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Sample records for plant growth regulators

  1. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  2. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  3. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ... MS media supplemented with different levels of BA and TDZ were employed for shoot ... acre many times that of any grain crop (Burton, 1969) and are used in a ... plant regeneration from explants require the presence of .... light green. 2.50 ± ...

  4. Modeling Performance of Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Kreuser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing degree day (GDD models can predict the performance of plant growth regulators (PGRs applied to creeping bentgrass ( L.. The goal of this letter is to describe experimental design strategies and modeling approaches to create PGR models for different PGRs, application rates, and turf species. Results from testing the models indicate that clipping yield should be measured until the growth response has diminished. This is in contrast to reapplication of a PGR at preselected intervals. During modeling, inclusion of an amplitude-dampening coefficient in the sinewave model allows the PGR effect to dissipate with time.

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies to Plant Growth Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Joachim; Arnscheidt, Angelika; Klix, Dieter; Weiler, Elmar W.

    1986-01-01

    Four high affinity monoclonal antibodies, which recognize two plant growth regulators from the cytokinin group, namely trans-zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside and their derivatives are reported. Six hybridomas were produced from three independent fusions of Balb/c spleen cells with P3-NS1-Ag 4-1 (abbreviated NS1) or X63-Ag 8.653 (X63) myeloma cells. The mice had been hyperimmunized with zeatin riboside-bovine serum albumin conjugate or dihydrozeatin riboside-bovine serum albumin conjugate for 3 months. The hybridomas secrete antibodies of the IgG 1 or IgG 2b subclass and allow the detection of femtomole amounts of the free cytokinins, their ribosides, and ribotides in plant extracts. The use of these monoclonals in radio- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is also discussed. PMID:16664848

  6. The regulation of plant growth by the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, E M

    2012-05-01

    Circadian regulated changes in growth rates have been observed in numerous plants as well as in unicellular and multicellular algae. The circadian clock regulates a multitude of factors that affect growth in plants, such as water and carbon availability and light and hormone signalling pathways. The combination of high-resolution growth rate analyses with mutant and biochemical analysis is helping us elucidate the time-dependent interactions between these factors and discover the molecular mechanisms involved. At the molecular level, growth in plants is modulated through a complex regulatory network, in which the circadian clock acts at multiple levels. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Rodriguez; D. Carl Freeman; E. Durant McArthur; Yong Ok Kim; Regina S. Redman

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at...

  8. [Protective properties of avermectine complex and plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamborko, N A; Pindrus, A A

    2009-01-01

    Antimutagen properties of avermectine complex of Avercom synthesized by Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2161, and growth regulators of plants (GRP) of bioagrostim-extra, ivin and emistim-C have been revealed in experiments with test-cultures of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100, TA 98. Avercom and plant growth regulators neutralize by toxication 27-48% and mutagen action of pesticides on soil microbial associations by 19.0-30.0%.

  9. Light-regulated plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Chitose; Lorrain, Séverine; Hornitschek, Patricia; Fankhauser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Plants are sessile and photo-autotrophic; their entire life cycle is thus strongly influenced by the ever-changing light environment. In order to sense and respond to those fluctuating conditions higher plants possess several families of photoreceptors that can monitor light from UV-B to the near infrared (far-red). The molecular nature of UV-B sensors remains unknown, red (R) and far-red (FR) light is sensed by the phytochromes (phyA-phyE in Arabidopsis) while three classes of UV-A/blue photoreceptors have been identified: cryptochromes, phototropins, and members of the Zeitlupe family (cry1, cry2, phot1, phot2, ZTL, FKF1, and LKP2 in Arabidopsis). Functional specialization within photoreceptor families gave rise to members optimized for a wide range of light intensities. Genetic and photobiological studies performed in Arabidopsis have shown that these light sensors mediate numerous adaptive responses (e.g., phototropism and shade avoidance) and developmental transitions (e.g., germination and flowering). Some physiological responses are specifically triggered by a single photoreceptor but in many cases multiple light sensors ensure a coordinated response. Recent studies also provide examples of crosstalk between the responses of Arabidopsis to different external factors, in particular among light, temperature, and pathogens. Although the different photoreceptors are unrelated in structure, in many cases they trigger similar signaling mechanisms including light-regulated protein-protein interactions or light-regulated stability of several transcription factors. The breath and complexity of this topic forced us to concentrate on specific aspects of photomorphogenesis and we point the readers to recent reviews for some aspects of light-mediated signaling (e.g., transition to flowering).

  10. Plant growth regulators enhance gold uptake in Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Southway, Colin; Papenfus, Heino B; Swart, Pierre A; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators is well established and they are used in many fields of plant science for enhancing growth. Brassica juncea plants were treated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 microM auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which promotes rooting. The IBA-treated plants were also sprayed with 100 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kin) to increase leaf-foliage. Gold (I) chloride (AuCl) was added to the growth medium of plants to achieve required gold concentration. The solubilizing agent ammonium thiocyanate (1 g kg(-1)) (commonly used in mining industries to solubilize gold) was added to the nutrient solution after six weeks of growth and, two weeks later, plants were harvested. Plant growth regulators improved shoot and root dry biomass of B. juncea plants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry analysis showed the highest Au uptake for plants treated with 5.0 microM IBA. The average recovery of Au with this treatment was significantly greater than the control treatment by 45.8 mg kg(-1) (155.7%). The other IBA concentrations (2.5 and 7.5 microM) also showed a significant increase in Au uptake compared to the control plants by 14.7 mg kg(-1) (50%) and 42.5 mg kg(-1) (144.5%) respectively. A similar trend of Au accumulation was recorded in the roots of B. juncea plants. This study conducted in solution culture suggests that plant growth regulators can play a significant role in improving phytoextraction of Au.

  11. Dwarfing effects of plant growth regulators on narcissi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENXu-qin; LIANGHong-wei; CHENBo-qing; JIMei-yun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of four kinds of plant growth regulators with different concentrations on narcissi were studied in 2001.The results showed that the regulators could inhibit the growths of height and leaves of narcissi. Of the four regulators, the dwarfing effects of paclobatrazol (PP333) and uniconazole (S3307) on narcissi were better than those of chlorocholine (CCC) and dimethyl amino-sussinamic acid (B9). All of the regulators did not have significant effect on the root length. Moreover, the time of flowering was later for the narcissi treated with regulators than that of the control to a certain extent, and the range delayed was from 2 days to 19 days. The correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant correlation between the time of flowering and the concentrations of regulators. The ornament value of narcissi was obviously improved by using the regulators.

  12. Growth analysis of soybean plants treated with plant growth regulators Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Domingos Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effect of plant growth regulators on soybean plant growth and chlorophyll content. In an experiment carried out in a greenhouse, soybean plants were cultivated (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. BRS-184 in 10-liter pots containing soil from the arable layer, corrected and fertilized according to the soil analysis. The treatments used were: control; GA3 100mg.L-1; BAP 100mg.L-1; IBA 100mg.L-1; Stimulate® (IBA, GA3 and kinetin 20mL.L-1; mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 and mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 + BAP 100mg.L-1 + IBA 100mg.L-1. Treatments were applied three times at 30-day intervals. Six samplings were taken at 13-day intervals. The results indicated that the highest total dry weight value resulted from the application of IBA and Stimulate®, and that the application of mepiquat chloride in association with IBA and BAP reduced total dry matter production. The leaf area was smaller than the control in most treatments. The chlorophyll content and growth rate were slightly influenced by the treatments. The cytokinin treatment alone or in association with other plant growth regulators retained the chlorophyll content. RGR and NAR decreased from 99 days after sowing with the application of mepiquat chloride.

  13. Effects of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on mammalian fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martin T; Danielsen, Viggo

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes the consequences of exposure to chlormequat, a plant growth regulator, on reproduction in mammals. Plant growth regulators are chemicals used to manipulate plant growth, flowering and fruit yield. In grain crops, plant growth regulators are applied to promote sturdier growth and reduce the risk of lodging. Chlormequat is the most common plant growth regulator. Maximum residue limits of chlormequat in food products are 10 mg/kg in oat and pear, 3 mg/kg in wheat and rye, and 0.5 mg/kg in milk. In Denmark, results from experiments with pigs in the late 1980s showed sows that display impaired reproduction, mainly impaired oestrus, when fed grain from crop treated with chlormequat. Subsequently, the advisory body to the Danish pig industry recommended limiting the use of grain (maximum 30% of diet energy) from crop treated with chlormequat given to breeding stock due to the risk of reproduction problems. More recently, experiments have been conducted to evaluate the influence of chlormequat-treated wheat crop on reproductive function in male and female mice. These experiments showed that epididymal spermatozoa from mice on feed or water containing chlormequat had compromised fertilizing competence in vitro, while reproduction in female mice was not compromised. The estimated intake of chlormequat in the pig (0.0023 mg/kg bw/day) and the mouse (0.024 mg/kg bw/day) experiments was below the acceptable daily intake of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. Reports from the industry do not show any effects at these low levels.

  14. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant-microbe-insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore attack b

  15. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant-microbe-insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore attack b

  16. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  17. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VIII. Plant growth regulators and intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.C.; Gortatowski, M.J.; Shiley, R.H.; White, R.H.

    1959-01-01

    The preparation and properties of 41 fluorophenoxyacetic acids, 4 fluorophenoxypropionic acids, 2 fluorobenzoic acids, several indole derivatives, and a number of miscellaneous compounds are described. Data are given for many intermediates such as new fluorinated phenols, anisoles, anilines and nitrobenzenes. Most of the subject compounds are related to a number of well-known herbicides or plant growth regulators such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and others.

  18. Effects of plant growth regulators on survival and recovery growth following cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S R; Touchell, D H; Senaratna, T; Bunn, E; Tan, B; Dixon, K W

    2001-01-01

    Studies on the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on survival, recovery and post-recovery growth of shoot apices following cryopreservation are limited. In this study, the effects of plant growth regulators in both the culture phase and the recovery phase of cryostorage were examined for the rare plant species, Anigozanthos viridis ssp terraspectans Hopper. Survival of shoot apices was not correlated to cytokinin or auxin treatments administered in culture media prior to cryostorage. In recovery media, the plant growth regulators, kinetin, zeatin (cytokinins), IAA, (auxin) and GA3 were examined for their effect following cryopreservation. It was found that the application of a combination of cytokinin and 0.5 microM GA3 from day zero was the most appropriate for obtaining vigorously growing plantlets following LN immersion. This combination proved to be more effective than basal medium, zeatin or kinetin treatments.

  19. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  20. Effects of New Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Quality in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to explore the effects of new plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of potato, we conduct potato tubers with different concentrations of the regulators and cultivated in the seedling pot, with water as the control treatment. The results showed that sorbic amide (5%, sorbic amide quaternary ammonium salt (5%, Cinnamamide (5%, betaine Cinnamamide (5%, naphthalene dicarboxamide (5%, betaine naphthalenedicarboxamide (5% these 6 new regulators have good activity in improving and enhancing the content of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar and free amino acids with 400 times dilution and 800 times dilution on potato seedling. At the same time, we compared the changes of the physiological indexes in different periods. As can be seen from the experiment, these 6 compounds have a strong role in promoting growth and improving the quality of the potato so that they can be called plant growth regulators.

  1. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Sultana, Tasleem; Vootla, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Deccan plateau in India periodically experiences droughts due to irregular rain fall and the soil in many parts of the region is considered to be poor for farming. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are originally defined as root-colonizing bacteria, i.e., Bacillus that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. The study aims at the isolation of novel Bacillus species and to assess the biotechnological potential of the novel species as a biofertilizer, wit...

  2. Effects of plant growth regulators on the growth and lipid accumulation of Nannochloropsis oculata (droop) Hibberd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Cam Tu; Tran, Thanh Huong; Bui, Trang Viet

    2017-09-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata cells were grown in f/2 modified medium of Chiu et al. (2009) supplemented with the plant growth regulators in different concentrations. Lipid accumulation of N. oculata cells was evaluated by using Nile Red dye and Fiji Image J with Analyze Particles. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) stimulated the increase of cell density in rapid growth phase (day 6) at high concentration (0.75 mg/L) and in slow growth phase (day 10) at lower concentration (0.50 mg/L). IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3) and zeatin increased content of chlorophyll a, in particular, in f/2 modified medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L zeatin at the 10th day of culture. Roles of plant growth regulators in growth and lipid accumulation of N. oculata were discussed.

  3. Influence of growth regulators on plant growth, yield, and skin color of specialty potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2,4-D has been used since the 1950’s to enhance color in red-skinned potatoes, but there is little research on the potential use of other plant growth regulators to improve tuber skin color in the wide range of specialty potatoes now available on the market. Field trials conducted at Parma, ID in 20...

  4. Computational insight into the chemical space of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkov, Nikolay A; Veselov, Mark S; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Marusich, Elena I; Majouga, Alexander G; Volynchuk, Polina B; Shumilina, Daria V; Leonov, Sergey V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-02-01

    An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.

  5. Influence of plant growth regulators on indirect shoot organogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2013-10-17

    Oct 17, 2013 ... subalpine and alpine areas of Indian Himalayan Region at 3500-4000 m elevations, ... cytokinins and auxins) are often added to culture media ..... and cytokinin in the regulation of metabolism and development. Trend Plant ...

  6. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Sultana, Tasleem; Vootla, Praveen Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Deccan plateau in India periodically experiences droughts due to irregular rain fall and the soil in many parts of the region is considered to be poor for farming. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are originally defined as root-colonizing bacteria, i.e., Bacillus that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. The study aims at the isolation of novel Bacillus species and to assess the biotechnological potential of the novel species as a biofertilizer, with respect to their plant growth promoting properties as efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Seven different strains of Bacillus were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil near boys' hostel of Palamuru University which belongs to Deccan plateau. Among seven isolated strains, Bacillus strain-7 has shown maximum support for good growth of eight cotton cultivars. This bacterial species is named Bacillus sp. PU-7 based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Among eight cotton cultivars, Mahyco has shown high levels of IAA, proteins, chlorophyll, sugars and low level of proline. Efficacy of novel Bacillus sp. PU-7 with Mahyco cultivar has been checked experimentally at field level in four different cotton grown agricultural soils. The strains supported plant growth in almost all the cases, especially in the deep black soil, with a clear evidence of maximum plant growth by increased levels of phytohormone production and biochemical analysis, followed by shallow black soil. Hence, it is inferred that the novel isolate can be used as bioinoculant in the cotton fields.

  7. Effect of plant growth regulators and nitrogenous compounds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    One of the problems that farmers face is the germination of ... which is used in modern medicine as a circulatory stimulant ... growth regulators and biostimulants solutions can .... enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, and the process of seed ...

  8. Minimising toxicity of cadmium in plants--role of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Mohd; Khan, M Iqbal R; Anjum, Naser A; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-03-01

    A range of man-made activities promote the enrichment of world-wide agricultural soils with a myriad of chemical pollutants including cadmium (Cd). Owing to its significant toxic consequences in plants, Cd has been one of extensively studied metals. However, sustainable strategies for minimising Cd impacts in plants have been little explored. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are known for their role in the regulation of numerous developmental processes. Among major PGRs, plant hormones (such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid), nitric oxide (a gaseous signalling molecule), brassinosteroids (steroidal phytohormones) and polyamines (group of phytohormone-like aliphatic amine natural compounds with aliphatic nitrogen structure) have gained attention by agronomist and physiologist as a sustainable media to induce tolerance in abiotic-stressed plants. Considering recent literature, this paper: (a) overviews Cd status in soil and its toxicity in plants, (b) introduces major PGRs and overviews their signalling in Cd-exposed plants, (c) appraises mechanisms potentially involved in PGR-mediated enhanced plant tolerance to Cd and (d) highlights key aspects so far unexplored in the subject area.

  9. Peniamidienone and penidilamine, plant growth regulators produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y; Mizuno, T; Kawano, T; Okada, K; Shimada, A

    2000-04-01

    Peniamidienone and penidilamine were isolated from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13 as new plant growth regulators and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic studies. Peniamidienone showed weak inhibition of lettuce seedling growth.

  10. Differential regulation of GS-GOGAT gene expression by plant growth regulators in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary ammonium assimilation is catalyzed by the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT pathway in plants. The Arabidopsis genome contains five cytosolic GS1 genes (GLN1;1 - GLN1;5, one nuclear gene for chloroplastic GS2 isoform (GLN2, two Fd-GOGAT genes (GLU1 and GLU2 and a GLT1 gene coding for NADH-GOGAT. Even though the regulation of GS and GOGAT isoforms has been extensively studied in response to various environmental and metabolic cues in many plant species, little is known about the effects of phytohormones on their regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of representative plant growth regulators, kinetin (KIN, abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellic acid (GA3 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, on the expression of A. thaliana GS and GOGAT genes. The obtained results indicate that GS and GOGAT genes are differentially regulated by growth regulators in shoots and roots. KIN and 2,4-D repressed GS and GOGAT expression in roots, with little effect on transcript levels in shoots. KIN affected all tested genes; 2,4-D was apparently more selective and less potent. ABA induced the expression of GLN1;1 and GLU2 in whole seedlings, while GA3 enhanced the expression of all tested genes in shoots, except GLU2. The observed expression patterns are discussed in relation to physiological roles of investigated plant growth regulators and N-assimilating enzymes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON173024

  11. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore at

  12. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore

  13. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore at

  14. The effect of plant growth regulators on height control in potted Arundina graminifolia orchids (Growth regulators in Arundina graminifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina da Silva Wanderley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orchids have become an important portion of the international floriculture market.  Arundina graminifolia is a terrestrial orchid that produces attractive flowers, and, although the species could be a potential candidate for the floriculture market, its considerable height makes it difficult to transport and commercialize.  A number of plant growth regulators have been utilized to control plant height in ornamentals and other species.  Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of growth regulators, paclobutrazol and chlormequat chloride on the vegetative development of containerized A. graminifolia orchid aiming at height control.  Paclobutrazol (Cultar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L-1, and CCC (Cycocel was applied at 0, 2000, 4000, and 6000 mg L-1. The plants were assessed monthly for the plant height and number of shoots per container. CCC had no effect on the final height of plants at the concentrations applied. In contrast, paclobutrazol was effective in controlling plant height at a concentration of 5 mg L-1, but higher concentrations (10 and 20 mg L-1 proved to be toxic to the plants, causing death to the new shoots. Paclobutrazol at lower concentrations offers a viable means for height control in A. graminifolia.

  15. Regulatory and functional interactions of plant growth regulators and plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Plant glutathioneS-transferases (GSTs) are a heterogeneous superfamily of multifunctional proteins, grouped into six classes. The tau (GSTU) and phi (GSTF) class GSTs are the most represented ones and are plant-specific, whereas the smaller theta (GSTT) and zeta (GSTZ) classes are also found in animals. The lambda GSTs (GSTL) and the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) are more distantly related. Plant GSTs perform a variety of pivotal catalytic and non-enzymatic functions in normal plant development and plant stress responses, roles that are only emerging. Catalytic functions include glutathione (GSH)-conjugation in the metabolic detoxification of herbicides and natural products. GSTs can also catalyze GSH-dependent peroxidase reactions that scavenge toxic organic hydroperoxides and protect from oxidative damage. GSTs can furthermore catalyze GSH-dependent isomerizations in endogenous metabolism, exhibit GSH-dependent thioltransferase safeguarding protein function from oxidative damage and DHAR activity functioning in redox homeostasis. Plant GSTs can also function as ligandins or binding proteins for phytohormones (i.e., auxins and cytokinins) or anthocyanins, thereby facilitating their distribution and transport. Finally, GSTs are also indirectly involved in the regulation of apoptosis and possibly also in stress signaling. Plant GST genes exhibit a diversity of expression patterns during biotic and abiotic stresses. Stress-induced plant growth regulators (i.e., jasmonic acid [JA], salicylic acid [SA], ethylene [ETH], and nitric oxide [NO] differentially activate GST gene expression. It is becoming increasingly evident that unique combinations of multiple, often interactive signaling pathways from various phytohormones and reactive oxygen species or antioxidants render the distinct transcriptional activation patterns of individual GSTs during stress. Underestimated post-transcriptional regulations of individual GSTs are becoming increasingly evident and roles

  16. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  17. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  18. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  19. Plant growth regulation in seed crops of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Lemaire, Charles; Abel, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Seed yield components were recorded in plants of perennial ryegrass cv. Calibra a medium late, forage type (4n) in a two factorial block design with Nitrogen (N) and plant growth regulator (PGR) application in 2014 and 2015 at Aarhus University (AU), Flakkebjerg. For each plant, reproductive...

  20. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance o

  1. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance

  2. Effect of plant growth regulators and activated charcoal on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Key words: Activated charcoal, oil palm, plant growth regulators, zygotic embryo. ... all the essential mineral ions, carbon source, vitamins and other organic supplements .... (2010), where MS medium fortified with a low level of ...

  3. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhai, Juan-Yuan; Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Wu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana. Five plant growth regulators: chlormequat chloride (CCC), Mepiquat chloride (PIX), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Paclobutrazol (PP333) and Maleic Hydrazide (MH) were sprayed in rosette stage, the effects of these plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth, yield and quality of A. dahurica var. formosanaw were observed. The biological traits were first measured and then imperatorin and isoimperatorin contents in roots were determined by HPLC. Low concentration GA3 increased the yield while not influenced the premature bolting rate and the coumarin content. Spraying of GA3 (30 mg x L(-1)) could guarantee the growth and development of A. dahurica var. formosana to have a higher yield and maintain the active ingredients content in the root as well.

  4. Effect of plant growth regulators on leaf anatomy of the has mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosević, D; Uzelac, B; Budimir, S

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of plant growth regulators on leaf morphogenesis of the recessive T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed. The morpho-anatomical analysis revealed that leaves of the has mutant are small and narrow, with lobed blades and disrupted tissue organization. When has plants were grown on the medium supplied with plant growth regulators: benzylaminopurine (BAP) or ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the leaf anatomy was partially restored to the wild type, although plants still exhibited morphological abnormalities.

  5. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Phytoremediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouychai, Waraporn; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Lee, Hung

    2015-01-01

    The influence of three plant growth regulators, indolebutyric acid (IBA), thidiazuron (TDZ) and gibberellic acid (GA3), either individually or in pair-wise combinations, on the ability of waxy corn plant to remove hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) from contaminated soil was studied. Waxy corn seeds were immersed for 3 h in solutions of 1.0 mg/l IBA, 0.01 mg/l TDZ, 0.1 mg/l GA3, or a mixture of two of the growth regulators, and then inoculated in soil contaminated with 46.8 mg/kg HCH for 30 days. Pretreatment of corn seeds with the plant growth regulators did not enhance corn growth when compared with those immersed in distilled water (control), but the pretreatment enhanced HCH removal significantly. On day 30, HCH concentration in the bulk soil planted with corn seeds pretreated with GA3 or TDZ+GA3 decreased by 97.4% and 98.4%, respectively. In comparison, HCH removal in soil planted with non-pretreated control waxy corn seeds was only 35.7%. The effect of several growth regulator application methods was tested with 0.01 mg/l TDZ. The results showed that none of the methods, which ranged from seed immersion, watering in soil, or spraying on shoots, affected HCH removal from soil. However, the method of applying the growth regulators may affect corn growth. Watering the corn plant with TDZ in soil led to higher root fresh weight (2.2 g) and higher root dried weight (0.57 g) than the other treatments (0.2-1.7 g root fresh weight and 0.02-0.43 g root dried weight) on day 30. Varying the concentrations of GA3 did not affect the enhancement of corn growth and HCH removal on day 30. The results showed that plant growth regulators may have potential for use to enhance HCH phytoremediation.

  6. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  7. Regeneration of Dioscorea floribunda plants from cryopreserved encapsulated shoot tips: effect of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, B B; Ahuja-Ghosh, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    The encapsulation-dehydration protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro shoot tips of Dioscorea floribunda was optimized. Maximum survival of 87% was obtained when overnight pretreatment with 0.3 M sucrose was followed by encapsulation, preculture in 0.75 M sucrose for 4 d, dehydration in a laminar air flow for 5.5 h, quenching in liquid nitrogen and thawing at 40 degrees C. During recovery growth, 29% shoot formation was obtained when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 25 d on a medium with 1.5 mg per liter (-1) BAP, 0.2 mg per liter(-1) NAA and 0.2 mg per liter(-1) GA3 followed by culturing for 15 d on a medium with reduced BAP (1 mg per liter(-1)) but increased NAA (0.5 mg per liter(-1)) and GA3 (0.3 mg per liter(-1)). Finally, transfer on to a medium with further reduced doses of BAP (0.05 mg per liter(-1)) and NAA (0.15 mg per liter(-1)) but without GA3 stimulated production of fully grown plantlets. All plants regenerated without callus formation. Modification of post-thaw culture media with plant growth regulators was essential for regrowth of shoot tips to plantlets.

  8. Tracer methods for investigating biosynthetic pathways and the metabolism of bioactive substances in plants. [Herbicides; Plant growth regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, H.R. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1984-03-01

    Proceeding from the general terms of investigating the courses of reactions in plants by means of tracer methods, problems and possibilities of the methods are discussed on the basis of examples referring in particular to double labelling techniques and to the determination of the distribution of radioactivity in the resulting products. Examples of herbicides and plant growth regulators are used for describing metabolism studies.

  9. Production of Plant Growth-Regulating Substances by the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae

    OpenAIRE

    Barea, José M.; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción

    1982-01-01

    Glomus mosseae, a representative species of Endogonaceae (Phycomycetes) able to form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, was investigated for phytohormone production. Spores of G. mosseae were axenically germinated in water, and the resultant mycelial growth was assayed by standard procedures for extracting plant hormones from microbial cultures. Paper partition chromatography and specific bioassays were used to separate and identify plant growth-regulating substances. The microorganism synthesi...

  10. Influence of plant growth regulators on axillary shoot multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Key words: Chlorosis, conservation, endangered plants, in vitro propagation, nodal explants, ... The medium consisted of MS basal salts and vitamins supple- ..... Maximum rooting was obtained on MMS medium fortified.

  11. Effect of plant growth regulators on indices of growth analysis for sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of GA3 + IBA + cinetina on the growth of Passiflora alata Curtis plants through growth analysis. The experiment was carried out by completely randomized block design, with six treatments and four replications. The plant growth regulators, gibberellin (GA3, auxin (IBA and cytokinin (kinetin, were applied to leaves at concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125mL.L-1. The applications were performed at 48, 55, 52, 69, and 76 days after the emergence of the plants and the growths were evaluated five times at 7-day intervals. The first evaluations were accomplished 55 days after plant emergence. The leaf area ratio (RAF, specific leaf area (AFE, liquid assimilation rate (TCA, and relative growth rate (TCR were analyzed. The following data were also analyzed for P. alata Curtis plants: leaf area, leaf lamina dry mass and total leaves dry mass. The growth analysis, which employed the ANACRES computer program, indicated that the growth regulators increased plant productivity.

  12. INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SUNFLOWER ( HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available With a view to establish the effect of some plant growth regulators on sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L. production and oil content was made an experiment. The investigation was made on Bulgarian sunfl ower hybrid Super Start, treated during pinhead and fl owering stages. The effect of the tested plant growth regulators on the quantity of yield and some structural elements (sunfl ower heads number, seeds number, seeds mass, mass/ 1000 seeds, oil content % and oil yield kg/da was reported in the process of investigation. The effect grade of growth regulators is fi xed due to non-treated control. By the dispersal analysis method it is made mathematics processing of the values of received data. The investigation showed that there is not mathematically proved difference between the seed yield kg/da and oil content l/da in pinhead period by the use of plant growth regulators - ‘‘31’’ (1cm3/l water and ‘’Agat 25 EK’’ (2.5 g/ da. In the fl owering period when treated with the same plant growth regulators seed yield is 15.3 % increased and the oil content -18.6 % (with “31’’ and 16.4 % (with’’Agat 25 EK’’.

  13. Role of plant growth regulators as chemical signals in plant-microbe interactions: a double edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Carla; Bais, Harsh

    2015-10-01

    Growth regulators act not only as chemicals that modulate plant growth but they also act as signal molecules under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Of all growth regulators, abscisic acid (ABA) is long known for its role in modulating plants response against both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the genetic information for ABA biosynthesis in plants is well documented, the knowledge about ABA biosynthesis in other organisms is still in its infancy. It is known that various microbes including bacteria produce and secrete ABA, but the overall functional significance of why ABA is synthesized by microbes is not known. Here we discuss the functional involvement of ABA biosynthesis by a pathogenic fungus. Furthermore, we propose that ABA biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi could be targeted for novel fungicidal discovery.

  14. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Barrada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth.

  15. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  16. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-08-19

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth.

  17. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANOH

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... plants, the rubber-tree is generally considered to be recalcitrant with regard to somatic .... Fossard vitamins (Fossard, 1976) without choline chloride. MBm medium was fortified with different concentrations of 2,4-D (4.5 and.

  18. Effect of microenvironmental quantitative regulation on growth of Korean pine trees planted under secondary forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Jian; Shen Hai-Long; YANG Wen-Hua; FAN Shao-Hui; ZHANG Qun

    2011-01-01

    Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and broadleaved mixed forest in Northeast China has been changed regressively into secondary forest with almost no conifers. Planting Korean pine trees under the canopy of secondary forest is a feasible approach for recovering Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest. For establishing an effective growth promotion method for under-canopy planted young Korean pine trees, two stands were selected as the experiment plots, Stand A (planted in 1989)and Stand B (planted in 1982), and an experiment of microenvironment regulation was conducted relying mainly on Opening degree (K=1,K=1.5, K=2, CK) in 2004. The results were shown that the adjustment had promoted growth of diameter and height of Korean pine planted in Stand A and Stand B, and had a significant influence on the growth rate of basal diameter, diameter at breast height and height in the two growth stands. The four years periodic increment of mean diameter and height of Korean pine planted in 1989 and in 1982 after regulation in K=1 level were 63.4% (D0) and 82.7% (H), 64.8% (D1.3) and 69.7% (H) higher than that of control respectively. Quantitative regulation had significant influence on specific leaf area of Korean pine planted in 1989, and the current year specific leaf area (SLA) was lager than perennial year SLA. Quality indexes of natural priming capacity, normal form quotient and crown size was not significantly changed but shown a positive tendency. The regulation scheme of Opening degree K=I might be proper for adjusting the micreenvironment of Korean pine trees planted under the canopy of secondary forest when the Korean pine trees were in the growth period of 15 to 26 years old in the experiment region.

  19. Overview of OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS, a novel class of plant-specific growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS (OFPs are a class of proteins with a conserved OVATE domain. OVATE protein was first identified in tomato as a key regulator of fruit shape. OFPs are plant-specific proteins that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom including mosses and lycophytes. Transcriptional activity analysis of Arabidopsis OFPs (AtOFPs in protoplasts suggests that they act as transcription repressors. Functional characterization of OFPs from different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, tomato, pepper and banana suggests that OFPs regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, which is likely achieved by interacting with different types of transcription factors including the KNOX and BELL classes, and/or directly regulating the expression of target genes such as Gibberellin 20 oxidase (GA20ox. Here, we examine how OVATE was originally identified, summarize recent progress in elucidation of the roles of OFPs in regulating plant growth and development, and describe possible mechanisms underpinning this regulation. Finally, we review potential new research directions that could shed additional light on the functional biology of OFPs in plants.

  20. Using natural and synthetic growth regulators of plants in industrial mycology and malting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuznetcova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the expansion of the use the plants growth regulators in different areas are presented. The positive impact of the growth stimulators on the development of the Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium’s on agar nutrient media during surface cultivation is shown. The results for growth regulators stimulating effect on the fungus biosynthetic activity in submerged cultures are obtained. The possibility of using fumar and heteroauxin for malting is considered. The decline of malting time and increase of amylolytic activity of the malt are recorded.

  1. The Root Growth-Regulating Brevicompanine Natural Products Modulate the Plant Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Krahn, Jan H; Suliman, Mohamed N S; Halder, Vivek; de Ansorena, Elisa; Nickel, Sabrina; Schlicht, Markus; Plíhal, Ondřej; Kubiasová, Karolina; Radová, Lenka; Kracher, Barbara; Tóth, Réka; Kaschani, Farnusch; Coupland, George; Kombrink, Erich; Kaiser, Markus

    2017-06-16

    Plant growth regulating properties of brevicompanines (Brvs), natural products of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum, have been known for several years, but further investigations into the molecular mechanism of their bioactivity have not been performed. Following chemical synthesis of brevicompanine derivatives, we studied their activity in the model plant Arabidopsis by a combination of plant growth assays, transcriptional profiling, and numerous additional bioassays. These studies demonstrated that brevicompanines cause transcriptional misregulation of core components of the circadian clock, whereas other biological read-outs were not affected. Brevicompanines thus represent promising chemical tools for investigating the regulation of the plant circadian clock. In addition, our study also illustrates the potential of an unbiased -omics-based characterization of bioactive compounds for identifying the often cryptic modes of action of small molecules.

  2. A possible novel black aphid control approach using plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage in order to feed, thereby accelerating leaf senescence and defoliation. The action of certain plant growth regulators (i.e., forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and avi...

  3. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Use in Grounds Maintenance at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    and Eldridge, B. J. 1989. Plant growth regulators suppress established orchard sod and dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) population. Weed Technology 3...Solanium carolinense L. Dandelion - Taraxicum officinale Field Pansy - Viola rafinesquii Greene Fivefingers Cinquefoil - Potentilla canadensis L. Hop Clover...Erigeron annuus Dandelion - Taraxacum aticinale Field Bindweed - Convolvulus arvensis L. Field Pussytoes - Antennaria neglecta Foxglove Beardtongues

  4. Citrinolactones A, B and C, and Sclerotinin C, plant growth regulators from Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramata, Masato; Fujioka, Shozo; Shimada, Atsumi; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yasuo

    2007-02-01

    New plant growth regulators, named citrinolactones A (1), B (2) and C (3) and sclerotinin C (4), were isolated from Penicillium citrinum and their structures established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. Compounds 1 and 4 increased root growth in proportion to their concentration from 3 to 300 mg/l. In contrast, 2 completely inhibited root growth at a concentration of 300 mg/l and 3 did not show any effect on root growth in a concentration range of 3-300 mg/l.

  5. Myxostiolide, myxostiol, and clavatoic acid, plant growth regulators from the fungus Myxotrichum stipitatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yasuo; Shimada, Atsumi; Kusano, Miyako; Yoshii, Katsunobu; Morita, Akiko; Nishibe, Masahiko; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi

    2002-04-01

    New plant growth regulators, named myxostiolide (1), myxostiol (2), and clavatoic acid (3), have been isolated from Myxotrichum stipitatum, and their structures have been established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. The biological activities of 1, 2, and 3 have been examined using tea pollen and lettuce seedling bioassay methods. With tea pollen, compound 1 inhibited the pollen tube growth to 14% of control at a concentration of 100 mg/L. With lettuce seedlings, compound 2 accelerated the root growth from 1 mg/L to 100 mg/L and compound 3 inhibited the root growth, to 52% of control, at a concentration of 100 mg/L.

  6. Oligosaccharins, brassinolides, and jasmonates: nontraditional regulators of plant growth, development, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1997-07-01

    Each of the nontraditional plant hormones reviewed in this article, oligosaccharins, brassinolides, and JA, can exert major effects on plant growth and development. However, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these compounds are involved in the endogenous regulation of morphogenesis remain to be established. Nevertheless, the use of mutant or transgenic plants with altered levels or perception of these hormones is leading to phenomenal increases in our understanding of the roles they play in the life cycle of plants. It is likely that in the future, novel modulators of plant growth and development will be identified; some will perhaps be related to the peptide encoded by ENOD40 (Van de Sande et al., 1996), which modifies the action of auxin.

  7. Exploring the structural requirements for jasmonates and related compounds as novel plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Jasmonates and related compounds have been highlighted recently in the field of plant physiology and plant molecular biology due to their significant regulatory roles in the signaling pathway for the diverse aspects of plant development and survival. Though a considerable amount of studies concerning their biological effects in different plants have been widely reported, the molecular details of the signaling mechanism are still poorly understood. This review sheds new light on the structural requirements for the bioactivity/property of jasmonic acid derivatives in current computational perspective, which differs from previous research that mainly focus on their biological evaluation, gene and metabolic regulation and the enzymes in their biosynthesis. The computational results may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of drug-receptor interactions in their signaling pathway and designing novel plant growth regulators as high effective ecological pesticides. PMID:20009552

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MORPHOLOGICAL, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GREENGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the different growth regulating compounds on morphological, quality and yield parameters in greengram at Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad during rabi 2009- 10. The basic material for the present investigation consists of Greengram cv WGG-37 and two growth promoting (NAA and Brassinosteroid and growth retarding substances (Chlormequat chloride and Mepiquat chloride. These growth regulators were sprayed at flower initiation stage. The morphological traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of trifoliates per plant and days to 50% flowering and maturity were significantly increased by NAA @ 20 ppm, whereas total dry matter production (TDM over growth regulator treatments at all stages NAA (20 ppm and brassinosteroid (20ppm recorded significantly higher values. Among the quality parameters highest seed protein content (% and highest nitrogen harvest index values were recorded with growth retarding substance chlormequat chloride (187.5 g a.i ha-1 in greengram. The seed yield increased significantly with NAA (20 ppm followed by mepiquat chloride 5% AS, brassinosteroid (20 ppm, chlormequat chloride (137.5.5 a.i/ha.

  9. The biochemical control of the cell cycle by growth regulators in higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGWei; LatoyaHarris; RonaldJ.Newton

    2004-01-01

    The cell cycle is an important research field in cell biology and it is genetically and developmentally regulated in animals and plants. The aim of this study was to review knowledge about the biochemical regulation of the cell cycle by plant growth regulators through molecular checkpoints that regulate the transition from G0-G1-S-phase and G2-M in higher plants.Recent research has shown that zeatin treatment led to the up-regulation of CycD3 in Arabidopsis. Benzyladenine treatment can also shorten the duration of S-phase through recruitment of latent origins of DNA replication. Kinetin is involved in the phosphoregulation of the G2-M checkpoint; the major cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) at this checkpoint has recently shown to be dephosphorylated as a result of cytokinin treatment, an effect that can also be mimicked by the fission yeast Cdc25 phosphatase. Gibberellic acid (GA) treatment induces internode elongation in deepwater rice, this response is mediated by a GA-induced up-regulation of a cyclin-Cdk at the G2-M checkpoint. Recent evidence has also linked abscisic acid to a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. A new D-type cyclin, recently discovered in Arabidopsis may have a key role in this process. A brief review on plant growth regulator-cell cycle interfacing during development and a cytokinin-induced continuum of cell cycle activation through the up-regulation of a plant D-type cyclin at the G1 checkpoint and the phosphoregulation of the Cdk at the G2/M checkpoint had been concluded. This review could be valuable to research on cell and developmental biology in plants.

  10. Improvement of Salt Tolerance in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. var. PEB by Plant Growth Regulators

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    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The crop yield is reduced under saline conditions and this hampers agricultural productivity. The incorporation of plant growth regulators (PGRs during presoaking treatments in many crops has improved seed performance under saline conditions. In order to study the ameliorative effect of plant growth regulators, experiments were conducted to study the variation in organic constituents in the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. var.PEB, where the seeds were primed with different plant growth regulators and grown under NaCl salinity. After a pre-soaking treatment of six hours in 20 mg L-1 solutions of gibberllic acid (GA3, 6-furfuryladenine (Kinetin and benzyl adenine (BA, the seeds were allowed to germinate and grow for forty-five days under saline conditions. On the analysis of mature leaves, it was observed that chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll and protein showed an increase in PGR-treated plants compared to the untreated set. The accumulation of the stress metabolite such as proline and sugars, which increase under saline conditions, showed a significant decrease in the plants pretreated with PGRs.

