CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)/CO(3)(2-) (tCO(2)) in human plasma and urine by GC

  15. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  17. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  18. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  19. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hacon S.S.; Mourão D. S.; Oliveira B.; Silva G..P.; Freitas M. F.; Vega C.; Gonçalves R.; Mariani C.F.; Gomes N.; Souza A.V.; Bastos W.

    2014-01-01

    High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs) and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Ama...

  20. In vivo MRS metabolite quantification using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, G. A.; Karras, D. A.; Mertzios, B. G.; van Ormondt, D.; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo quantification of metabolites' concentrations, revealed in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) spectra, constitutes the main subject under investigation in this work. Significant contributions based on artificial intelligence tools, such as neural networks (NNs), with good results have been presented lately but have shown several drawbacks, regarding their quantification accuracy under difficult conditions. A general framework that encounters the quantification procedure as an optimization problem, which is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed in this paper. Two different lineshape models are examined, while two GA configurations are applied on artificial data. Moreover, the introduced quantification technique deals with metabolite peaks' overlapping, a considerably difficult situation occurring under real conditions. Appropriate experiments have proved the efficiency of the introduced methodology, in artificial MRS data, by establishing it as a generic metabolite quantification procedure.

  1. In vivo MRS metabolite quantification using genetic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakostas, G A; Mertzios, B G; Karras, D A; Van Ormondt, D; Graveron-Demilly, D

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo quantification of metabolites' concentrations, revealed in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) spectra, constitutes the main subject under investigation in this work. Significant contributions based on artificial intelligence tools, such as neural networks (NNs), with good results have been presented lately but have shown several drawbacks, regarding their quantification accuracy under difficult conditions. A general framework that encounters the quantification procedure as an optimization problem, which is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed in this paper. Two different lineshape models are examined, while two GA configurations are applied on artificial data. Moreover, the introduced quantification technique deals with metabolite peaks' overlapping, a considerably difficult situation occurring under real conditions. Appropriate experiments have proved the efficiency of the introduced methodology, in artificial MRS data, by establishing it as a generic metabolite quantification procedure

  2. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  3. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  4. Deposition of ethyl glucuronide in WHP rat hair after chronic ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkowska, Anna; Szutowski, Mirosław; Dyr, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between ethanol intake in rats and the resulting level of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in rat hair. Rats (n = 50) consumed a 10% ethanol solution for 4 weeks, then EtG was extracted from samples of their hair using a novel extraction procedure involving freezing and thawing. The EtG concentration was measured using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The animals voluntarily drank ethanol, with daily consumption in most rats exceeding 5 g/kg b.w. The silylated EtG was stable for at least 28 h. The limit of detection was 0.03 ng/mg, and the limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/mg. Hair samples from rats that consumed ethanol had EtG levels ranging from 0.17-20.72 ng/mg in female rats and 0.15-13.72 ng/mg in males. There was a correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed and the EtG levels in hair from female (p < 0.01), but not male, rats. The method presented allows detection and quantification of EtG in rat hair. We also observed differences in EtG deposition in male and female rats.

  5. Quantification of risk considering external events on the change of allowed outage time and the preventive maintenance during power operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, J. E

    2001-03-01

    In this study, for the major safety systems of Ulchin Units 3/4, we quantify the risk on the change of AOT and the PM during power operation to identify the effects on the results of external events PSA when nuclear power plant changes such as allowed outage time are requested. The systems for which the risks on the change of allowed outage time are quantified are High Pressure Safety Injection System (HPSIS), Containment Spray System (CSS), and Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG). The systems for which the risks on the PM during power operation are Low Pressure Safety Injection System (LPSIS), CSS, EDG, Essential Service Water System (ESWS). Following conclusions can be obtained through this study: 1)The increase of core damage frequency ({delta}CDF) on the change of AOT and the conditional core damage probability (CCDP) on the on-line PM of each system are differently quantified according to the cases of considering only internal events or only external events. . 2)It is expected that the quantification of risk including internal and external events is advantageous for the licensee of NPP if the regulatory acceptance criteria for the technical specification changes are relatively set up. However, it is expected to be disadvantageous for the licensee if the acceptance criteria are absolutely set up. 3)It is expected that the conduction on the quantification of only a fire event is sufficient when the quantification of external events PSA model is required for the plant changes of Korea Standard NPPs. 4)It is expected that the quantification of the increase of core damage frequency and the incremental conditional core damage probability on technical specification changes are not needed if the quantification results of those considering only internal events are below regulatory acceptance criteria and the external events PSA results are not greatly affected by the system availability. However, it is expected that the quantification of risk considering external events

  6. Quantification of risk considering external events on the change of allowed outage time and the preventive maintenance during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, J. E.