  11. Salt Stress Perception and Plant Growth Regulators in the Halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. C.; Bohnert, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    We selected indicators of four different metabolic processes (Crassulacean acid metabolism [CAM], amino acid and nitrogen mobilization metabolism, osmoprotection, and plant defense mechanisms) to study the relationship between salt-stress-mediated and plant growth regulator (PGR)-induced responses in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant). Nacl and PGRs (cytokinin and abscisic acid [ABA]) are efficient elicitors of the well-studied Nacl stress responses: induction of the CAM form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, proline pinitol accumulation, and the increase of an osmotin-like protein. NaCl and cytokinin are more effective than ABA in stimulating accumulation of proline and an osmotin-like protein before the plants are committed to flowering. The results are consistent with a plant defense-induction model, in which environmental stress and PGRs are distinct signals whose subsequent effects lead to overlapping responses, the magnitude of which depends on plant developmental status. PMID:12232022

  12. GDP-D-mannose epimerase regulates male gametophyte development, plant growth and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Zhipeng; Fan, Meng; Chen, Yan; Tian, Haixia; Wu, Dewei; Gao, Hua; Ren, Chunmei; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2017-09-04

    Plant GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, a precursor of both L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and cell wall polysaccharides. However, the genetic functions of GME in Arabidopsis are unclear. In this study, we found that mutations in Arabidopsis GME affect pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, and transmission and development of the male gametophyte through analysis of the heterozygous GME/gme plants and the homozygous gme plants. Arabidopsis gme mutants also exhibit severe growth defects and early leaf senescence. Surprisingly, the defects in male gametophyte in the gme plants are not restored by L-ascorbate, boric acid or GDP-L-galactose, though boric acid rescues the growth defects of the mutants, indicating that GME may regulate male gametophyte development independent of L-ascorbate and GDP-L-galactose. These results reveal key roles for Arabidopsis GME in reproductive development, vegetative growth and leaf senescence, and suggest that GME regulates plant growth and controls male gametophyte development in different manners.

  13. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

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    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  14. [Effect of plant growth regulators on physiological activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, N O; Tytova, L V; Tantsiurenko, O V; Antypchuk, A F

    2005-01-01

    Influence of plant growth regulators Ivin, Emistim C, Eney and Agrostimulin on the biomass production and exopolymers synthesis of soybean nodule bacteria, which have contrasting symbiotic properties, and glutamine synthetase activity of their cell-free extracts were studied. It was shown that the processes of the biomass and exopolymers accumulation had an opposite direction. Of all preparations only Ivin and Agrostimulin intensificol growth activity of the microorganisms under study. The level of glutamine synthetase activity and this enzymatic reaction specificity to the bivalent metal ions were determined by the special features of Bradyrhizobium strains and nature of the plant growth regulators. Only in the presence of Eney the increase of glutamine synthetase activity of both cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum was established.

  15. Short Communication: In vitro response of papaya (Carica papaya to plant growth regulators

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    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2016. In vitro response of papaya (Carica papaya to multiple plant growth regulators. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 77-82. The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs in papaya (Carica papaya L. tissue culture is essential for tissue and organ culture in vitro. In this study, in a bid to expand the information available on the response to PGRs, a wide range of PGRs, roughly divided into four groups (auxins, cytokinins, alternative PGRs, growth inhibitors and retardants was tested. Among them, the auxins 2,4-D, dicamba and picloram formed most callus (hard and soft. Callus inductions by chitosan and coconut water are novel results for papaya. Shoots only formed in response to BA and TDZ, but TDZ-induced shoots were fasciated and/or hyperhydric. These results provide novel perspectives for papaya researchers who may have recalcitrant genotypes or tissues that are unresponsive in vitro.

  16. Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

    1986-01-01

    Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia plus soil treated with mefluidide did not differ significantly from mortality resulting from untreated conidia. Triton CS-7 was the only one of eight spray adjuvants that significantly inhibited germination of B. bassiana conidia. PMID:16347095

  17. Influence of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangsee, K; Bunnag, S

    2014-01-01

    The potential for callus induction and regeneration depends on nutrient composition and plant growth regulators. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in the glutinous rice cultivar Khunvang. The effect of 2,4-D concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth were investigated. The results revealed that the highest percentage of callus induction (97%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L(-1) 2,4-D under 16 h Photoperiod. The effects of casein hydrolysate concentrations of casein hydrolysate (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) and proline (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth of Khunvang were also observed. The results indicated that the increasing casein hydrolysate and proline concentrations did not show a significant effect on callus growth. However, proline concentration of 900 mg L(-1) yielded 85.67% of callus growth.

  18. ЕFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

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    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the general (GА, nM pyruvic acid/ml∙second and specific (SA, nM pyruvic acid /mg second transferase enzyme activity of protein metabolism (Аlanine aminotransferase ALT, EC 2.6.1.2, and Аspartate aminotransferase, AST, EC 2.6.1.1 in Salix alba L. leaves, that planted on the banks of Mokra Sura River (anthropogenic polluted, increased level of salinity and Shpakova River (relatively clean, control which are parts of Dnipro River Basin of Steppe Dnipro Region. We used the plant growth regulator “Kornevin” in order to accelerate rooting and reducing of exogenous pressures on the plant. We registered the Aminotransferase nonspecific reaction towards anthropogenic pressure, which was associated with the formation of non-specific mechanisms of adaptation to support the homeostasis. We revealed the significant differences between experiment and control in index of protein synthesis and metabolism depending on the conditions of growth and development. Protective and leveling effects of growth regulator have been proved. The advisability of using the "Kornevin" as an adaptogene and a protector in variable environmental conditions have been indicated. Salix alba L., increased level of salinity, growth regulators, alaninaminotransferase, aspartataminotransferase, adaptogene, anthropogenic factors

  19. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motifs and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04805.001 PMID:26083713

  20. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-06-17

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motives and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity.

  1. Harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Yu, Guanghui; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhong; Fu, Lin; Shen, Qirong; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of natural products on plant growth and protection will underpin new product development for plant production. The isolation and characterization of a known secondary metabolite named harzianolide from Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 were described, and the bioactivity of the purified compound as well as the crude metabolite extract in plant growth promotion and systemic resistance induction was investigated in this study. The results showed that harzianolide significantly promoted tomato seedling growth by up to 2.5-fold (dry weight) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm compared with the control. The result of root scan suggested that Trichoderma secondary metabolites may influence the early stages of plant growth through better root development for the enhancement of root length and tips. Both of the purified harzianolide and crude metabolite extract increased the activity of some defense-related enzymes to response to oxidative stress. Examination of six defense-related gene expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that harzianolide induces the expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid (PR1 and GLU) and jasmonate/ethylene (JERF3) signaling pathways while crude metabolite extract inhibited some gene expression (CHI-II and PGIP) related to basal defense in tomato plants. Further experiment showed that a subsequent challenge of harzianolide-pretreated plants with the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resulted in higher systemic resistance by the reduction of lesion size. These results indicate that secondary metabolites of Trichoderma spp., like harzianolide, may play a novel role in both plant growth regulation and plant defense responses.

  2. Investigation on The Effect of Some Plant Growth Regulators on Sunflower ( Helianthus Annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kolev

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With a view to establish the effect of some plant growth regulators on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.production and oil content was made an experiment. The agricultural test was carried out in the experimentalbase of Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 2001- 2003.The investigation was pulled out byblock design with four replications with crop plot size 20 m2, previously sowed with wheat. The testedchemicals are as follows plant growth regulators: “H- 40’’ (alfanaftilvinegar acid, “M-2’’ (amid ofdicarbonovy acids of benzolovid number, “31’’(derivate of naphthalene with auxin efficacy, “XP’’(ftalaminova acid content micro and macro elements, synthesised in Research Institute of Cryobiology andFood Technology, Sofia in dose 1 cm3 / l water and Agat 25 EK- 2.5 g/da (Too bio biz Ltd..The investigation was made on Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Super Start, treated during pinhead andflowering. The effect of the tested plant growth regulators on the quantity of yield and some structuralelements (sunflower heads number, seeds number, seeds mass, mass/ 1000 seeds, oil content and oil yieldwas reported in the process of investigation. The effect grade of growth regulators is fixed due to non-treatedcontrol.By the dispersal analysis method, it is made a mathematics processing of the values of received data. Theresults of investigation showed that there is no significantly difference between the seed yield kg/da and oilcontent l/da in pinhead period by the use of plant growth regulators - ‘‘31’’ (1cm3/l water and ‘’Agat 25EK’’ (2.5 g/ da. In the flowering period when treated with the same plant growth regulators, the seed yield isincreased as of 15.3 % and the oil content increased as of 16.4% (with Agat 25 EK but it is decreased as of18.6% by the application of “31”.

  3. Effect of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis in leaf cultures of Coffea canephora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, T; Arakawa, O; Yasuda, T; Uchida, N; Yamaguchi, T

    1991-07-01

    The effects of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis were studied in leaf cultures of Coffea canephora. The maximum number of somatic embryos were obtained on media that contained only cytokinin as a plant growth regulator. All of the auxins tested (NAA, IBA, IAA and 2, 4-D) inhibited the formation of embryos. The optimal concentration of each cytokinin (2-iP, BA and kinetin) for somatic embryogenesis was 5 μM. Under optimal conditions, each explant formed more than 100 embryoids with little callus and few adventitious roots. Embryoids were formed only at the cut edges of the leaf discs. Cytokinins were absorbed only at the cut edges of leaf discs that were in contact with the medium, and were not transported to other parts of the explant.

  4. A molecular framework for seasonal growth-dormancy regulation in perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Donghwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Wang, Qijun; Keathley, Daniel E; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The timing of the onset and release of dormancy impacts the survival, productivity and spatial distribution of temperate horticultural and forestry perennials and is mediated by at least three main regulatory programs involving signal perception and processing by phytochromes (PHYs) and PHY-interacting transcription factors (PIFs). PIF4 functions as a key regulator of plant growth in response to both external and internal signals. In poplar, the expression of PIF4 and PIF3-LIKE1 is upregulated in response to short days, while PHYA and PHYB are not regulated at the transcriptional level. Integration of light and environmental signals is achieved by gating the expression and transcriptional activity of PIF4. During this annual cycle, auxin promotes the degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors through the SKP-Cullin-F-boxTIR1 complex, relieving the repression of auxin-responsive genes by allowing auxin response factors (ARFs) to activate the transcription of auxin-responsive genes involved in growth responses. Analyses of transcriptome changes during dormancy transitions have identified MADS-box transcription factors associated with endodormancy induction. Previous studies show that poplar dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes PtMADS7 and PtMADS21 are differentially regulated during the growth-dormancy cycle. Endodormancy may be regulated by internal factors, which are specifically localized in buds. PtMADS7/PtMADS21 may function as an internal regulator in poplar. The control of flowering time shares certain regulatory hierarchies with control of the dormancy/growth cycle. However, the particularities of different stages of the dormancy/growth cycle warrant comprehensive approaches to identify the causative genes for the entire cycle. A growing body of knowledge also indicates epigenetic regulation plays a role in these processes in perennial horticultural and forestry plants. The increased knowledge contributes to better understanding of the dormancy

  5. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  6. Effect of picloram, additives and plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis of Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene

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    Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in suspension culture derived from the leaf and stem explants of Phyla nodiflora. The medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extract (coconut milk and malt extract and anti-oxidant (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, Polyvinylpyrrolidone and citric acid markedly influenced the embryo regeneration of P. nodiflora. MS with 2,4-D and activated charcoal (10 mg/L gave the highest stimulation of embryogenic callus growth. Optimized callus was transfered into suspension culture, which showed the globular, heart shaped embryos in MS with 2,4-D + BA + picloram (0.1 mg/L, coconut milk (10 ml/L, citric acid (100 mg/L on 6th subcultures. Further development stages such as torpedo and cotyledonary stage embryos and fostered maturation of embryos were observed at 8th and 10th subculture. However, the high frequency embryo germination and plantlet (45 plants/20 mg cotyledonary stages embryos formation was obtained in half-strength MS medium without growth regulators from cotyledonary embryos. All the plantlets established in the field exhibited morphological characters similar to those of the mother plant.

  7. Sowing quality of seeds sunflower, depending on the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк, Ю. І.; Огурцов, Ю. Є.; Чернобаб, О. В.; Клименко, І. І.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work was to study the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants on the sowing quality of seeds parental forms and hybrids of sunflower.Methodology and materials. Research conducted in the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The predecessor of sunflower – winter wheat. Sunflower seeds parent lines Сх1010А, Х720В, Х526В and hybrids F1 Romance and Maximus were sown in optimal terms with the seeding norm of 57 thousand pieces of viable seeds p...

  8. Reversal of an immunity associated plant cell death program by the growth regulator auxin

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    Gopalan Suresh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One form of plant immunity against pathogens involves a rapid host programmed cell death at the site of infection accompanied by the activation of local and systemic resistance to pathogens, termed the hypersensitive response (HR. In this work it was tested (i if the plant growth regulator auxin can inhibit the cell death elicited by a purified proteinaceous HR elicitor, (ii how far down the process this inhibition can be achieved, and (iii if the inhibition affects reporters of immune response. The effect of constitutive modulation of endogenous auxin levels in transgenic plants on this cell death program was also evaluated. Results The HR programmed cell death initiated by a bacterial type III secretion system dependent proteinaceous elicitor harpin (from Erwinia amylovora can be reversed till very late in the process by the plant growth regulator auxin. Early inhibition or late reversal of this cell death program does not affect marker genes correlated with local and systemic resistance. Transgenic plants constitutively modulated in endogenous levels of auxin are not affected in ability or timing of cell death initiated by harpin. Conclusion These data indicate that the cell death program initiated by harpin can be reversed till late in the process without effect on markers strongly correlated with local and systemic immunity. The constitutive modulation of endogenous auxin does not affect equivalent signaling processes affecting cell death or buffers these signals. The concept and its further study has utility in choosing better strategies for treating mammalian and agricultural diseases.

  9. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS WITH RETARDING ACTIVITY ON SPRING PEA FOR GRAIN

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    Tsenka ZHELYAZKOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Trakia University - Stara Zagora to establish the effect of some growth retardants on morphological and productive parameters in spring pea for grain variety Bogatir. Three combined preparations: Trisalvit (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride + chlorophenoxyacetic acid +salicylic acid at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1; SM-21 (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1 and PNSA-44 (phenylphthalamic acid + naphthaleneacetic acid + chlorophenoxyacetic acid at doses of 200 and 300 сmз*ha-1 were applied in the early growth phase of the plant up to a height of 15-20 cm. The study showed that the greatest reduction in the stem height (by 12.8% compared to untreated plants was achieved by applying SM-21 (400 сmз*ha-1. The application of growth regulators Trisalvit and SM-21 had no appreciable effect on the production of spring pea grain. Maximum values of yield structure components (number of pods and grain per plant, grain mass per plant and mass of 1000 grain and the yield were obtained after application of PNSA-44 (300 сmз*ha-1 - up to 5.6% (117.2 kg*ha-1 more grain than the control. The investigation of the influence of tested factors (retardant, dose and year demonstrated that the conditions of the year as a factor had the strongest effect on plant height and grain yield.

  10. Up-regulation of sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Ellis, Dave D; Gilbert, Margarita; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the overexpression of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) on plant growth and metabolism were evaluated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). T(1) transgenic plants expressing either gene under the control of a tandem repeat cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (2x35S) or a xylem-localized 4CL promoter (4-coumarate:CoA ligase; 4CL) were generated, and reciprocally crossed to generate plants expressing both genes. Transcript levels, enzyme activity, growth parameters, fibre properties and carbohydrate content of stem tissue were quantified. The expression profiles of both genes confirmed the expression pattern of the promoters: 2x35S expressed more strongly in leaves, while 4CL expression was highest in stem tissue. In-depth plant characterization revealed that the single-transgene lines showed significant increases in the height growth compared with corresponding control lines. The double-transgene plants demonstrated an additive effect, proving to be even taller than the single-transgene parents. Several of these lines had associated increases in soluble sugar content. Although partitioning of storage carbohydrates into starch or cellulose was not observed, the increased height growth and increases in soluble carbohydrates suggest a role for SuSy as a marker in sink strength and lend credit to the function of UGPase in a similar role. The up-regulation of these two genes, although not increasing the percentage cellulose content, was effective in increasing the total biomass, and thus the overall cellulose yield, from a given plant.

  11. The Membrane Mucin Msb2 Regulates Invasive Growth and Plant Infection in Fusarium oxysporum[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Fungal pathogenicity in plants requires a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade homologous to the yeast filamentous growth pathway. How this signaling cascade is activated during infection remains poorly understood. In the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the orthologous MAPK Fmk1 (Fusarium MAPK1) is essential for root penetration and pathogenicity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Here, we show that Msb2, a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein, is required for surface-induced phosphorylation of Fmk1 and contributes to a subset of Fmk1-regulated functions related to invasive growth and virulence. Mutants lacking Msb2 share characteristic phenotypes with the Δfmk1 mutant, including defects in cellophane invasion, penetration of the root surface, and induction of vascular wilt symptoms in tomato plants. In contrast with Δfmk1, Δmsb2 mutants were hypersensitive to cell wall targeting compounds, a phenotype that was exacerbated in a Δmsb2 Δfmk1 double mutant. These results suggest that the membrane mucin Msb2 promotes invasive growth and plant infection upstream of Fmk1 while contributing to cell integrity through a distinct pathway. PMID:21441438

  12. The effects of exogenous plant growth regulators in the phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Eliana; Pouget, Joël; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Barbafieri, Meri

    2008-03-01

    The term "assisted phytoextraction" usually refers to the process of applying a chemical additive to contaminated soil in order to increase the metal uptake by crop plants. In this study three commercially available plant growth regulators (PGRs) based on cytokinins (CKs) were used to boost the assisted phytoextraction of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil collected from a former manufactured gas-plant site. The effects of EDTA treatment in soil and PGR treatment in leaves of Helianthus annuus were investigated in terms of dry weight biomass, Pb and Zn accumulation in the upper parts of the plants, Pb and Zn phytoextraction efficiency and transpiration rate. Metal solubility in soil and its subsequent accumulation in shoots were markedly enhanced by EDTA. The combined effects of EDTA and cytokine resulted in an increase in the Pb and Zn phytoextraction efficiency (up to 890% and 330%, respectively, compared to untreated plants) and up to a 50% increase in foliar transpiration. Our results indicate that exogenous PGRs based on CKs can positively assist the phytoextraction increasing the biomass production, the metal accumulation in shoots and the plant transpiration. The observed increase in biomass could be related to its action in stimulation of cell division and shoot initiation. On the other hand, the increase in metal accumulation in upper parts of plant could be related to both the role of PGRs in the enhancement of plant resistance to stress (as toxic metals) and the increase in transpiration rate, i.e. flux of water-soluble soil components and contaminants by the regulation of stomatal opening.

  13. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present stu...

  14. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Amygdalus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimeh SHARIFMOGHADAM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Almond (Amygdalus communis is one of the most important and oldest commercial nut crops, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Almond has been used as base material in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hygienically and food industry. Propagation by tissue culture technique is the most important one in woody plants. In the current research, in vitro optimization of tissue culture and mass production of almond was investigated. In this idea, explants of actively growing shoots were collected and sterilized, then transferred to MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiment was done in completely randomized blocks design, with 7 treatment and 30 replications. After 4 weeks, calli induction, proliferation, shoot length and number of shoot per explants were measured. Results showed that the best medium for shoot initiation and proliferation was MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA (Indol-3-Acetic Acid + 1 mg/l BA (Benzyl Adenine. Autumn was the best season for collecting explants. The shoots were transferred to root induction medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The best root induction medium was MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA (Indol Butyric Acid.

  15. Synthesis of octadecyl esters of histidine-containing tripeptides as potential regulators of plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrel, A.A.; Zvonkova, E.N. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gafurov, R.G. [Institute of Physiologically Active Substances, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    Octadecyl esters of dipeptides and tripeptides of the type Phe-His, Val-His, Phe-Val-His and Val-Phe-His were synthesized using different methods. The minimum energy conformations of these peptides were calculated with computer minimization programs and compared with those of paclobutrazol, a well-known regulator of plant growth. It was demonstrated that the elongation of the peptide chain leads to a higher topochemical correspondence between paclobutrazol and the peptide derivatives than between paclobutrazol and amino acid derivatives. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Effect of plant growth regulators on fatty acids composition in Jatropha curcas L. callus culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ludwi Rodríguez; Mendiola, Martha A Rodríguez; Castro, Carlos Arias; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on callus formation, its morphology and fatty acids profile were examined from Jatropha curcas L. Embryo from seeds of J. curcas L. were sown in Murashige and skoog (MS) medium with NAA and BAP. All treatments induced callus formation, however callus morphology was different in most of the treatments. Higher callus biomass was presented with 1.0 NAA + 0.5 BAP mg/L. Plant growth regulators modifies the fatty acids profile in callus of J. curcas L. BAP was induced linoleic and linolenic acids.

  17. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be an effective technique for increasing the rooting ability and the growth of vegetative fragments (cuttings) of plants used in dune restoration programs. Various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) of two auxins, alpha-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and two cytokinins, 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were applied separately to cuttings of two widely used species for restoration, Ammophila arenaria and Sporobuls virginicus. Root development and production of new buds in cuttings were examined under laboratory conditions one month after application. Cuttings were also examined one year after transplanting into a sandy substratum under natural conditions, to test for possible long term effects of PGRs on plant establishment success and growth. The response of the two study species to PGRs differed substantially. In A. arenaria the auxin NAA at 100 mg l-1 reduced the time for root initiation and increased the rooting capacity of cuttings, while the cytokinin Kinetin at 50 mg l-1 facilitated root growth. No auxin had effect on rooting or growth of S. virginicus cuttings, but treatment with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin resulted in higher rooting success than the control. One year after planting, the cuttings of A. arenaria treated with 100 mg l-1 NAA showed a higher establishment success (90% vs. 55%) and produced more culms and longer roots than the control; those treated with cytokinins did not differ in the establishment success from the control, but had longer roots, more culms and rhizomes. On the other hand, the cuttings of S. virginicus treated with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin showed a higher establishment success (75% vs. 35%) and had more culms than the control. Therefore, in restoration activities that involved A. arenaria, a pre-treatment of cuttings with NAA would be beneficial, as it allows the production of a higher number of well-developed plants with

  18. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  19. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  20. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Fruit-set and Quality of Guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef Mahmood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two plant growth regulators: β-NOA (50 and 80 ppm and GA (200 and 250 ppm were applied to emasculated flowers at anthesis to set parthenocarpic fruit, while in the control treatment fruit set was achieved by natural pollination. The application of β-NOA found ineffective in setting parthenocarpic guava. No significant differences were observed in the length and diameter of fruit between parthenocarpic and naturally pollinated seeded fruit at different days after anthesis. The mean fruit weight, TSS and ascorbic acid content of parthenocarpic fruit were similar to that of seeded fruit. Significant higher amount of total polyphenol was detected in the seeded fruit than the parthenocarpic fruit. Although 200 ppm GA showed comparatively better response to fruit growth, TSS and ascorbic acid content than 250 ppm GA but not in a statistical level.

  1. Análise de crescimento de plantas de manjericão tratadas com reguladores vegetais Growth analysis of basil plants submitted to plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pacheco Barreiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de plantas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.. Para tanto, plantas foram cultivadas em vasos de 12 litros em casa de vegetação. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos contendo quatro repetições e cinco coletas. Os tratamentos consistiram de aplicações foliares dos seguintes reguladores vegetais: ácido giberélico (GA3 100 mg L-1, ácido 2-cloroetilfosfônico (ethephon 100 mg L-1 e cinetina 100 mg L-1, que foram preparados em solução aquosa. As aplicações dos reguladores vegetais foram realizadas aos 40, 60 e 80 dias após a semeadura (DAS, e o desenvolvimento das plantas avaliado em coletas a intervalos de 14 dias, aos 50, 64, 78, 92 e 106 DAS. Em plantas tratadas com cinetina, observaram-se os maiores valores para os índices fisiológicos, com maior desenvolvimento, devido ao aumento da área foliar e à massa seca promovido por esse regulador vegetal.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators on the development of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.. The experiment was seeded in 12-liter pots and carried out in a greenhouse. The experimental design was a randomized block with four treatments, four replications, and five harvest times. Treatments consisted of the following plant growth regulators applied as foliar sprays: gibberellic acid (GA3, 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid (ethephon, and kinetin at 100 mg L-1, which were prepared in aqueous solution. Plant growth regulator applications were performed at 40, 60, and 80 days after planting (DAP and plant development was evaluated during harvest time, at 14-day intervals, 50, 64, 78, and 106 DAP. Plants treated with kinetin showed the highest physiological index values, and exhibited greater development due to increases in leaf area and dry matter provided by this plant growth regulator.

  2. In Vitro Growth and Rooting of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. on Medium with Different Concentrations of Plant Growth Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAUZIYAH HARAHAP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of mangosteen is challenging for many reasons, including limited seed set, slow rate of seedling growth, and difficulty with root formations. The objective of this research was to find the best combination of medium and plant growth regulator for in vitro growth and rooting of mangosteeen seed. Various types of explant (a whole seed; seed divided into 2, 3, and 4 cross sections; seed divided into 2, 3, and 4 longitudinal sections were treated with five concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP; 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mg/L for shoot induction in ½ Nitrogen (N Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. The shoots were rooted on MS and woody plant medium (WPM media with several combinations of indole butyric acid (IBA and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA. Treatments for root induction were applied as follows: (i low dose, given during induction of rooting, (ii soaking the base of the shoots in medium treated with a high dose of auxin for 5 days, and then growing the shoots in MS ½ N with 1 mg/L NAA + 1 mg/L BAP medium. Our result show that BAP positively affected mangosteen bud growth. The best medium for mangosteen shoot regeneration was found to be MS ½ N + 5 mg/L BAP. This medium induced the highest number of shoots from the seed explant cut into four cross sections. We found the best medium to induce in vitro rooting of mangosteen shoot was MS ½ N + 3 mg/L indole butiric acid (IBA + 4 mg/L NAA medium. Some treatment negatively affected growth. Soaking the mangosteen shoot base in a medium with an overly high dose of auxin seemed to disrupt and inhibit growth of the mangosteen shoot.

  3. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Meza-Canales, Ivan David;

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are well-established as important phytohormonal regulators of plant growth and development. An increasing number of studies have also revealed the function of these hormones in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. While the function of certain CK classes, including tra...

  4. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose-response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender

  5. Influences of Plant Growth Regulators,Basal Media and Carbohydrate Levels on Cell Suspension Culture of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangWei; WuJiongyuan; 等

    1995-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of Panax ginseng which may be continuously subcultured has been established.Embryogenic callus derived from clutured young leaves was used to initiate the culture,Plant growth regulators,basal medium formula and carbohydrate levels were examined to determine their various effects on suspension culture cell growth and development ,The best selection of plant growth regulator,basal medium and carbohydrate level is 2mg/L 2,4-D:0.5mg/L KT,MS and 3% sucrose respectively.

  6. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  7. Uso de bioestimulante na videira 'Niagara Rosada' Plant growth regulators sprayings in 'Niagara Rosada' grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto a dezembro de 2004, em vinhedo de 'Niagara Rosada' localizado em Pratânea-SP. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de bioestimulante nas características morfológicas e físico-químicas dos cachos de uva 'Niagara Rosada'. Os tratamentos consistiram na pulverização dos cachos com o bioestimulante nas doses de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L-1, 25 dias após o pleno florescimento. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições, e parcelas constituídas por 3 cachos. Analisou-se a massa fresca, comprimento e largura dos cachos e bagos, massa fresca do engaço, número de bagos por cacho, diâmetro do pedicelo, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável e o pH. Concluiu-se que o bioestimulante promoveu aumento linear no comprimento do cacho, aumento quadrático no diâmetro do pedicelo e um decréscimo linear no teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The experiment was made during august until dezember/2004 period, in grape orchard of 'Niagara Rosada' located at Pratânea region, São Paulo, Brazil. The research had as purpose to study the effects of plant growth regulator (Stimulate on morphological and physical-chemical characteristics of 'Niagara Rosada' grape. The clusters were sprayed with plant growth regulator solution at 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20mg L-1, 25 days after flowering. The experimental design was at randomized blocks with five replications and tree clusters per parcels. It was evaluated: the fresh weight of clusters and rachis, pedicel diameter, total soluble solids contents, titratable acid and pH. The plant growth regulator spraying increased the clusters length and pedicel diameter and decreased the soluble solids contents.

  8. Carbon nanotubes as plant growth regulators: effects on tomato growth, reproductive system, and soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakovskaya, Mariya V; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Jong Nam; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Mustafa, Thikra; Cernigla, Carl E

    2013-01-14

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can affect plant phenotype and the composition of soil microbiota. Tomato plants grown in soil supplemented with CNTs produce two times more flowers and fruit compared to plants grown in control soil. The effect of carbon nanotubes on microbial community of CNT-treated soil is determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are the most dominant groups in the microbial community of soil. The relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are found to increase, whereas Proteobacteria and Verrucomicorbia decrease with increasing concentration of CNTs. The results of comparing diversity indices and species level phylotypes (OTUs) between samples showed that there is not a significant affect on bacterial diversity.

  9. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  10. Proanthocyanidin as a cytogenetic protective agent against adverse effects of plant growth regulators supplementation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract (containing proanthocyandin) against the adverse effects of plant growth regulators (GA3 (gibberellic acid) and IAA (indoleacetic acid)). The present data showed that the administration of either GA3 and IAA caused undesirable changes in both hepatic and testicular structure. This was evidenced by a disturbed hepatic strands, pyknotic nuclei, central vein with collapsed endothelium, dilatation in bile sinusoids, congested blood vessel, binucleatd hepatocytes, lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolation, giant hepatic cells, increased Kupffer cells and karyoryxis. Additionally, it was shown that degenerative changes in the testis, spermatogenic arrest, moderate tubular necrosis, Leydig cell degeneration and reduction in the number and size of the seminiferous tubules with some spermatogonia detached from the basement membrane. Concerning flow cytometric study of the liver a significant decrease in G0/1 % and a significant increase in S phase %, G2/M  %, P(53) % and apoptosis % (sub G1) were detected. However, in testis the data recorded a significant decrease in the percentage of mature sperm (percentage of haploid cells) and a significant increase in the percentage of spermatide, diploid cells, P(53) and of apoptotic cells. On the other hand, a distinct recovery of the mentioned hepatic and testicular histopathological and cytogenetic disorders was observed when proanthocyanidin was supplemented to rats administered either of the plant growth hormones (GA3 and IAA).

  11. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Andréia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  12. Effects of photoperiod, plant growth regulators and culture media on in vitro growth of seedlings of Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. an endemic and endangered orchid from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. is an endemic and seriously endangered orchid species endemic in the Loja Province (Southern Ecuador. The main goals of this research were to analyze how culture media, plant growth regulators and photoperiod affect the growth of C. loxense. Eight month old plants (approximate 1 – 1.5 cm in height obtained by in vitro germination, were cultivated on MS media or Knudson C; MS with three levels of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2/0.5; 1/0.5 y 0.5/ 0.5 mg-1L; and three photoperiodic regimes (24/0, 16/8, 8/16 h on MS with and without plant growth regulators. No significant differences of shoot induction were observed on media with or without plant growth regulators, and all tested photoperiods. The highest growth (1.2 cm was observed in plantlets cultivated on growth regulator-free media with a 16/8 photoperiod. Also the shoot and root formation was better in this species in absence of plant growth regulators. Probably this response is due to the endogenous hormone levels in the tissues or due to the kind and concentrations of PGRs used were too low to induce positive morphogenetic responses.

  13. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  14. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  15. Boron Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Plant Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Boron is an essential nutrition for higher plants.However, the primary function of boron remains a matter of discussion.Boron may function by forming complexes with compounds having cis-hydroxyl groups(diols), e.g., pectic materials in cell walls, glycoproteins or glycolipids in membranes and o-diphenols.The well-defined functions of boron are its involvement in maintaining cell wall structure and both the structural and the functional integrity of plasma membrane.Lack of boron causes an increase in the leakage of ions and compounds which reflects the impairment of plasma membrane.Boron is functionally important in forming a pectic network in cell wall which is responsible for the extensibility of cell wall and consequently regulates cell growth.

  16. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  17. THE APPLICATION OF FUROLAN PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND IMMUNIZER ON SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonskaya Y. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases

  18. Effect of different plant growth regulators on micro-tuber induction and plant regeneration of Pinellia ternate (Thunb) Briet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jue; Lu, Yuan; Xiao, Xuan; Gong, Weizhen; Liu, Jikai

    2009-10-01

    An efficient micropropagation system for Pinellia ternate (Thunb) Briet, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been developed. Petiole and lamina of P. ternate were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of different plant growth regulators. The results indicated that low concentration of 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were suitable for micro-tuber induction, but callus induction rate increased with increasing concentrations of growth regulators. Tubers induction rates of petiole and leaf were (81.8 %-100 %) and (89.4 %-96.0 %) respectively, when 0.2 mg l(-1) 2, 4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid or α-naphthalene acetic acid were present in the medium. Tubers induction rates of petiole and leaf cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.2-0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzyl amino purine (6-BAP) were (94.1 %-100 %) and (96.0 %-100 %) respectively. When the concentration of 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid, α-naphthalene acetic acid and 6-benzyl amino purine was increased to 2.0 mg l(-1), callus induction rates of petiole and leaf were 100 % and 98.2 %, 91.0 % and 36.0 %, 62.3 % and 70.0 %, respectively. Different concentration of kinetin (KT) and zeatin (ZT) had no significant effect on micro-tuber induction of petiole. Most petioles showed polarity during the cultivation of explants, when supplemented with different concentrations of auxin or cytokinin in the MS medium.

  19. Crescimento de plantas de Salvia officinalis sob ação de reguladores de crescimento vegetal Growth of Salvia officinalis plants under action of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Povh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os parâmetros da análise de crescimento em função de diferentes reguladores vegetais aplicados na parte aérea de plantas de Salvia officinalis L. Para tanto,o experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP. Os tratamentos consistiram na pulverização da solução de 100mg L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3; 100mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP; 100mg L-1 de ácido 2-cloroetil-fosfônico (ethephon; Stimulate® a 2% (90mg L-1 de cinetina, 50mg L-1 de ácido giberélico e 50mg L-1 de ácido indolilbutírico e água (testemunha. As aplicações foram realizadas em três épocas, aos 15, 25 e 35 dias após o transplante (d.a.t. e o crescimento foi avaliado em cinco épocas de coletas a intervalos de 21 dias, sendo a primeira realizada aos 47 (d.a.t.. Foram determinados os parâmetros fisiológicos da análise de crescimento: razão de área foliar (RAF, área foliar específica (AFE, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR. Os resultados mostram que os reguladores de crescimento vegetal influenciaram os parâmetros fisiológicos da análise de crescimento. As plantas tratadas com BAP apresentaram maiores valores de RAF aos 47 d.a.t., já as plantas tratadas com GA3, a TAL apresentou aumento até o 131 d.a.t. A TCR é decrescente para todos os tratamentos com reguladores de crescimento vegetal testados e a testemunha.The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different plant regulators on the index growth analysis application of sage plants. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with controlled temperature and relative humidity, at the Departmento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments containing three replicates. Treatments

  20. How do mineral fertilization and plant growth regulators affect yield and morphology of naked oat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witkowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena sativa var. nuda is of an increasing interest in many parts of the world. This is why plant breeders have developed forms that are morphologically different from the current ones, such as naked, dwarf or with an increased 1000-grain-weight. In three experiments conducted at two sites, the influence of phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilizers, spray application of urea and spray application of plant growth regulators (PGRs Promalin (gibberellins + cytokinin and Moddus (cimectacarps on the yield and morphological traits of different oat forms were studied. At a better site, only genotype statistically influenced oat grain yield. At a poorer site, apart from genotype there were statistically significant responses to P and K fertilizers and to the application of Moddus (especially in the experiment with a dwarf cultivar. The internode and panicle length were modified mostly by cimectacarps, which shortened specific internodes, but not the panicle. The PGR Promalin had no significant effect on oat stem morphology.

  1. Enhancing crop yield with the use of N-based fertilizers co-applied with plant hormones or growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Kurepin, Leonid V; Catto, Warwick; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depend on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co-applied with nitrogen-based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth-active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low-temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators.

  2. Gene expression regulation in the plant growth promoting Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 stimulated by maize root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwita, Liberata; Chan, Wai Yin; Pretorius, Theresa; Lyantagaye, Sylvester L; Lapa, Svitlana V; Avdeeva, Lilia V; Reva, Oleg N

    2016-09-15

    Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. Active PGPR strain Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was studied in this research. RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. It was found that the transcriptional factor DegU also could play an important role in gene regulations during plant colonization. A significant stress caused by the root exudates on in vitro cultivated B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was noticed and discussed. Multiple cases of conflicted gene regulations showed scantiness of our knowledge on the regulatory network in Bacillus. Some of these conflicted regulations could be explained by interference of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Search through differential expressed intergenic regions revealed 49 putative loci of ncRNA regulated by the root exudate stimuli. Possible target mRNA were predicted and a general regulatory network of B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 genome was designed.

  3. Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavaheri, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on iron-regulated metabolites. Under iron-limiting conditions, P. fluorescens WCS374r produces

  4. How Do Sugars Regulate Plant Growth and Development? New Insight into the Role of Trehalose-6-Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liam E.O'Hara; Matthew J.Paul; Astrid Wingler

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and development are tightly controlled in response to environmental conditions that influence the availability of photosynthetic carbon in the form of sucrose.Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P),the precursor of trehalose in the biosynthetic pathway,is an important signaling metabolite that is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development in response to carbon availability.In addition to the plant's own pathway for trehalose synthesis,formation of T6P or trehalose by pathogens can result in the reprogramming of plant metabolism and development.Developmental processes that are regulated by T6P range from embryo development to leaf senescence.Some of these processes are regulated in interaction with phytohormones,such as auxin.A key interacting factor of T6P signaling in response to the environment is the protein kinase sucrose non-fermenting related kinase-1 (SnRK1),whose catalytic activity is inhibited by T6P.SnRK1 is most likely involved in the adjustment of metabolism and growth in response to starvation.The transcription factor bZIP11 has recently been identified as a new player in the T6P/SnRK1 regulatory pathway.By inhibiting SnRK1,T6P promotes biosynthetic reactions.This regulation has important consequences for crop production,for example,in the developing wheat grain and during the growth of potato tubers.

  5. Responses of two grass species to plant growth regulators, fertilizer N, chelated Fe, salinity and water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nabati, Daryoosh A.

    1991-01-01

    A series of studies were initiated to investigate growth responses of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa praetensis L.) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) to foliar applications of two plant growth regulators (PGR) and/or chelated Fe (Na Fe diethylene triamine pentaacetate). Environmental variables considered were N levels, soil moisture regimes, and saline irrigations The two materials investigated for PGR properties were a commercial product called Roots (a cold-water extract of seaw...

  6. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  7. Exploring the structural requirements for jasmonates and related compounds as novel plant growth regulators: a current computational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Xian; Li, Zu-Guang

    2009-11-01

    Jasmonates and related compounds have been highlighted recently in the field of plant physiology and plant molecular biology due to their significant regulatory roles in the signaling pathway for the diverse aspects of plant development and survival. Though a considerable amount of studies concerning their biological effects in different plants have been widely reported, the molecular details of the signaling mechanism are still poorly understood. This review sheds new light on the structural requirements for the bioactivity/property of jasmonic acid derivatives in current computational perspective, which differs from previous research that mainly focus on their biological evaluation, gene and metabolic regulation and the enzymes in their biosynthesis. The computational results may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of drug-receptor interactions in their signaling pathway and designing novel plant growth regulators as high effective ecological pesticides.