    2001-03-01

    In this study, for the major safety systems of Ulchin Units 3/4, we quantify the risk on the change of AOT and the PM during power operation to identify the effects on the results of external events PSA when nuclear power plant changes such as allowed outage time are requested. The systems for which the risks on the change of allowed outage time are quantified are High Pressure Safety Injection System (HPSIS), Containment Spray System (CSS), and Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG). The systems for which the risks on the PM during power operation are Low Pressure Safety Injection System (LPSIS), CSS, EDG, Essential Service Water System (ESWS). Following conclusions can be obtained through this study: 1)The increase of core damage frequency (ΔCDF) on the change of AOT and the conditional core damage probability (CCDP) on the on-line PM of each system are differently quantified according to the cases of considering only internal events or only external events. . 2)It is expected that the quantification of risk including internal and external events is advantageous for the licensee of NPP if the regulatory acceptance criteria for the technical specification changes are relatively set up. However, it is expected to be disadvantageous for the licensee if the acceptance criteria are absolutely set up. 3)It is expected that the conduction on the quantification of only a fire event is sufficient when the quantification of external events PSA model is required for the plant changes of Korea Standard NPPs. 4)It is expected that the quantification of the increase of core damage frequency and the incremental conditional core damage probability on technical specification changes are not needed if the quantification results of those considering only internal events are below regulatory acceptance criteria and the external events PSA results are not greatly affected by the system availability. However, it is expected that the quantification of risk considering external events on

  7. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    A series of experiments exploring children's responsiveness to manipulations of energy density and macronutrient content of foods have been reviewed to assess the nutritional impact of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake. In these experiments, the focus is on the extent to which the energy content of foods was a salient factor influencing children's food intake, and macronutrient substitutes were used as tools to investigate this issue. Therefore, although several different macronutrient substitutes have been used in this research, we do not have a parametric set of experiments systematically assessing the impact of a variety of macronutrient substitutes. Given this, what can we conclude from the existing data? When the energy density and macronutrient content of foods is altered through the use of macronutrient substitutes that reduce the energy content of foods, children tend to adjust for the missing energy, although this adjustment may be partial and incomplete. This suggests the possibility that when macronutrient substitutes are used to reduce the energy content of foods, children's energy intake may be reduced. This adjustment, however, will most likely be less than a "calorie for calorie" reduction. In addition, even among young children, there are individual differences in the extent to which children adjust their intake in response to macronutrient and energy manipulations. The data are more extensive and particularly clear for cases in which CHO manipulations are used to alter energy density, but there is evidence for adjustments in energy intake in response to alterations of the fat content of the diet. The compensation for energy is not macronutrient specific; that is, when the fat content of food is reduced to reduce energy density of foods, children do not selectively consume fat in subsequent meals. This means that manipulations of macronutrient content of foods that reduce foods' energy content may not result in alterations of energy

  8. Quantification Methods of Management Skills in Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania can not overcome the financial crisis without business growth, without finding opportunities for economic development and without attracting investment into the country. Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to determine the managerial skills developed by the Romanian fluvial shipping company NAVROM (hereinafter CNFR NAVROM SA, compared with ten other major competitors in the same domain, using financial information of these companies during the years 2005-2010. For carrying out the work it will be used quantification methods of managerial skills to CNFR NAVROM SA Galati, Romania, as example mentioning the analysis of financial performance management based on profitability ratios, net profit margin, suppliers management, turnover.

  9. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  10. Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field.  Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines.   This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis.  Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

  11. Quantification practices in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the quantification of risk practices adopted by the nuclear industries in Germany, Britain and France are examined as representative of the practices adopted throughout Europe. From this examination a number of conclusions are drawn about the common features of the practices adopted. In making this survey, the views expressed in the report of the Task Force on Safety Goals/Objectives appointed by the Commission of the European Communities, are taken into account. For each country considered, the legal requirements for presentation of quantified risk assessment as part of the licensing procedure are examined, and the way in which the requirements have been developed for practical application are then examined. (author)

  12. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  13. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  14. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  15. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  16. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  17. Monitoring the intake of pasture and concentrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administrator

    was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral information in .... lucerne, respectively, and pasture intake was evaluated during the last two days of each grazing period ... excreta collection devices were coated with disposable diapers and were emptied every 6 h.