  8. Multiresidue analysis of multiclass plant growth regulators in grapes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Ghaste, Manoj S; Ramteke, Sahadeo D; Naik, Dattatraya G; Patil, Shubhangi B; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2011-01-01

    A selective and rapid multiresidue analysis method is presented for simultaneous estimation of 12 plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely, auxins (indol-3-acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid, and naphthyl acetic acid), cytokinins (kinetin, zeatin, and 6-benzyladenine), gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid, and synthetic compounds, namely, forchlorfenuron, paclobutrazole, isoprothiolane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) in bud sprouts and grape berries at the development stages of 2-3 and 6-8 mm diameters, which are the critical phases when exogenous application of PGRs may be necessary to achieve desired grape quality and yield. The sample preparation method involved extraction of plant material with acidified methanol (50%) by homogenization for 2 min at 15000 rpm. The pH of the extract was enhanced up to 6 by adding ammonium acetate, followed by homogenization and centrifugation. The supernatant extract was cleaned by SPE on an Oasis HLB cartridge (200 mg, 6 cc). The final extract was measured directly by LC/MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode, except for 2,4-D, GA3, and abscisic acid extracts, which required analysis in negative mode. Quantification by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was supported with full-scan mass spectrometric confirmation using "information-dependent acquisition" triggered with MRM to "enhanced product ionization" mode of the hybrid quadrupole-ion trap mass analyzer. The LOQ of the test analytes varied between 1 and 10 ng/g with associated recoveries of 80-120% and precision RSD <25% (n = 8). Significant matrix-induced signal suppression was recorded when the responses for pre- and postextraction spikes of analytes were compared; this could be resolved by using matrix-matched calibration standards. The method could successfully be applied in analyzing incurred residue samples and would, therefore, be useful in precisely deciding the necessity and dose of exogenous applications of PGRs on the basis of measured

  9. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  10. Biophotonics determination of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) plant growth regulator using OFRR biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gilmo; Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kangjin; Kim, Giyoung; Son, Jaeryong; Mo, Changyeun

    2010-04-01

    The identification of pesticide and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) plant growth regulator was carried out using a label-free opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) biosensor. The OFRR sensing platform is a recent advancement in opto-fluidic technology that integrates photonic sensing technology with microfluidics. It features quick detection time, small sample volume, accurate quantitative and kinetic results. The most predominant advantage of the OFRR integrated with microfluidics is that we can potentially realize the multi-channel and portable biosensor that detects numerous analytes simultaneously. Antisera for immunoassay were raised in rabbits against the 6-BAP-BSA conjugate. Using the immunization protocol and unknown cytokinin reacting with same antibody, comparable sensitivity and specificity were obtained. 6-BAP antibody was routinely used for cytokinin analysis. A sensitive and simple OFRR method with a good linear relationship was developed for the determination of 6-BAP. The detection limit was also examined. The biosensor demonstrated excellent reproducibility when periodically exposed to 6-BAP.

  11. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Plant growth regulators in poplar clones differing in resistance to the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. et Haist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Stopińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In poplar clones with different resistance to the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata growth of shoots, intensity of transpiration and the level of endogenous growth regulators were determined. More resistant clones, Populus 'Robusta' and P. 'PK-136-2' (P. nigra 'Italica': x P. laurifolia had more intensive growth of shoots, higher water content in leaves and a lower intensity of transpiration than the more susceptible clone, - P. 'NE-42' (P. maximowiczi x P. trichocarpa. The leaves of the more resistant clones contained more auxins (IAA and cytokinins, especially zeatin, and less growth inhibitors (ABA than those of the susceptible one. The level of plant growth regulators and/or the relations betweeen them may be responsible for the different poplar resistance to C. fimbriata.

  13. Relationship between hexokinase and the aquaporin PIP1 in the regulation of photosynthesis and plant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilor Kelly

    Full Text Available Increased expression of the aquaporin NtAQP1, which is known to function as a plasmalemma channel for CO₂ and water, increases the rate of both photosynthesis and transpiration. In contrast, increased expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (AtHXK1, a dual-function enzyme that mediates sugar sensing, decreases the expression of photosynthetic genes and the rate of transpiration and inhibits growth. Here, we show that AtHXK1 also decreases root and stem hydraulic conductivity and leaf mesophyll CO₂ conductance (g(m. Due to their opposite effects on plant development and physiology, we examined the relationship between NtAQP1 and AtHXK1 at the whole-plant level using transgenic tomato plants expressing both genes simultaneously. NtAQP1 significantly improved growth and increased the transpiration rates of AtHXK1-expressing plants. Reciprocal grafting experiments indicated that this complementation occurs when both genes are expressed simultaneously in the shoot. Yet, NtAQP1 had only a marginal effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the double-transgenic plants, suggesting that the complementary effect of NtAQP1 is unrelated to shoot water transport. Rather, NtAQP1 significantly increased leaf mesophyll CO₂ conductance and enhanced the rate of photosynthesis, suggesting that NtAQP1 facilitated the growth of the double-transgenic plants by enhancing mesophyll conductance of CO₂.

  14. Regulator or driving force? The role of turgor pressure in oscillatory plant cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Jens H; Zerzour, Rabah; Geitmann, Anja

    2011-04-25

    Turgor generates the stress that leads to the expansion of plant cell walls during cellular growth. This has been formalized by the Lockhart equation, which can be derived from the physical laws of the deformation of viscoelastic materials. However, the experimental evidence for such a direct correlation between growth rate and turgor is inconclusive. This has led to challenges of the Lockhart model. We model the oscillatory growth of pollen tubes to investigate this relationship. We couple the Lockhart equation to the dynamical equations for the change in material properties. We find that the correct implementation of the Lockhart equation within a feedback loop leading to low amplitude oscillatory growth predicts that in this system changes in the global turgor do not influence the average growth rate in a linear manner, consistent with experimental observations. An analytic analysis of our model demonstrates in which regime the average growth rate becomes uncorrelated from the turgor pressure.

  15. High throughput selection of novel plant growth regulators: Assessing the translatability of small bioactive molecules from Arabidopsis to crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Miranda, Giovanna; Reggiardo, Martín; Hicks, Glenn R; Norambuena, Lorena

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) have become an integral part of agricultural and horticultural practices. Accordingly, there is an increased demand for new and cost-effective products. Nevertheless, the market is limited by insufficient innovation. In this context chemical genomics has gained increasing attention as a powerful approach addressing specific traits. Here is described the successful implementation of a highly specific, sensitive and efficient high throughput screening approach using Arabidopsis as a model. Using a combination of techniques, 10,000 diverse compounds were screened and evaluated for several important plant growth traits including root and leaf growth. The phenotype-based selection allowed the compilation of a collection of putative Arabidopsis growth regulators with a broad range of activities and specificities. A subset was selected for evaluating their bioactivity in agronomically valuable plants. Their validation as growth regulators in commercial species such as tomato, lettuce, carrot, maize and turfgrasses reinforced the success of the screening in Arabidopsis and indicated that small molecules activity can be efficiently translated to commercial species. Therefore, the chemical genomics approach in Arabidopsis is a promising field that can be incorporated in PGR discovery programs and has a great potential to develop new products that can be efficiently used in crops.

  16. AGROCHEMICALS GROWTH REGULATORS ON ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of increasing the productivity of alfalfa is the use of growth regulators, and the use of polymeric compositions of growth regulators, binders with synthesized growth regulators of sim-triazine series is promising with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly technologies for growing alfalfa. Studies have shown that the application of the test on alfalfa growth regulators has a positive effect on growth, physiological and morphogenetic processes, plant resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Intensity impact on plant growth regulators depends on the type of plant growth regulators, concentration and method of application. Processing alfalfa seed growth regulators on germination increases energy 3,0-14,0 % germination on 8,0-17,0 %. Processing plant growth regulators to enhance the growth of plants in height (on the 7th day – 2,6-11,9 % , on the 14th 41,9-48,0 % , the growth of aboveground biomass , expands on the number of productive branches of the 1st ( 24,1-41,3 % and 2nd order (21,7-55,0 %. Pre-sowing seed treatment and plant growth regulators alfalfa sim- triazine series contributed to the increase in seed yield of 15,5 %. On average, the yield of green mass increased by 0,8-2,4 t /ha or 5,2-15,5 % and seed yield at 0,19-0,42 h/ha or 8,7-19, 3 %. Growth regulators of sim-triazine series increase the protein content of the vegetative mass of alfalfa at 3,2-4,6 %

  17. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  18. Increase in the Synthesis of Polyfructan in the Cultures of Chicory “Hairy Roots” with Plant Natural Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria А. Tsygankova, PhD¹

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to study the benefit of using the new plant growth regulators (PGRs Ivin, Emistim, Biolan and Charkor in nutrient medium ½ MS for intensification of biomass growth and the increased synthesis of polyfructan (PF in the cultures of chicory “hairy roots” (Cichorium intybus L., obtained by Аgrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation,. The best indexes of increased specific quantities of PF are observed after using Biolan at a concentration of 5.0 μL/L (up to 130 mg/g dry mass of roots and Emistim at a concentration 2.5 µL/L (up to 220 mg/g dry mass of roots. The greatest stimulation of root growth activity was expressed on using the growth regulators Emistim, Ivin and Charkor, in concentrations between 2.5 and 10.0 µL/L, considerably raising the total quantity of PF: compared with the control the use of regulator Emistim showed a rise of up to 35 times, regulator Ivin showed an increase of up to 28 times and regulator Charkor showed an increase up to 7.0-7.5 times. The results thus obtained definitely prove the benefit of applying these regulators to increase the biomass growth and PF synthesis in the culture of chicory «hairy roots».

  19. Cloning and analysis of expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of RghBNG in response to plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqing; Zhang, Yonghua; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jingyun; Wang, Wanshen; Duan, Hongying; Chen, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    RghBNG, a gene of unknown function, was cloned from Rehmannia glutinosa by reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of RghBNG was 548 bp with a282-bp open reading frame. It encoded a polypeptide of 93 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 10.5 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 9.25. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RghBNG had no homology to any known plant genes, whereas the RghBNG polypeptide was highly similar to other plant proteins and possessed one conserved B12D protein family functional domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RghBNG encoded for a dicot protein. RghBNG spatial and temporal expression patterns and responses to abiotic stresses and plant growth regulators were investigated by qRT-PCR. RghBNG transcripts were detected in roots, stems, leaves, petals, receptacles, stamens and pistils with the highest and lowest levels respectively observed in petals and leaves of mature plants. Additionally, RghBNG transcripts were detected at three developmental stages of roots, stems and leaves; the highest levels were observed in roots at seedling stage; Transcript levels changed to varying degrees in different tissues and stages; We also studied the effects of abiotic stress and plant growth regulators in roots and leaves. RghBNG expression was significantly increased (p plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses.

  20. An assessment of plant growth regulators on asymbiotic development and germination\tof immature embryos of Beclardia Macrostachya (orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshwar Puchooa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beclardia macrostahya is one of the rarest orchids in Mauritius. In vitro techniques are being used for mass propagating this orchid for subsequent restoration programs. Successful asymbiotic germination of Beclardia macrostachya was obtained through embryo rescue. Modified half MS media supplemented with 10% coconut milk was used as basal culture media and the effect of plant growth regulators at different concentrations on embryo development was assessed through qualitative and quantitative parameters. Diameter of embryos, length of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs and length of developing shoots were calculated using digital photography. Maximal growth was obtained in treatments without any plant growth regulators and 0.5mg/l N6 Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP. Higher levels of Thiadurazon/TDZ (0.3mg/l and BAP (1.0 mg/l though they stimulated embryo development faster, yielded higher level of necrosis later. The results also suggest that plant growth regulator treatments that stimulate fastest embryo development from immature embryos/ovules need not be reliable for further development to PLB and plantlet regeneration.

  1. Strigolactone regulates anthocyanin accumulation, acid phosphatases production and plant growth under low phosphate condition in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available Phosphate is an essential macronutrient in plant growth and development; however, the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi in soil is often suboptimal for crop performance. Accordingly, plants have developed physiological strategies to adapt to low Pi availability. Here, we report that typical Pi starvation responses in Arabidopsis are partially dependent on the strigolactone (SL signaling pathway. SL treatment induced root hair elongation, anthocyanin accumulation, activation of acid phosphatase, and reduced plant weight, which are characteristic responses to phosphate starvation. Furthermore, the expression profile of SL-response genes correlated with the expression of genes induced by Pi starvation. These results suggest a potential overlap between SL signaling and Pi starvation signaling pathways in plants.

  2. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  3. Increasing Hermaphrodite Flowers using Plant Growth Regulators in Andromonoecious Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DASUMIATI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (JC is a crop with potential for use in biodiesel. Production of biodiesel requires plant seed as raw material, so the viability of JC for use in biodiesel will dependent greatly on the plant’s production of flowers. Generally, this plant is monoecious, meaning it has both male and female flowers. However, very rarely JC plants may be andromonoecious. Andromonoecious specimens of JC produce hermaphrodite and male flowers in the same plant. The number of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence is generally low compared to the number of male flowers. The aim of this study was to increase the proportion of hermaphrodite flowers by using plant growth regu- lators (PGRs in andromonoecious JC. Our experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD with 9 treatments, namely kinetin, GA3, and IAA with concentrations of 0 ppm as a control, 50 and 100 ppm of each PGRs. The treatments were applied to stem cuttings from each plant and repeated 4 times. PGRs were applied by spraying the leaves within the buds of each plant. Applications took place weekly beginning when the plants entered flower initiating phase, until inflorescence produced. Observations were conducted during the treatment period (10 weeks. Results showed that plants treated with IAA, GA3, and kinetin at 50 and 100 ppm produced increased inflorescence per plant. The increases measured were 155.4 and 92.9% of (IAA, 120.4 and 151% (GA3, 96.6 and 51.7% (kinetin respectively. In addition, we found that application and GA3 at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm, and kinetin at 50 ppm, increased the number of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence by 50%, and increased the number of hermaphrodite flowers per plant by 275.6 and 183.1% (IAA, 219.5 and 254.1% (GA3, 162.9 and 103.1% (kinetin respectively. As would be expected, the number of fruit per plant increased in those specimens treated with IAA, GA3, and kinetin at 50 and 100 ppm. The increases measured were 301.7 and 167

  4. Determination of plant growth regulators in pears by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuejin; Tang, Lijuan; Tan, Ting; Wan, Yiqun

    2014-06-01

    A new method for the determination of six plant growth regulators, 3-indolylacetic acid, 3-indolepropionic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid, 1-naphthlcetic acid, and methyl naphthalene-1-acetate, in pears was established by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction technique was first applied for the determination of plant growth regulators in fruit and three cleanup techniques were, respectively, investigated for the purification of pear samples. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil C18 column by using 0.01 mol/L formic acid/ammonium formate buffer solution (pH 3.5)/methanol (35:65, v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min in 1:1 split mode. The LODs ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 μg/kg. Under optimized conditions, the average recoveries (five replicates) for six plant growth regulators (spiked at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.5 mg/kg) ranged from 78.9 to 118.0%, and the RSDs were 1.4-10.3%.

  5. Melatonin in Arabidopsis thaliana acts as plant growth regulator at low concentrations and preserves seed viability at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ismaél Gatica; Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Cerutti, Soledad; Arana, María Verónica; Silva, María Fernanda

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of melatonin in plants, several roles have been described for different species, organs, and developmental stages. Arabidopsis thaliana, being a model plant species, is adequate to contribute to the elucidation of the role of melatonin in plants. In this work, melatonin was monitored daily by UHPLC-MS/MS in leaves, in order to study its diurnal accumulation as well as the effects of natural and artificial light treatments on its concentration. Furthermore, the effects of exogenous application of melatonin to assess its role in seed viability after heat stress and as a regulator of growth and development of vegetative tissues were evaluated. Our results indicate that melatonin contents in Arabidopsis were higher in plants growing under natural radiation when compared to those growing under artificial conditions, and its levels were not diurnally-regulated. Exogenous melatonin applications prolonged seed viability after heat stress conditions. In addition, melatonin applications retarded leaf senescence. Its effects as growth promoter were dose and tissue-dependent; stimulating root growth at low concentrations and decreasing leaf area at high doses.

  6. Regeneration of viable oil palm plants from protoplasts by optimizing media components, growth regulators and cultivation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Oil palm protoplasts are suitable as a starting material for the production of oil palm plants with new traits using approaches such as somatic hybridization, but attempts to regenerate viable plants from protoplasts have failed thus far. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the regeneration of viable plants from protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. We achieved a protoplast yield of 1.14×10(6) per gram fresh weight with a viability of 82% by incubating the callus in a digestion solution comprising 2% cellulase, 1% pectinase, 0.5% cellulase onuzuka R10, 0.1% pectolyase Y23, 3% KCl, 0.5% CaCl2 and 3.6% mannitol. The regeneration of protoplasts into viable plants required media optimization, the inclusion of plant growth regulators and the correct culture technique. Microcalli derived from protoplasts were obtained by establishing agarose bead cultures using Y3A medium supplemented with 10μM naphthalene acetic acid, 2μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2μM indole-3-butyric acid, 2μM gibberellic acid and 2μM 2-γ-dimethylallylaminopurine. Small plantlets were regenerated from microcalli by somatic embryogenesis after successive subculturing steps in medium with limiting amounts of growth regulators supplemented with 200mg/l ascorbic acid.

  7. Increase in the Synthesis of Polyfructan in the Cultures of Chicory “Hairy Roots” with Plant Natural Growth Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria А. Tsygankova, PhD¹; Alla I. Yemets, PhD, ScD²; Sergey P. Ponomarenko, PhD, ScD³; Nadezhda A. Matvieieva, PhD; Sergey E. Chapkevich"; Nikolay V. Kuchuk, PhD, ScD"

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the benefit of using the new plant growth regulators (PGRs) Ivin, Emistim, Biolan and Charkor in nutrient medium ½ MS for intensification of biomass growth and the increased synthesis of polyfructan (PF) in the cultures of chicory “hairy roots” (Cichorium intybus L.), obtained by Аgrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation,. The best indexes of increased specific quantities of PF are observed after using Biolan at a concentration of 5.0 μL/L (up to 130...

  8. The chloroplast permease PIC1 regulates plant growth and development by directing homeostasis and transport of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Daniela; Stübe, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

    2011-04-01

    The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development.

  9. Direct regeneration of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus via node explants culture and different combinations of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Talebi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L., Apocynaceae contains more than 130 different terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, of which two dimeric alkaloids, Vinblastine and Vincristine, have antineoplastic activity and are useful in treatment of various cancers. Specific production of some alkaloids in differentiated tissues such as leaf and stem led to use direct regeneration of explants in order to increase the production of these important alkaloids in the plant. In this research, 30 combinations of plant growth regulators and activated charcoal were used in MS media for direct regeneration of node explants. Application of BAP in media containing 1 g/l activated charcoal showed the best direct regeneration of node explants and shoot proliferation. Although application of activated charcoal is necessary for periwinkle growth in media due to many phenolic compounds, but it has negative effects on adsorption of plant growth regulators and consequently reduce shoot proliferation. Therefore, it seems that 1 g/l activated charcoal is an appropriate concentration for preparing shoot proliferation media. In addition, transporting regenerated shoots to culture media containing NAA resulted in increasing shoot length. Proliferated shoots rooted in media without PGR and with 2 g/l activated charcoal and acclimated with environmental conditions after transferring to the soil.

  10. Possible dual regulatory circuits involving AtS6K1 in the regulation of plant cell cycle and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-jeong; Kim, Sunghan; Du, Hui; Choi, Soonyoung; Verma, Desh Pal S; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2012-05-01

    The role of Arabidopsis S6 Kinase 1 (AtS6K1), a downstream target of TOR kinase, in controlling plant growth and ribosome biogenesis was characterized after generating transgenic plants expressing AtS6K1 under auxin-inducible promoter. Down regulation of selected cell cycle regulatory genes upon auxin treatment was observed in the transgenic plants, confirming the negative regulatory role of AtS6K1 in the plant cell cycle progression reported earlier. Callus tissues established from these transgenic plants grew to larger cell masses with more number of enlarged cells than untransformed control, demonstrating functional implication of AtS6K1 in the control of plant cell size. The observed negative correlation between the expression of AtS6K1 and the cell cycle regulatory genes, however, was completely reversed in protoplasts generated from the transgenic plants expressing AtS6K1, suggesting a possible existence of dual regulatory mechanism of the plant cell cycle regulation mediated by AtS6K1. An alternative method of kinase assay, termed "substrate-mediated kinase pull down", was employed to examine the additional phosphorylation on other domains of AtS6K1 and verified the phosphorylation of both amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, which is a novel finding regarding the phosphorylation target sites on plant S6Ks by upstream regulatory kinases. In addition, this kinase assay under the stress conditions revealed the salt- and sugar-dependencies of AtS6K1 phosphorylations.

  11. Gama-Tocopherol Accumulation and Floral Differentiation of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. in Response to Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in biochemical and agronomical characteristics were studied in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. plants under different treatments with plant growth regulators (PGRs. The seeds were subjected to priming with PGRs before planting and plants unerwent foliar sprays with different solutions of PGRs at 10 day-intervals after flowering. y-tocopherol (y-toc content of grains was found to be increased under gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment. The accumulation of y-tocopherol in the grains of GA3 treated plants was approximately 19.5 % higher than the control and reached 220.2 mg kg-1 dry pumpkin grains. The number of female flowers per plant was positively affected by PGRs and was 10.1 and 1.89 respectively, in the naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and GA3 treated plants. A significant efficiency of treatments was observed upon fresh fruit yield. The yield increased from 4831 t ha-1 in the control to 6820 t ha-1 with NAA treatment. Priming treatments increased seedling emergence rate and percent. The highest seedling emergence rate was found in GA3 treated seeds.

  12. Short-term and continuing stresses differentially interplay with multiple hormones to regulate plant survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cangjing; Liu, Jingjing; Dong, Xinran; Cai, Zhenying; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xuelu

    2014-05-01

    The stress phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), plays important roles in facilitating plants to survive and grow well under a wide range of stress conditions. Previous gene expression studies mainly focused on plant responses to short-term ABA treatment, but the effect of sustained ABA treatment and their difference are poorly studied. Here, we treated plants with ABA for 1 h or 9 d, and our genome-wide analysis indicated the differentially regulated genes under the two conditions were tremendously different. We analyzed other hormones' signaling changes by using their whole sets of known responsive genes as reporters and integrating feedback regulation of their biosynthesis. We found that, under short-term ABA treatment, signaling outputs of growth-promoting hormones, brassinosteroids and gibberellins, and a biotic stress-responsive hormone, jasmonic acid, were significantly inhibited, while auxin and ethylene signaling outputs were promoted. However, sustained ABA treatment repressed cytokinin and gibberellin signaling, but stimulated auxin signaling. Using several sets of hormone-related mutants, we found candidates in corresponding hormonal signaling pathways, including receptors or transcription regulators, are essential in responding to ABA. Our findings indicate interactions of ABA-dependent stress signals with hormones at different levels are involved in plants to survive under transient stress and to adapt to continuing stressful environments.

  13. Determination of toxicity of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin

    2007-12-01

    The effects of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-Dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at sublethal concentrations on antioxidant defense system [glutathione peroxidases (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], immune potential enzymes [adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)], and lipid peroxidation content [Malondialdehyde, (MDA)] were investigated in lung and speen tissues of rats. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were exposed to 0, 50, or 100 ppm (parts per million) TIBA, NAA, or 2,4-D in drinking water ad libitum for 25 days continuously. According to the results, MDA concentration significantly increased in the tissues treated with 100 ppm dosage of NAA or 2,4-D without any change in the tissues of rats treated with both dosage of TIBA. The GSH depletion in the spleen tissue of rats treated with both the dosage of NAA and 2,4-D were found to be significant. Also, GSH level in the spleen was significantly reduced with 100 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA. The activity of antioxidant enzymes were also seriously affected by PGRs; GPx significantly decreased in the lung of rats treated with both dosages of the PGRs, whereas GPx activity in the spleen were significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of 2,4-D and NAA. On the other hand, CAT activity significantly decreased in the lung of rats treated with both dosages of NAA, 100 ppm of 2,4-D and 50 ppm of TIBA, and also in the spleen treated with 50 ppm NAA and 2,4-D. The ancillary enzyme GR activity significantly decreased in the spleen with both doses of the PGRs, also in the lung treated with both dosages of 2,4-D, 50 ppm of NAA and 100 ppm of TIBA. The drug metabolizing enzyme GST activity significantly reduced in the lung of rats treated with both dosages of the PGRs and also in the spleen treated with 100 ppm dosage of 2,4-D and TIBA and 50 ppm of NAA. Meanwhile, immune

  14. Effect of some plant growth regulators on lindane and alpha-endosulfan toxicity to Brassica chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouychai, Waraporn

    2012-07-01

    The effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), to alleviate the organochlorine phytotoxicity were studied in Brassica chinensis. Presence of organochlorine decreased Brassica chinensis seedlings growth in contaminated alkaline soil. One mg l(-1) IBA could enhance 14 and 26% shoot and root length of B. chinensis seedlings grown at 40 mg kg(-1) lindane contaminated soil, respectively. Ten mg l(-1) IBA also increased 80 and 40% root fresh weight of seedling grown in 40 mg kg(-1) lindane and alpha-endosulfan contaminated soils, respectively. However, IBAhad no effect on shoot and root length of seedlings grown in endosulfan contaminated soil. On the other hand, 10 mg l(-1) GA3 only increased 80% of shoot and root fresh weigh of B. chinensisin 40 mg kg(-1) endosulfan contaminated soil. External auxin addition could increase B. chinensis growth in lindane more than endosulfan contaminated soil. External gibberellin was less effective than external auxin to increase B. chinensis growth in organochlorine contaminated soil. There is possibility that auxin could decrease organochlorine phytotoxicity in plants and hence can be useful for organochlorine phytoremediation.

  15. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Calcium-stimulated Serine Transport into Tobacco Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ivan K.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of serine into tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultured in liquid medium was examined. Transport was inhibited approximately 50% by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleacetic acid, α-naphthalene acetic acid, and kinetin at a concentration of 10 micrograms per milliliter. Transport was not inhibited by 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and inhibited less than 25% by p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid at this concentration. Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from the transport medium resulted in an alleviation of inhibition. Gibberellic acid at concentrations from 2 to 20 micrograms per milliliter stimulated transport. It was previously shown that inhibition of transport by La3+ was due to removal of Ca2+ from surface sites and inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by cells. None of the growth regulators tested had any significant effect on Ca2+ binding and/or transport. A contributing factor to the low transport rates in the absence of Ca2+ is the increased rate of serine efflux. None of the growth regulators tested had any significant effect on the rate of serine efflux. PMID:16660646

  16. The Plant Growth Regulator Daminozide is a Selective Inhibitor of the Human KDM2/7 Histone Demethylases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan R.; Woon, Esther C.Y.; Tumber, Anthony; Walport, Louise J.; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Li, Xuan Shirley; King, Oliver N.F.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Ng, Stanley S.; Krojer, Tobias; Chan, Mun Chiang; Rydzik, Anna M.; Hopkinson, Richard J.; Che, Ka Hing; Daniel, Michelle; Strain-Damerell, Claire; Gileadi, Carina; Kochan, Grazyna; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Dunford, James; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Burgess-Brown, Nicola; von Delft, Frank; Muller, Susanne; Marsden, Brian; Brennan, Paul E.; McDonough, Michael A.; Oppermann, Udo; Klose, Robert J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-01-01

    The JmjC oxygenases catalyse the N-demethylation of Nε-methyl lysine residues in histones and are current therapeutic targets. A set of 2-oxoglutarate analogues were screened using a unified assay platform for JmjC demethylases and related oxygenases. Results led to the finding that daminozide (N-(dimethylamino)succinamic acid, 160 Da), a plant growth regulator, selectively inhibits the KDM2/7 JmjC subfamily. Kinetic and crystallographic studies reveal daminozide chelates the active site metal via its hydrazide carbonyl and dimethylamino groups. PMID:22724510

  17. Possible role of growth regulators in adaptation to heat stress affecting partitioning of photosynthates in tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zofia Starck; Elżbieta Cieśla

    2014-01-01

    Tomato plants of two cultivars: Roma - sensitive and Robin - tolerant to heat stress were grown in greenhouse up to the flowering stage and then under controlled environmen­tal conditions. The partitioning of recently fixed 14CO2 by mature tomato leaves was examined as a posteffect of 24-h heat stress (38/25°C day/night) with the interaction of growth regulators (GR) sprayed on the flowers with solution of β-naphthoxyacetic (NOA) and gibberellic (GA3) acid (denoted as NG), or Zeatin + NOA + G...

  18. Possible role of growth regulators in adaptation to heat stress affecting partitioning of photosynthates in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants of two cultivars: Roma - sensitive and Robin - tolerant to heat stress were grown in greenhouse up to the flowering stage and then under controlled environmen­tal conditions. The partitioning of recently fixed 14CO2 by mature tomato leaves was examined as a posteffect of 24-h heat stress (38/25°C day/night with the interaction of growth regulators (GR sprayed on the flowers with solution of β-naphthoxyacetic (NOA and gibberellic (GA3 acid (denoted as NG, or Zeatin + NOA + GA3 (denoted as ZNG. In both cuitivars GR strongly stimulated fruit growth and transport of 14C-photosynthates to the clusters at the expense of vegetative organs. Heat stress decreased export of 14C-phoiosynthates from the blades in plants not treated with GR, but even more in cv. Roma. In Roma plants not treated with GR (with very small fruitlets and fruits the heat stress retarded 14C-transport just in the petioles, diminishing the 14C-supply to the fruits. Reduction of the current photosynthate supplied to the fruits seems to be causally connected with inhibition of the specific activity of acid invertase in that organ. Growth regulators reduced the negative effect of high temperature - they alleviated depression of 14C-export from the blades and increased invertase activity. 14C-photosynthate transport to the fruits, presumably owing to their higher sink strength, was less affected by heat stress. In Robin plants (which had bigger fruits during the experiment high temperature depressed 14C-fruit supply only in the NG-series, in contrast to enhacement of 14C-Movement to that sink in the control and ZNG-series. In spite of these facts, after heat stress, the specific activity of acid invertase decreased in all the experimental series, but much less in the GR-treated series. Therefore, in the Robin cv. there was no relation between invertase activity and 14C-mobilization by fruits, as was observed in Roma plants. The possible explanation of the different

  19. Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro biological control of Fusarium oxysporum by Trichoderma harzianum (T8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, M; Zamani, M R; Motallebi, M

    2007-09-01

    In this study the effect of two plant growth regulators (indolacetic acid, IAA and gibberellic acid, GA3) and also Trichoderma harzianum (T8) on the phytopathogen fungus Fusarium oxysporium (F15) was investigated. IAA and GA3 with 15 and 30 ppm concentration have no significant effect on T. harzianum (T8) growth. The biocontrol activity of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum was slightly decreased by the presence of IAA and/or GA3. Addition of 40 ppm of GA3 to the culture medium of F. oxsporum increased polygalacturonase activity about 100%. A strong increasing effect on chitinase activity (60%) by T. harzianum (T8) was observed in the presence of phytopathogenic fungus F. oxysporum, but 40 ppm IAA and/or GA3 decreased about 47% of chitinase activity of T. harzianum.

  20. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  1. Effects of several Plant Growth Regulators on the Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ÇOPUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGR are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. production to balance vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as to increase seed cotton yield and lint quality. Field experiments were conducted with some PGRs to determine their effects on yield and yield components of cotton cultivar Stoneville 453. The study was conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Agricultural Research and Application Centre of Harran University located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. During the study, seven commercial PGRs (MC, NAP, BIGIB, KH, MCROP and BIGIBER were sprayed at recommended doses and appropriate application periods. Experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental plots consisted of six rows, each having 12 m length, row spacing was 0.70 and intra-row spacing was 0.20 m. The results showed that PGRs (except PC had statistically significant positive effects on the seed cotton yield, plant height, number of open boll, number of sympodia, boll weight, lint percentage and seed index and that they decreased the earliness index. However, fibre length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and fibre uniformity were not affected by the applications. Higher yields were obtained in MCROP, BIGIB and BIGIBER treated plots. Therefore, PGRs might be considered a component of cotton growth management, which is effective on providing higher seed cotton yields.

  2. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  3. Influence of plant growth regulators on callus mediated regeneration and secondary metabolites synthesis in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Banerjee, Debarupa; Ghosh, Moumita; Pradhan, Prakash; Gupta, Namrata Shanu; Acharya, Krishnendu; Banerjee, Maitreyi

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, is an important medicinal plant being the source of extremely important compounds like withanolides and withaferin. Influence of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) were evaluated for induction of callus, callus mediated regeneration and production of secondary metabolites in them. Explants for callusing were collected from plants grown in vitro and maximum callusing (98 %) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) (0.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (KN) (0.2 mg l(-1)). Among different types of calli, best shoot regeneration was observed on green, compact calli produced on MS medium with a combination of 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) and indole butyric acid (IBA). MS medium supplemented with BAP (2 mg l(-1)) showed highest frequency (98 %) of shoot bud regeneration. The micro-shoots were efficiently rooted on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA. Rooted plants were transferred to soil-vermi-compost (1:3; w/w) medium in greenhouse for acclimatization. Presence of withanolide A and withaferin A in calli was validated through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). It was interesting to observe that the PGRs showed significant influence on the secondary metabolites production in callus and 2,4-D having the least effect. Histological studies revealed the origin of shoot tip in the callus during regeneration.

  4. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  5. Variation in biochemical and antioxidant attributes of Raphanus sativus in response to foliar application of plant leaf extracts as plant growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ashraf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to appraise the variations in biochemical, antioxidant and nutritional attributes of radish (Raphanus sativus L. under foliar application of plant leaf aqueous extracts i.e., mulberry leaf extract (MLE, brassica leaf extract (BLE, sorghum leaf extract (SLE and moringa leaf extract (MoLE as natural growth regulators. Samples were collected after three sprays of extracts and analyzed. Total phenolic constituents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, whereas antioxidant potential was evaluated by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Results revealed that application of MLE, BLE, SLE, and MoLE not only improved growth, but also enhanced biochemical and antioxidant activities. Foliar spray of MoLE furnished relatively three folds higher amounts of extractable bioactive compounds (37.65 ± 0.94%, phenolic constituents (54.51–182.71 mg GAE/g f.w. The radical scavenging capacity (RSC and reducing potential were also enhanced considerably. Furthermore, the moisture, dietary fiber, crude protein, and carotenoids were also enhanced in response of foliar spray of plant extracts. From results, it is concluded that plant extracts are effective sources of natural growth regulars and might be useful for the production of vegetables with improved nutritional value and antioxidant activity.

  6. Simultaneous determination of different endogenetic plant growth regulators in common green seaweeds using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kumar, Manoj; Brahmbhatt, Harshad; Reddy, C R K; Seth, Abhiram; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of major classes of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in Monostroma and different species of Ulva. The plant growth regulators determined included gibberellic acid (GA(3)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), salicylic acid and kinetin riboside (KR) and their respective elution time was 2.75, 3.3, 3.91, 4.95, 5.39 and 6.59 min. The parameters optimized for distinct separation of PGRs were mobile phase (60:40 methanol and 0.6% acetic acid in water), column temperature (35°C) and flow rate (1ml/min). This method presented an excellent linearity (0.2-100μg/ml) with limit of detection (LOD) as 0.2μg/ml for ABA, 0.5μg/ml for KR and salicylic acid, and 1μg/ml for IAA, IBA and GA(3). The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated after inter and intra day analysis in triplicates. The effect of plant matrix was compensated after spiking and the resultant recoveries estimated were in the range of 80-120%. Each PGR thereby detected were further characterized by ESI-MS analysis. The method optimized in this study determined IBA along with IAA for the first time in the seaweed species investigated except Ulva linza where the former was not detected. In all the species studied, ABA level was detected to be the highest while kinetin riboside was the lowest. In comparison to earlier methods of PGR analysis, sample preparation and analysis time were substantially reduced while allowing determination of more classes of PGRs simultaneously.

  7. Strigolactones Improve Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, and Alleviate Oxidative Stress under Salinity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a very important edible oil crop in the world, and the production is inhibited by abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Plant hormones can alleviate the stress by regulating the physiological processes and gene expression. To study the plant responses to salinity in combination with GR24, a synthesized strigolactone, the oilseed rape variety (Zhongshuang 11 replications were grown in the pots in a controlled growth chamber under three levels of salinity (0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl and 0.18 μM GR24 treatments at the seedling stage for 7 days. The results showed that salinity depressed the shoots and roots growth, whereas GR24 improved the growth under salt stress. Leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate were also reduced significantly with increasing salinity, and these effects could be partially reversed by GR24 application. Additionally, GR24 treatment significantly increased and decreased the photosystem II quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching, respectively, under salinity stress conditions. The activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased, and lipid peroxidation measured by the level of malondialdehyde reduced due to GR24 application. The transcriptome analysis of root and shoot was conducted. Three hundred and forty-two common differentially expressed genes (DEGs after GR24 treatment and 166 special DEGs after GR24 treatment under salinity stress were identified in root and shoot. The DEGs in root were significantly more than that in shoot. Quantitative PCR validated that the stress alleviation was mainly related to the gene expression of tryptophan metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis.

  8. ABA in bryophytes: how a universal growth regulator in life became a plant hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi

    2011-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is not a plant-specific compound but one found in organisms across kingdoms from bacteria to animals, suggesting that it is a ubiquitous and versatile substance that can modulate physiological functions of various organisms. Recent studies have shown that plants developed an elegant system for ABA sensing and early signal transduction mechanisms to modulate responses to environmental stresses for survival in terrestrial conditions. ABA-induced increase in stress tolerance has been reported not only in vascular plants but also in non-vascular bryophytes. Since bryophytes are the key group of organisms in the context of plant evolution, clarification of their ABA-dependent processes is important for understanding evolutionary adaptation of land plants. Molecular approaches using Physcomitrella patens have revealed that ABA plays a role in dehydration stress tolerance in mosses, which comprise a major group of bryophytes. Furthermore, we recently reported that signaling machinery for ABA responses is also conserved in liverworts, representing the most basal members of extant land plant lineage. Conservation of the mechanism for ABA sensing and responses in angiosperms and basal land plants suggests that acquisition of this mechanism for stress tolerance in vegetative tissues was one of the critical evolutionary events for adaptation to the land. This review describes the role of ABA in basal land plants as well as non-land plant organisms and further elaborates on recent progress in molecular studies of model bryophytes by comparative and functional genomic approaches.

  9. Application Status of Plant Growth Regulators in Potatoes Production%植物生长调节剂在马铃薯生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海艳; 李凤云; 王立春; 田国奎; 徐洪岩; 娄树宝; 郝智勇

    2013-01-01

    植物生长调节剂对植物的生长、发育和代谢起着重要的调节作用,在马铃薯生产中的应用也越来越广泛。该文综述了植物生长调节剂在马铃薯生产过程中的应用现状,即植物生长调节剂对马铃薯地上部植株性状、产量、品质以及马铃薯试管苗脱毒快繁的影响,并提出了使用植物生长调节剂的合理化建议。%Plant growth regulators played an important role on plant growth ,development and metabolic in regu-lating ,its application in potatoes production was becoming more and more widely .The application status of plant growth regulators in potatoes production were concluded ,including the effect of plant growth regulators on potatoes characters above ground ,yield ,quality ,plantlet virus elimination and rapid propagation ,and ration-alization proposals were put forward in applying plant growth regulators .

  10. Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    characteristics of Carya illinoensis ," Acta Hortic. 179:287-8. Zar, J. H. (1974). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 58...3 M aterials and Methods .................................... 4 Plant cultures ...Procedures for Detecting Flurprimidol Residues in Water, Plant Tissues , and Soil ..................................... 30 Introduction

  11. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  12. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  13. A novel combination of plant growth regulators for in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Gill, K S; Pruthi, V; Dhugga, K S; Randhaw, G S

    2013-12-01

    A novel combination of plant growth regulators comprising indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in Murashige and Skoog basal medium has been formulated for in vitro induction of both shoot and root in one culture using cotyledonary node explants of guar, (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Highest percentages of shoot (92%) and root (80%) induction were obtained in the medium containing (mg/L) 2 IBA, 3 BA and 1 GA3. Shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node explants was observed after 10-15 days. Regeneration of roots from these shoots occurred after 20 to 25 days. The regenerated plantlets showed successful acclimatization on transfer to soil. This protocol is expected to be helpful in carrying out various in vitro manipulations in this economically and industrially important legume.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of insecticides and plant growth regulators: comparative studies toward understanding the molecular mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, H; Nishimura, K; Fujita, T

    1985-01-01

    Emphasis was put on the comparative quantitative structure-activity approaches to the exploration of action mechanisms of structurally different classes of compounds showing the same type of activity as well as those of the same type of compounds having different actions. Examples were selected from studies performed on insecticides and plant growth regulators, i.e., neurotoxic carbamates, phosphates, pyrethroids and DDT analogs, insect juvenile hormone mimics, and cytokinin agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Similarities and dissimilarities in structures required to elicit activity between compounds classes were revealed in terms of physicochemical parameters, provoking further exploration and evoking insights into the molecular mechanisms of action which may lead to the development of new structures having better qualities. PMID:3905379

  15. Effects of plant growth regulators on in vitro cultured nodal explants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... 2Plant Biotechnology Division, Jimma Agricultural Research Center; P. O. Box: 192, Jimma, Ethiopia. 3Department of .... development of such a protocol is urgently needed to ensure rapid mass ..... Cali, Colombia. [Online] ...