  18. Exercise and the regulation of energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Ammar, AA; Benthem, B; van Dijk, G; Sodersten, PAT; Södersten, Per A.T.

    Energy balance is the resultant of ingested calories and energy expenditure and is generally maintained within narrow limits over prolonged periods. Exercise leads to an increase in energy expenditure which is, in the long-term, counteracted by increased energy intake. Evidence for this comes from a

  19. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poda, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry

  20. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-10-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  1. Assessment of intake from the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.; Müller, D.; Lambe, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Klaveren, J. van; Kleiner, J.; Massey, R.; Mayer, S.; Urieta, I.; Verger, P.; Visconti, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure assessment is one of the key parts of the risk assessment process. Only intake of toxicologically significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects even for a relatively toxic substance. In the case of chemicals in foods this is based on three major aspects: (i) how to determine

  2. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative diet...

  3. Dietary intake, FTO genetic variants and adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Downer, Mary K; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The FTO gene harbors variation with the strongest effect on adiposity and obesity risk. Previous data support a role for FTO variation in influencing food intake. We conducted a combined analysis of 16,094 boys and girls aged 1–18 years from 14 studies to examine the following: 1) the association...

  4. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  5. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two ...

  6. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-11-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  7. Convex geometry of quantum resource quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a framework unifying the mathematical characterisation of different measures of general quantum resources and allowing for a systematic way to define a variety of faithful quantifiers for any given convex quantum resource theory. The approach allows us to describe many commonly used measures such as matrix norm-based quantifiers, robustness measures, convex roof-based measures, and witness-based quantifiers together in a common formalism based on the convex geometry of the underlying sets of resource-free states. We establish easily verifiable criteria for a measure to possess desirable properties such as faithfulness and strong monotonicity under relevant free operations, and show that many quantifiers obtained in this framework indeed satisfy them for any considered quantum resource. We derive various bounds and relations between the measures, generalising and providing significantly simplified proofs of results found in the resource theories of quantum entanglement and coherence. We also prove that the quantification of resources in this framework simplifies for pure states, allowing us to obtain more easily computable forms of the considered measures, and show that many of them are in fact equal on pure states. Further, we investigate the dual formulation of resource quantifiers, which provide a characterisation of the sets of resource witnesses. We present an explicit application of the results to the resource theories of multi-level coherence, entanglement of Schmidt number k, multipartite entanglement, as well as magic states, providing insight into the quantification of the four resources by establishing novel quantitative relations and introducing new quantifiers, such as a measure of entanglement of Schmidt number k which generalises the convex roof-extended negativity, a measure of k-coherence which generalises the \

  8. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Garceau, Luke R; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-12-01

    Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ≤ 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ≤ 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program.

  9. Quantification of heterogeneity observed in medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Frank J; Grigsby, Perry W

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the quantification of visually evident heterogeneity within functional grayscale medical images, such as those obtained via magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography. In the case of images of cancerous tumors, variations in grayscale intensity imply variations in crucial tumor biology. Despite these considerable clinical implications, there is as yet no standardized method for measuring the heterogeneity observed via these imaging modalities. In this work, we motivate and derive a statistical measure of image heterogeneity. This statistic measures the distance-dependent average deviation from the smoothest intensity gradation feasible. We show how this statistic may be used to automatically rank images of in vivo human tumors in order of increasing heterogeneity. We test this method against the current practice of ranking images via expert visual inspection. We find that this statistic provides a means of heterogeneity quantification beyond that given by other statistics traditionally used for the same purpose. We demonstrate the effect of tumor shape upon our ranking method and find the method applicable to a wide variety of clinically relevant tumor images. We find that the automated heterogeneity rankings agree very closely with those performed visually by experts. These results indicate that our automated method may be used reliably to rank, in order of increasing heterogeneity, tumor images whether or not object shape is considered to contribute to that heterogeneity. Automated heterogeneity ranking yields objective results which are more consistent than visual rankings. Reducing variability in image interpretation will enable more researchers to better study potential clinical implications of observed tumor heterogeneity

  10. Quantification of heterogeneity observed in medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Frank J; Grigsby, Perry W