  16. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from apple fruit callus cultures modulated by different plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayón-Luaces, Paula; Ponce, Nora M A; Mroginski, Luis A; Stortz, Carlos A; Sozzi, Gabriel O

    2012-04-01

    The cell wall composition of apples callus cultures showed changes in the presence of 5 mg l(-1) of three different plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely picloram, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid. Although the structural functions of cell walls do not generally allow for pronounced variations of the total pectin and matrix glycan content, this work provides evidence that the addition of these plant growth regulators can rule, at least partly, cell wall metabolism in apple callus cultures. The chelator- and carbonate-extracts always had the analytical characteristics of pectins, with high proportions of uronic acids, arabinose and galactose as the main monosaccharides, and a significant proportion of rhamnose, but the cross-linking glycan fractions were still rich in RG-I-like material. The application of PGRs produced shifts of uronic acid and neutral sugars between fractions. Arabinose was the neutral sugar exhibiting more variations in apple callus cell wall. Picloram and abscisic acid produced an increase of the uronic acid contents of the cell walls. The AIRs obtained from calluses treated with different PGRs did not show large amounts of high molecular weight products, as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. For the carbonate-extract only the callus treated with picloram displayed two separated peaks for products of different molecular weights. The chromatographic profiles for the 4% KOH-extract displayed two peaks for all the treatments, one very sharp with high molecular weight, and another one wider of smaller molecular weight, whereas the difference between treatments can only be appraised through the areas of the peaks. This is the first report on cell wall composition from fruit calluses supplemented with different PGRs.

  17. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure.

  18. In vitro: Response of plant growth regulators and antimalformins on conidia germination of Fusarium mangiferae and incidence of mango malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Tula, Suresh; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-11-01

    Mango malformation is the most important and threatening disease of recent times, primarily because of persistent lacuna in complete understanding of its nature. Diverse Fusarium spp, including F. mangiferae, were found to be associated with the disease. Here, F. mangiferae from mango cv Dashehri was morphologically characterized. Typically, oval-shaped microconidia without septum and crescent-shaped macroconidia with 3-septate were more often observed, whereas not a single chlamydospore was detected. The length and width of micro- and macro-conidia were 7.5, 55, 3.2, and 3.5, respectively. The plant growth regulators such as NAA, GA3, BAP and ethrel were found to induce in vitro germination of conidia of F. mangiferae after 12 h. In contrast, antimalformin silver nitrate (AgNO3) inhibits conidial germination in vitro and none of conidia was germinated beyond 500 ppm, however antimalformin glutathione was highly effective in stimulating conidial germination of F. mangiferae in vitro at > 1000 ppm after 24 h. We observed that the response of F. mangiferae to germinate the conidia in vitro under influence of plant growth regulators and antimalformins is not coincided with earlier findings of reduced disease incidence by exogenous application of these compounds. The present findings do not authenticate the involvement of F. mangiferae in the disease, however hormonal imbalance, most probably ethylene, might be responsible for deformed functional morphology of panicle. Further, a signal transduction mechanism of stress-stimulated ethylene imbalance causing physio-morphological changes in reproductive organs of mango flower and thereby failure of fertilization and fruit set, which needs to be investigated.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SEED SOAKING WITH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEEDLING VIGOR OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Irfan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed soaking with plant growth regulators (IAA, GA3, kinetin or prostart on wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Auqab-2000 emergence and seedling growth under normal (4 dS/cm and saline (15 dS/cm conditions were studied to determine their usefulness in increasing relative salt-tolerance. During emergence test, emergence percentage and mean emergence time (MET were significantly affected by most of priming treatments, however, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly increased by 25 ppm kinetin followed by 1% prostart for 2 h treatments under both normal and saline conditions. All pre-sowing seed treatments decreased the electrolyte leakage of steep water as compared to that of non-primed seeds even after 12 h of soaking. Seed soaking with 25 ppm kinetin induced maximum decrease in electrolyte leakage while an increase in electrolyte leakage was observed by 25, 50 or 100 ppm IAA treatments. It is concluded that priming has reduced the severity of the effect of salinity but the amelioration was better due to 25 ppm kinetin and 1% prostart (2 h treatments as these showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry weights under non-saline and saline conditions whereas seed soaking with IAA and GA3 were not effective in inducing salt tolerance under present experimental material and conditions.

  20. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling.

  1. The effect of plant growth regulators on centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn) seeds germination

    OpenAIRE

    Mijajlović Nada; Grubišić Dragoljub V.; Giba Zlatko; Konjević Radomir

    2005-01-01

    Centaury seeds are light-requiring. Long-term red light irradiation caused more than 80% of seeds to germinate. Seeds did not germinate in darkness. Gibberellic acid and GA7 can replace light, but N-substituted phtalimide AC 94,377 was ineffective. Light-induced germination was inhibited by abscisic acid and growth retardants such as ancymidol, tetcyclacis, and paclobutrazole. Growth retardant-caused inhibition can be overcome by the addition of gibberellic acid.

  2. The effect of plant growth regulators on centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn seeds germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Centaury seeds are light-requiring. Long-term red light irradiation caused more than 80% of seeds to germinate. Seeds did not germinate in darkness. Gibberellic acid and GA7 can replace light, but N-substituted phtalimide AC 94,377 was ineffective. Light-induced germination was inhibited by abscisic acid and growth retardants such as ancymidol, tetcyclacis, and paclobutrazole. Growth retardant-caused inhibition can be overcome by the addition of gibberellic acid.

  3. The effect of plant growth regulators on optimization of tissue culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... tissue culture system in Malaysian upland rice. E. Shahsavari1*, A. A. .... The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. ..... Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 37: 217-242. Ge XJ, Chu ZH, ...

  4. Selectivity of the plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl to cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Maria Correia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial spraying of plant ripeners on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L. crops causes often the contamination of neighboring areas, which subsidizes formal complaints from the neighbors. These contaminations are due to spraying taking place during inadequate environmental conditions or from technical mistakes during the application. One of the most important causes of this contamination is the susceptibility of the species being cultivated surrounding sugar cane. In order to evaluate the effects of sugar cane plant ripeners trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl on peanuts, cotton, potato, coffee, citrus, beans, sunflower, cassava, rubber, soybean, and grapes, eleven experiments - one for each species - were carried out from May 2009 to Jan. 2010. The field experiment was set according to a completely random design with five treatments and four replications. Just before or during flowering, a single treatment of trinexapac-ethyl at 100 or 200 g ha-1 and sulfometuron-methyl at 7.5 or 15 g ha-1 was applied to plants. A control treatment (plants not treated for each species was part of each experiment. Trinexapac, at the doses of 100 and 200 g ha-1, showed selectivity to peanuts, cotton, potato, coffee, citrus, sunflower, cassava, rubber, soybean, and grape. At the lowest dose (100 g ha-1, it was selective for bean. Sulfometuron, at the dose of 7.5 g ha-1, was selective for peanuts and, at the two studied doses (7.5 and 15 g ha-1, it was selective for coffee, citrus, cassava, and rubber.

  5. Brevicompanine C, cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp), plant growth regulators from Penicillium brevi-compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yasuo; Sawada, Aya; Kuramata, Masato; Kusano, Miyako; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi

    2005-02-01

    New plant growth regulators, named brevicompanine C (1), cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp) (2), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp) (3), have been isolated from Penicillium brevi-compactum Dierckx, and their structures have been established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and chiral TLC analysis. Plant growth activities of 1, 2, and 3 have been examined using lettuce seedling bioassay methods. All compounds accelerated the root growth of the seedlings in proportion to their concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L.

  6. Ethanol Metabolism in Calluses of Several Selected Plant Species on Two Typical Plant-Growth-Regulator Balanced Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For investigation on the characteristics of ethanol metabolism in tissues of different plant species,calluses from eight selected plant species were cultured on medium supplemented with ethanol in tightly sealed culture flasks. Changes of the ethanol level were detected by gas chromatography. During the culture period, the calluses of tobacco, potato and petunia were able to catabolize exogenous ethanol, resulting in the prominent decline of the ethanol level in the medium. The calluses of melon and peanut were also able to ca-tabolize ethanol but with lower efficiency. The other three calluses of carrot, soybean and rice did not catabo-lize ethanol but instead produced small to large amount of ethanol, resulting in the increase of the ethanol level in the media. It was also found that changing the balance between auxin and cytokinin could influence only the ethanol metabolism efficiency but could not change the metabolism patterns on ethanol of the cul-tured calluses. It can be concluded that, ethanol metabolism pattern of calluses in cultures is an innate physi-ological characteristic of the respective plant species.

  7. Plant growth regulating activity of three polyacetylenes from Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Si Won; Hasegawa, Koji; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Three polyacetylenes, 8-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-hydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne, termed "helian"(1), 8-acetoxy-3-hydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne (2), and 3,8-dihydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne (3) were isolated from seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. cv Russia. Compounds 1 and 2, having a beta-glucose and an acetoxy group at C-8, respectively, showed a weak effect on the growth of roots and shoots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.), while compound 3, having a free hydroxyl group at C-8, exhibited a growth promoting effect on the roots and shoots of rice and cress.

  8. Generation of Wood-waste Vinegar and Its Effectiveness as a Plant Growth Regulator and Pest Insect Repellent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood vinegar (WV was obtained from charcoal production byproducts. The increase in demand for WV as an alternative pesticide requires more production of WV independent of conventional charcoal production. This research was intended to commence the production of WV from available furniture wood waste. The study included the following: (i the preparation and performance of a pyrolysis kiln; and (ii the application of the produced WV as a plant growth regulator of papaya plants in the nursery and as a pest insect repellent during maize storage. These experiments were arranged in a randomized block design. The observed variables included pyrolysis rate, the effect of WV on papaya growth in nursery, and the effect of WV in controlling infestation of maize weevils. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and continued with Duncan’s multiple difference test. The results showed that while the production of WV continuously occurred until the 90th min, the maximum (139 mL was reached at the 10th min. Pyrolysis of 1,000 g of chips of wood-planer’s waste yielded WV, tar, bio-oil, and char in quantities of 487.67 mL, 41.76 g, 2.93 mL, and 222 g respectively. The treatment using WV (50 mL/L increased the diameter of papaya stems in the nursery. Mixing and fuming application of 5 mL of WV as a pest insect repellent on 200 g of maize on the storage could increase the number of the dead maize weevil and reduce the damage maize kernel.

  9. Characterization of anisocotylous leaf formation in Streptocarpus wendlandii (Gesneriaceae): significance of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Kanae; Kuwabara, Asuka; Nagata, Toshiyuki

    2004-09-01

    Unifoliate species of Gesneriaceae are unique, as they bear only one leaf throughout their life history. The development of this leaf (termed a macrocotyledon) derived from one of two cotyledons is intriguing. The other cotyledon does not develop further and is termed a microcotyledon. This process of unequal cotyledon development is termed anisocotyly. In this study the process of macrocotyeldon formation was studied and the effects of plant hormones on the macrocotyledon development were investigated. Streptocarpus wendlandii was chosen as the main subject material, as it was found to be suitable for experimental studies in laboratory conditions. Morphological analyses were carried out with light and scanning electron microscopy. Plant hormones were applied exogenously. The macrocotyledon of S. wendlandii is produced through cell division activity in the basal meristem of the enlarging cotyledon. The newly developed region in the macrocotyledon displayed distinct morphological changes, including the formation of long, needle-shaped trichomes. The newly formed region was surrounded by lateral veins. No such change was observed in the microcotyledon. Furthermore, it was shown that development of anisocotyly is suppressed by the application of cytokinin, resulting in the formation of two nearly equal-sized cotyledons. Both cotyledons displayed macrocotyledon characteristics. This observation in S. wendlandii was confirmed using Monophyllaea glabra, another unifoliate species in the same family. It is proposed that developmental changes of the macrocotyledon have characteristics of a developmental phase-change, and cytokinins may be involved in its formation. These results are discussed in the light of current knowledge of phase-change transitions in plant vegetative development.

  10. Efficient plant regeneration protocol through callus for Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. (Asteraceae): effect of explant type, age and plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Uppeandra; Joshi, Mitali

    2005-06-01

    A callus induction and in vitro plantlet regeneration system for the endangered state flower of Uttaranchal (Saussurea obvallata) was optimized by studying the influence of explant type (root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf), age and different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Explants from 10 to 15-day-old seedlings showed maximum callus induction. Callus formation and shoot differentiation was initiated on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium containing 6-benzyladenine (BA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in all explant types. The best results were obtained using leaf explants: 100% callusing was achieved in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 microM BA and 1.0 microM NAA, and 100% differentiation along with a multiplication rate of 12 shoots per explant with a combination of 5.0 microM BA and 1.0 microM NAA. However, the results reflected the existence of high inter-explant variability in response to growth regulators. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved at an efficiency of 100% in one-half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.5 microM indole-3-butyric acid. Application of this protocol has potential for mass multiplication of the target species in a limited time period.

  11. Cryopreservation of asian Dioscorea bulbifera l. and D. alata l. by vitrification: importance of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Papiya; Mandal, B B; Bhat, K V; Biswas, A K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop cryopreservation protocols for Asian races of Dioscorea bulbifera and D. alata with high survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. Using a vitrification procedure, survival of shoot tips postcryopreservation of up to 89% in D. bulbifera and up to 82% in D. alata were recorded when excised shoot tips were pretreated overnight with 0.3 M sucrose in MS medium, followed by loading with 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degrees C, exposure to PVS2 solution for 90 min at 0 degrees C, immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 h, rewarming at 40 degrees C for 2 min, unloading in medium with 1.2 M sucrose for 20 min and culturing on growth recovery medium. During growth recovery, 58% shoot regeneration was obtained in D. bulbifera when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 40 days on MS medium with 1.5 mg/L BAP, 0.15 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3 followed by culturing on a medium with 0.05 mg/L BAP and 0.15 mg/ L NAA. However, a maximum of 39% shoot regeneration was recorded in D. alata when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 40 days on medium M2 (MS containing 1/5 NH4NO3 and 40 g/L sucrose) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L zeatin, 0.15 mg/L IAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3. Subsequently, the regenerating shoots were cultured for 30 days on medium M2 with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0.3 mg/L zeatin, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3 followed by culturing for another 30 days on medium with 0.5 mg/L BAP, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3. Finally, transfer onto medium with 0.05 mg/L BAP and 0.15 mg/L NAA stimulated production of fully grown plantlets. Alteration of post-thaw culture media with plant growth regulators and their application at various stages of growth recovery was crucial for regeneration of shoot tips and formation of plantlets in D. alata.

  12. Grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar limberger treated with plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Slavica R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of foliar application of paclobutrasol (PK, chlorcholinechloride (CC and gibberellic acid (GA3 on grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar Limberger were studied. PK and CC strongly inhibited shoot growth. The number of berries per bunch, bunch weight and grape yield per m2 were increased. At the same time, sugar content of must was either reduced (CC2000 or retained at the level of control (PK1000, CC1000. The GA150 treatment resulted in lower grape yield. At the concentration of GA3 100mg/l no significant increase in yield was found, whilst sugar content of must was significantly increased.

  13. Growth regulation mechanisms in higher plants under microgravity conditions - changes in cell wall metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Wakabayashi, K; Soga, K; Tabuchi, A; Tokumoto, H; Okamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Mori, R; Tanimoto, E; Takeba, G; Nishitani, K; Izumi, R; Ishioka, N; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    2000-06-01

    During Space Shuttle STS-95 mission, we cultivated seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari and cv. Tan-ginbozu) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. cv. Columbia and cv. etr1-1) for 68.5, 91.5, and 136 hr on board, and then analyzed changes in the nature of their cell walls, growth, and morphogenesis under microgravity conditions. In space, elongation growth of both rice coleoptiles and Arabidopsis hypocotyls was stimulated. Also, the increase in the cell wall extensibility, especially that in the irreversible extensibility, was observed for such materials. The analyses of the amounts, the structure, and the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents indicated that the decreases in levels and molecular masses of cell wall polysaccharides were induced under microgravity conditions, which appeared to contribute to the increase in the wall extensibility. The activity of certain wall enzymes responsible for the metabolic turnover of the wall polysaccharides was increased in space. By the space flight, we also confirmed the occurrence of automorphogenesis of both seedlings under microgravity conditions; rice coleoptiles showed an adaxial bending, whereas Arabidopsis hypocotyls elongated in random directions. Furthermore, it was shown that spontaneous curvatures of rice coleoptiles in space were brought about uneven modifications of cell wall properties between the convex and the concave sides.

  14. Role of Endogenous Plant Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, James D.

    1983-01-01

    Gibberellin A1 (GA1) was identified by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry as the major biologically active gibberellin (GA) in seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) regardless of the depth of dormany or stage of imbibition. Both unimbibed dormant and nondromant seeds contained similar amounts of GA1 as estimated by the d5-maize bioassay. During imbibition, the level of GA1 declined in both dormant and non-dormant seeds, although the decline was more rapid in dormant seeds. Only in imbibing nondormant seeds did the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC), cause a reduction in the level of GA1 from that observed in control seeds. These results are interpreted as an indication that while afterripening does not cause a direct change in the levels of GAs during dry storage, it does induce a greater capacity for GA biosynthesis during imbibition. Nondormant seeds imbibed in the presence of 50 millimolar CCC germinated equally as well as untreated seeds. When wild oat plants were fed CCC throughout the entire life cycle, viable seeds were produced that lacked detectable GA-like substances. These seeds afterripened at a slightly slower rate than the controls. Moreover, completely afterripened (nondormant) seeds from plants fed CCC continuously contained no detectable GA-like substances, and when these seeds germinated, dwarf seedlings were produced, indicating GA biosynthesis was inhibited during and after germination. In total, these results suggest that the increased capacity for GA biosynthesis observed in imbibing nondormant seeds is not a necessary prerequisite for germination. It is therefore possible that GA biosynthesis in imbibing nondormant seeds is one of many coordinated biochemical events that occur during germination rather than an initiator of the processes leading to germination. PMID:16663302

  15. Study of the effect of plant growth regulators, size, and cultivar of the grape inflorescence explant on production of phenolic compounds in an in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighi Azam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large number of secondary metabolites that have useful and desirable effects in the field of agriculture, medicine, and food. This research was aimed to achieve methods of in vitro propagation of grapevine in order to apply biotechnologies for correction, growth, and optimization of products and compounds of the cultivated plant in relation to phenol ratio. Methods: In this interventional study, the effects of cultivar and size of the inflorescence explant and the gibberellin hormone in two levels, benzylaminopurine, and auxin hormones in three levels with three replicates per treatment were evaluated in relation to phenol ratio, in order to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators, the type and size of the grape inflorescence explant on the phenol production. Results: The type of plant growth regulators affected phenolic substances production. The production of phenolic substances decreased in a medium with the highest concentration of growth regulators, 4 and 2.5 μM concentration of benzylaminopurine, and 4.9 μM of auxin. Production of phenolic substances increased in the free-plant hormone medium. In smaller samples tendency to turn brown was more regarding high amount of the sugar. Conclusion: The plant sample and the cultivar as important factors in producing phenol environment are induced by environmental stimuli like sugar, light, temperature, stress, ozone, and wound and can be actually applied to increase phenol production.

  16. The effects of plant growth regulators and L-phenylalanine on phenolic compounds of sweet basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Nülüfer; Karaman, Şengül

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), spermine (Spm), epibrassinolide (EBL) and l-phenylalanine on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were studied to determine the amount of phenolic compounds and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of sweet basils were determined by a spectrophotometer, and individual phenolic compounds and activity of PAL were analysed by HPLC/UV. The highest total phenolic (6.72 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid contents (0.92 mg QE/g) obtained from 1.0 mM Spm+MeJA application. Rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid contents significantly enhanced after the applications but no such differences observed in chicoric acid content or PAL activity. RA was the main phenolic acid in all samples and its concentration varied from 1.04 to 2.70 mg/gFW. As a result the combinations of Spm+MeJA and EBL+MeJA can induce secondary metabolites effectively and those interactions play important role in the production of phytochemicals in plants.

  17. PROPAGATION OF Portulaca oleracea L. IN LIQUID MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea L. is a medicinal plant, growing in warm and moist regions of north hemisphere of the world. A protocol for in vitro propagation using nodal shoot segments as explants has been outlined. The percent shoot response with shoot induction rate, 6.4 ± 0.7 shoots per explant, was achieved when cultured on agar-gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine. The cultures were amplified by passages on MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each BAP and kinetin (Kn. The best shoot amplification (37.5±0.9 shoots per vessel was achieved by subculturing of in vitro regenerated shoot clumps on liquid MS medium. Shoots regenerated in vitro by both the processes were rooted on ½ strength of MS medium + 2.0 mg/L of indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. Ninety six percent of the shoots rooted in vitro. The in vitro rooted plantlets were hardened under different regimes of temperature and humidity in the greenhouse. The hardened plantlets were transferred to mixture of soil and manure in polybags.

  18. Morphogenetic Potential of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. ‘Arka Ahuti’ to Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura K. NAMITHA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly reproducible in vitro regeneration method for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar ‘Arka Ahuti’ was established by using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon explants from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones 6-Benzylamino purine (2 to 4 mg/L and Indole-3-acetic acid (0.1 to 1 mg/L. The medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine and 0.1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid was found to be the best for inducing direct shoot regeneration and multiple shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants. Callus induction was observed in all the explants and regeneration of shoots was also promoted by all these combinations. Shoots were transferred to the elongation medium which also induced 100% rooting. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established for ‘Arka Ahuti’ cultivar of tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon as explants.

  19. EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND ROOT INDUCTION OF CASSAVA VARIETIES CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNI WIDHIASTUTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on propagation of three superior cassava ( Crant varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i shoot multiplication, (ii roots induction, and (iii acclimatization.The multiple shoot regeneration was observed by using Murashige & Skoog (MS basal mediasupplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of benzylaminopurine (BAP combined with 0.0,0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of thidiazuron. The root induction was observed by using 0.1 and 1.0 mg/Lof IBA and NAA. The resulting plantlets were transplanted into plastic polybags containingsoil mixed with organic fertilizer (1:1 covered with plastic sheets and transferred to agreenhouse. The result of the study showed that the highest number of shoots for DarulHidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 varieties were 4.93 shoots treated with BAP 1 mg/L +thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L, 4.20 shoots at BAP media of 1 mg/L, and 7.20 shoots at the mediaof BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L respectively. The highest number of nodes producedwas 2.9 nodes for Darul Hidayah at BAP 5 mg/L, 5.13 nodes for Malang-6 at BAP 0.1 mg/L,and 6.18 nodes for Adira-4 at BAP 5 mg/L + thidiazuron 1 mg/L. The utilization of auxin IAAor NAA could induce and accelerate the growth of roots which finally could increase thesuccess of acclimatization process. With an average of four multiplication factors of eachculture period, the potency of each cassava shoot propagated through tissue culture couldproduce around 37 000 plants/year.

  20. OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY IN Annona macroprophyllata AND Annona purpureaUSING PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELA FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata

  1. Incorporation of plant growth regulators into the priming solution improves sugar beet germination, emergence and seedling growth at low-temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govahi, Mostafa; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Saffari, Ghazaleh

    2007-10-01

    In a series of experiments, impact of inclusion of plant growth regulators into the KNO3 priming solution on low temperature seed germination, emergence percentage and seedling growth of sugar beet was investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 degrees C in darkness containing one of the following: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mM acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) or 1, 3, 5 or 10 microM methyl jasmonated (MeJA). A non-primed treatment was also included in the experiment. Priming seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 degrees C compared with non-primed seeds which had an FGP of 42%, G50 of 11.3 days and G10-90 of 11.7 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.05 mM of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (89%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 5.3 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 10.7 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA (83%) and 3 microM MeJA (81%) while non-primed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rate (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 microM MeJA (E50 = 14.4 days) and 0.05 mM ASA (E50 = 14.4 days). Shoot fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly affected by treatments and priming in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weight. These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.05 mM of ASA or 3 microM MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be more effective than KNO3 alone to improve low temperature germination performance of seeds and subsequent seedling growth.

  2. Effect of plant growth regulators on accumulation of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants%植物生长调节剂对药用植物次生代谢物积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳; 郜玉钢; 臧埔; 张连学

    2016-01-01

    植物生长调节剂不仅能调节药用植物生长,还可对药用植物次生代谢进行调控,能够影响酚类、萜类和含氮化合物等多种药用活性成分在植物体内的合成.本文综述了国内外对植物生长调节剂影响药用植物次生代谢产物积累的研究进展,旨在为药用植物活性成分积累调控提供参考和依据.%Plant growth regulators could regulate the growth of medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites.The synthesis of medicinal active ingredients such as phenols,terpenoids and nitrogen compounds in plants can be affected by plant growth regulators.To provide references and basis for regulation of accumulations of active ingredients in medicinal plants,effects of plant growth regulators on secondary metabolites were reviewed in this paper.

  3. Using pollen grains as novel hydrophilic solid-phase extraction sorbents for the simultaneous determination of 16 plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Wu, Jian-Hong; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-11-01

    In this article, pollen grains were for the first time used as a hydrophilic solid-phase extraction (HILIC-SPE) sorbent for the determination of 16 plant growth regulators (PGRs) in fruits and vegetables. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen sorption porosimetry (NSP) were used to investigate the chemical structure and the surface properties of the pollen grains. Pollen grains exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity for some polar compounds due to their particular functional groups. Several parameters influencing extraction performance were investigated. A green and simple HILIC-SPE-method using pollen grain cartridge for purification of fruit and vegetable extractions, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established. Good linear relationships were obtained for 16 PGRs with correlation coefficients (R) above 0.9980. The limits of detection (LODs) of 16 PGRs in cucumber were in the range of 0.01-1.10 μg · kg(-1). Reproducibility of the method was evaluated by intra-day and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs), which were less than 14.4%. We successfully applied this methodology to analyze 16 PGRs in 8 different kinds of fruits and vegetables. The recoveries from samples spiked with 16 PGRs were from 80.5% to 119.2%, with relative standard deviations less than 15.0%.

  4. Multi-residue determination of plant growth regulators in apples and tomatoes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety.

  5. Investigation of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some plant growth regulators at subacute and subchronic applications on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ismail; Celik, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of subacute and subchronic treatment of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), on neurological and immunological biomarkers in various tissues of rats. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) were selected as biomarkers for neurotoxic biomarkers. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured as indicators for immunotoxic investigation purpose. Wistar albino rats were orally administered with 25 and 50 ppm of PGRs ad libitum for 25-50 days continuously with drinking water. The treatment of PGRs caused different effects on the activities of enzymes. Results showed that the administrations of ABA and GA3 increased AChE and BChE activities in some tissues of rats treated with both the dosages and periods of ABA and GA3. With regard to the immunotoxic effects, ADA activity fluctuated, while MPO activity increased after subacute and subchronic exposure of treated rat tissues to both dosages when compared with the controls. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of PGRs at subacute and subchronic exposure increased AChE, BChE, and MPO activities, while fluctuating the ADA activity in various tissues of rats. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for toxicity of PGRs.

  6. Use of plant growth regulators in the conservation of grapes “Italy” as aids in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa de Almeida Fabiane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators on postharvest fine table grapes “Italy”. The grapes were harvested at a commercial vineyard in the city of Canguçu, RS, Brazil and transported to the UNIPAMPA-Campus Dom Pedrito. The treatments were: distilled water (control; 500 ppb of 1-methylcyclopropene [MCP-1 (12 h at 20 °C]; 10 μM of salicylic acid and; 100 ppm of ethylene. The design was randomized, where each treatment had three replicates, and each replicate consisted of 3 bunches (about 2 kg. The evaluations were performed on the day of harvest (characterization – day zero and at 7 and 14 days of storage at 18 °C controlled. It was evaluated: browning of stems, loss of fresh bunch weight, percentage of abscission of berries, rot incidence, total soluble solids – SS (° Brix, percentage of dehydration of the stem, titratable acidity – AT (% tartaric acid, gluconic acid, “ratio” (SS/TA and density. It was found that the application of 10 mM of salicylic acid in postharvest fine table grapes “Italy” can help a smaller abscission of berries and less dehydration of the stem, which may prolong the shelf life of these grapes.

  7. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Shoot Proliferation and Rooting of Crataegus Pseudohetrophylla Pojark. Via in Vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus is a tree species from Rosaceae family with medicinal, ornamental and commercial utilizations. Effect of different concentrations of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation of Crataegus pseudohetrophylla Pojark. via in vitro culture was studied using single node explants. The grown shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of cytokinins (BAP, KIN, 2iP and Zt in combination with NAA in 30 treatments, with 3 replications and each replication included 5 explants. Data were recorded after 3 subcultures. For rooting, basal end of shoots were dipped into 300mg/l of IBA at different durations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, then the dipped shoots were cultured on hormone free 1/2 VS medium. The results of analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences in all of the traits. Results indicated that the highest number of shoots (39.33 was obtained on medium containing 8 mg / l BAP plus 2 mg / l NAA. The highest shoot length (4.67 cm and leaf size (3.73 cm was achieved on 7 mg / l BAP plus 2 mg / l NAA and 2 mg / l Zt plus 1 mg / l NAA, respectively. The highest rate of rooting (33.33% and root number (4n were induced on shoots dipped for 40 minutes in 300 mg / l IBA.

  8. Cutaneous reactions simulating erythema multiforme and Stevens Johnson syndrome due to occupational exposure to a plant-growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex ® is a plant growth regulator used mainly for the bud-breaking of grapevines. The use of this chemical may result in severe cutaneous reactions simulating erythema multiforme (EM, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. Methods: Studies were conducted on four seasonal grapevine workers who developed severe cutaneous reactions following the unprotected use of Dormex ® (hydrogen cyanamide. Results: Two of the patients had EM-like skin lesions and the other two developed SJS-TEN-like skin lesions. A latent period of 5-7 days existed between the contact with the chemical and the development of the skin lesions. The histopathological picture was suggestive of EM. All the patients responded to systemic steroids and antihistamines. Conclusions: Hydrogen cyanamide may act as a hapten, initiating cytotoxic immunological attack on keratinocytes, resulting in EM- and SJS-TEN-like clinical picture. Awareness regarding such severe cutaneous reactions due to the inappropriate handling of Dormex ® is required. The use of personal protection equipments while handling agricultural chemicals is essential.

  9. Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha; T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control, T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

  10. Effects of potentially acidic air pollutants on the intracellular distribution and transport of plant growth regulators in mesophyll cells of leaves. Consequences on stress- and developmental physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.; Pfanz, H.; Hartung, W.

    1987-07-11

    The influence of SO/sub 2/ on the intracellular distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in mesophyll cells of Picea abies, Tsuga americana and Hordeum vulgare was investigated. The compartmentation of ABA and IAA depends on intracellular pH-gradients. The hydrophilic anions ABA and IAA are accumulated in the alkaline cell compartments cytosol and chloroplasts, which act as anion traps for weak acids. Uptake of sulfur dioxide into leaves leads to an acidification of alkaline cell compartments, thus decreasing intracellular pH-gradients. Consequently this results in an increased release of plant growth regulators from the cell interior into the apoplast. Therefore the target cells of plant hormones i.e. meristems and stomates are exposed to altered hormone concentrations. Obviously this influences the regulation of cellular metabolism plant development and growth.

  11. 植物生长调节剂诱导植物抗逆性研究进展%Research on Plant Stress Resistance Induced by Plant Growth Regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昆

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulator is a kind of micro organic which has obvious functions in plant growth;it is widely used in agricultural production. The article lists the functions of increasing production with using plant growth regulators, introduces the regulator's principle and effects of inducing plants to produce stress resistance under low temperature、saline-alkali、drought and flood environment. It pro-vides a reference for relative research and application of using plant growth regulators to induce plant producing stress resistance.%植物生长调节剂是对植物生长发育具有显著作用的微量有机物,广泛应用于农业生产中。在列举植物生长调节剂增产作用的基础上,介绍其在低温、盐碱、旱涝等环境下诱导作物产生抗性的作用机理及效果,为植物生长调节剂诱导植物抗逆性的相关研究及应用提供参考。

  12. A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Regulatory Subunit (CKS) Gene of Pigeonpea Imparts Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Regulates Plant Growth and Development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R

    2017-01-01

    Frequent climatic changes in conjunction with other extreme environmental factors are known to affect growth, development and productivity of diverse crop plants. Pigeonpea, a major grain legume of the semiarid tropics, endowed with an excellent deep-root system, is known as one of the important drought tolerant crop plants. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are core cell cycle regulators and play important role in different aspects of plant growth and development. The cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit gene (CKS) was isolated from the cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. Pigeonpea CKS (CcCKS) gene expression was detected in both the root and leaf tissues of pigeonpea and was upregulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The overexpression of CcCKS gene in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance of transgenics to drought and salt stresses as evidenced by different physiological parameters. Under stress conditions, transgenics showed higher biomass, decreased rate of water loss, decreased MDA levels, higher free proline contents, and glutathione levels. Moreover, under stress conditions transgenics exhibited lower stomatal conductance, lower transpiration, and higher photosynthetic rates. However, under normal conditions, CcCKS-transgenics displayed decreased plant growth rate, increased cell size and decreased stomatal number compared to those of wild-type plants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that CcCKS could regulate the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance as well as plant growth and development. As such, the CcCKS seems promising and might serve as a potential candidate gene for enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants.

  13. New practical and theoretical approaches to the induction of morphogenesis from plant tumors in vitro using new types of plant growth regulators: towards constructive paradigms in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Using classical or traditional plant growth regulators, calli or plant tumors have been produced in vitro and subsequently have been induced to produce buds and plantlets, a process referred to as regeneration. For many years, this has been a successful procedure for in vitro, plant propagation. However, for a number of plant species investigators could not induce calli in vitro to produce buds. Organogenesis was still recalcitrant for various plants in 1980. New types or nonconventional growth regulators, such as methylglyoxal and ascorbic acid, were then found to overcome recalcitrant organogenesis in vitro. Their successful or effective use gave support to a theory that stressful, non-uniform cohesive force-fields, electromagnetic in nature, occurring through the application of certain chemicals, are necessary for in vitro morphogenesis from plant neoplasm or callus. Morphogenesis is seen as an adaptive accommodation to the inner stresses from such non-uniform, cohesive forces. Diverse chemicals, not considered traditional plant growth regulators would, it has been conjectured, enable the generation of such cohesive forces, in non-uniform arrays, and it has been predicted that more chemicals of this type will be discovered. A new constructive approach to agriculture and medicine, using a new plant tissue-culture model, based on new theory, has also been predicted.

  14. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  15. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var.alata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Kinn Poay TAN; Sobri HUSSEIN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Labisia pumi/a var.a/ata,commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia,is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties.Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat.Thus,this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila.Methods:The capabilities of callus,shoot,and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0,1,3,5,and 7 mg/L.Results:Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34± 19.55)% and (70.40± 14.14)% efficacy,respectively.IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction.A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA,respectively.Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant,with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture.Conclusions:Callus,roots,and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

  16. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, K; Vahl, M

    2001-10-01

    An LC-MS/MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170-->88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112-->30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg/kg for the 1998 harvest (n = 49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n = 46) compared with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n = 52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane.

  17. Jasmonate action in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Liu, Bei; Liu, Liangyu; Song, Susheng

    2017-03-01

    Phytohormones, including jasmonates (JAs), gibberellin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxin, integrate endogenous developmental cues with environmental signals to regulate plant growth, development, and defense. JAs are well- recognized lipid-derived stress hormones that regulate plant adaptations to biotic stresses, including herbivore attack and pathogen infection, as well as abiotic stresses, including wounding, ozone, and ultraviolet radiation. An increasing number of studies have shown that JAs also have functions in a remarkable number of plant developmental events, including primary root growth, reproductive development, and leaf senescence. Since the 1980s, details of the JA biosynthesis pathway, signaling pathway, and crosstalk during plant growth and development have been elucidated. Here, we summarize recent advances and give an updated overview of JA action and crosstalk in plant growth and development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The transmembrane protein Sho1 cooperates with the mucin Msb2 to regulate invasive growth and plant infection in Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    In the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fmk1 is essential for plant infection. The mucin-like membrane protein Msb2 regulates a subset of Fmk1-dependent functions. Here, we examined the role of the tetraspan transmembrane protein Sho1 as an additional regulator of the Fmk1 pathway and determined its genetic interaction with Msb2. Targeted Δsho1 mutants were generated in wild-type and Δmsb2 backgrounds to test possible interactions between the two genes. The mutants were examined for hyphal growth under different stress conditions, phosphorylation of the MAPK Fmk1 and an array of Fmk1-dependent virulence functions. Similar to Msb2, Sho1 was required for the activation of Fmk1 phosphorylation, as well as Fmk1-dependent gene expression and invasive growth functions, including extracellular pectinolytic activity, cellophane penetration, plant tissue colonization and virulence on tomato plants. Δsho1 mutants were hypersensitive to the cell wall-perturbing compound Calcofluor White, and this phenotype was exacerbated in the Δmsb2 Δsho1 double mutant. These results highlight that Sho1 and Msb2 have partially overlapping functions upstream of the Fmk1 MAPK cascade, to promote invasive growth and plant infection, as well as cell wall integrity, in F. oxysporum. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Effects of Different Fertilizer Rates, Planting Density and Plant Growth Regulators on Yield of Soybean Cultivar Tiedou 68%肥密化控对铁豆68号产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董友魁; 刘德恒; 韩艳红

    2015-01-01

    采用正交试验对影响铁豆68号产量的密度、施肥量、叶面喷肥、化控次数4因素进行研究,结果表明,对大豆新品种铁豆68号产量影响的顺序是:施肥量、密度、叶面喷肥、化控次数;铁豆68号最理想的栽培技术模式是密度1.1万株/667m2,施肥量为20 kg/667m2,叶面喷肥1次,化控次数1次。%In order to examine the effects of planting density, fertilization rates, foliar application and times of plant growth regulator application during the growing period of soybean cultivar Tiedou 68, the orthogonal experimental design was used to carry out data analysis. The result indicated that the order of cultivation practices on soybean new variety Tiedou 68 was: fertilization rate, planting density, foliar application and times of plant growth regulator application. The ideal cultural pattern of cultivar Tiedou 68 was planting density of 11 000/667m2, fertilization rate of 20 kg/667m2, and one time of foliar and plant growth regulator application.

  20. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators and Humic Substance on the Phytoremediation of Nickel in a Ni-Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Shafigh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plants can uptake, bioaccumulate and immobilize different metals in their tissues. Phytoremediation technique has been used to remove hazardous substances including heavy metals from the environment. Assisted phytoremediation is usually the process of applying a chemical additive to heavy metal contaminated soils to enhance the metal uptake by plants. The main objective of present study was to investigate the effectiveness of plant growth regulators (PGRs and a humic substance (HS on Ni phytoremediation by maize in a Ni-pollutrd calcareous soil. Materials and Methods: The experiment designed as a 5×3 factorial trial arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Three kilograms of soil was placed in plastic pots and pots were watered with distilled water to field capacity and maintained at this moisture level throughout the experiment by watering the pots to a constant weight. The soils were polluted with 250 mg Ni Kg-1 as Ni-nitrate Ni (NO32. Six maize (Zea mays L. seeds were planted 2 cm deep in soil and thinned to three uniform stands 1 week after emergence. Treatments consisted of three levels of soil application of commercially humic substance, HS, (0, 3, and 6 mg kg as Humax 95-WSG containing about 80% humic acid, and about 15% fulvic acid and five levels of PGRs (0 or 10 µM GA3, IAA, BAP and SA. The HS was applied as split doses in three times at 15 day intervals along with irrigation water. The seedlings were exposed to aqueous solutions of HS 16 days after sowing for the first time. Prepared solutions of PGRs were sprayed three times at 15 day intervals from emergence. Seven weeks after planting, shoots were harvested and roots were separated from soil carefully, both parts were rinsed with distilled water and dried at 65°C for 72 h, weighed, ground, and dry meshed at 550°C. Root and shoot dry matter and Ni concentration and uptake and phytoremediation criteria were considered as plant responses

  1. Effect of Different Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and in vitro Rapid Propagation of Wild Petunia Juss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHAO; Na XU; Zhongyou MA; Wei LIU

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the seeds of wild Petunia Juss. were used as explants to in- vestigate the optimal condition for tissue culture. Several different kinds and concen- trations of growth regulators were adopted to produce more multiple bud clumps, callus or roots in this study. The experiments may provide experimental foundation for the rapid propagation technology and establishment of tissue culture system for wild Petunia Juss.

  2. Effect of plant growth regulators on possibility of reduction of insecticide load in agrocenoses of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. А. Ryabchenko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides BI-58 new and Diazinone decrease the extent of damage of the winter wheat culm by cereals flies 7,2–8,0 times in comparison with the control. Combination of the studied insecticides with the mixtures of growth regulators allows to decrease the rate of insecticides application by 20 % without any increase of the culms damage by the pests.

  3. Alleviation of the Effects of NaCl Salinity in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green Using Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental stress due to salinity has been reported to result in adverse effects on the growth of plants. Studies have shown that the use of plant growth regulators (PGRs has an ameliorative effect on plants grown under saline conditions. In the present investigation, effect of gibberellic acid (GA3, 6-furfuryladenine (Kinetin and benzyl adenine (BA on Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green, cultivated under saline conditions has been studied. After a pre-soaking treatment of six hours in 20 mg L-1 solutions of GA3, Kinetin and BA, the seeds were allowed to germinate and grow for forty-five days under saline conditions. On the analysis of mature leaves, it was observed that both chlorophyll a and b, and total chlorophyll showed an increase in PGR-treated plants compared to the untreated set. With the pretreatment, the reducing and non-reducing sugar content, as well as protein content of the leaves showed an increase in accumulation compared to the untreated plants. The accumulation of the stress metabolite proline, which increases under saline conditions, showed a significant decrease in the plants pretreated with PGRs.

  4. 果蔬中几种常用植物生长调节剂概况及研究%General situation and research of several normal plant growth regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳祥; 王珊珊

    2013-01-01

    概述几种常用的植物生长调节剂现状及残留,并根据植物生长调节剂常出现的问题提出我国植物生长调节剂限量标准的建议.%Current situation and residual of several normal plant growth regulators were described.Limits recommend for plant growth regulators were put forward according to the common problems of plant growth regulators.

  5. Phytoremediation of cadmium improved with the high production of endogenous phenolics and free proline contents in Parthenium hysterophorus plant treated exogenously with plant growth regulator and chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Hadi, Fazal

    2015-09-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on growth parameters, cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction, total phenolics, free proline and chlorophyll content of Parthenium hysterophorus plant grown in Cd-contaminated (100 mg/kg) soil. GA3 was applied as foliar spray (10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6) M) while EDTA (40 mg/kg soil) was added to soil as single and in split doses. Results showed decrease in growth parameters due to Cd stress but P. hysterophorus plant demonstrated Cd hyperaccumulator potential based on bioconcentration factor (BCF). Lower concentration of GA3 (10(-6) M) showed highest significant increase in the growth parameters while Cd concentration, accumulation (1.97 ± 0.11 mg/DBM) and bioconcentration (9.75 ± 0.34) was significantly higher in the treatment T11 (GA3 10(-2) + split doses of EDTA). Cadmium significantly increased the root free proline while total phenolic concentration was significantly high in all parts of the plant. Chlorophyll contents were significantly reduced by Cd. GA3 showed significant increase in phenolic and chlorophyll contents in plant. Cadmium accumulation in plant tissues showed positive correlation with free proline (R (2) = 0.527, R (2) = 0.630) and total phenolics (R (2) = 0.554, R (2) = 0.723) in roots and leaves, respectively. Cd contents negatively correlated with biomass, chlorophyll and total water contents. Proline and phenolic contents showed positive correlation with dry biomass of plant. These findings suggest further investigation to study the role of endogenous phenolics and proline in heavy metal phytoremediation.

  6. 植物生长调节剂研究现状及其在茶树上的应用%Advances in Plant Growth Regulators and It's Application on Tea Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 李维

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth regulators have been widely used in agricultural production. It can improve crop growth conditions effectively, increase crop yield and quality, while its application security on agricultural is receiving more attention. In this paper, a number of studies on plant growth regulators in recent years were reviewed, and the application of plant growth regulators in tea plants was also prospected.%植物生长调节剂已广泛应用于农业生产中,它能有效地改善作物生长状况,提高农作物的产量和质量,同时它在农业中应用的安全性也越来越受到重视.文章就近年研究得比较多的植物生长调节剂进行综述,并对其在茶树方面的应用进行了展望.

  7. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on plant growth, osmotic regulation and ion homeostasis of salt-stressed canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Gao, H; Wang, X; Zheng, Q; Wang, C; Wang, X; Wang, Q

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated effects of foliar spraying 24-epibrassinoide (24-EBL) on the growth of salt-stressed canola. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were treated with 150 mM NaCl and different concentrations of 24-EBL (10(-6), 10(-8), 10(-10), 10(-12) M) for 15 days. A concentration of 10(-10) M 24-EBL was chosen as optimal and used in a subsequent experiment on plant biomass and leaf water potential parameters. The results showed that 24-EBL mainly promoted shoot growth of salt-stressed plants and also ameliorated leaf water status. Foliar spraying of salt-stressed canola with 24-EBL increased osmotic adjustment ability in all organs, especially in younger leaves and roots. This was mainly due to an increase of free amino acid content in upper leaves, soluble sugars in middle leaves, organic acids and proline in lower leaves, all of these compounds in roots, as well as essential inorganic ions. Na(+) and Cl(-) sharply increased in different organs under salt stress, and 24-EBL reduced their accumulation. 24-EBL improved the uptake of K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NO3(-) in roots, which were mainly transported to upper leaves, while NO3(-) was mainly transported to middle leaves. Thus, 24-EBL improvements in ion homeostasis of K(+)/Na(+), Ca(2+)/Na(+), Mg(2+)/Na(+) and NO3(-)/Cl(-), especially in younger leaves and roots, could be explained. As most important parts, younger leaves and roots were the main organs protected by 24-EBL via improvement in osmotic adjustment ability and ion homeostasis. Further, physiological status of growth of salt-stressed canola was ameliorated after 24-EBL treatment. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  10. Action of Plant Growth Regulators. IV. Adsorption of Unsubstituted and 2,6-Dichloro-aromatic Acids to Oat Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    The adsorption of chloro-aromatic acids to monomolecular layers of oat squashes is reported in earlier papers but it was not possible by the technique used, to measure unambiguously the adsorption of unsubstituted and 2,6-dichloro-aromatic acids. This has now been achieved by a modification of the earlier method and involves assessments of competitive adsorption between the unknown acid and a standard acid, using measurements of surface potential. Benzoic and phenoxyacetic acids were not adsorbed but phenylacetic acid was weakly adsorbed. The second ring in naphthalene and naphthoxyacetic acids greatly increased adsorption. Substitution of the 2 and 6 positions in the phenyl and phenoxyacetic acids resulted in low adsorption but 2,6-disubstituted phenoxybutyric and benzoic acids were more highly adsorbed. The adsorption values from earlier work are combined and discussed in relation to the growth-regulating activity of the acids. It is conciuded that there is no direct relation embracing all acids between adsorption and activity, notable exceptions being those substituted by chlorine in the 3-position of the aromatic ring. However, for a number of acids it is suggested that activity is limited not only by their ability to interact at enzyme sites but also by the amount of acid immobilised by adsorption when moving to these sites. It is also concluded that the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance of a growth regulator sometimes used as a guide to its activity, is an unreliable indication of interfacial behaviour. PMID:16656642

  11. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  12. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  13. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting (PGPB) or stress homeostasis-regulating (PSHB) bacteria associated to the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroy, Verónica; Cassán, Fabricio; Masciarelli, Oscar; Del Papa, María Florencia; Lagares, Antonio; Luna, Virginia

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from halophyte Prosopis strombulifera grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion or stress homeostasis regulation. Isolates obtained from P. strombulifera were compared genotypically by BOX-polymerase chain reaction, grouped according to similarity, and identified by amplification and partial sequences of 16S DNAr. Isolates were grown until exponential growth phase to evaluate the atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores, and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as antifungal, protease, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. A total of 29 endophytic strains were grouped into seven according to similarity. All bacteria were able to grow and to produce some phytohormone in chemically defined medium with or without addition of a nitrogen source. Only one was able to produce siderophores, and none of them solubilized phosphate. ACC deaminase activity was positive for six strains. Antifungal and protease activity were confirmed for two of them. In this work, we discuss the possible implications of these bacterial mechanisms on the plant growth promotion or homeostasis regulation in natural conditions.

  14. Effect of plant growth regulators and genotype on the micropropagation of adult trees of Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Filomena; Simões, Mafalda; Lopes, Maria L; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2010-12-31

    Arbutus unedo grows spontaneously around the Mediterranean basin. The species is tolerant to drought and has a strong regeneration capacity following fires making it interesting for Mediterranean forestation programs. Considering the sparse information about the potential of this fruit tree to be propagated in vitro, a project to clone selected trees based on their fruit production was initiated a few years ago. The role of several factors on A. unedo propagation was evaluated. The results showed that 8.9 μm kinetin gave the best results although not significantly different from those obtained with benzyladenine or zeatin. The inclusion of thidiazuron or 1-naphthaleneacetic acid promoted callus growth and had deleterious effects on the multiplication rate. The genotype of the donor plants is also a factor interfering with the multiplication. The results also indicated that the conditions used for multiplication influenced the behavior of shoots during the rooting phase.

  15. A Cold-Inducible DEAD-Box RNA Helicase from Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Plant Growth and Development under Low Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Liu

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases comprise a large family and are involved in a range of RNA processing events. Here, we identified one of the Arabidopsis thaliana DEAD-box RNA helicases, AtRH7, as an interactor of Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 3 (AtCSP3, which is an RNA chaperone involved in cold adaptation. Promoter:GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtRH7 is expressed ubiquitously and that its levels of the expression are higher in rapidly growing tissues. Knockout mutant lines displayed several morphological alterations such as disturbed vein pattern, pointed first true leaves, and short roots, which resemble ribosome-related mutants of Arabidopsis. In addition, aberrant floral development was also observed in rh7 mutants. When the mutants were germinated at low temperature (12°C, both radicle and first leaf emergence were severely delayed; after exposure of seedlings to a long period of cold, the mutants developed aberrant, fewer, and smaller leaves. RNA blots and circular RT-PCR revealed that 35S and 18S rRNA precursors accumulated to higher levels in the mutants than in WT under both normal and cold conditions, suggesting the mutants are partially impaired in pre-rRNA processing. Taken together, the results suggest that AtRH7 affects rRNA biogenesis and plays an important role in plant growth under cold.

  16. A Cold-Inducible DEAD-Box RNA Helicase from Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Plant Growth and Development under Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuelin; Tabata, Daisuke; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases comprise a large family and are involved in a range of RNA processing events. Here, we identified one of the Arabidopsis thaliana DEAD-box RNA helicases, AtRH7, as an interactor of Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 3 (AtCSP3), which is an RNA chaperone involved in cold adaptation. Promoter:GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtRH7 is expressed ubiquitously and that its levels of the expression are higher in rapidly growing tissues. Knockout mutant lines displayed several morphological alterations such as disturbed vein pattern, pointed first true leaves, and short roots, which resemble ribosome-related mutants of Arabidopsis. In addition, aberrant floral development was also observed in rh7 mutants. When the mutants were germinated at low temperature (12°C), both radicle and first leaf emergence were severely delayed; after exposure of seedlings to a long period of cold, the mutants developed aberrant, fewer, and smaller leaves. RNA blots and circular RT-PCR revealed that 35S and 18S rRNA precursors accumulated to higher levels in the mutants than in WT under both normal and cold conditions, suggesting the mutants are partially impaired in pre-rRNA processing. Taken together, the results suggest that AtRH7 affects rRNA biogenesis and plays an important role in plant growth under cold.

  17. TaSCL14, a novel wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) GRAS gene, regulates plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunmei; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Yaofeng; Zheng, Qi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng

    2015-01-20

    Rates of photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence are all important physiological factors that affect plant development and thus agricultural productivity. GRAS proteins play essential roles in plant growth and development as well as in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far few GRAS genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been characterized. A previous transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression of a GRAS gene (TaSCL14) was induced by high-light stress in Xiaoyan 54 (XY54), a common wheat cultivar with strong tolerance to high-light stress. In this study, TaSCL14 gene was isolated from XY54 and mapped on chromosome 4A. TaSCL14 was expressed in various wheat organs, with high levels in stems and roots. Our results confirmed that TaSCL14 expression was indeed responsive to high-light stress. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of TaSCL14 in wheat was performed to help characterize its potential functions. Silencing of TaSCL14 resulted in inhibited plant growth, decreased photosynthetic capacity, and reduced tolerance to photooxidative stress. In addition, silencing of TaSCL14 in wheat promoted leaf senescence induced by darkness. These results suggest that TaSCL14 may act as a multifunctional regulator involved in plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 植物生长调节剂在高尔夫草坪上的应用%Application prospect of plant growth regulators on gol f turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏发生; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

    高尔夫球场草坪养护成本增加和效益降低已成为草坪养护管理者所面临的一个严峻问题。在草坪养护中,合理应用植物生长调节剂能有效地减少能源消耗和机械磨损,节省劳动力资源,提高草坪质量。植物生长调节剂能够促进高尔夫草坪种子萌发、幼苗生长和加速成坪;延缓高尔夫草坪生长,减少修剪;促进高尔夫草坪着色,延长绿期,提高草坪观赏性;促进草坪生根,增加分蘖,提高草坪草的抗逆性。%It has become a serious problem for turfgrass manager that the cost is increasing where as out-come is dropping in turfgrass maintenance and management.In the turf maintenance process,proper application of plant growth regulators can effectively reduce the energy consumption and mechanical wear,save labor usage and improve turf quality.Plant growth regulators can effectively promote the golf turf seed germination,rate seedling growth;reduce vain growth and mowing frequency;promote golf turf coloring,prolong green period;stimulate the root growth,improve tiller numbers;increase the resistance of turf.

  19. [Ability of representatives of Pantoea agglomerans, as well as Bacillus subtilis and some Pseudomonas species to suppress the development of phytopathgenic bacteria and micromycetes in regulating plant growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, V M; Alimov, D M

    2000-01-01

    The ability of representatives of Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) Dye [21]), Bacillus subtilis and some species of Pseudomonas genus to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria and micromycetes and to regulate the growth of plants has been comparatively studied. The ability to inhibit the growth of mycellium of phytopathogenic Fusarium avenaceum, F. gibbosum, F. oxysporum was found out in all of 13 investigated strains of P. agglomerans, while the growth of F. culmorum is inhibited by 2 strains and Bipolaris sorokiniana is inhibited by 7 strains. The strains of P. agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis inhibit the growth of mycellium of these mycromycetes to the greater extent than the representatives of Pseudomonas genus. The mycellium growth of B. sorokiniana is better inhibited by B. subtilis and representatives of Pseudomonas genus. Besides the antifungal action 8 strains of P. agglomerans manifested the antagonistic activity in respect to phytopathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and representatives of genera Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and also in respect to the microflora which is present in the cabbage and wheat seeds. The strains have been revealed which, parallel with high antagonistic activity in respect to phytopathogenic micromycetes and bacteria, stimulate the seed germination and increase the weight of the cabbage and wheat sprouts.

  20. Influence of Growth Regulators on Secondary Metabolites of Medicinally Important Oil Yielding Plant Simarouba glauca DC. under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awate P.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One year old seedlings of Simarouba glauca were subjected to water stress for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days. The foliar sprays of 50 ppm salicylic acid (SA and 10 ppm Putriscine, Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA and Abscisic acid (ABA were applied before and after water stress. It was observed that polyphenols, tannins, alkaloid and flavonoid contents were increased with increasing water stress treatments. Foliar applications of growth regulators ameliorate water stress and exhibits induction of secondary metabolites like coumarins, sterols, xanthoproteins, cardiac glycosides and saponins. It was also noticed that foliar application of SA, GABA, ABA considerably increases all these secondary metabolites which will help to improve the medicinal potential of Simarouba glauca under water stressed condition.

  1. Role of plant growth regulators and a saprobic fungus in enhancement of metal phytoextraction potential and stress alleviation in pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus-e-Bareen; Shafiq, Muhammad; Jamil, Sidra

    2012-10-30

    "Assisted phytoextraction" involving application of chemical additives such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) has become a trend in phytoremediation technology. This study identifies a cost-effective, naturally available crude PGR (PGR1) that produces the same effects as the commercial PGR (PGR2), increasing metal uptake by plants and the reduction of metal stress. Assisted phytoextraction by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from a multi-metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Na and Zn) contaminated soil medium with tannery solid waste (TSW) soil amendments of 5 and 10%, was evaluated in a full-factorial pot trial with PGR1, PGR2 and Trichoderma pseudokoningii as factors. The effects of these phytoextraction assistants were measured through dry biomass production, heavy metal uptake, stress tolerance enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), soluble protein content of plant, and phytoextraction efficiency. Dry biomass and multi-metal accumulation were the highest in the soil treatments with a combined application of PGR1, PGR2 and T. pseudokoningii and the lowest in the control. The soluble protein contents and the SOD and CAT values were the highest in the 10% TSW treatment provided with PGR2+T. pseudokoningii, while the lowest were in the control. Thus, application of crude PGR in combination with other phytoextraction assistants can increase biomass production as well as multi-metal accumulation in plants. However, the biochemical properties of the plant depend on the level of TSW stress in the soil treatment as well as the type of phytoextraction assistants.

  2. Phytophthora capsici homologue of the cell cycle regulator SDA1 is required for sporangial morphology, mycelial growth and plant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lv, Rongfei; Li, Zhuang; Ding, Xiaomeng; Tyler, Brett M; Zhang, Xiuguo

    2016-04-01

    SDA1 encodes a highly conserved protein that is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. SDA1 is essential for cell cycle progression and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in yeasts and humans. In this study, we identified a Phytophthora capsici orthologue of yeast SDA1, named PcSDA1. In P. capsici, PcSDA1 is strongly expressed in three asexual developmental states (mycelium, sporangia and germinating cysts), as well as late in infection. Silencing or overexpression of PcSDA1 in P. capsici transformants affected the growth of hyphae and sporangiophores, sporangial development, cyst germination and zoospore release. Phalloidin staining confirmed that PcSDA1 is required for organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and PcSDA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions revealed that PcSDA1 is involved in the regulation of nuclear distribution in hyphae and sporangia. Both silenced and overexpression transformants showed severely diminished virulence. Thus, our results suggest that PcSDA1 plays a similar role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear division in this filamentous organism as in non-filamentous yeasts and human cells.

  3. Application of Plant Growth Regulators in Control of Insect Pests%植物生长调节剂在害虫生物防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈媛; 董红霞; 郑福山

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth regulator is a kind of organic compounds, which could regulate and control plant growth and development and various physiological activities. While plant growth regulators could induce plants to produce secondary metabolite on insect growth inhibition, defense and repellent and so on. The characteristics, classification of plant growth regulators were summarized. And the application of plant growth regulators in biological control of insect pests was introduced.%植物生长调节剂是一类调节和控制植物生长发育及各种生理活动的有机化合物,同时它能诱导植物产生一些次生物质对害虫产生生长抑制、防御和驱避等作用。概述植物生长调节剂的种类和作用特点,并对其在害虫生物防治中的应用进行介绍。

  4. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Rooting of Cape Jasmine%植物生长调节剂对栀子扦插生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章志红; 蒋联方

    2012-01-01

    研究了4种植物生长调节剂对栀子(Gardenia jasminoides Ellis)一年生枝条扦插生根的影响.结果表明,栀子为中间生根型,属较易生根植物,以200 mg/L IBA处理1.5 h,其扦插生根率、平均生根数、平均根长和根系效果指数在各处理中表现最优.%The effect of four kinds of plant growth regulators on the rooting of one-year Cape jasmine was studied. The results showed that Cape jasmine was an easy rooting plant. The cttings rooting rate, average root number, average root length and root effects index reached the best when the branches were treated in 200 mg/L IBA solution for 1.5 h.

  5. Stochasticity in plant cellular growth and patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Meyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants, along with other multicellular organisms, have evolved specialized regulatory mechanisms to achieve proper tissue growth and morphogenesis. During development, growing tissues generate specialized cell types and complex patterns necessary for establishing the function of the organ. Tissue growth is a tightly regulated process that yields highly reproducible outcomes. Nevertheless, the underlying cellular and molecular behaviors are often stochastic. Thus, how does stochasticity, together with strict genetic regulation, give rise to reproducible tissue development? This review draws examples from plants as well as other systems to explore stochasticity in plant cell division, growth, and patterning. We conclude that stochasticity is often needed to create small differences between identical cells, which are amplified and stabilized by genetic and mechanical feedback loops to begin cell differentiation. These first few differentiating cells initiate traditional patterning mechanisms to ensure regular development.

  6. Effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils of Cauvery new delta zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulse productivity is very low in some of the sandy soil areas where, soils are having poor water and nutrient holding capacity. To improve the pulse productivity, field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu for two consecutive years to study the effect of phosphorus sources (mono- and diammonium phosphate with brassinolide and salicylic acid on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif season. The treatments include 100% recommended dose of NPK along with foliar application of monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, brassinolide (0.25 ppm, and salicylic acid (100 ppm along with the combination of these treatments. TNAU pulse wonder at 5.0 kg ha−1 and TNAU micronutrient mixture (MN at 5 kg ha−1 were also tried. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended dose of NPK + DAP 2% + TNAU pulse wonder 5.0 kg ha−1 was statistically significant and recorded higher plant growth (37.62 cm, number of pods / plant (37.15, yield of black gram (1162 kg ha−1, and benefit cost ratio (2.98 over the other treatments. The lowest black gram yield (730 kg ha−1 was recorded for control.

  7. Selection of hybrids and edible citrus species with a high content in the diosmin functional compound. Modulating effect of plant growth regulators on contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, F R; Del Río, J A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify species, hybrids, and cultivars of edible Citrus species with high contents of diosmin as a functional compound and also to identify the developmental progress of the fruit in which it reaches maximum levels; these findings would be useful for extraction purposes and for the modulating effect of plant growth regulators on diosmin content to increase the level of this flavone. The results obtained reveal that the highest contents of diosmin are present in immature fruits of certain varieties of citron (Buda's finger) and lemon (Meyer), whereas the contents in the edible parts of the fruits are irrelevant from a pharmacological point of view. Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to increase the content of this flavone using hormonal treatments (6-benzylaminopurine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) during the early stages of fruit growth.

  8. Detection and quantification of some plant growth regulators in a seaweed-based foliar spray employing a mass spectrometric technique sans chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kamalesh; Das, Arun Kumar; Oza, Mihir Deepak; Brahmbhatt, Harshad; Siddhanta, Arup Kumar; Meena, Ramavatar; Eswaran, Karuppanan; Rajyaguru, Mahesh Rameshchandra; Ghosh, Pushpito Kumar

    2010-04-28

    The sap expelled from the fresh harvest of Kappaphycus alvarezii , a red seaweed growing in tropical waters, has been reported to be a potent foliar spray. Tandem mass spectrometry of various organic extracts of the sap confirmed the presence of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) indole 3-acetic acid, gibberellin GA(3), kinetin, and zeatin. These PGRs were quantified in fresh state and after 1 year of storage by ESI-MS without recourse to chromatographic separation. Quantification was validated against HPLC data. The results may be useful in correlating with the efficacy of the sap. The methodology was extended to two other seaweeds. The method developed is convenient and precise and may find application in other agricultural formulations containing these growth hormones.

  9. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  10. Study on Application Techniques of Plant Growth Regulator Foliar Treasure%植物生长调节剂叶面宝应用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华玉

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂叶面宝应用技术。[方法]进行6种植物生长调节剂叶面宝浓度下用材林树种沙兰杨、泡桐、法桐和果树山楂、葡萄、红富士、黑奥林、巨峰对比试验,研究植物生长调节剂叶面宝增益效应。[结果]试验结果表明,用叶面宝900~1200 mL/hm2,于6—7月份分2~3次喷施,用材林的高生长和粗生长有明显提高,果树叶重、果重和含糖量、树势等都有极显著提高。[结论]叶面宝在林业生产中,尤其在果树生产中有较大的推广和应用价值。%Objective] The aim was to explore the application techniques of plant growth regulator foliar treasure. [Method] The gain effects were studied by concentration test of Shaalan Yang timber species, paulownia, Fatong hawthorn and fruit trees, grapes, Fuji, Olympus black, Jufeng with the six kinds of plant growth regulators foliar concentrations treasures. [Result] The results showed that high growth and diameter growth of timbers has improved significantly with foliage treasure 900-1 200 mL/hm2, 2-3 times spraying in June - July, and leaf weight, fruit weight and sugar content, vigor and others of fruit trees increased significantly. [Conclusion] Foliar treasure had greater promotion and application value in forestry production, especially in fruit production.

  11. Overexpression of the maize GRF10, an endogenous truncated growth-regulating factor protein, leads to reduction in leaf size and plant height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wu; Dengfeng Zhang; Ming Xue; Jianjun Qian; Yan He; and Shoucai Wang

    2014-01-01

    It has long been thought that growth‐regulating factors (GRFs) gene family members act as transcriptional activators to play important roles in multiple plant develop-mental processes. However, the recent characterization of Arabidopsis GRF7 showed that it functions as a transcriptional repressor of osmotic stress‐responsive genes. This highlights the complex and diverse mechanisms by which different GRF members use to take action. In this study, the maize (Zea mays L.) GRF10 was functional y characterized to improve this concept. The deduced ZmGRF10 protein retains the N‐terminal QLQ and WRC domains, the characteristic regions as protein‐interacting and DNA‐binding domains, respectively. However, it lacks nearly the entire C‐terminal domain, the regions executing transactivation activity. Consistently, ZmGRF10 protein maintains the ability to interact with GRF‐interacting factors (GIFs) proteins, but lacks transactivation activity. Overexpression of ZmGRF10 in maize led to a reduction in leaf size and plant height through decreasing cel proliferation, whereas the yield‐related traits were not affected. Tran-scriptome analysis revealed that multiple biological pathways were affected by ZmGRF10 overexpression, including a few transcriptional regulatory genes, which have been demon-strated to have important roles in control ing plant growth and development. We propose that ZmGRF10 aids in fine‐tuning the homeostasis of the GRF‐GIF complex in the regulation of cel proliferation.

  12. PLANT-MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE – STRATEGIES FOR PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Stefan; Neculai Munteanu; Simona Dunca

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that can actively colonize plant rootsand enhance plant growth using different mechanisms: production of plant growth regulators like indoleacetic acid,gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene(Zahir et al., 2003), providing the host plant with fixed nitrogen, solubilizationof soil phosphorus, enhance Fe uptake, biocontrol, reducing the concentration of heavy metals. PGPR are perfectcandidates to be used as biofertilizers – e...

  13. Functional characterization of the Arabidopsis eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-2 that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development by regulating cell division, cell growth, and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haizhong; Chen, Qingguo; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xiaohui; Zuo, Jianru

    2007-07-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is a highly conserved protein found in all eukaryotic organisms. Although originally identified as a translation initiation factor, recent studies in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells suggest that eIF-5A is mainly involved in RNA metabolism and trafficking, thereby regulating cell proliferation, cell growth, and programmed cell death. In higher plants, the physiological function of eIF-5A remains largely unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant fumonisin B(1)-resistant12 (fbr12). The fbr12 mutant shows an antiapoptotic phenotype and has reduced dark-induced leaf senescence. Moreover, fbr12 displays severe defects in plant growth and development. The fbr12 mutant plant is extreme dwarf with substantially reduced size and number of all adult organs. During reproductive development, fbr12 causes abnormal development of floral organs and defective sporogenesis, leading to the abortion of both female and male germline cells. Microscopic studies revealed that these developmental defects are associated with abnormal cell division and cell growth. Genetic and molecular analyses indicated that FBR12 encodes a putative eIF-5A-2 protein. When expressed in a yeast mutant strain carrying a mutation in the eIF-5A gene, FBR12 cDNA is able to rescue the lethal phenotype of the yeast mutant, indicating that FBR12 is a functional eIF-5A. We propose that FBR12/eIF-5A-2 is fundamental for plant growth and development by regulating cell division, cell growth, and cell death.

  14. An Uncommon Plant Growth Regulator, Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate, Is Highly Effective in Tissue Cultures of the Important Medicinal Plant Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6 on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.

  15. An uncommon plant growth regulator, diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, is highly effective in tissue cultures of the important medicinal plant purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Rong; Li, Qing-Ling; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.

  16. 浅谈植物生长调节剂在草坪管理上的应用%On the Application of Plant Growth Regulators in Lawn Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓炜; 丁铁玉

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth regulators can control the growth of lawn grass.By describing the application mechanism of plant growth regulators,detailed summarized on how to rationally use them in lawn management.On the other hand,aimed at seven kinds of common plant growth regulators,detailed introduced their chemical properties,mechanism and use methods in lawn management.%植物生长调节剂可以调控草坪草的生长,通过阐述植物生长调节剂的应用机制,详细总结出如何在草坪管理中对其进行合理使用。另针对常见的七种植物生长调节剂,详细介绍了其化学性质、作用机制及其在草坪管理上的使用方法。

  17. Novel protein controls growth regulators in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A recent study by CAS researchers could add new dimensions to the understanding of downstream signaling mechanism of Brassinosteroids(BRs), a group of plant growth regulators, in rice. Their work was published by the August 21 issue of the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

  18. A continuous growth model for plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-12-01

    Morphogenesis in plants and animals involves large irreversible deformations. In plants, the response of the cell wall material to internal and external forces is determined by its mechanical properties. An appropriate model for plant tissue growth must include key features such as anisotropic and heterogeneous elasticity and cell dependent evaluation of mechanical variables such as turgor pressure, stress and strain. In addition, a growth model needs to cope with cell divisions as a necessary part of the growth process. Here we develop such a growth model, which is capable of employing not only mechanical signals but also morphogen signals for regulating growth. The model is based on a continuous equation for updating the resting configuration of the tissue. Simultaneously, material properties can be updated at a different time scale. We test the stability of our model by measuring convergence of growth results for a tissue under the same mechanical and material conditions but with different spatial discretization. The model is able to maintain a strain field in the tissue during re-meshing, which is of particular importance for modeling cell division. We confirm the accuracy of our estimations in two and three-dimensional simulations, and show that residual stresses are less prominent if strain or stress is included as input signal to growth. The approach results in a model implementation that can be used to compare different growth hypotheses, while keeping residual stresses and other mechanical variables updated and available for feeding back to the growth and material properties.

  19. The effects of simultaneous application of plant growth regulators and bioaugmentation on improvement of phytoremediation of pyrene contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Saeid; Azhdarpoor, Abooalfazl; Rostami, Majid; Samaei, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a wide group of soil contaminants whose presence in the environment is a cause of concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the phytoremediation activities of sorghum bicolor and increase in pyrene removal efficiency in the soil. The initial concentration of pyrene was 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) in this experiment. The treatments included unplanted soil (T0), planted soil with sorghum (T1), planted soil with application of IAA (T2), planted soil with application of Pseudomonas sp. (T3), and planted soil with simultaneous application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. (T4). The pyrene removal rate in the soil was measured every 30 days. Moreover, plant biomass and soil bacteria were measured after 90 days. The results showed that pyrene removal rate significantly increased in the planted treatments compared to the unplanted ones. After 90 days, at the initial concentration of 150-300 mg kg(-1), pyrene removal efficiency was 52-92% in T1-T4 and 35-47% in the unplanted treatment (T0). Application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. significantly increased plant biomass, soil bacteria, and pyrene removal rate in T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1. Therefore, application of IAA in the planted treatments with sorghum could have a significant effect on increasing the removal efficiency of pyrene.

  20. The Effect Of Some Plant Growth Regulators And Their Combination With Methyl Jasmonate On Anthocyanin Formation In Roots Of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góraj Justyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs - auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, ethylene and their interaction with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied to roots of the whole plants Kalanchoe blossfeldiana on the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. The highest stimulation of anthocyanins synthesis was stated with application of JA-Me alone. In response to treatments with the other tested PGRs, the content of anthocyanins in roots of a whole plant was different depending on the concentration of the PGR when being applied alone or together with JA-Me. Auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA at a concentration of 50 mg·L-1, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 5 mg·L-1 and abscisic acid (ABA at 10 mg·L-1 induced anthocyanin accumulation with approximately 60-115% compared to the control while 24-epibrassinolid (epiBL, gibberellic acid (GA3 and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP had no effect on the anthocyanin accumulation. The simultaneous administration of the PGRs with JA-Me usually resulted in the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots in a manner similar to that caused by JA-Me. PGRs applied to isolated roots did not stimulate anthocyanin accumulation, except for the combination of JA-Me with 50 mg·L-1 IAA.

  1. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  2. In Vitro Propagation Of ‘Gisela 5’ Rootstock As Affected By Mineral Composition Of Media And Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahpour Maliheh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to determine the best mineral composition of media and plant growth regulators in the micropropagation of the ‘Gisela 5’ (Prunus cerasus × P. canescens dwarf sweet cherry rootstock. Nodal explants from young healthy shoots were excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. In vitro raised shoot tips were transferred to three culture media including Murashige and Skoog (MS, Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW and Lloyd and McCown (WPM containing benzyl adenine (BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1 in combination with kinetin (Kin at 0 or 0.5 mg·l−1. WPM and DKW media were proving to be the most effective, resulting in a higher percentage of shoot multiplication and shoot number as compared to MS. BA in concentration 2 mg·l−1 resulted in the highest number of microshoots per explant (3.1. For rooting, 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg·l−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA on MS, DKW and WPM media were tested. WPM medium containing 2 mg·l−1 IBA was most effective for rooting (93.7% in comparison to MS (53.1% and DKW (14.0%. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and established in pots.

  3. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  4. Application Reports of Plant Growth Regulators to Peanut Production%植物生长调节剂在花生上的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文科; 何勇明; 李涛; 黄革文; 兰生葵

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The reference for the high-yielding peanut cultivation was provided through the research on the effect of 4 kinds of plant growth regulators on its yield and related trait. [ Method ] 4 kinds of plant growth regulators: Chaoshengban (there were two treatments and once spraying:900 g/hm2 in the flower-needling period;twice sprayings:450 g/hm2 in seedling period and 900 g/hm2 in the flower-needling period),and Guoguangaifeng(paclobutrazol · mepiquat chloride WP) of 2 250 g/hm2 ,Kuailvfeng of 1800 g/hm2 and Lilibao of 1125 g/hm2 in the flowerneedling period of peanut were sprayed ,respectively ,and the clean water as CK was sprayed. The effect of every treatments on peanut yield and its related trait was analyzed[ Results] It was safety to spray the plant growth regulator in peanut production and 9. 32% of peanut yield was raised in the treatment of Chanshengbao-spraying ;4.24%, in both Guoguangaifeng and Kuailvfeng-spraying ;0.42%,in Lilibao-spraying, compared with that in CK. [ Conclusion ] The plant growth regulators-Chaoshengbao should be preferred in peanut production.%[目的]研究4种植物生长调节剂对花生产量及相关性状的影响,为花生高产栽培提供参考.[方法]在花生开花下针期,以喷清水为对照,分别喷施几种不同的植物生长调节剂,即喷施花生超生宝1次(开花下针期900g/hm2)、花生超生宝2次(苗期450g/hm2和开花下针期900g/hm2)、国光矮丰(多唑·甲哌鎓可湿性粉剂)2250g/hm2、快绿丰1800g/hm2,花生控旺粒粒饱1125g/hm2,调查分析各处理对花生产量及相关性状的影响.[结果]喷施植物生长调节剂对花生生产安全,其中喷施花生超生宝的处理较清水对照增产9.32%,喷施国光矮丰(多唑·甲派鎓可湿性粉剂)和快绿丰的处理均增产4.24%,喷施花生粒粒饱的处理增产0.42%.[结论]花生生产应首选花生超生宝作为调节剂.

  5. The Effects of Plant Growth Regulator on Fruit Setting Rate and Fruit Growth in Pitaya%植物生长调节剂对火龙果坐果率和果实生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志雄; 袁亚芳; 谢倩; 许小勇

    2013-01-01

    以‘红龙果Ⅱ’为试材,研究不同生长调节剂处理对火龙果坐果率和果实生长的影响。结果表明:浓度为30 mg/L GA 3或100 mg/L 6-BA对提高火龙果坐果率及促进果实生长效果最佳。%The influence of different plant growth regulators on Hylocereus polyrhizusⅡ fruit setting rate and fruit growth were studied. The results showed that the 30 mg/L GA3 or 100mg/L 6-BA was the suitable solvent for fruit setting rate and growth.

  6. Main Problems and Solutions of Plant Growth Regulators in Use%植物生长调节剂使用过程中存在的主要问题和解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先福; 雨婷; 郑昊; 万翠

    2014-01-01

    介绍了常用植物生长调节剂的毒性、半衰期和最大残留限量,分析了目前植物生长调节剂使用过程中存在的主要问题,并提出了相应的解决办法,指出科学的使用和推广会使植物生长调节剂在将来的农业生产中发挥更大的作用。%The toxicities, half-lives and maximum residue limits of commonly used plant growth regulators were introduced, the present problems in the use of plant growth regulators were analyzed, and relevant solutions were put forward in this paper. The scientific use and promotion would make plant growth regulators to play a greater role in the future agricultural production.

  7. Life- cycle assessment in pesticide product development: methods and case study on two plant-growth regulators from different product generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Georg; Hellweg, Stefanie; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2005-04-01

    Environmental assessments in pesticide product development are generally restricted to plant uptake and emissions of active ingredients. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) enables a more comprehensive evaluation by additionally assessing the impacts of pesticide production and application (e.g. tractor operations). The use of LCA in the product development of pesticides, in addition to the methods commonly applied, is therefore advisable. In this paper a procedure for conducting LCA in early phases of product development is proposed. In a case study, two plant-growth regulators from different product generations were compared regarding their application in intensive production of winter wheat. The results showed thatthe reduced emissions from active ingredients of the newer pesticide were compensated by higher impacts from the production process. The authors draw the conclusion that it is important to consider environmental objectives in the procurement of precursors, in addition to the classical goals of increasing the efficacy and reducing the nontarget effects of pesticides. Moreover, the case study showed that decisions based on uncertain results in early stages of product development may need to be revised in later stages, e.g. based on investigations of pesticides' effects on crop yield.

  8. Indirect regeneration from in vitro leaf tissue of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. in response to different treatments of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. belongs to the Apocynaceae family and accumulates more than 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, of which two dimeric alkaloids Vinblastine and Vincristine have antineoplastic activity and are useful for treatment of various cancers. Therefore, the production of these drugs has been emphasized in plant tissue culture. In this research, 25 treatments of plant growth regulators to produce callus from leaf explants and seven treatments for regeneration of calli were considered. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of different hormonal treatments in the production of callus from leaf explants is significant (P<0.01. Application of 0.1 mg/L BAP and 5 mg/L NAA in nutrient media produced a lot of calli and roots. In addition, nutrient media containing activated charcoal and without it were found to be suitable for production of callus and regeneration, respectively. In conclusion, the results showed that indirect regeneration of leaf explants is not a suitable method for micropropagation of periwinkle due to difficult regeneration of callus, probability of mutation and lower number of produced branches. But this method can be utilized for production of secondary metabolites.