    2013-03-02

    There has been much recent interest in the quantification of visually evident heterogeneity within functional grayscale medical images, such as those obtained via magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography. In the case of images of cancerous tumors, variations in grayscale intensity imply variations in crucial tumor biology. Despite these considerable clinical implications, there is as yet no standardized method for measuring the heterogeneity observed via these imaging modalities. In this work, we motivate and derive a statistical measure of image heterogeneity. This statistic measures the distance-dependent average deviation from the smoothest intensity gradation feasible. We show how this statistic may be used to automatically rank images of in vivo human tumors in order of increasing heterogeneity. We test this method against the current practice of ranking images via expert visual inspection. We find that this statistic provides a means of heterogeneity quantification beyond that given by other statistics traditionally used for the same purpose. We demonstrate the effect of tumor shape upon our ranking method and find the method applicable to a wide variety of clinically relevant tumor images. We find that the automated heterogeneity rankings agree very closely with those performed visually by experts. These results indicate that our automated method may be used reliably to rank, in order of increasing heterogeneity, tumor images whether or not object shape is considered to contribute to that heterogeneity. Automated heterogeneity ranking yields objective results which are more consistent than visual rankings. Reducing variability in image interpretation will enable more researchers to better study potential clinical implications of observed tumor heterogeneity.

  11. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  12. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  13. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Impact of increasing fruit and vegetables and flavonoid intake on the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinder, Annett; Shen, Qing; Heppel, Susanne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Rowland, Ian; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown protective effects of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in lowering the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancers. Plant-derived dietary fibre (non-digestible polysaccharides) and/or flavonoids may mediate the observed protective effects particularly through their interaction with the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake on gut microbiota, with an emphasis on the role of flavonoids, and further to explore relationships between microbiota and factors associated with CVD risk. In the study, a parallel design with 3 study groups, participants in the two intervention groups representing high-flavonoid (HF) and low flavonoid (LF) intakes were asked to increase their daily F&V intake by 2, 4 and 6 portions for a duration of 6 weeks each, while a third (control) group continued with their habitual diet. Faecal samples were collected at baseline and after each dose from 122 subjects. Faecal bacteria enumeration was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Correlations of dietary components, flavonoid intake and markers of CVD with bacterial numbers were also performed. A significant dose X treatment interaction was only found for Clostidium leptum-Ruminococcus bromii/flavefaciens with a significant increase after intake of 6 additional portions in the LF group. Correlation analysis of the data from all 122 subjects independent from dietary intervention indicated an inhibitory role of F&V intake, flavonoid content and sugars against the growth of potentially pathogenic clostridia. Additionally, we observed associations between certain bacterial populations and CVD risk factors including plasma TNF-α, plasma lipids and BMI/waist circumference.

  15. Quantification of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides by Cation Exchange High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Kammermeier, Lukas; Schramm, Sebastian; Towfique, Nayeem; Adebimpe Adedeji, N; Adesola Ajayi, S; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant metabolites with considerable hepatoxic, tumorigenic and genotoxic potential. For separation, reversed phase chromatography is commonly used because of its excellent compatibility with detection by mass spectrometry. However, reversed phase chromatography has a low selectivity for PAs. The objective of this work was to investigate the suitability of cation exchange chromatography for separation of PAs and to develop a rapid method for quantification of jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides that is suitable for analysis of huge sample numbers as required for mutant screening procedures. We demonstrate that cation exchange chromatography offers excellent selectivity for PAs allowing their separation from most other plant metabolites. Due to the high selectivity, plant extracts can be directly analysed after simple sample preparation. Detection with UV at 200 nm instead of mass spectrometry can be applied, which makes the method very simple and cost-effective. The recovery rate of the method exceeded 95%, the intra-day and inter-day standard deviations were below 7% and the limit of detection and quantification were 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method is sufficiently sensitive for reproducible detection of jacobine in C. crepidioides. Simple sample preparation and rapid separation allows for quantification of jacobine in plant material in a high-throughput manner. Thus, the method is suitable for genetic screenings and may be applicable for other plant species, for instance Jacobaea maritima. In addition, our results show that C. crepidioides cannot be considered safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food, increases......: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially. Keywords: hospital food; nutritional risk; undernutrition...

  17. Hidden vegetables: an effective strategy to reduce energy intake and increase vegetable intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-04-01

    The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P kcal in the 75% condition (P Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086.

  18. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  19. Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henney, Jane E; Taylor, Christine Lewis; Boon, Caitlin S

    2010-01-01

    "Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S...

  20. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.