  9. The altitudinal patterns of leaf C∶N∶P stoichiometry are regulated by plant growth form, climate and soil on Changbai Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Ruili; Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the geographic patterns and potential drivers of leaf stoichiometry is critical for modelling the nutrient fluxes of ecosystems and to predict the responses of ecosystems to global changes. This study aimed to explore the altitudinal patterns and potential drivers of leaf C∶N∶P stoichiometry. We measured the concentrations of leaf C, N and P in 175 plant species as well as soil nutrient concentrations along an altitudinal transect (500-2300 m) on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, China to explore the response of leaf C∶N∶P stoichiometry to plant growth form (PGF), climate and soil. Leaf C, N, P and C∶N∶P ratios showed significant altitudinal trends. In general, leaf C and C∶N∶P ratios increased while leaf N and P decreased with elevation. Woody and herbaceous species showed different responses to altitudinal gradients. Trees had the largest variation in leaf C, C∶N and C∶P ratios, while herbs showed the largest variation in leaf N, P and N∶P ratio. PGF, climate and soil jointly regulated leaf stoichiometry, explaining 17.6% to 52.1% of the variation in the six leaf stoichiometric traits. PGF was more important in explaining leaf stoichiometry variation than soil and climate. Our findings will help to elucidate the altitudinal patterns of leaf stoichiometry and to model ecosystem nutrient cycling.

  10. Effects of two plant growth regulators, indole-3-acetic acid and β-naphthoxyacetic acid, on genotoxicity in Drosophila SMART assay and on proliferation and viability of HEK293 cells from the perspective of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Asuman; Kaya, Bülent; Savaş, Burhan; Topcuoğlu, Ş Fatih

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator naturally synthesized in plants but produced synthetically, and β-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA), a synthetic plant growth regulator widely used in agricultural regions, were investigated using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila wings. The effect of the same plant growth regulators against the proliferation and viability of a human immortalized embryonic kidney HEK293 cells which is at the early stage of carcinogenesis were also examined with MTT and trypan-blue exclusion assays. For the SMART assay, two different crosses were used: a standard and a high-bioactivation (HB) cross, involving the flare-3 and the multiple wing hairs markers. The HB cross involved flies characterized by an increased cytochrome P-450-dependent bioactivation capacity, which permits the more efficient biotransformation of promutagens and procarcinogens. In both crosses, the wings of the two types of progeny, inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes, were analyzed. The results show that IAA and BNOA are not mutagenic or recombinogenic in the wing cells of Drosophila. Furthermore, neither plant growth regulator affected the proliferation rate of HEK293 cells; however, both of them induced cell death at high concentrations.

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-06-01

    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  12. 4种植物生长调节剂浸种对玉米调控效应%Regulating Effect of Seed Pre-treatment with Four Plant Growth Regulators on Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙友华; 邱红波; 何腾兵

    2011-01-01

    To confirm the regulating effect of the four plant growth regulators such as Tianda-2116,Haoxianshou, sodium nitrophenolate and brassinolide on growth, yield, and quality of maize, and to provide the basis for application of the four plant growth regulators in maize production.'Xingdan-131' was selected as the test material.A presoaking technique was used to evaluate the effect of these plant growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of maize under the field conditions through random block design.The results showed that the four plant growth regulators could enhance the growth, yield and quality of maize.The application Tianda-2116 had a significant effect on the germination rate and yield of maize.After seed was pre-soaked with Tianda-2116 solution, germination rate of maize was increased 11.1% as compared with CK, and increase maize yield per hectare was 850.4 kg than CK, with increase rate of 9.6%.The use of Haoxianshou and brassinolide also markedly enhanced maize yield, which increased by 7.9% and 7.4% as compared with CK,respectively.Sodium nitrophenolate had an evident impact on thousand com weight of maize, which was 17.3 g higher than CK.Differences were statistical significance between sodium nitrophenolate treatment and CK.Tianda-2116, Haoxianshou, sodium nitrophenolate or brassinolide could be used as seed soaking agent in maize production.%为明确天达-2116、好鲜收、复硝酚钠、芸苔素内酯4种植物生长调节剂对玉米生长发育、产量及品质调控作用,为4种植物生长调节剂在玉米上的应用提供依据.以'兴单131为试验材料,采用浸种法在田间进行随机区组试验.结果表明,4种植物生长调节剂浸种能增强玉米植株长势,提高玉米产量及品质,其中天达2116效果较为明显,出苗率比对照提高11.1%,产量每公顷比对照增产850.4kg,增产率达9.6%,增产效益显著,好鲜收、芸苔素内酯分别比对照增产7.9%和7.4%,复硝酚钠对玉米千粒

  13. Improvement of antioxidant activities and yield of spring maize through seed priming and foliar application of plant growth regulators under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during reproductive and grain filling phases adversely affects the growth of cereals through reduction in grain’s number and size. However, exogenous application of antioxidants, plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants may be helpful to minimize these heat induced yield losses in cereals. This two year study was conducted to evaluate the role of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray on biochemical, physiological, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and quality of late spring sown hybrid maize. The experiment was conducted in the spring season of 2007 and 2008. We observed that application of AsA, SA and H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray improved the physiological, biochemical, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and grain quality of late spring sown maize in both years. In both years, we observed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activity in the plants where AsA, SA and H2O2were applied through seed priming or foliar spray than control. Membrane stability index (MSI, relative water contents (RWC, chlorophyll contents, grain yield and grain oil contents were also improved by exogenous application of AsA, SA and H2O2 in both years. Seed priming of AsA, SA and H2O2was equally effective as the foliar application. In conclusion, seed priming with AsA, SA and H2O2 may be opted to lessen the heat induced yield losses in late sown spring hybrid maize. Heat tolerance induced by ASA, SA and H2O2 may be attributed to increase in antioxidant activities and MSI which maintained RWC and chlorophyll contents in maize resulting in better grain yield in heat stress conditions.

  14. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  15. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication and Plantlet Formation in Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Siddique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn effective and improved plant regeneration system was successfully developed using shoot tip explants taken from a two years old mature plant of Cassia angustifolia. The effect of different cytokinins, [6-benzyladenine (BA, Kinetin (Kin and thidiazuron (TDZ] at different concentrations (0.5-10 µM were evaluated as augmented with Murashige and Skoog (MS 1962 medium. Among all the cytokinins tested, TDZ (5.0 µM was optimum in inducing multiple shoots as compared to BA and Kin. The rate of shoot multiplication was increased when optimal concentration (5.0 µM of BA and Kin was tested with different concentration (0.1-1.0 µM of Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA. Among all the combinations tested, the maximum rate of shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM BA and 0.5 µM IAA. The number of the shoots and shoot length developed in TDZ was increased when transferred to MS medium devoid of TDZ. After every subculture, rate of the shoot multiplication and shoot length showed increment and continued even after fifth subculture without any decline rate. In vitro rooting in regenerated shoots were best obtained in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µM indole-3- butyric acid (IBA. Plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in earthen pots containing garden soil and grown in greenhouse with 80% survival rate.

  16. The Influence of the Plant Growth Regulator Maleic Hydrazide on Egyptian Broomrape Early Developmental Stages and Its Control Efficacy in Tomato under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Venezian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Phelipanche spp. and Orobanche spp. are holoparasitic plants that cause tremendous losses of agricultural crops worldwide. Broomrape control is extremely difficult and only amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present an acceptable control level. It is expected that broomrape resistance to these herbicides is not long in coming. Our objective was to develop a broomrape control system in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. based on the plant growth regulator maleic hydrazide (MH. Petri-dish and polyethylene-bag system experiments revealed that MH has a slight inhibitory effect on Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination but is a potent inhibitor of the first stages of parasitism, namely attachment and the tubercle stage. MH phytotoxicity toward tomato and its P. aegyptiaca-control efficacy were tested in greenhouse experiments. MH was applied at 25, 50, 75, 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 to tomato foliage grown in P. aegyptiaca-infested soil at 200 growing degree days (GDD and again at 400 GDD. The treatments had no influence on tomato foliage or root dry weight. The total number of P. aegyptiaca attachments counted on the roots of the treated plants was significantly lower at 75 g a.i. ha-1 and also at higher MH rates. Phelipanche aegyptiaca biomass was close to zero at rates of 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 MH. Field experiments were conducted to optimize the rate, timing and number of MH applications. Two application sequences gave superior results, both with five split applications applied at 100, 200, 400, 700, and 1000 GDD: (a constant rate of 400 g a.i. ha-1; (b first two applications at 270 g a.i. ha-1 and the next three applications at 540 g a.i. ha-1. Based on the results of this study, MH was registered for use in Israel in 2013 with the specified protocol and today, it is widely used by most Israeli tomato growers.

  17. Ação de fitorreguladores no crescimento da erva-cidreira-brasileira Action of plant growth regulators over the development of Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Baptista Stefanini

    2002-03-01

    randomized blocks, and the treatment was applied to the plots and at harvest time, to the subplots. The treatments included control, giberellic acid (GA3 50 and 100 mg.L-1, 2-cloroetil-fosfonic acid (ethephon 100 and 200 mg.L-1 and 2-cloroetil-trimetil ammonium chloride (CCC- 1000 and 2000 mg.L-1. The vegetable regulators were applied at two different periods, forty and a hundred days after establishment of the experiment, and the growth of the plants was evaluated six times. After the first application, the plants were collected at intervals of 14 days. Plant growth regulators GA3, and CCC tended to elevate the results of the evaluated parameters (dry matter of stem, leaves, flowers and total but the results always stayed smaller or equal to the control.

  18. Gibberellins - a multifaceted hormone in plant growth regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Ali, Md Nasim; Sahu, Narayan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Plants tend to acclimatize to unfavourable environs by integrating growth and development to environmentally activated signals. Phytohormones strongly regulate convergent developmental and stress adaptive procedures and synchronize cellular reaction to the exogenous and endogenous conditions within the adaptive signaling networks. Gibberellins (GA), a group of tetracyclic diterpenoids, being vital regulators of plant growth, are accountable for regulating several aspects of growth and development of higher plants. If the element of reproduction is considered as an absolute requisite then for a majority of the higher plants GA signaling is simply indispensable. Latest reports have revealed unique conflicting roles of GA and other phytohormones in amalgamating growth and development in plants through environmental signaling. Numerous physiological researches have detailed substantial crosstalk between GA and other hormones like abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid. In this review, a number of explanations and clarifications for this discrepancy are explored based on the crosstalk among GA and other phytohormones.

  19. Plant growth regulator applied at different growth stages of wheat crop=Biorregulador aplicado em diferentes estádios fenológicos na cultura do trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioregulators are relatively recent products on the market, and their use in agriculture has been slowly increasing. However, there are few scientific studies that show the efficiency of using these products in the treatment of seeds and in foliar application on the wheat crop in Brazil. The objective of this study therefore, was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of a commercial auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin-based bioregulator, in the treatment of seeds and/or in foliar application at different growth stages in the Quartzo cultivar of wheat. Foliar application was carried out at the phenological stages of tillering and flowering, and at both tillering and flowering. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a system of direct planting in the municipality of Guarapuava, PR, where maize had previously been cultivated during the summer. A randomised-block design was used, with five replications, with the following agronomic characteristics being evaluated after the point of physiological maturity: number of tillers, number of ears, number of grains per ear, hectolitre weight, 1000-grain weight and grain productivity. The auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin-based bioregulator increases grain productivity when applied jointly to the seeds and to the leaves, being more effective at the flowering stage.= Os biorreguladores são produtos relativamente novos no mercado e sua utilização vem gradativamente aumentando na agricultura. Porém, há poucos trabalhos científicos que denotam a eficiência de utilização desses produtos no tratamento de sementes e via aplicação foliar para a cultura do trigo no Brasil. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficiência agronômica de um biorregulador comercial à base de auxina, citocinina e giberelina no tratamento de sementes e/ou aplicado via foliar em diferentes estádios fenológicos na cultivar de trigo Quartzo. As aplicações foliares foram realizadas nos est

  20. Research and application of plant growth regulators on amphisarcas and food crop%植物生长调节剂对粮食作物、瓜果的影响及其残毒研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明明; 杨春光; 李一尘; 曹际娟

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the demand of fruits and vegetable products is growing, leading farmers using a variety of methods to increase production. So the plant growth regulator is widely used in agricultural production. But more and more irregular use resulted more residues in food, as it is toxic pesticides as the same as others which attracted much attention to food safety. The research and the application on plant growth regulator were reviewed in four aspects:the survey on plant growth regulator;the category and effects on plant growth regulator;the application on plant growth regulator, and the safety principle using plant growth regulator. In the present paper, the toxicity of several major plant growth regulators to environment, agricultural products and animals was discussed synthetically.%近年来,人们对果蔬农产品的需求越来越大,使得农民采用多种方法增加其产量。近几年,植物生长调节剂在农业生产中被广泛使用。但是植物生长调节剂在使用中的不规范,导致了其在食品中的残留越来越多,它同其他农药一样具有毒性,由此引起了多方对食品安全的关注。本文叙述了人工植物生长调节剂的研制概况、种类及其对粮食作物、水果生长的效用。同时,植物生长调节剂和其他农药一样,它自身或者是它的降解产物是否对人和环境有危害,产生不利的后果是人们十分关心的问题。作者综述了植物生长调节剂对人类和动物的安全性和其残留的问题,并展望了植物生长调节剂的开发前景及应用,为植物生长调节剂的合理使用,农业的高效生产提供合理的科学参考。

  1. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  2. Multiresidue analysis of plant growth regulators in grapes by triple quadrupole and quadrupole-time of flight-based liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Kulkarni, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method is presented for simultaneous determination of 12 plant growth regulators, viz., indol-3-acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid, kinetin, zeatin, 6-benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, chlormequat chloride, forchlorfenuron, paclobutrazole, daminozide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, in bud sprouts and grape berries. The sample preparation method involved extraction of homogenized sample (5 g) with 40 mL methanol (80%), and final determination was by LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with time segmentation for quantification supported by complementary analysis by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) MS with targeted high-resolution MS/MS scanning for confirmatory identification based on accurate mass measurements. The recovery of the test compounds ranged within 90-107% with precision RSD less than 5% (n = 6). The method could be successfully applied in analyzing incurred residue samples, and the strength of accurate mass analysis could be utilized in identifying the compounds in cases where the qualifier MRM ions were absent or at an S/N less than 3:1 due to low concentrations.

  3. Water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin prepared in aqueous solution for green miniaturized solid-phase extraction of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Chang, Xiaochen; Wu, Xingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia

    2016-08-01

    A water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin (MIR) was synthesized in water using melamine, urea, and formaldehyde as hydrophilic monomers of co-polycondensation. A triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) was used as porogen to dredge the network structure of MIR, and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, which has similar shape and size to the target analytes, was the dummy template of molecular imprinting. The obtained MIR was used as the adsorbent in a green miniaturized solid-phase extraction (MIR⬜mini-SPE) of plant growth regulators, and there was no organic solvent used in the entire MIR⬜mini-SPE procedure. The calibration linearity of MIR⬜mini-SPE⬜HPLC method was obtained in a range 5⬜250ngmL(↙1) for IAA, IPA, IBA, and NAA with correlation coefficient (r) Ⱕ0.9998. Recoveries at three spike levels are in the range of 87.6⬜100.0% for coconut juice with relative standard deviations Ⱔ8.1%. The MIR⬜mini-SPE method possesses the advantages of environmental friendliness, simple operation, and high efficiency, so it is potential to apply the green pretreatment strategy to extraction of trace analytes in aqueous samples.

  4. Accurate Analysis and Evaluation of Acidic Plant Growth Regulators in Transgenic and Nontransgenic Edible Oils with Facile Microwave-Assisted Extraction-Derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengge; Chen, Guang; Guo, Hailong; Fan, Baolei; Liu, Jianjun; Fu, Qiang; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Xianen; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Xia, Lian; Zhu, Shuyun; Yang, Daoshan; Cao, Ziping; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-09-16

    Determination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in a signal transduction system (STS) is significant for transgenic food safety, but may be challenged by poor accuracy and analyte instability. In this work, a microwave-assisted extraction-derivatization (MAED) method is developed for six acidic PGRs in oil samples, allowing an efficient (<1.5 h) and facile (one step) pretreatment. Accuracies are greatly improved, particularly for gibberellin A3 (-2.72 to -0.65%) as compared with those reported (-22 to -2%). Excellent selectivity and quite low detection limits (0.37-1.36 ng mL(-1)) are enabled by fluorescence detection-mass spectrum monitoring. Results show the significant differences in acidic PGRs between transgenic and nontransgenic oils, particularly 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA), implying the PGRs induced variations of components and genes. This study provides, for the first time, an accurate and efficient determination for labile PGRs involved in STS and a promising concept for objectively evaluating the safety of transgenic foods.

  5. 喷施植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养和生殖生长的影响%Effect of spraying plant growth regulators on vegetative and reproductive growth of Ricinus communis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 李培旺; 陈景震; 蒋丽娟

    2014-01-01

    According to field experiments,the effects of different plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and repro-ductive growth of Ricinus communis were observed and analyzed based on the experiments of treating castor with different kinds of hormone (IAA,6-BA,GA3 ,and KT),and take water treating as control.The results indicated that the stem diameter and plant height were increased by 100mg/L IAA,100~200mg/L 6-BA,200mg/L GA3 ,100~200mg/L KT. Then the flowering time was advanced by KT.Though the flowering time was longer by IAA,total inflorescence length and ratio of female inflorescence increased 26.38% and 56.17% respectively by 200mg/L IAA.The seed size and color were affected but there was no effect on seeds’oil content by four kinds of plant growth regulator.%对蓖麻幼苗喷施不同浓度的植物生长调节剂(IAA、6-BA、GA3、KT),并以清水处理为对照,观测分析植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养生长及生殖生长的影响。结果表明:100 mg/L的IAA、100~200 mg/L的6-BA、200 mg/L的GA3和100~200 mg/L的KT对蓖麻的地径和株高均有促进作用,KT则提早了始花期;IAA延迟了蓖麻的始花期,但提高了蓖麻花序总长度和雌花序的长度。其中200 mg/L IAA分别使花序总长度和雌花序长度增长了26.38%和56.17%。植物生长调节剂影响种子的大小和色泽,对种子含油率无明显影响。

  6. Effects of ionizing-radiation and post-radiation action of some plant growth regulators on the seed germination and seedling growth of Scotch pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Michalski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of small doses of gamma irradiation on the seed germination and seedling growth of Scotch pine and post-radiation action of water solutions of IAA, GA3 and kinetin have been investigated. Changes in the destructive action of ionizing-radiation toy gibberellic acid and its intensifying by IAA and kinetin has been found.

  7. [Regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lingzhu; Cheng, Jianhui; Li, Lin; Wu, Jiang

    2012-02-01

    Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits that could affect both crop yield and quality. Among all the hormones, gibberellins are crucial to regulate plant height. Cloning and molecular mechanism research of the plant height genes associated gibberellins have extremely important value for the regulation of crop growth and agricultural production, and have been widely used in rice, wheat and other grain crops breeding. In order to promote utilization of gibberellins in fruit trees, flowers and other horticultural crops breeding, we reviewed the regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction at the molecular level in this paper.

  8. Influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs and various additives on in vitro plant propagation of Bambusa arundinacea (Retz. Wild: A recalcitrant bamboo species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatachalam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient micropropagation protocol for high frequency plant regeneration was developed using nodal explants derived in vitro seedlings of Bambusa arundinacea which is an important multipurpose and edible bamboo species and recalcitrant to tissue culture. The nodal explants excised from 20-day-old seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium fortified with various concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP and kinetin (KIN (0.5–5.0 mg/l alone and/or in combination with 0.5 mg/l of different auxins [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA] for shoot bud induction. The combination of BAP (3.0 mg/l and IBA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best for the highest percent of shoot bud initiation (87.2%, with 24.2 shoots/explant. The highest frequency (95.2% of shoot bud multiplication with maximum number of shoots (90.5 shoots/culture was noticed on medium containing 4% coconut water with 4% sucrose. The regenerated shoot buds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxins alone and/or in combination with AgNO3 (0.5–4.0 mg/l for in vitro rooting. Maximum percent of rooting (85% was noticed on MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/l IBA and 2.0 mg/l AgNO3 after 14 days of culture. Well rooted plantlets obtained were established in the field with 92% survival rate. The present plant regeneration protocol could be used for large scale propagation and ex-situ conservation of this important bamboo species in the near future.

  9. 植物生长调节剂对蝴蝶兰花芽分化与发育的影响%Influence of plant growth regulators on Phalaenopsis flowering bud differentiation and growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓荣; 王碧青; 朱根发; 程智慧

    2009-01-01

    研究了6-BA、B_9、PP_(333)、GA、TDZ等植物生长调节剂的处理浓度和处理方式对蝴蝶兰花芽分化和发育的影响,结果显示,采用植物生长调节剂凋控蝴蝶兰花芽分化时,喷施处理的效果优于涂抹处理,其中用6-BA 25 mg/L喷施处理可以显著地促进蝴蝶兰花芽分化和发育.%Two experiments were performed to determine how different plant growth regulators concentrations and application methods influenced Phalaenopsis flower bud differentiation and growth.The results indicated that spraying treatment method was better than daubing treatment,and flower bud differentiation and growth was markedly promoted by spaying 25 mg/L6-BA.

  10. LED Systems Target Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  11. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  12. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant. Se

  13. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  14. 植物生长调节剂对莲雾扦插繁殖的影响%Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Cutting Propagation of Syzygium samarangense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福平; 刘晓纯; 杜曼霞; 陈焕彬; 吴远清; 陈雪冬

    2012-01-01

    为找出适合莲雾扦插繁殖的植物生长调节剂及其适宜浓度,分析了吲哚乙酸(IAA)、吲哚丁酸(IBA)、萘乙酸(NAA)和6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)等植物生长调节剂对莲雾扦插繁殖的影响.结果表明,不同植物生长调节剂对莲雾插枝繁殖的影响不同,同一植物生长调节剂的不同浓度也有不同影响.与CK对比,IAA和NAA促进莲雾扦插繁殖(包括生根与新梢生长)的最佳浓度均为150 mg/L,IBA和6-BA的最佳浓度分别为200 mg/L和90 mg/L,其中,150 mg/L IAA对莲雾扦插繁殖的促进效果最好.%The effects of different kinds of plant growth regulators such as IAA, IBA, NAA and 6-BA etc on cutting propagation of S. samarangense were analyzed to explore the optimal plant growth regulator and its suitable concentration. The results showed that the effect differed from different kinds of plant growth regulators on cutting propagation of S. samarangense, and even different concentrations of the same plant growth regulator had different influence too. Compared with CK, the treatment with 150 mg/L IAA, 150 mg/L NAA, 200 mg/L IBA and 90 mg/L 6-BA could obviously enhance cutting propagation, including rootage and shoot growth. Among them, 150 mg/L IAA could promote cutting propagation of S. samarangense best.

  15. Investigation report of plant growth regulator application situation ofDalian City in fruits and vegetables%大连市果蔬中植物生长调节剂应用情况的调研报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑芹; 葛祥武; 孙程鹏

    2013-01-01

    近几年出现的“爆裂西瓜”、“顶花带刺黄瓜”、“膨大草莓”等非正常现象的发生,引发公众对于膨大剂等植物生长调节剂的密切关注,甚至引起局部恐慌。为掌握我市植物生长调节剂的应用现状,农业部农产品质量安全监督检验测试中心(大连)结合本单位工作特点,开展了对全市果蔬中植物生长调节剂应用情况的调研。借此掌握植物生长调节剂的主要品种、应用现状、作用与危害,从而为政府监管提供依据。%in recent years the"burst watermelons","top flower barbed cucumber","expanding strawberry"and other non normalphenomenon, cause the public to pay close attention to the swelling agent, plant growth regulators, and even cause localpanic. As the application status of master I, plant growth regulator,the Ministry of agriculture of agricultural products quality and safetysupervision and Testing Center (Dalian) combined with this unit work characteristic, carries on the research of Plant GrowthRegulator Application in the fruit and vegetable. To grasp the main varieties, plant growth regulator application present situation, effect and harm, so as to provide the basis for government regulation.

  16. Substratos e regulador vegetal no enraizamento de estacas de pitaya Substrates and plant growth regulator on the rooting of pitaya cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Márcio Guimarães Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya é uma cactácea originária das florestas tropicais americanas que produz frutos exóticos bem apreciados e comercializados, principalmente no continente asiático. Contudo, ainda é uma espécie vegetal que demanda informações técnicas de cultivo nas áreas agrícolas brasileiras, motivando pesquisas em várias áreas do conhecimento. Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes substratos no enraizamento de cladódios imersos e não imersos no regulador de crescimento, ácido naftalenacético (ANA, na formação e desenvolvimento inicial de raízes em estacas de Hylocereus undatus, resultando em mudas mais vigorosas e de melhor qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido sob ripado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal - setor de Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas no campus de Botucatu - UNESP. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente aleatorizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (substratos x condições com quatro repetições. Após 60 dias da instalação do experimento foram avaliados: massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca das raízes e o comprimento da maior raiz. O crescimento e desenvolvimento radicular inicial de mudas não são influenciados pelo regulador vegetal ANA. Os substratos com a presença de areia são os mais adequados para a formação de mudas vigorosas e de boa qualidade. A mistura areia + esterco bovino proporciona maior acúmulo de fitomassa no sistema radicular de pitaya (H. undatus.The pitaya, a cactaceous species native to American tropical forests, produces well-appreciated and commercialized exotic fruits, mainly in the Asian continent. However, this plant species still requires technical information regarding cultivation in Brazilian agricultural areas, encouraging thus studies in several knowledge areas. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the rooting of cladodes immersed or not in the plant growth regulator naphthaleneacetic acid (ANA, as well as on

  17. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples.

  18. Long-distance signals regulating stomatal conductance and leaf growth in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants subjected to partial root-zone drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Wagdy Y; Dodd, Ian C; Bacon, Mark A; Grierson, Donald; Davies, William J

    2004-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig) plants were grown with roots split between two soil columns. After plant establishment, water was applied daily to one (partial root-zone drying-PRD) or both (well-watered control-WW) columns. Water was withheld from the other column in the PRD treatment, to expose some roots to drying soil. Soil and plant water status were monitored daily and throughout diurnal courses. Over 8 d, there were no treatment differences in leaf water potential (psileaf) even though soil moisture content of the upper 6 cm (theta) of the dry column in the PRD treatment decreased by up to 70%. Stomatal conductance (gs) of PRD plants decreased (relative to WW plants) when of the dry column decreased by 45%. Such closure coincided with increased xylem sap pH and did not require increased xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration ([X-ABA]). Detached leaflet ethylene evolution of PRD plants increased when of the dry column decreased by 55%, concurrent with decreased leaf elongation. The physiological significance of enhanced ethylene evolution of PRD plants was examined using a transgenic tomato (ACO1AS) with low stress-induced ethylene production. In response to PRD, ACO1AS and wild-type plants showed similar xylem sap pH, [X-ABA] and gs, but ACO1AS plants showed neither enhanced ethylene evolution nor significant reductions in leaf elongation. Combined use of genetic technologies to reduce ethylene production and agronomic technologies to sustain water status (such as PRD) may sustain plant growth under conditions where yield would otherwise be significantly reduced.

  19. Plant GTPases: regulation of morphogenesis by ROPs and ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Joachim F; Hülskamp, Martin

    2006-03-21

    Polarized cell growth in plants is controlled by Rho-like small GTPases (ROPs), not only through the canonical WAVE/Arp2/3 pathway, but also through newly defined plant-specific pathways involving the regulated release of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  20. Effect of salt-stresses on the hormonal regulation of growth, photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-assimilates in bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out to study the effect of salt-stresses and ABA on the growth, photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in bean plants. It was planed to reduce the content of GA3 and cytokinins and increase ABA content in salinized plants. The results show that salt-stress (NaCl and concentrated nutrient solution, reduce all the investigated processes in a different degree. NaCl-stress retarded most seriously growth of apical part and blades in contrast to 7-times concentrated nutrient solution decreasing mainly the rate of root and blade growth. Photosynthesis and 14C-translocation of 14C-assimilates were retarded more seriously by NaCl than by 7-times concentrated nutrient. solution. In the case of seriously stressed plants GA3 and cytokinins (more effectively reversed the ,negative effect of stress conditions both on the photosynthesis and on the 14C-tramslocation. On the basis of the obtained results, it seemes that changes in the rate of investigated processes in salinized plants are due to hormonal disturbances which cause directly or indirectly retardation of photosynthesis and trans-location of assimilates.

  1. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus, Cell Suspension and Cell Line Selection for Flavonoid Production from Pegaga (centella asiatica L. urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat H. Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering pegaga medicinal properties and over-exploitation, the requirement for a tissue culture technique as an alternative production system was crucial. Approach: Investigation of cell suspension culture response to different plant growth regulators (PRGs for flavonoid production from elite cell line was carried out. Callus cultures were initiated from the leaf explants of Centella asiatica on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 30 g L−1 sucrose supplemented with different concentrations (0.5-2.5 mg L−1 of 2,4-D, NAA, Dicamba, Picloram and IBA supplied singly and in combination with different concentrations (0.5-1.5 mg L−1 of kinetin, BAP and TDZ. Results: Callus induction was observed for all the PGRs tested. The highest callus induction frequency (86.67% was observed in MS medium containing 2.0 mg L−1 2,4-D while the combination of 2.0 mg L−1 2,4-D and 1 mg L−1 kinetin in MS medium gave the highest biomass yield (0.27 g dry weight culture−1. This combination was also found to be best for callus proliferation for all the accessions investigated. Among the four accessions tested, UPM03 was found to have the highest biomass yield (0.041 g DW culture−1 and hydrolysed flavonoid content (10.75 mg g−1 DW after the 12th day of culture. The flavonoids present in the four accessions were quercetin, kaempherol, luteolin and rutin based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. These results indicated that C. asiatica accession UPM03 was the potential elite cell line in mass production of flavonoid, especially luteolin. Coclusions/Recommendations: In the establishment of cell suspension culture, 2 mg L−1 2,4-D and 1 mg L−1 kinetin were the best PGRs in supporting the cell growth and flavonoid production. This is the first report on the use of PRGs on the establishment of cell suspension cultures in flavonoid production of C. asiatica.

  2. Growth of fluoride treated Kalanchoe pinnata plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.N.; Applegate, H.G.

    1962-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata plants can absorb fluoride through roots. The absorption is related to the amount of fluoride applied to the soil. There appeared to be a relationship between the amount of fluoride adsorbed and the subsequent growth of the plants. Plants which adsorbed the largest amounts of fluoride had the greatest increase in growth.

  3. Correlation between Polyamines and Growth Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Unal, D.; Azeri, N.;

    2007-01-01

    Compounds of polyamines, considering to be essential for life, are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although their exact functions have not yet been identified, it is clear that the polyamines play important specific roles in a number of cellular processes such as replication and translation......, embryonic development, cell cycle, programmed cell death and cancer. In addition, the metabolic pathway of these compounds is lighten in recent years, the relationship between polyamines and hormones still remains unclear. In this study, we suggest that cytokinin and auxin, a plant growth hormone...... and regulating cell cycle progression, could be correlated with polyamines....

  4. Plant nutrient transporter regulation in arbuscular mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen; Bechmann, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    This review discusses the role arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play in the regulation of plant nutrient transporter genes. Many plant nutrient transporter genes appear to be transcriptionally regulated by a feed-back mechanism that reduces their expression when the plant reaches an optimal level...

  5. Chemical signals and their regulations on the plant growth and water use efficiency of cotton seedlings under partial root-zone drying and different nitrogen applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying during irrigation (PRD has been shown effective in enhancing plant water use efficiency (WUE, however, the roles of chemical signals from root and shoot that are involved and the possible interactions affected by nitrogen nutrition are not clear. Pot-grown cotton (Gossypium spp. seedlings were treated with three levels of N fertilization and PRD. The concentrations of nitrate (NO3−, abscisic acid (ABA and the pH value of leaf and root xylem saps, biomass and WUE were measured. Results showed that PRD plants produced larger biomass and higher WUE than non-PRD plants, with significant changes in leaf xylem ABA, leaf and root xylem NO3− concentrations and pH values, under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions. Simultaneously, high-N treated plants displayed larger changes in leaf xylem ABA and higher root xylem NO3− concentrations, than in the medium- or low-N treated plants. However, the WUE of plants in the low-N treatment was higher than that of those in the high- and medium-N treatments. PRD and nitrogen levels respectively induced signaling responses of ABA/NO3− and pH in leaf or root xylem to affect WUE and biomass under different watering levels, although significant interactions of PRD and nitrogen levels were found when these signal molecules responded to soil drying. We conclude that these signaling chemicals are regulated by interaction of PRD and nitrogen status to regulate stomatal behavior, either directly or indirectly, and thus increase PRD plant WUE under less irrigation.

  6. 植物生长调节剂抑制杨树及柳树飞絮效果研究%Study on Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Inhibiting Flying in Poplar and Willow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟晓莉; 于海鹰; 朱宝娣; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    the results of the study on effect of plant growth regulator (Yihua 1 )on inhibiting the flying in poplar and willow showed that,plant inhibitors were absorbed by plants, the formation of flower bud was inhibited, the flying in willow was bridled under the premise without affecting the normal growth of trees.%抑花一号植物生长调节剂抑制杨树及柳树飞絮效果研究结果表明,植物抑制剂被树体吸收后,可以控制花芽的形成,在不影响树木正常生长的前提下,达到控制飞絮的目的。

  7. Research Advances in Analytical Methods of Plant Growth Regulators for Fruits and Vegetables%果蔬中常用植物生长调节剂分析方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫军; 张耀海; 李云成; 赵其阳; 焦必宁

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, plant growth regulators are widely used in agricultural products. As the toxicity of plant growth regulator residues has gained increasing concerns, trace analysis methods for plant growth regulators have been developed. In this paper, the major methods with advantages and disadvantages for the analysis of plant growth regulator residues in fruits and vegetables are summarized, including gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatographic technique combined with mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and so on. Meanwhile, the development prospects are also discussed.%近年来,植物生长调节剂在果蔬生产中的使用越来越多,随着人们对其残留危害的口益关注,痕量植物生长调节剂残留的分析技术也在不断发展。文中概述了国内外检测果蔬中植物生长调节剂残留的主要分析方法及其优缺点,包括气相色谱(GC)、高效液相色谱(HPLC)、质谱联用技术、酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)、毛细管电泳(CE)及其他分析法,并对其发展趋势进行了展望。

  8. 生长激素对杜鹃红山茶扦插效果的影响%Effect of plant growth regulators on the cutting propagation of Camellia azalea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛克娜; 殷爱华; 张学平; 柯欢

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同扦插时期和不同植物生长激素对杜鹃红山茶扦插繁殖效果的影响.结果表明:杜鹃红山茶的春季和夏季扦插无显著性差异,而植物生长激素处理对杜鹃红山茶的成活率、平均生根数、平均根长、平均抽梢次数和平均苗高有显著影响(p<0.05).在13种激素处理中,效果最好的是0.5 g/L的混合植物生长激素组合(80%IBA+20%NAA).植物生长激素组合(80%IBA+20%NAA)的扦插效果优于NAA和IBA单独使用.%The effect of cutting period and plant growth regulators on the cutting propagation of Camellia azalea was studied in this paper. The results showed that there was no significant difference between spring cuttings and summer cuttings of C.azalea, while the plant growth regulators caused significant difference among the survival rate, average root number and average root length as well as the steckling height of C. azalea' s cuttings (p <0.05 ). Among the thirteen plant growth regulators treatment, the optimal one was mixed plant growth regulators (80% IBA + 20% NAA) treatment with concentration of 0.5 g/L, which was better than that of NAA and IBA alone.

  9. Enzyme action in the regulation of plant hormone responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Corey S; Muehler, Ashley M; Jez, Joseph M

    2013-07-05

    Plants synthesize a chemically diverse range of hormones that regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. The major classes of plant hormones are specialized metabolites with exquisitely tailored perception and signaling systems, but equally important are the enzymes that control the dose and exposure to the bioactive forms of these molecules. Here, we review new insights into the role of enzyme families, including the SABATH methyltransferases, the methylesterases, the GH3 acyl acid-amido synthetases, and the hormone peptidyl hydrolases, in controlling the biosynthesis and modifications of plant hormones and how these enzymes contribute to the network of chemical signals responsible for plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation.

  10. Regulation of plant growth, photosynthesis, antioxidation and osmosis by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in watermelon seedlings under well-watered and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eMo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and MDHAR in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2- compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances in the knowledge of AM-induced drought tolerance.

  11. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and [Formula: see text] compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes

  12. Enterobacter sp. I-3, a bio-herbicide inhibits gibberellins biosynthetic pathway and regulates abscisic acid and amino acids synthesis to control plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Park, Jae-Man; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp. I-3) significantly inhibited the weeds seed germination than their controls. The mechanism of bacterium induced plant growth reduction was identified in lettuce treated with I-3 bacterium and compared their effects with known chemical herbicide, trinexapac-ethyl (TE). The treatment of I-3 and TE showed a significant inhibitory effect on shoot length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, shoot weight, root weight and chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings. The endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) analysis showed that Enterobacter sp. I-3 treated plants had lower levels of GAs (GA12, GA19, GA20 and GA8) and GAs/ABA ratio and then, the higher level of ABA when compared to their controls. Indeed, the individual amino acids ie., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, serine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine were declined in TE and I-3 exposed plants. Our results suggest that the utilization of Enterobacter sp. I-3 inhibits the GAs pathway and amino acids synthesis in weeds to control their growth can be an alternative to chemical herbicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Endogenous Hormones Content of Rhodoendron decorum%植物生长调节剂对大白杜鹃幼苗内源激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红红; 李朝婵; 伍庆; 赵云龙; 黄承玲

    2015-01-01

    Using different concentrations of two plant growth regulators paclobutrazol ( PP333 ) and chlormequat ( CCC) handling Rho-doendron decorum 3-year-old seedlings,it based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) analyzing endogenous hormones in the leaves.The results showed that PP333 and CCC treatment with different concentrations,reducing the IAA,GA3 ,and ZR content in the leaves,compared with the control;ABA content was higher than the control.GA3 and ZR content was negatively correlated with the concentration of two plant growth regulators,and ABA content was positively correlated with the concentration of two plant growth regulators.%以3年生大白杜鹃实生苗为试材,探讨不同浓度的植物生长调节剂PP333(多效唑)、CCC(矮壮素)对大白杜鹃幼苗内源激素的影响。结果表明:PP333、CCC处理下大白杜鹃茎段内IAA、GA3和ZR含量均低于对照,ABA含量均高于对照;2种植物生长调节剂浓度与GA3、ZR含量呈负相关性,与ABA含量呈正相关性。

  14. Circadian clock and PIF4-mediated external coincidence mechanism coordinately integrates both of the cues from seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature to regulate plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Yuji; Kubozono, Saori; Miyachi, Miki; Yamashino, Takafumi; Nakamichi, Norihito; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the circadian clock regulates the photoperiodic plant growth including the elongation of hypocotyls in a short-days (SDs)-specific manner. The clock-controlled PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor plays crucial roles in this regulation. The SDs-specific elongation of hypocotyls is best explained by accumulation of the active PIF4 proteins at the end of night specifically in SDs due to coincidence between internal (circadian clock) and external (photoperiod) cues. However, this external coincidence model was challenged with the recent finding that the elongation of hypocotyls is markedly promoted at high growth temperature (28˚C) even in long-days (LDs), implying that the model to explain the photoperiodic response of plant architecture appears to be conditional on ambient temperature. With regard to this problem, the results of this and previous studies showed that the model holds under a wide range of ambient temperature conditions (16˚C to 28˚C). We propose that the circadian clock and PIF4-mediated external coincidence mechanism coordinately integrates both of the cues from seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature to regulate plant growth in natural habitats.

  15. Reguladores vegetais e o desbaste químico de frutos de tangor murcote Plant growth regulators and 'Honey' orange fruit chemical thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Christian Serpa Domingues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O tangor 'Murcote' apresenta necessidade de desbaste de frutos devido a alternância de produção, caracterizado por anos de excessiva produção intercalado com anos de baixa produção, evitando assim, a diminuição da qualidade dos frutos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de reguladores vegetais, a auxina ANA (ácido naftalenacético e ethephon (etileno no desbaste químico de frutos de tangor 'Murcote' aplicado 40 dias após o pleno florescimento. O experimento foi conduzido em Pratânia, SP, onde plantas de 5 anos de idade, enxertadas sobre o limoeiro 'Cravo', foram pulverizadas com ANA a 0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 mg L-1 e com ethephon a 200, 300 e 400 mg L-1, ambos em solução aquosa juntamente com adjuvante não iônico a 0,05%. A contagem dos frutos foi realizada previamente aos tratamentos em 2 ramos marcados por planta. O ANA não interferiu significativamente no desbaste de frutos, com porcentagens de queda variando entre 7 a 14%, enquanto que as pulverizações com ethephon mostraram maior eficiência no desbaste de frutos, principalmente na dose de 400 mg L-1, promovendo 66,6% de queda de frutos, sem contudo induzir a abscisão foliar. As doses inferiores de ethephon também promoveram desbaste de frutos da ordem de 40%. As porcentagens de queda de frutos foram pequenas, para plantas pulverizadas com ANA, enquanto que a aplicação de ethephon promoveu maior eficiência no desbaste de frutos.Alternate bearing is an important caracteristic of some mandarins that reduces fruit quality and yield in tangor Murcott, and to reduce this effect is necessary to perform fruit thinning to avoid high and low production year by year. To evaluate the effects of plant growth regulators on fruit thinning of the 'honey' orange, an auxin (NAA-naphthalene acetic acid and ethephon (ethylene, were applied 40 days after full bloom in an experiment carried out at Pratania, S.P., Brazil. Five-year-old plants grafted on Rangpur

  16. Growth Regulator Herbicides Prevent Invasive Annual Grass Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxinic herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, that act as plant growth regulators are commonly used for broadleaf weed control in cereal crops (e.g. wheat, barley), grasslands, and non-croplands. If applied at later growth stages, while cereals are developing reproductive parts, the herbicides can...

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole; Sintese e avaliacao da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indolicos derivados do safrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Irineu [Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Rio do Sul, Rio do Sul, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: marchi@softhouse.com.br; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-15

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  18. Síntese e avaliação da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indólicos derivados do safrol Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Marchi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxysubstituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I. The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris.

  19. Plant growth regulators on the pre-harvest period of 'Pêra' oranges Reguladores vegetais aplicados na fase pré-colheita de laranjeira "Pêra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effects of auxins and gibberellins applied at pre-harvest on the quality of orange juice. Orange trees, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. 'Pêra' were sprayed in three applications, at 45-day intervals, with the following treatments: GA3 + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1 each; GA3 + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1, and a control. The treatments did not change juice quality, and showed no plant growth regulator residues 110 days after the last application in every case below 0.05mg L-1.Neste estudo, avaliou-se os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita na qualidade interna de frutos de laranjeira "Pêra". Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra foram pulverizadas com três aplicações, em intervalos de 45 dias, com os seguintes tratamentos: GA3 + 2,4-D a 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1;GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos não prejudicaram a qualidade interna dos frutos. Além disso, os níveis de resíduo de reguladores vegetais no suco, ficaram abaixo de 0,05mg L-1, 110 dias após a última aplicação.

  20. PLANT-MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE – STRATEGIES FOR PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are a group of bacteria that can actively colonize plant rootsand enhance plant growth using different mechanisms: production of plant growth regulators like indoleacetic acid,gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene(Zahir et al., 2003, providing the host plant with fixed nitrogen, solubilizationof soil phosphorus, enhance Fe uptake, biocontrol, reducing the concentration of heavy metals. PGPR are perfectcandidates to be used as biofertilizers – eco-friendly alternative to common applied chemical fertilizer in today’sagriculture. The most important benefit of PGPR usage is related to the reduction of environmental pollution in conditionof increasing crop yield. This review presents the main mechanisms involved in PGPR promotion of plant growth.

  1. Different Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction of Pinellia Ternata%不同植物生长调节剂对半夏愈伤组织诱导效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫欣; 崔晓星; 刘金欣; 孟繁蕴; 魏英勤

    2011-01-01

    目的 以半夏叶柄为外植体,研究不同植物生长调节剂对半夏愈伤组织形态的影响.方法 分别采用单一激素和多个激素正交试验,考察不同植物生长调节剂对半夏愈伤的诱导效果.结果 单一激素不同水平的愈伤组织诱导效果因激素种类和浓度的不同而有所差异;多种激素不同水平对半夏愈伤诱导的效果与诱导率和启动时间有关,同时还应考虑愈伤的质地、形态等;植物生长调节剂对半夏愈伤组织的诱导能力从大到小依次为6-苄基腺嘌呤、α-萘乙酸、2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸、蔗糖.结论 通过考察不同植物生长调节剂对半夏愈伤组织的诱导效应,确定了适宜做半夏悬浮培养材料的培养基和一次性成苗培养基.%Objective To study the influence of plant growth regulators on callus induction of Pinellia ternata, with the petioles as explants for tissue culture. Methods Single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments were used to study callus induction effects. Results. The induction effect of single plant growth regulators on Pinellia ternata callus were different depends on hind and concentration. The effect of multiple plant growth regulators was related with induction rate and starting time, as well as the texture and morphology of callus. The effective plant growth regulators were as follows: 6-BA, NAA, 2,4-D sucrose.Conclusion By examining the induction effect of different plant growth regulators on callus of Pinelliaternata, suitable mediums for suspension culture and seedling were determined.

  2. Effects of Humic Acid Plant Growth Regulator on Seed Germination, Growth and Development%腐植酸类生长调节剂对植物发芽和生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷; 陈养平; 杨晓军; 杭波; 赵光跃; 王小宇; 许恩光

    2012-01-01

    The effects of five kinds of humic acid plant growth regulator on seeding growth, fresh weight, root length and cutting root were studied. The results showed that all regulators had effects on seed germination, plant growth and devel- opment in different degree. Rooting and sprouting of wheat seeds were increased signifcantly by soaking seeds used 400 ppm Jinong strong plantlets and rootage agent or 10000 ppm rooting granules. Pakchoi growth was increased by applica- tion of 1000 ppm rooting granules or 833 ppm Jinong strong plantlets and rootage agent. The root length and fresh weight of pakchoi were increased by 31.29% and 28.17% in treatment sprayed with 833ppm Jinong strong plantlets and rootage agent, respectively. The survival rate of cutting treated with 8000 ppm Jinong rooting powder was higher by 49% than in control, and the rooting time was advanced by 3 days. Compared with CK, the application of 1000 ppm rooting granules or 833 ppm Jinong strong plantlets and rootage agent could increase the production by 18.29% and 19.53%, and enhance economic income by 14.53% and 15.88%, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of increasing production and income were remarkable.%采用不同浓度的济农生根壮苗液肥、济农生根粉、吲哚丁酸钾、生根颗粒剂和市售较好的某种生根粉进行试验,旨在探明不同腐植酸类生长调节剂对植物发芽、鲜重、根长及扦插生根的影响。结果表明:5种生长调节剂对植物发芽和生长发育均有不同程度的促进作用。其中400pPm济农生根壮苗液肥、10000Ppm生根颗粒剂浸种能显著促进小麦种子生根发芽;使用853ppm济农生根壮苗液肥、1000ppm生根颗粒剂能显著促进小白菜生长,其中喷施833PPm济农生根壮苗液肥2次后比对照根长增加31.29%,提高地上部分鲜重28.17%;使用8000ppm济农生根粉蘸根后能够提高成活率49%,红叶石楠扦插生根时间提前3d;使用833ppm

  3. Study on the Effect of a New Kind of Plant Growth Regulators on the Growth of Young Early Rice%新植物生长调节剂对早稻幼苗生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向国红

    2005-01-01

    用迟效油菜素内酯(BR-A)、5-氨基酮戍酸(5-ALA)、5,6-二氯吲哚乙酸(5,6-dichlorineindoleacetic acid, DCLIAA)三种新植物生长调节剂(Plant growth regulator,PGR)和脱落酸(ABA)浸根处理,对水稻幼茵的生长影响有所不同.在促进幼苗的生长的效应上,0.1ppmBR-A效果较好,其次为1ppm5-ALA,而1ppm 5,6-DCLIAA虽然在促进根的再生长上表现明显效果,但在促进完整幼苗的生长上无明显效果,1ppm的天然型脱落酸((+)ABA)也无明显效果.在增强幼苗抗冷性上,试验表明(+)ABA和BR-A具有特佳效果,5-ALA也有一定作用,而DCLIAA则无效.

  4. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  5. Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.

  6. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  7. The improved phytoextraction of lead (Pb) and the growth of maize (Zeamays L.): the role of plant growth regulators (GA3 and IAA) and EDTA alone and in combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Fazal; Bano, Asghari; Fuller, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    This investigation was made to examine the role of gibberellic acid (GA(3)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and EDTA in improving phytoextraction of the Pb and plant growth on Pb added soil. GA(3), IAA and EDTA were applied separately and in combinations. GA(3) and IAA were applied as foliar spray and seed soaking. EDTA was applied in single and split doses. Analysis of the Pb in different parts of plant was carried out using atomic absorption/flame spectrophotometer. EDTA significantly reduced the plant growth and dry biomass, whereas GA(3) and IAA foliar spray increased it significantly when compared with control (only Pb added soil). In combined treatments of EDTA+GA(3) and EDTA+IAA, the growth and biomass was restored, which shows that GA(3) and IAA did compensate the negative effect of EDTA on plant growth. The separate treatments of EDTA, GA(3) and IAA increased the Pb uptake and translocation significantly moreover in combine treatments, synergistic effect was found and remarkable increase in Pb uptake and translocation into shoot was observed. EDTA increased the Pb uptake but declined the biomass; subsequently the total Pb accumulation was decreased in plant. The maximum total Pb was found in combined treatment of EDTA+GA(3). These findings suggest more investigation to find a combination of GA(3) with a very low concentration of EDTA, as in high concentration it causes soil and ground water pollution.

  8. Effects of Fungicide Fenaminosulf and Plant Growth Regulator on Gall For-mation of Zizania latifolia%杀菌剂敌磺钠及植物生长调节剂对茭白孕茭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应荣; 崔海峰; 倪方群; 俞晓平; 叶子弘

    2014-01-01

    以‘龙茭二号’为研究对象,通过在茭白植株不同生长发育阶段分别喷施杀菌剂敌磺钠和植物生长调节剂,比较分析其对茭白结茭的促进效果。对6个不同处理组合及对照材料的株高、内源激素含量变化及结茭情况的统计分析发现:喷施一定浓度的敌磺钠对茭白结茭具有明显的促进作用,以敌磺钠(标准浓度)+营养液和敌磺钠(标准浓度)对茭白结茭产量的提高最为明显。植物生长调节剂处理能明显促进茭白早期植株生长,但对最终株高影响不大。采用间接酶联免疫法对茭白茎部3种激素(IAA、ABA和GA3)含量进行的比较分析表明:敌磺钠处理能够明显降低ABA含量,但对IAA和GA3含量没有明显影响;茭白结茭前ABA含量的降低可能有助于茭白结茭。%In this research, the promotion of fungicide fenaminosulf and plant growth regulator in the gall for-mation had been produced by spraying fenaminosulf and plant growth regulator combinations at different growth development phases of Zizania latifolia‘Longjiao 2’. After comparative and statistical analyzing of the plant heights, changes of endogenous hormone (IAA, ABA and GA3) in stem and yields of gall formation, it was found that the spraying of fenaminosulf with a certain concentration could signiifcantly promote the yields of gall formation in Z. latifolia, especially the spraying combinations of fenaminosulf (standard concentration) with nutrient solution and fenaminosulf (standard concentration). The promotions of plant growth regulator were also found, which was related to the different contents of plant growth regulator. Besides, the treatments of plant growth regulator could signiifcantly promote the early growth of plants, but little effect on the ifnal plants height. Using the methods of indirect ELISA, the contents of IAA, ABA and GA3 at the residual part of stem in Z. latifolia were compared and analysed. It was showed

  9. Efeito da aplicação de biorregulador no desempenho agronômico e produtividade da soja = Effect of plant growth regulator application on agronomic traits and soybean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Mara Moterle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de biorregulador no desempenho agronômico das plantas e na produtividade de sementes da cultura da soja cultivar CD 216. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em dois anos agrícolas (2005/06 e 2006/07. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação do tratamento de sementes (0 e 500 mL 100 kg-1 de sementes com três doses de biorregulador (250; 375 e 500 mL ha-1 aplicadas via foliar em dois estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura (V5 e R3, mais a testemunha semaplicação. As características avaliadas foram a altura das plantas, número de vagens por planta, produtividade e massa de 1.000 sementes. As características altura das plantas e número de vagens por planta não foram influenciadas pela aplicação do biorregulador nosdois anos agrícolas. No ano agrícola de 2005/06, a maior produtividade de sementes (2.927 kg ha-1 foi alcançada pela aplicação da dose de 211 mL ha-1 de biorregulador via foliar noestádio R3, associado ao tratamento de sementes. No segundo ano agrícola, não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos na produtividade de sementes, muito embora os resultados alcançados tenham sido superiores aos obtidos no primeiro ano. Umdos princípios básicos para melhorar a eficácia do biorregulador na cultura da soja é a condição climática adversa.The purpose of the work was to verify the effect of the application of a plant growth regulator on the agronomic traits of plants and on soybean seed yield, cultivar CD 216. The work was developed during two agricultural years (2005/06 and 2006/07. The treatments were composed by the combination of seed treatments (0 and 500 mL 100 kg-1of seeds with three doses of plant growth regulator (250, 375 and 500 mL ha-1 applied to the leaves in two stages of the culture’s development (V5 and R3, plus the control without application. The features evaluated were: plant height, number of seedpods per plant, yield

  10. Plant-microbe interactions to probe regulation of plant carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemelt, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2006-02-01

    Plant growth and development is dependent on coordinated assimilate production, distribution and allocation. Application of biochemical and molecular techniques substantially contributed to a better understanding of these processes, although the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still not fully elucidated and attempts to improve crop yield by modulating carbon partitioning were only partially successful. Plant pathogens also interfere with source-sink interaction. To this end they have evolved a wide range of sophisticated strategies to allow their systemic spread, suppression of plant defence and induction of sink function to support nutrient acquisition for their growth. Studying compatible interactions of plants and pathogens like viruses, bacteria and fungi can be exploited to investigate different levels of source-sink regulation. The identification of microbial factors and their host targets involved in regulation of plant primary metabolism may allow developing novel strategies to increase crop yield. Here we will discuss recent studies on plant-microbe interactions aimed at elucidating mechanisms of compatibility.

  11. Aquaporins: highly regulated channels controlling plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, François; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-04-01

    Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key "gatekeeper" cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations.

  12. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  13. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of the PDR gene family in rice roots in response to plant growth regulators, redox perturbations and weak organic acid stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Ann

    2008-12-01

    The role of plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters remains poorly understood. We characterized the expression of the rice pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene family in roots, where PDR transporters are believed to have major functions. A prototypical oligonucleotide array was developed containing 70-mers chosen in the gene-specific 3' untranslated regions of the rice PDR genes, other full-molecule rice ABC transporter genes and relevant marker genes. Jasmonates, which are involved in plant defense and secondary metabolism, proved major inducers of PDR gene expression. Over half of the PDR genes were JA-induced in roots of rice; OsPDR9 to the highest level. Salicylic acid, involved in plant pathogen defense, markedly induced the expression of OsPDR20. OsPDR20 was cDNA cloned and characterized. Abscisic acid, typically involved in water deficit responses, particularly induced OsPDR3 in roots and shoot and OsPDR6 in rice leaves. OsPDR9 and OsPDR20 were furthermore up-regulated in response to dithiothreitol- or glutathione-induced redox perturbations. Exogenous application of the weak organic acids lactic acid, malic acid, and citric acid differentially induced the expression of OsPDR3, OsPDR8, OsPDR9 and OsPDR20 in rice seedling roots. This transcriptional survey represents a guide for the further functional analysis of individual PDR transporters in roots of rice.

  15. Phosphorylation-dependent differential regulation of plant growth, cell death, and innate immunity by the regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Roux, Milena; Kadota, Yasuhiro;

    2011-01-01

    Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe the different......Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe...... the differential regulation of three different BAK1-dependent signaling pathways by a novel allele of BAK1, bak1-5. Innate immune signaling mediated by the BAK1-dependent RKs FLS2 and EFR is severely compromised in bak1-5 mutant plants. However, bak1-5 mutants are not impaired in BR signaling or cell death control...... of FLS2 or EFR with BAK1 in planta, revealing another pathway specific mechanistic difference. The specific suppression of FLS2- and EFR-dependent signaling in bak1-5 is not due to a differential interaction of BAK1-5 with the respective ligand-binding RK but requires BAK1-5 kinase activity. Overall our...

  16. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Seed Germination of Lathyrus odoratus%植物生长调节剂对香豌豆种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福平; 李洁琼

    2011-01-01

    探讨了植物生长调节剂对香豌豆种子萌发及幼苗早期生长的影响.香豌豆种子经过不同浓度的赤霉素(GA3)、6苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)、吲哚乙酸(IAA)、吲哚丁酸(IBA)、萘乙酸(NAA)处理后,其中25ms/L IAA和200ms/L GA3的处理对香豌豆种子的萌发及幼苗早期生长效果最好.结果表明:不同植物生长调节剂对香豌豆种子发芽和幼苗生长的影响不同,同一植物生长调节剂的不同浓度也有不同的影响.其中,不同浓度的GA3、6-BA、IAA、IBA、NAA均可提高种子发芽率,有些生长素浓度对其萌发有促进作用但对其生长却有抑制作用,比如NAA和6-BA等.%This study analyzed the plant growth regulators such as IAA, IBA, GA3 and 6-BA on the seed germination and seedling growth of Lathyrus odoratus. 25 mg/L IAA and 200 mg/L GA3 could promote seeds germination and seedling growth of Lathyrus odoratusbest. The results showed that the effect was different from kinds of plant growth regulators on seed germination and seedling growth of Lathyrus odoratus, and even different concentration of the same plant growth regulators had different influence too. Among them,different concentrations of GA3 ,6-BA, IAA, IBA, NAA could increase the seed germination rate, and some growth hormone concentrations could promote seed germination,inhibite its seedling growth,such as NAA and 6-BA and so on.

  17. Influence of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on serum marker enzymes and erythrocyte and tissue antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin; Isik, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague-Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with

  18. Auxin regulation of cell polarity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Jisheng; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2015-12-01

    Auxin is well known to control pattern formation and directional growth at the organ/tissue levels via the nuclear TIR1/AFB receptor-mediated transcriptional responses. Recent studies have expanded the arena of auxin actions as a trigger or key regulator of cell polarization and morphogenesis. These actions require non-transcriptional responses such as changes in the cytoskeleton and vesicular trafficking, which are commonly regulated by ROP/Rac GTPase-dependent pathways. These findings beg for the question about the nature of auxin receptors that regulate these responses and renew the interest in ABP1 as a cell surface auxin receptor, including the work showing auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) interacts with the extracellular domain of the transmembrane kinase (TMK) receptor-like kinases in an auxin-dependent manner, as well as the debate on this auxin binding protein discovered about 40 years ago. This review highlights recent work on the non-transcriptional auxin signaling mechanisms underscoring cell polarity and shape formation in plants.

  19. Effects of exogenous plant growth regulator abscisic acid-induced resistance in rice on the expression of vitellogenin mRNA in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xia; Wong, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent study showed that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a regulator of plant resistance. This study investigated average injury scale and callose contents of rice, and vitellogenin (Nlvg) mRNA expression in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females after third instar nymphs fed on exogenous ABA-treated susceptible [Taichung Native one (TN1)] and moderately resistant (IR42) rice cultivars. The results showed that exogenous ABA significantly decreased average injury scale of rice and Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults compared with the control (without ABA spraying). Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults decreased significantly after third instar nymphs fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) TN1 for 1 and 2 d, and for IR42, after fed on ABA-treated (20 and 40 mg/liter) rice plants for 1 d and after fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) rice for 2 d decreased significantly. The callose contents showed no significant change for TN1, while for IR42, significantly increased in roots and sheathes after N. lugens infestation under ABA treatments (20 and 40 mg/liter) compared with the control. The decrease of Nlvg mRNA expression may be partially attributed to the increase of callose content of plants. The results provide a profile for concerning the effects of ABA-induced rice plants' defenses on phloem-feeding insects.

  20. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  1. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    endogeneity of acquisition using IV and propensity score matching approaches suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter. The effect is robust to controlling for domestic acquisitions and differs between horizontal and vertical...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical.......This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...

  2. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact.

  3. Benzothiazole Derivatives. 48. Synthesis of 3-Alkoxycarbonylmethyl-6-bromo-2-benzothiazolones and 3-Alkoxycarbonylmethyl-6-nitro-2-benzothiazolones as Potential Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Sutoris

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 3-Alkoxycarbonylmethyl-6-bromo- and 3-alkoxycarbonylmethyl-6-nitro-2-benzothiazolones were synthesized by reaction of alkylesters of halogenoacetic acids with 6-bromo-2-benzothiazolones and 6-nitro-2-benzothiazolones respectively. The compounds were tested for plant growth stimulating activity on wheat (Triticum aestivum. The bromo derivatives manifested 25.4 % average stimulating activity in comparison with the control. The stimulation activity of the nitro derivatives was not significant. Optimal structures of the compounds were obtained by a MMPI method, atomic charges and dipole moments were calculated by a semiempirical AM1 method. On the basis of molecular electrostatic potential it has been found that the biological activity of synthesized compounds depends on charge distribution in the molecules.

  4. Regulation of primary plant metabolism during plant-pathogen interactions and its contribution to plant defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia M Rojas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly exposed to microorganisms in the environment and, as a result, have evolved intricate mechanisms to recognize and defend themselves against potential pathogens. One of these responses is the downregulation of photosynthesis and other processes associated with primary metabolism that are essential for plant growth. It has been suggested that the energy saved by downregulation of primary metabolism is diverted and used for defense responses. However, several studies have shown that upregulation of primary metabolism also occurs during plant-pathogen interactions. We propose that upregulation of primary metabolism modulates signal transduction cascades that lead to plant defense responses. In support of this thought, we here compile evidence from the literature to show that upon exposure to pathogens or elicitors, plants induce several genes associated with primary metabolic pathways, such as those involved in the synthesis or degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. In addition, genetic studies have confirmed the involvement of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. This review provides a new perspective highlighting the relevance of primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against pathogens with the hope to stimulate further research in this area.

  5. Soybean plants architeture and plant growth regulators application Arquitectura de las plantas de soja y la aplicación de reguladores del crecimiento vegetal Arquitetura de plantas de soja e a aplicação de reguladores vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Domingos Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    >, BAP y AIB 100 mg L-1; Estimulate® (IBA + cinetina + GA3 en 20 mL L-1, cloruro de mepiquat a 100 mg L-1; mepiquat cloruro de BAP 100 + 100 + IBA 100 mg L-1 y ethephon a 600 mg L-1. Los tratamientos se aplicaron tres veces cada 30 días durante el ciclo y seis evaluaciones se realizaron cada 13 días se evaluaron las siguientes características: el contenido de clorofila de las hojas, altura de planta, número de ramas y la altura de las vainas. Tratamientos con BAP, ethephon y cloruro de mepiquat + IBA + BAP mantuvo alto contenido de clorofila hasta el final del ciclo de la planta. La altura de las plantas tratadas con ethephon fue menor que el control en todos los tratamientos y la ramificación de las plantas se incrementó en el tratamiento con ethephon y la altura de la primera vaina fue menor en este tratamiento y mayor con GA3. El tratamiento de las plantas con ethephon puede ser recomendado en la soja, ya que promueve la formación de las plantas con el ideal de la arquitectura para la cosecha mecánica.

    Treatment with plant growth regulators was studied in soybean plants (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. BRS-184 to assess the leaf chlorophyll content, the branching number and the height of the pods. The experiment has been carried out in the greenhouse of the Department of Botany, Bioscience Institute, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications and eight treatments: control; GA3 100 mg L-1; BAP 100 mg L-1; IBA 100 mg L-1; Stimulate,sup>® (IBA + GA3 + kinetin 20 mL L-1; mepiquat chloride 100 mg L-1; mepiquat chloride 100 mg L-1 + BAP 100 mg L-1 + IBA 100 mg L-1 and ethephon 600 mg L-1. The treatments were applied three times every 30 days

  6. Tonoplast calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 control plant growth and ion homeostasis through regulating V-ATPase activity in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Jie Tang; Hua Liu; Yang Yang; Lei Yang; Xiao-Shu Gao; Veder J Garcia; Sheng Luan; Hong-Xia Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to developmental and environmental cues are often mediated by calcium(Ca2+)signals that are transmitted by diverse calcium sensors.The calcineurin B-like(CBL)protein family represents calcium sensors that decode calcium signals through specific interactions with a group of CBL-interacting protein kinases.We report functional analysis of Arabidopsis CBL2 and CBL3,two closely related CBL members that are localized to the vacuolar membrane through the N-terminal tonoplast-targeting sequence.While cbl2 or cbl3 single mutant did not show any phenotypic difference from the wild type,the cbl2 cbl3 double mutant was stunted with leaf tip necrosis,underdeveloped roots,shorter siliques and fewerseeds.These defects were reminiscent of those in the vha-a2 vha-a3 double mutant deficient in vacuolar H+-ATPase(V-ATPase).Indeed,the V-ATPase activity was reduced in the cbl2 cbl3 double mutant,connecting tonoplast CBL-type calcium sensors to the regulation of V-ATPase.Furthermore,cbl2 cbl3 double mutant was compromised in ionic tolerance and micronutrient accumulation,consistent with the defect in V-ATPase activity that has been shown to function in ion compartmentalization.Our results suggest that calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 serve as molecular links between calcium signaling and V-ATPase,a central regulator of intracellular ion homeostasis.

  7. Money, Regulation and Growth: Financing New Growth in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Franco; Ganchev, Gancho; Tsenkov, Vladimir; Stravrova, Elena; Bastidon, Cécile; Cukierman, Alex; Kane, Edward J.; Quagliariello, Mario; Lopes, Samuel Da Rocha; Burke, Javier Villar; Scopelliti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    On June 4-5, 2014, SUERF and Baffi Finlawmetrics jointly organised a Colloquium/Conference “Money, Regulation and Growth: Financing New Growth in Europe” at Bocconi University, Milan. The present SUERF Study includes a selection of papers based on the authors’ contributions to the Milan event. The overall themes at the conference were the implications for economic growth of monetary policy, financial regulation and structural changes in European financial institutions and markets.

  8. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible en...

  9. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  10. Effect of various growth regulators on growth of yam (Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... In this work, we observed the effect of hormonal content of four culture media on the growth of. Dioscorea ... gene bank is the traditional ex situ method for conserving ... stress tolerance, and senescence throughout the plant.

  11. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  12. 花生喷施植物生长调节剂壮饱安效果试验%Trial of effect of spraying plant growth regulators Zhuangbaoan on peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伦英

    2015-01-01

    A test of spraying plant growth regulator Zhuangbaoan on peanut was carried on,the results showed that spraying Zhuangbaoan could increase peanut effective branch number,the pod number of single plant and full grain rate;peanut yield in the treatment of twice spraying increased by 10. 4%,and reached very significant level.%在花生上进行喷施植物生长调节剂壮饱安试验,结果表明:喷施壮饱安可以增加花生有效分枝数、单株结果数及饱果率;喷施2次处理花生增产10.4%,增产达极显著水平。

  13. 马铃薯不同生育期喷施植物生长调节剂对产量的影响%The Effect of Spraying Plant Growth Regulator at Different Stages on The Yield of Potatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 高智杰; 汤志平; 董克强

    2011-01-01

    对马铃薯不同生育期叶面喷施植物生长调节剂“通田补”对产量的影响进行试验。结果表明,马铃薯在团棵期和初花期各喷1次“通田补”效果最佳,每667m2产量达2170.11kg,较对照增产29.5%。喷施该植物生长调节剂,可补充从土壤中吸收不到的营养物质,使喷施的无机营养能迅速渗透到茎叶里,激发细胞活力,加速营养吸收,增加叶绿素的合成量,提高光合效率,促进淀粉积累,加速形成的光合产物向块茎转移,促使马铃薯地下块茎膨大,形成大薯。%The effect of spraying plant growth regulator at Different stages on the yield of potatoes was tested. The results show that spraying plant growth regulator at flowering stage and rosette stage could get the best effect (the yield is 2 170.11 kg/667m2, increased by 29.3%) . By Spraying plant growth regulator, the plants can absorb nutrients which is lack in soil, and the sprayed inorganic nutrients can quickly permeate into the stems and leaves, stimulate cell vitality to accelerate the absorption of nutrition, increase the chlorophyll synthetic, improve light and efficiency, promote starch accumulation, accelerate formation of photosynthesis production to tuber metastases, make plant robust and root developed, prompt underground potato tuber swollen, form large fries.

  14. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.

  15. An A20/AN1-zinc-finger domain containing protein gene in tea is differentially expressed during winter dormancy and in response to abiotic stress and plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asosii Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describes cloning and expression characterization of A20/AN1-zinc-finger domain containing protein (CsZfp gene in an evergreen tree tea [Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze] in response to winter dormancy (WD, abiotic stresses (polyethylene glycol, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride and plant growth regulators [abscisic acid (ABA, and gibberellic acid (GA3]. CsZfp encoded a putative protein of 173 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 18.44 kDa, an isoelectric point (pI of 6.50 and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY value of −0.334. The gene did not have an intron, and belonged to a multi-gene family. During the period of active growth (PAG, CsZfp showed maximum expression in root and fruit as compared to leaf, floral bud and stem. Interaction studies between temperature and plant growth regulators on the expression of CsZfp showed that ABA upregulated CsZfp expression at growth temperature (GT; 25 °C but had no effect at low temperature (LT; 4 °C. In response to GA3, upregulation was observed at LT but not at GT. Further, the expression was not modulated by LT either in the tissue harvested during PAG or during WD. It was interesting to record that the expression of CsZfp was upregulated by hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride, whereas it was non-responsive to polyethylene glycol. The possible role of CsZfp in playing key but differential roles in tea to various abiotic stresses is discussed.

  16. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  17. The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Castro, Randy; Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; López-Bucio, José

    2009-08-01

    Plant growth and development involves a tight coordination of the spatial and temporal organization of cell division, cell expansion and cell differentiation. Orchestration of these events requires the exchange of signaling molecules between the root and shoot, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The interactions that occur between plants and their associated microorganisms have long been of interest, as knowledge of these processes could lead to the development of novel agricultural applications. Plants produce a wide range of organic compounds including sugars, organic acids and vitamins, which can be used as nutrients or signals by microbial populations. On the other hand, microorganisms release phytohormones, small molecules or volatile compounds, which may act directly or indirectly to activate plant immunity or regulate plant growth and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of signals from free-living bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in a beneficial way. Evidence has accumulated indicating that classic plant signals such as auxins and cytokinins can be produced by microorganisms to efficiently colonize the root and modulate root system architecture. Other classes of signals, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, which are used by bacteria for cell-to-cell communication, can be perceived by plants to modulate gene expression, metabolism and growth. Finally, we discuss the role played by volatile organic compounds released by certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant immunity and developmental processes. The picture that emerges is one in which plants and microbes communicate themselves through transkingdom signaling systems involving classic and novel signals.

  18. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokini

  19. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokini

  20. Biorregulador na composição química e na produtividade de grãos de soja Plant growth regulator in the chemical composition and yield of soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Paiola Albrecht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a composição química e a produtividade de grãos de soja, em resposta à aplicação de biorregulador na cultura da soja. Para tanto, sementes de soja da cultivar BRS 246 RR foram semeadas no mês de outubro dos anos agrícolas de 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, no delineamento experimental em blocos completos com os tratamentos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos, arranjados em esquema fatorial, foram compostos pela combinação do tratamento de sementes com o biorregulador (sem e com 0,500 L 100 kg-1 de sementes e cinco doses do produto (0; 0,125; 0,250; 0,375 e 0,500 L ha-1 aplicadas via foliar, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura (V5 ou R3. Utilizou-se um biorregulador líquido da Stoller do Brasil Ltda., denominado de Stimulate®, composto por três reguladores vegetais na seguinte concentração: 0,005% do ácido indolbutirico - IBA (análogo de auxina, 0,009% de cinetina (citocinina e 0,005% de ácido giberélico - GA3 (giberelina. O uso do biorregulador influenciou no incremento da produtividade; os teores de óleo e proteínas foram alterados pela ação do biorregulador, com tendência de favorecimento do conteúdo proteico.The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and yield of the soybean in response to the application of plant growth regulator to a soybean crop. For this purpose, seeds of the cultivar BRS 246 RR were sown in October of the agricultural years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, in an experimental layout of complete blocks, with randomized treatments and four replications. The treatments, arranged in factorial design, consisted of the combination of seed treatments and plant growth regulator (with and without 0.5 L 100kg-1 of seeds and five doses of the product (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 L ha-1 applied to the leaves at two stages of the crop development (V5 or R3. A liquid growth regulator, Stimulate®, from Stoller of Brazil Ltda

  1. Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcaud, Thierry; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Stokes, Alexia; Lambers, Hans; Körner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Modelling plant growth allows us to test hypotheses and carry out virtual experiments concerning plant growth processes that could otherwise take years in field conditions. The visualization of growth simulations allows us to see directly and vividly the outcome of a given model and provides us with an instructive tool useful for agronomists and foresters, as well as for teaching. Functional–structural (FS) plant growth models are nowadays particularly important for integrating biological processes with environmental conditions in 3-D virtual plants, and provide the basis for more advanced research in plant sciences. Scope In this viewpoint paper, we ask the following questions. Are we modelling the correct processes that drive plant growth, and is growth driven mostly by sink or source activity? In current models, is the importance of soil resources (nutrients, water, temperature and their interaction with meristematic activity) considered adequately? Do classic models account for architectural adjustment as well as integrating the fundamental principles of development? Whilst answering these questions with the available data in the literature, we put forward the opinion that plant architecture and sink activity must be pushed to the centre of plant growth models. In natural conditions, sinks will more often drive growth than source activity, because sink activity is often controlled by finite soil resources or developmental constraints. PMA06 This viewpoint paper also serves as an introduction to this Special Issue devoted to plant growth modelling, which includes new research covering areas stretching from cell growth to biomechanics. All papers were presented at the Second International Symposium on Plant Growth Modeling, Simulation, Visualization and Applications (PMA06), held in Beijing, China, from 13–17 November, 2006. Although a large number of papers are devoted to FS models of agricultural and forest crop species, physiological and genetic

  2. Endocytosis and its regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lusheng; Li, Ruili; Pan, Jianwei; Ding, Zhaojun; Lin, Jinxing

    2015-06-01

    Endocytosis provides a major route of entry for membrane proteins, lipids, and extracellular molecules into the cell. Recent evidence indicates that multiple cellular processes require endocytosis, including nutrient uptake, signaling transduction, and plant-microbe interactions. Also, advanced microscopy, combined with biochemical and genetic approaches, has provided more insights into the molecular machinery and functions of endocytosis in plants. Here we review mechanisms of the clathrin-dependent and membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes in plant cells. In addition, degradation of endocytosed proteins and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated vesicle formation at the endosome are discussed. Finally, we summarize the essential roles of various regulators during plant endocytosis.

  3. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Gravity sensing, a largely misunderstood trigger of plant orientated growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David; Tocquard, Kévin; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Legué, Valerie; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Gravity is a crucial environmental factor regulating plant growth and development. Plants have the ability to sense a change in the direction of gravity, which leads to the re-orientation of their growth direction, so-called gravitropism. In general, plant stems grow upward (negative gravitropism), whereas roots grow downward (positive gravitropism). Models describing the gravitropic response following the tilting of plants are presented and highlight that gravitropic curvature involves both gravisensing and mechanosensing, thus allowing to revisit experimental data. We also discuss the challenge to set up experimental designs for discriminating between gravisensing and mechanosensing. We then present the cellular events and the molecular actors known to be specifically involved in gravity sensing.

  5. Gravity sensing, a largely misunderstood trigger of plant orientated growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLopez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravity is a crucial environmental factor regulating plant growth and development. Plants have the ability to sense a change in the direction of gravity, which leads to the re-orientation of their growth direction, so-called gravitropism. In general, plant stems grow upward (negative gravitropism, whereas roots grow downward (positive gravitropism. Models describing the gravitropic response following the tilting of plants are presented and highlight that gravitropic curvature involves both gravisensing and mechanosensing, thus allowing to revisit experimental data. We also discuss the challenge to set up experimental designs for discriminating between gravisensing and mechanosensing. We then present the cellular events and the molecular actors known to be specifically involved in gravity sensing.

  6. SPATULA links daytime temperature and plant growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidaway-Lee, Kate; Josse, Eve-Marie; Brown, Alanna; Gan, Yinbo; Halliday, Karen J; Graham, Ian A; Penfield, Steven

    2010-08-24

    Plants exhibit a wide variety of growth rates that are known to be determined by genetic and environmental factors, and different plants grow optimally at different temperatures, indicating that this is a genetically determined character. Moderate decreases in ambient temperature inhibit vegetative growth, but the mechanism is poorly understood, although a decrease in gibberellin (GA) levels is known to be required. Here we demonstrate that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPATULA (SPT), previously known to be a regulator of low temperature-responsive germination, mediates the repression of growth by cool daytime temperatures but has little or no growth-regulating role under warmer conditions. We show that only daytime temperatures affect vegetative growth and that SPT couples morning temperature to growth rate. In seedlings, warm temperatures inhibit the accumulation of the SPT protein, and SPT autoregulates its own transcript abundance in conjunction with diurnal effects. Genetic data show that repression of growth by SPT is independent of GA signaling and phytochrome B, as previously shown for PIF4. Our data suggest that SPT integrates time of day and temperature signaling to control vegetative growth rate.

  7. 15. international conference on plant growth substances: Program -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Since the 14th Conference in Amsterdam in 1991, progress in plant hormone research and developmental plant biology has been truly astonishing. The five ``classical`` plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid, have been joined by a number of new signal molecules, e.g., systemin, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, whose biosynthesis and functions are being understood in ever greater detail. Molecular genetics has opened new vistas in an understanding of transduction pathways that regulate developmental processes in response to hormonal and environmental signals. The program of the 15th Conference includes accounts of this progress and brings together scientists whose work focuses on physiological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of plant growth regulation. This volume contains the abstracts of papers presented at this conference.

  8. Survival of two introduced plant growth promoting micro-organisms in green roof soil in southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Long

    2014-01-01

    Glomus intraradices and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are two commercially used plant growth promoting micro-organisms. They associate with plant roots to facilitate host plants to absorb nutrients, induce resistance against pathogens and pests, and regulate growth through phytohormones. Growth conditions for plants on green roofs are often unfavorable. In order to test whether growth and development of green roof plants could be enhanced via improving the microbial interface, G. intraradices an...

  9. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Katagiri

    Full Text Available Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W x 1.8 m (D x 2 m (H, providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant

  10. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  11. Efeitos de reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito Effect of plant growth regulators on rooting of Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teruel Felzener

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos de reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Flying Dragon [Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito]. Na metade de cada estação do ano, ramos de citros foram coletados (4 experimentos, a partir dos quais foram retiradas estacas com 10 cm de comprimento com uma folha cortada ao meio. As bases das estacas foram tratadas com os seguintes reguladores vegetais na forma de talco: Testemunha (H2O; IBA 0,5%; NAA a 0,5%; IBA + ácido caféico a 0,5%, e NAA + ácido caféico 0,5%. As estacas foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor contendo fibra de coco e mantidas por três meses em câmara de nebulização. Os resultados mostraram que para a propagação desta espécie por estaquia, a coleta dos ramos deve ser no outono e que as mesmas sejam tratadas com a mistura de NAA + ácido caféico, ambos a 0,5%.The work aimed study the effects of plant growth regulators on the rooting of 'Flying Dragon' stem cuttings [Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito]. Citrus branches were collected of each season of the year (4 experiments. Cuttings (10-cm-long containing one half leaf were obtained from these branches. The base of the cuttings was treated with plant growth regulators in the talc formulation: Control (H2O; IBA 0.5%; NAA 0.5%; IBA + caffeic acid 0.5%; and NAA + caffeic acid 0.5%. The cuttings were planted in trays containing coconut fiber and maintained for three months in the misting chamber. The cuttings collected in the fall and treated with a mixture of NAA 0.5% and caffeic acid at 0.5% showed higher rooting percentage.

  12. Reguladores vegetais e teores endógenos de poliaminas durante o desenvolvimento de taro cultivado in vitro Plant growth regulators in polyamines endogenous levels during the development of taro cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Alice Francisco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a assepsia para obtenção de explantes oriundos de tubérculos e a ação das poliaminas espermidina e espermina exógenas associadas aos reguladores vegetais AIA e BA no desenvolvimento, na tuberização in vitro e nos níveis endógenos de putrescina (Put, espermidina (Spd e espermina (Spm de taro (Colocasia esculenta. Plantas crescidas em meio contendo espermidina e espermina mostraram tuberização e a associação dessas poliaminas com AIA e BA induziu aumento do número de brotações. Para o estímulo da rizogênese, não foi necessário o uso de reguladores vegetais. Altos teores de putrescina foram encontrados durante a emissão de brotações, enquanto que altos teores de espermidina foram observados durante a formação de rizomas in vitro.The present research investigated the asepsis for attainment of explants deriving of tubers and the polyamines espermidine and espermine exogenous effects associated with the plant growth regulators NAA and BA on the development and tuberization in vitro and the endogenous levels of putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm of taro (Colocasia esculenta. Plants grown in the medium with spermidine and spermine showed tuberization and the association of these polyamines with NAA and BA increases number of shoots. Plant growth regulators were not necessary for root initiation. High levels of endogenous Put were found during the shoot emission, while high levels Spd were observed during in vitro root formation.

  13. Auxin Signaling in Regulation of Plant Translation Reinitiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Schepetilnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA translation machinery directs protein production, and thus cell growth, according to prevailing cellular and environmental conditions. The target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway—a major growth-related pathway—plays a pivotal role in optimizing protein synthesis in mammals, while its deregulation triggers uncontrolled cell proliferation and the development of severe diseases. In plants, several signaling pathways sensitive to environmental changes, hormones, and pathogens have been implicated in post-transcriptional control, and thus far phytohormones have attracted most attention as TOR upstream regulators in plants. Recent data have suggested that the coordinated actions of the phytohormone auxin, Rho-like small GTPases (ROPs from plants, and TOR signaling contribute to translation regulation of mRNAs that harbor upstream open reading frames (uORFs within their 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs. This review will summarize recent advances in translational regulation of a specific set of uORF-containing mRNAs that encode regulatory proteins—transcription factors, protein kinases and other cellular controllers—and how their control can impact plant growth and development.

  14. 植物生长调节剂对土人参种子发芽的影响%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Seed Germination of Talinm paniculatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊彦; 丁妮妮; 杜曼霞; 黄俊华; 杨素娜; 杨秋婷

    2012-01-01

    探讨了6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)、吲哚乙酸(IAA)、萘乙酸(NAA)、吲哚丁酸(IBA)等植物生长调节剂对土人参种子萌发及幼苗早期生长的影响.结果表明:不同植物生长调节剂对土人参种子发芽和幼苗生长的影响不同,同一植物生长调节剂的浓度不同其影响也不同.与ck对比,6-BA促进土人参种子发芽与幼苗生长的最佳浓度为2 mg/L; IAA、NAA和IBA的最佳浓度分别为50、100、50 mg/L.其中,2 mg/L的6-BA对土人参种子发芽的促进效果最好;50 mg/L的IAA促进土人参幼苗生长的效果最明显.%Effects of plant growth regulator on both Talinm paniculatum seed germination and its seedling growth at the early phase were examined. Talinm paniculatum were treated with different concentration of 6-g amino purine (6-BA) ,naphthyl acetic acid (IAA) ,indoles acetic acid (NAA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA) in a series of experiments. The results showed that different plant growth regulator and even different concentration of the same kind have different influences on Talinm paniculatum seed germination and its seedling growth. Compared with ck,the optimal concentration for 6-BA,IAA,NAA and IBA to promote the seed germination of Talinm paniculatum and its seedling growth are respectively 2 mg/L,50,100 mg/L and 50 mg/L. Above all,6-BA of 2 mg/L has best effect for promotion of the germination of Talinm paniculatum while IAA of 50 mg/L facilitates its seedling growth most evidently.

  15. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size-asymmetric ......A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size...

  16. 三唑类杀菌剂调节植物逆境生长研究进展%The Advances on Triazole Fungicides Regulating Plant Growth Against Environmental Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕彦博; 潘红艳; 张晓庆; 赵佳; 步怀宇

    2012-01-01

    Triazole fungicides have double functions in the agriculture. In addition to be the efficient and harmless specific fungicides, they also have function as non-traditional plant growth regulators which protect plants against various environmental stresses. In this paper, the specificity and superiority of triazole fungicides have been clarified by summarizing the regulatory function to plants growth and their influence on promoting stresses tolerance of plants including enhancing plant photosynthesis and the anti-oxidation potential, improving cell membrane lipid stability and the level of ABA. Triazole fungicides have resistance to various environmental stresses efficiently by promoting plant photosynthesis, improving the concentration of antioxidants including enzymatic and nonenzymatic, decreasing the level of MDA, increasing the accumulation of proline, and enhancing the level of ABA. There are scanty reports on the molecular mechanism of fungicides promoting plants stress resistance. Thus valuable references for the research and development of novel agriculture chemicals will be provided.%从促进植物光合作用、提高抗氧化潜能、维持细胞膜脂稳定以及诱导脱落酸合成等方面总结了三唑类杀菌剂的生长调节功能,特别是对植物抵抗逆境胁迫的影响,阐明三唑类杀菌剂的独特性和优越性.综合近年来相关文献发现,三唑类杀菌剂可以有效增强植物的光合作用、增加酶类与非酶类抗氧化剂含量、降低丙二醛含量、促进脯氨酸合成与积累、提高体内脱落酸水平,从而有效缓解植物逆境胁迫压力.进一步研究三唑类化合物增强植物抗逆性的分子机制研究,可以为提高三唑类杀菌剂的应用价值及市场潜力提供帮助.

  17. Effects of Plant Growth Regulator on Cutting and Rooting of Celastrus orbiculatus Twigs%植物生长调节剂对南蛇藤嫩枝扦插生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银华

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study the effects of kinds,concn. and treating time of plant growth regulators on cutting and rooting of Celastrus orbiculatus twigs. [ Method] 4 kinds of plant growth regulators including NAA 、IBA 、ABT1 and GGR6 were made into the solutions with different concn. and C. orbiculatus twigs were made for the full-light automatic spraying cutting after soaking or speedily dipping the cuttings base of C.orbiculatus by different solutions of plant growth regulators, with the clean water as the CK. The cutting and rooting condition was investigated after treatment for 2 months. [ Result] The treatment of soaking the cuttings base of C. orbiculatus with 300 mg/L IBA for 40 min and the treatment of speedily dipping the cuttings base of C. orbiculatus with 1000 mg/L NAA had better rooting effect, with the mean rooting number of 45.6 and 38.5 resp. and the cutting survival rate of 87.0% and 91.5% resp. [ Conclusion ] The study provided the reference for the rap reproduction of C. orbiculatus.%[目的]研究植物生长调节剂种类、浓度及处理时间对南蛇藤插穗生根的影响.[方法]用NAA、IBA、ABT1和GGR6 4种植物生长调节剂配成不同浓度溶液,对南蛇藤插穗基部浸泡或速蘸后进行全光照自动喷雾扦插,以清水为对照,2个月后对插穗生根状况进行调查.[结果]南蛇藤插穗基部在浓度300 mg/L的IBA溶液中浸泡40 min和插穗基部用浓度1 000 mg/L的NAA速蘸的处理生根效果较好,平均生根数分别为45.6、38.5条,扦插成活率分别为87.0%和91.5%.[结论]该研究为南蛇藤的快速繁殖提供了参考.

  18. Effects of Three Plant Growth Regulators on the Physiological Indices of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis%3种植物生长调节剂对七彩朱槿生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉舒中; 王美英; 李悦; 杨振德; 雷世满; 吕文玲

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂对七彩朱槿生长影响的生理机制.[方法]采用L16(43)的正交试验设计,研究多效唑( PP333)、矮壮素(CCC)、比久(B9)3种植物生长调节剂对盆栽七彩朱槿叶绿素含量以及POD、CAT、NR的影响.[结果]叶施与根施生长调节剂对七彩朱槿的生理影响效果不同.叶施生长调节剂对叶绿素含量、POD和CAT的影响大于根施;而根施对NR的促进作用大于叶施,含高浓,度CCC(4000mg/L)的(14)、(15)、(16)处理的NR明显高于对照.3种生长调节剂中,CCC对七彩朱槿NR的影响最显著,其中根施CCC处理的影响达极显著水平.[结论]合理使用植物生长调节剂,不仅能起到化学修剪的作用,同时可以增强七彩朱槿的光合作用能力、抗性以及对氮肥的利用能力.%[Objective] The research aimed to explore the physiological mechanism that plant growth regulators made effects on the growth of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis. [Method] The experiments were conducted as the orthogonal design of L16 (4 ) to study the effects of three plant growth regulators , namely PP333, CCC, B9, on th e chlorophyll content, POD, CAT and NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis grown in pot. [Result] The effects on the physiological indices of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis between foliar fertilization and root fertilization of PP333 ,CCC and B9 were different. The effects on the chlorophyll content, POD and CAT made by foliage fertilization were more obvious than by root fertilization, but it was opposite to NR, and the values of NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis treated by the (14), (15) and (16) combinations, which all contained CCC in high concentration (4 000 mg/L) ,were significantly higher than CK. Among the three plant growth regulators, CCC had made the most significant effect on NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis, especially by the way of root fertilization, and the difference could reach extremely significant level compared with the others. [Conclusion] Rational use

  19. Regulation of muscle growth in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review reports recent findings on the multiple factors that regulate skeletal muscle growth in neonates. Skeletal muscle is the fastest growing protein mass in neonates. The high rate of neonatal muscle growth is due to accelerated rates of protein synthesis accompanied by the rapid accumulatio...

  20. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms before foreign takeover. The results, controlling for possible endogeneity of the acquisition dummy using an IV and propensity score matching approach suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases...

  1. Histone variants in plant transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danhua; Berger, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin based organization of eukaryotic genome plays a profound role in regulating gene transcription. Nucleosomes form the basic subunits of chromatin by packaging DNA with histone proteins, impeding the access of DNA to transcription factors and RNA polymerases. Exchange of histone variants in nucleosomes alters the properties of nucleosomes and thus modulates DNA exposure during transcriptional regulation. Growing evidence indicates the important function of histone variants in programming transcription during developmental transitions and stress response. Here we review how histone variants and their deposition machineries regulate the nucleosome stability and dynamics, and discuss the link between histone variants and transcriptional regulation in plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Gene Regulatory Mechanisms and Networks, edited by Dr. Erich Grotewold and Dr. Nathan Springer.

  2. Effect of growth regulators on growth of hybrids of east hellebore (Helleborus orientalis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of growth regulators in foliar or soil applications on the growth of Helleborus orientalis ‘Red Hybrids’. Used benzyladenine, gibberellic acid and flurprimidol varying concentrations depending on the method of application. Plant growth was assessed on the basis of plant height, number of resume buds and the number of leaves. Type of growth regulator and method of application had a significant impact on the features. It has been found that the use of BA or BA+GA3, regardless of the application method, will increase the number of resume buds and leaves and decrease the plant height. Flurprimidol in­hibits plant growth, and does not increase the number of resume buds and leaves. In the cultivation of Helleborus orientalis it is recommended to water the plants twice with a mixture of solutions of BA 500 mg·dm-3 + GA3 150 mg·dm-3 at a dose of 50 cm3 per 1 dm3 of medium.

  3. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Cai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin. Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall.

  4. Auxins as one of the factors of plant growth improvement by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambreen; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by various mechanisms such as phytohormone production, enhanced water and nutrient uptake, improved nitrogen availability in the soil, production of ACC-deaminase for ethylene breakdown, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production etc. Microbial auxin production is the major factor not only responsible for strengthening the plant-microbe relationship but it also promotes plant growth and development in a positive manner. Thus, bacterial auxin production potential can be exploited for plant growth improvement that may be effective in reducing the hazardous effects of chemical fertilizers on the ecosystem used to obtain higher yields. The present review gives a better understanding of various factors and mechanisms involved in auxin production by PGPR that may be helpful in proper exploitation of these natural resources in a beneficial way.

  5. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their effect on maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkovački Nastasija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil bacteria beneficial to plant growth are usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, capable of promoting plant growth by colonizing the plant root. Application of PGPR to increase the yield is limited by variability among the results obtained in the laboratory, in greenhouse and field. Rhizobacteria that promote plant growth (PGPR participate in interactions with plants (rice, wheat, maize, sugarcane, sugar beet, cotton and significantly increase their vegetative growth and yield. Apart from Azotobacter and Azospirillum, PGPR also include Acetobacter, Azoarcus and several species of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Pseudomonas. PGPR represent an alternative to plant growth enhancement chemicals.

  6. Plant growth responses to polypropylene--biocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of bio-fillers incorporated into polypropylene (PP) on the growth of plants was evaluated. Biocontainers were created by injection molding of PP with 25-40% by weight of Osage orange tree, Paulownia tree, coffee tree wood or dried distillers grain and 5% by weight of maleated polypropy...

  7. Application Status and Development Prospect of Plant Growth Regulator Brassinolide in Agriculture%植物生长调节剂芸苔素内酯在农业上的应用现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀; 方朝阳

    2015-01-01

    介绍了植物生长调节剂芸苔素内酯目前在国内的登记情况,简述了芸苔素内酯作为植物生长调节剂的生理功能,综述了芸苔素内酯商品化以来在国内农业上的应用现状及应用效果,并对其未来的发展前景进行了简要分析.%The paper reported the current registration information of the plant growth regulator Brassinolide in China, briefly described its physiological function, reviewed its application status and effects in agriculture and then analyzed its development prospect in the future.

  8. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readi...

  9. Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

    2013-11-01

    Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants.

  10. Plant growth promoters and methods of using them

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-05

    New plant growth regulators, including compounds and compositions, and methods of use including for promoting root growth. The compounds are carotenoid oxidation products, and a preferred example is 3-OH--β-apo-13-Carotenone. A method comprising promoting the growth of at least one plant with use of an effective amount of at least one composition comprising an effective amount of at least one compound which is represented by A-B-C, wherein B is a bivalent polyene moiety, A is a monovalent moiety linked to B by a six-membered carbon ring, wherein the ring has at least one substituent linked to the ring by an oxygen atom, and C is a monovalent moiety linked to B by a carbonyl group. Synergistic effects can be used with combinations of compounds.

  11. Paradigm shift in plant growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2015-06-01

    For plants to grow they need resources and appropriate conditions that these resources are converted into biomass. While acknowledging the importance of co-drivers, the classical view is still that carbon, that is, photosynthetic CO2 uptake, ranks above any other drivers of plant growth. Hence, theory and modelling of growth traditionally is carbon centric. Here, I suggest that this view is not reflecting reality, but emerged from the availability of methods and process understanding at leaf level. In most cases, poorly understood processes of tissue formation and cell growth are governing carbon demand, and thus, CO2 uptake. Carbon can only be converted into biomass to the extent chemical elements other than carbon, temperature or cell turgor permit.

  12. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anna-Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting

  13. Efeitos de fitorreguladores no crescimento e na floração de plantas de gerânio Effects of growth regulators on the development and flowering of geranium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Aparecida de Nucci

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar a eficiência de fitorreguladores no controle da altura de gerânio (Pelargonium hortorum Bailey e no comprimento do ráquis de sua inflorescência, instalaram-se dois ensaios na região de Cotia, SP, ambos plantados em vasos em casa de vegetação. Num deles, foram pulverizados clormequate e daminozide, nas doses de 1.000, 2.000 e 4.000 ppm por planta, e paclobutrazol nas doses de 15, 30 e 60 ppm. No segundo ensaio, foram pulverizados clormequate a 2.000ppm, por duas vezes e, em aplicação única, daminozide a 4.000 ppm e paclobutrazol nas doses de 5, 10 e 15 ppm. Clormequate e daminozide, de modo geral, não foram eficientes na redução do porte das plantas nem do comprimento do ráquis da inflorescência. Paclobutrazol, em todas as doses superiores a 5ppm, provocou redução significativa tanto na altura das plantas como no comprimento do ráquis da inflorescência, destacando-se as concentrações de 10 e 15 ppm como as mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas com conformação ideal para envasamento.The efficiency of growth regulators in controlling geranium height and rachis lenght was studied in two greenhouse experiments at Cotia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, with plants growing in plastic bags. In one experiment the following growth regulators were used: chlormequat, and daminozide, both with concentrations of 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 ppm and paclobutrazol with concentrations of 15, 30 and 60 ppm. In another experiment chlormequat at concentration of 2,000 ppm was sprayed twice; daminozide solution 4,000 ppm was sprayed once and paclobutrazol was sprayed with concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 ppm once. Chlormequat and daminozide were not efficient in shortening plant height and rachis length. Paclobutrazol sprays in all dosis higher than 5ppm shortened significantly plant height and rachis length. Solutions of paclobutrazol at concentrations of 10 and 15 ppm were the most effective treatment in producing

  14. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readily available to plants as a source of phosphorus because it either forms a complex with cations or adsorbs to various soil components. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important role in supplying P to plants. Microorganisms utilizing phytate are found in cultivated soils as well as in wetland, grassland and forest soils. Various fungi and bacteria (including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) hydrolyze this organic form of phosphorus secreting phosphatases such as phytases and acidic/alkaline phosphatases. A large number of transgenic plants have been developed which were able to utilize sodium phytate as sole source of phosphorus. However, the recombinant phytases were similar to their wild type counterparts in terms of their properties. Increased phytase/phosphatase activity in transgenic plants may be an effective approach to promote their phytate-phosphorus utilization. The extracellular phytase activity of transgenic plant roots is a significant factor in the utilization of phosphorus from phytate. Furthermore, this indicated that an opportunity exists for using gene technology to improve the ability of plants to utilize accumulated forms of soil organic phosphorus. This review is focused on the role of phytases and phytase producing microbes in promoting the growth of different plants.

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Qing Yang; Xin Fang; Xiu-Ming Wu; Ying-Bo Mao; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play critical roles in plant-environment interactions.They are synthesized in different organs or tissues at particular developmental stages,and in response to various environmental stimuli,both biotic and abiotic.Accordingly,corresponding genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by multiple transcription factors.Several families of transcription factors have been identified to participate in controlling the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites.These regulators integrate internal (often developmental) and external signals,bind to corresponding cis-elements — which are often in the promoter regions — to activate or repress the expression of enzyme-coding genes,and some of them interact with other transcription factors to form a complex.In this review,we summarize recent research in these areas,with an emphasis on newly-identified transcription factors and their functions in metabolism regulation.

  16. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Yeon-Sik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L. A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900 through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting

  17. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool

  18. Regulation of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) on Plant Growth and Development%光敏色素互作因子(PIFs)对植物生长发育的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘教文; 赵术珍; 张烨; 李长生; 王玉红; 王兴军

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome interacting factors ( PIFs ) belonging to Arabidopsis basic helix -loop -helix ( bHLH) transcription factors subgroup 15 are key regulators in light signal transduction .Light -activated phytochromes regulate plant growth and development by promoting the degradation of PIFs and directly or indi -rectly inhibiting their DNA binding activity .Studies showed that PIFs played important roles in the regulation of seed germination, seedling morphogenesis , shade avoidance , circadian clock, phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction .PIFs have broader roles than previously expected and work as a cellular signaling hub that integrates multiple signals to orchestrate the transcriptional network of plants .%光敏色素相互作用因子( PIFs)属于拟南芥bHLH转录因子家族的第15亚族,是光信号响应过程中的关键负调控因子。光激活的光敏色素通过促进PIFs蛋白降解,直接或间接抑制它们与DNA的结合,从而实现光对植物生长发育的调控。研究发现PIFs在调控种子萌发、幼苗形态建成、避荫反应、昼夜节律以及各种植物激素响应过程中起着重要作用。此外,PIFs作为细胞信号传导的“枢纽”具有更为广泛的作用,能够整合不同信号,精细调控整个转录网络。

  19. Plant defences limit herbivore population growth by changing predator-prey interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersch-Becker, Mônica F; Kessler, André; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2017-09-13

    Plant quality and predators are important factors affecting herbivore population growth, but how they interact to regulate herbivore populations is not well understood. We manipulated jasmonate-induced plant resistance, exposure to the natural predator community and herbivore density to test how these factors jointly and independently affect herbivore population growth. On low-resistance plants, the predator community was diverse and abundant, promoting high predator consumption rates. On high-resistance plants, the predator community was less diverse and abundant, resulting in low predator consumption rate. Plant resistance only directly regulated aphid population growth on predator-excluded plants. When predators were present, plant resistance indirectly regulated herbivore population growth by changing the impact of predators on the herbivorous prey. A possible mechanism for the interaction between plant resistance and predation is that methyl salicylate, a herbivore-induced plant volatile attractive to predators, was more strongly induced in low-resistance plants. Increased plant resistance reduced predator attractant lures, preventing predators from locating their prey. Low-resistance plants may regulate herbivore populations via predators by providing reliable information on prey availability and increasing the effectiveness of predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Cytokinin production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and selected mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Salamone, I E; Hynes, R K; Nelson, L M

    2001-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is through the production of plant growth regulators. Five plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains produced the cytokinin dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR) in pure culture. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18, a rifampicin-resistant mutant (RIF), and two TnphoA-derived mutants (CNT1, CNT2), with reduced capacity to synthesize cytokinins, was further characterized in pure culture using immunoassay and thin layer chromatography. G20-18 produced higher amounts of three cytokinins, isopentenyl adenosine (IPA), trans-zeatin ribose (ZR), and DHZR than the three mutants during stationary phase. IPA was the major metabolite produced, but the proportion of ZR and DHZR accumulated by CNT1 and CNT2 increased with time. No differences were observed between strain G20-18 and the mutants in the amounts of indole acetic acid synthesized, nor were gibberellins detected in supernatants of any of the strains. Addition of 10(-5) M adenine increased cytokinin production in 96- and 168-h cultures of strain G20-18 by approximately 67%. G20-18 and the mutants CNT1 and CNT2 may be useful for determination of the role of cytokinin production in plant growth promotion by PGPR.

  1. Reguladores de crescimento vegetal na concentração de macronutrientes em videira Itália Plant growth regulators on macronutrients in Itália grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Costa Silveira de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em clima tropical semi-árido, o uso de reguladores vegetais em fruteiras permite o manejo do crescimento vegetativo, tão necessário ao escalonamento da produção e ao aumento da fertilidade das gemas. Estas substâncias influenciam vários fenômenos fisiológicos relacionados com a absorção mineral, como a condutância de membrana e utilização metabólica de íons. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo, produção de matéria seca dos ramos, concentração e quantidade acumulada de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos ramos e nos pecíolos e produção de panículas florais em resposta ao uso de reguladores vegetais, em plantas de videira da cultivar Itália. No experimento foram avaliados três ciclos vegetativos e cinco tratamentos (controle, chlormequat - 1500 mg L-1; daminozide - 3000 mg L-1; uniconazole - 30 mg L-1 e cloreto de mepiquat - 300 mg L-1, aplicados nas plantas em pulverizações aos 35 e 70 dias após a poda. Com o chlormequat e o uniconazole ocorreu efeito cumulativo nas plantas, quando aplicados em ciclos sucessivos da cultura, favorecendo o acúmulo de nutrientes e a diferenciação de gemas férteis em comparação com as plantas controle das videiras 'Itália'. Embora o daminozide tenha inibido significativamente o crescimento das plantas, não resultou em maior acúmulo de nutrientes e emissão de panículas florais nas plantas tratadas.In semi-arid tropical climate, the use of plant growth regulators in fruit trees allows the vegetative growth control, so necessary to the assignment of the production and the increase of the fertility of the buds. These substances influence several physiological processes related to the mineral absorption, for example: membrane condutance and metabolic use of ions. The objective of this work was to evaluate vegetative growth, stem dry mater, N, P, K, Ca and Mg content in the stem and petiole and panicle production in response to plant growth regulators in grape "It

  2. The Rsm regulon of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101: role of small RNAs in regulation of lipopeptide biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chunxu; van der Voort, M.; van de Mortel, J.; Hassan, Karl; Elbourne, L.D.H.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Loper, J.E.; Raaijmakers, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Interpretive Summary: Biological control provides a promising strategy for managing plant diseases, but has not yet been utilized widely in agriculture due, in part, to unexplained variation in its success in managing disease. Our research goals are to identify sources of variation in biological con

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

    2013-08-29

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

  4. Dynamic Plant-Plant-Herbivore Interactions Govern Plant Growth-Defence Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jorad; Evers, Jochem B.; Poelman, Erik H.

    2017-01-01

    Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate an

  5. Molecular regulators of phosphate homeostasis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Yi; Lin, Shu-I; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2009-01-01

    An appropriate cellular phosphate (Pi) concentration is indispensable for essential physiological and biochemical processes. To maintain cellular Pi homeostasis, plants have developed a series of adaptive responses to facilitate external Pi acquisition and to limit Pi consumption and to adjust Pi recycling internally when the Pi supply is inadequate. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding such regulation at the molecular level. In this review, the focus is on the molecular regulators that mediate cellular Pi concentrations. The regulators are introduced and organized according to their original identification procedures, by the forward genetic approach of mutant screening or by reverse genetic analysis. These genes are involved in Pi uptake, allocation or remobilization or are upstream regulators, such as transcriptional factors or signalling molecules. In the future, integration of current knowledge and exploration of new technology is expected to offer new insights into molecular mechanisms that maintain Pi homeostasis.

  6. Effects of Different Plant Growth Regulators on Hardwood Cutting with Kyoho Grape%不同植物生长调节剂对巨峰葡萄硬枝扦插的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄红丽; 周宁; 黄颖宏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study effects of different plant growth regulators on hardwood cutting with Kyoho grape.[Method] With clear water as control,two treatments of Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) and Aspirin(main ingredient salicylic acid) were set up,to analyze the survival rate of cuttings,the growth of roots and main tips.[Result] NAA and SA both could improve the survival rate of cuttings,promote the growth of roots and main tips.[Conclusion] NAA and SA both conducive to survival and growth of Kyoho grape,and the effect of NAA was better.%[目的]研究不同植物生长调节剂对巨峰葡萄硬枝扦插的效应。[方法]试验设萘乙酸(NAA)和阿司匹林(主要成分为水杨酸,SA)2个处理,以清水为对照,分析插条的成活率、地下部分根系及地上部分主梢的生长情况。[结果]萘乙酸和阿司匹林均能提高扦插苗木的成活率,促进地下部分根系及地上部分主梢的生长。[结论]萘乙酸和阿司匹林均有利于巨峰葡萄硬枝扦插的成活和生长,且萘乙酸比阿司匹林的效果好。

  7. MicroRNAs as regulators in plant metal toxicity response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Mendoza-Soto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal toxicity is a major stress affecting crop production. This includes metals that are essential for plants (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and non-essential metals (cadmium, aluminum, cobalt, mercury. A primary common effect of high concentrations of metals such as aluminum, cooper, cadmium or mercury, is root growth inhibition. Metal toxicity triggers the accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to damage of lipids, proteins and DNA. The plants response to metal toxicity involves several biological processes that require fine and precise regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are 21 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A miRNA, incorporated into a RNA induced silencing complex, promotes cleavage of its target mRNA that is recognized by an almost perfect base complementarity. In plants miRNA regulation has been involved in development and also in biotic and abiotic stress responses. We review novel advances in identifying miRNAs related to metal toxicity responses and their potential role according to their targets. Most of the targets for plant metal-responsive miRNAs are transcription factors. Information about metal-responsive miRNAs in different plants points to important regulatory roles of miR319, miR390, miR393 and miR398. The target of miR319 is the TCP transcription factor, implicated in growth control. MiR390 exerts its action through the biogenesis of trans-acting small interference RNAs that, in turn, regulate auxin responsive factors. MiR393 targets the auxin receptors TIR1/AFBs and a bHLH transcription factor. Increasing evidence points to the crucial role of miR398 and its targets Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in the control of the oxidative stress generated after high metal copper or iron exposure.

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  10. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Laura; Forrester, Alison; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Svelto, Maria; Venditti, Rossella; Montefusco, Sandro; Polishchuk, Elena; Nusco, Edoardo; Rossi, Antonio; Medina, Diego L; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Settembre, Carmine

    2015-12-10

    Skeletal growth relies on both biosynthetic and catabolic processes. While the role of the former is clearly established, how the latter contributes to growth-promoting pathways is less understood. Macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that plays a fundamental part in tissue homeostasis. We investigated the role of autophagy during bone growth, which is mediated by chondrocyte rate of proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in growth plates. Here we show that autophagy is induced in growth-plate chondrocytes during post-natal development and regulates the secretion of type II collagen (Col2), the major component of cartilage ECM. Mice lacking the autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) in chondrocytes experience endoplasmic reticulum storage of type II procollagen (PC2) and defective formation of the Col2 fibrillary network in the ECM. Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1. Autophagy is completely suppressed in growth plates from Fgf18(-/-) embryos, while Fgf18(+/-) heterozygous and Fgfr4(-/-) mice fail to induce autophagy during post-natal development and show decreased Col2 levels in the growth plate. Strikingly, the Fgf18(+/-) and Fgfr4(-/-) phenotypes can be rescued in vivo by pharmacological activation of autophagy, pointing to autophagy as a novel effector of FGF signalling in bone. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a developmentally regulated process necessary for bone growth, and identify FGF signalling as a crucial regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes.

  11. Redox-regulated transcription in plants: Emerging concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad Shaikhali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, different stimuli, both internal and external, activate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Photosynthesis is considered as high rate redox-metabolic process with rapid transients including light/photon capture, electron fluxes, and redox potentials that can generate ROS; thus, regulatory systems are required to minimize ROS production. Despite their potential for causing harmful oxidations, it is now accepted that redox homeostasis mechanisms that maintain the intracellular reducing environment make it possible to use ROS as powerful signaling molecules within and between cells. Redox and ROS information from the chloroplasts is a fine-tuning mechanism both inside the chloroplast and as retrograde signal to the cytosol and nucleus to control processes such as gene expression/transcription and translation. Wide repertoires of downstream target genes expression (activation/repression is regulated by transcription factors. In many cases, transcription factors function through various mechanisms that affect their subcellular localization and or activity. Some post-translational modifications (PTMs known to regulate the functional state of transcription factors are phosphorylation, acetylation, and SUMOylation, ubiquitylation and disulfide formation. Recently, oxPTMs, targeted in redox proteomics, can provide the bases to study redox regulation of low abundant nuclear proteins. This review summarizes the recent advances on how cellular redox status can regulate transcription factor activity, the implications of this regulation for plant growth and development, and by which plants respond to environmental/abiotic stresses.

  12. Establishment of high frequency shoot regeneration system in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle) from petiole explants using Thidiazuron cytokinin as plant growth regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Aggarwal; A Gaur; D K Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Populus species are important resources for industry and in scientific study on biological and agricul-tural systems. Our objective was to enhance the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata wall. ex Royle). The effect of TDZ alone and in combi-nation with adenine and NAA was studied on the regen-eration potential of petiole explants. The explants were excised from Himalayan poplar plants grown in glass-houses. After surface sterilization the explants were cul-tured on shoot induction medium. High percentage shoot regeneration (86%) was recorded on MS medium sup-plemented with 0.004 mg L-1 TDZ and 79.7 mg L-1 adenine. The regenerated shoots for elongation and multi-plication were transferred to MS ? 0.5 mg L-1 BAP ? 0.2 mg L-1 IAA ? 0.3 mg L-1 GA3. Root re-generation from shoots developed in vitro was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg L-1 IBA. Hi-malayan poplar plantlets could be produced within 2 months after acclimatization in a sterile mixture of sand and soil. We developed a high efficiency plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of P. ciliata.

  13. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated.

  14. The choroid as a sclera growth regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jody A

    2013-09-01

    Emmetropization is a vision dependent mechanism that attempts to minimize refractive error through coordinated growth of the cornea, lens and sclera such that the axial length matches the focal length of the eye. It is generally accepted that this visually guided eye growth is controlled via a cascade of locally generated chemical events that are initiated in the retina and ultimately cause changes in scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling which lead to changes in eye size and refraction. Of much interest, therefore, are the molecular mechanisms that underpin emmetropization and visually guided ocular growth. The choroid, a highly vascularized layer located between the retina and the sclera is uniquely situated to relay retina-derived signals to the sclera to effect changes in ECM synthesis and ocular size. Studies initiated by Josh Wallman clearly demonstrate that the choroid plays an active role in emmetropization, both by modulation of its thickness to adjust the retina to the focal plane of the eye (choroidal accommodation), and well as through the release of growth factors that have the potential to regulate scleral extracellular matrix remodeling. His discoveries prompted numerous investigations on the molecular composition of the choroid and changes in gene expression associated with visually guided ocular growth. This article will review molecular and functional studies of the choroid to provide support for the hypothesis that the choroid is a source of sclera growth regulators that effect changes in ocular growth in response to visual stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of meiotic gene expression in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in genomics and sequencing technologies, databases of transcriptomes representing many cellular processes have been built. Meiotic transcriptomes in plants have been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa, wheat (Triticum aestivum, petunia (Petunia hybrida, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and maize (Zea mays. Studies in all organisms, but particularly in plants, indicate that a very large number of genes are expressed during meiosis, though relatively few of them seem to be required for the completion of meiosis. In this review, we focus on gene expression at the RNA level and analyze the meiotic transcriptome datasets and explore expression patterns of known meiotic genes to elucidate how gene expression could be regulated during meiosis. We also discuss mechanisms, such as chromatin organization and non-coding RNAs, that might be involved in the regulation of meiotic transcription patterns.

  16. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of development and pathogenesis in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Akanksha; Jeon, Junhyun

    2017-08-01

    Evidently, epigenetics is at forefront in explaining the mechanisms underlying the success of human pathogens and in the identification of pathogen-induced modifications within host plants. However, there is a lack of studies highlighting the role of epigenetics in the modulation of the growth and pathogenicity of fungal plant pathogens. In this review, we attempt to highlight and discuss the role of epigenetics in the regulation of the growth and pathogenicity of fungal phytopathogens using Magnaporthe oryzae, a devastating fungal plant pathogen, as a model system. With the perspective of wide application in the understanding of the development, pathogenesis and control of other fungal pathogens, we attempt to provide a synthesized view of the epigenetic studies conducted on M. oryzae to date. First, we discuss the mechanisms of epigenetic modifications in M. oryzae and their impact on fungal development and pathogenicity. Second, we highlight the unexplored epigenetic mechanisms and areas of research that should be considered in the near future to construct a holistic view of epigenetic functioning in M. oryzae and other fungal plant pathogens. Importantly, the development of a complete understanding of the modulation of epigenetic regulation in fungal pathogens can help in the identification of target points to combat fungal pathogenesis. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Chigri, Fatima

    2009-01-01

    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Neverthele...

  19. Development Research for Bamboo Vinegar as Potential Plant Growth Regulator: Laboratory Test and Field Investigation%竹醋液作为植物生长调节剂的开发研究:室内和田间试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王品维; 童森淼

    2008-01-01

    本文采用萝卜子叶扩张法,萝卜、小麦和黄瓜的幼苗生长法,分别对原竹醋液和中和竹醋液进行室内生物活性筛选试验.结果表明:(1)低浓度(黄瓜根茎长>萝卜根茎长>小麦根茎长,其中对于黄瓜、萝卜和小麦,根长敏感性均高于茎长.对原竹醋液和中和竹醋液在苹果、柑橘、草莓等作物上进行应用试验.表明:竹醋液不仅显著地提高农林作物的产量;具有明显改善叶片质量,延长叶片寿命,提高果实硬度从而改善果实的储藏品质,改善果品的内在品质和外观品质等功能;在调节果实成熟期减少锈斑面积、落叶、落果和病害等方面均有显著作用.%The bioactivity of original and neutralized bamboo vinegar are screened by means of radish cotyledon, radish seedling, wheat seedling and cucumber seedling in laboratory. The results showed: (1) The bamboo vinegar of low concentration (500mg/L) effect as plant growth regulator stimulated growth similar to 2, 4-D herbicides; those of high concentration (2000~5000mg/L) inhibit growth as plant growth regular, the effect is similar to hormones herbicides, gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-Benzylaminop-urine (6-BA). (2) The bioactivity of neutralized bamboo vinegar is higher than that of original bamboo vinegar. (3) The sensitivity of tested plants for screen bioactivity from high to low expressed as follows: radish cotyledon>cucumber seedling>radish seedling>wheat seedling. The sensitivity of root growth was higher than that of stem; The field experiments are carried out to test the stimulating effect of original and neutralized bamboo vinegar on apple, orange and strawberry in China. The results showed that Original bamboo vinegar and neutralized bamboo vinegar could add yield greatly; They could also improve leaf quality, prolong its natural life, increased the fruit hardness to improve its storage quality, make the fruit had better intrinsic quality and appearance; Original bamboo

  20. Leaf and root volatiles produced by tissue cultures of Alpinia zerumbet (pers. Burtt & Smith under the influence of different plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles produced by plantlets of Alpinia zerumbet were obtained by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE. The effects of indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, thidiazuron and 6-benzylaminopurine on leaf and root volatile composition obtained by tissue cultures were investigated. A higher content of b-pinene and a lower content of sabinene were observed in leaf volatile of plantlets cultured in control, IAA and IAA+ TDZ media, as compared with those of donor plants. In vitro conditions were favorable to increase caryophyllene content. Volatile compounds from the root were characterized mainly by camphene, fenchyl-acetate and bornyl acetate; which constitute about 60% of total volatile.

  1. Effect of plant growth regulators and explant types on regeneration and micropropagation of a commercial strawberry cultivar (Fragaria ×ananassa cv. Selva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Madani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa L. is an important horticultural product that is highly acceptable because of its desirable taste, flavor, mineral elements, vitamins and secondary metabolites. Conventionally, strawberries are vegetatively propagated by runners arising from axillary buds on the plant crown. Plant propagation through runner produces a limited number of propagules. In the view of mass propagation and transformation, it is highly desirable to optimize methods of rapid, efficient and large scale multiplication of Fragaria X ananassa Duch. through tissue culture. In present study, developing an effective protocol for regeneration of strawberry cv. Selva, different explants (leaf disk, shoot tips and hypocotyls and media modifications were examined. The best response towards shoot induction was observed on shoot tip explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l of BAP and IAA. Direct shoots emerged from hypocotyls grown on MS medium supplemented by 2,4-D, BAP and TDZ at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/l respectively. Indirect shoot regeneration was produced from hypocotyls on MS medium containing 2 mg/l of BAP. Using activated charcoal enhanced explants proliferation on culture media due to decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and adsorption of inhibitory compounds.

  2. Plant Growth Promotion by Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacillus subtilis SYST2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hafiz A. S.; Gu, Qin; Wu, Huijun; Raza, Waseem; Hanif, Alwina; Wu, Liming; Colman, Massawe V.; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted. VOCs emitted by SYST2 were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Of 11 VOCs tested in glass jars containing plants in test tubes, only two, albuterol and 1,3-propanediole, were found to promote plant growth. Furthermore, tomato plants showed differential expression of genes involved in auxin (SlIAA1. SlIAA3), gibberellin (GA20ox-1), cytokinin (SlCKX1), expansin (Exp2, Exp9. Exp 18), and ethylene (ACO1) biosynthesis or metabolism in roots and leaves in response to B. subtilis SYST2 VOCs. Our findings suggest that SYST2-derived VOCs promote plant growth by triggering growth hormone activity, and provide new insights into the mechanism of plant growth promotion by bacterial VOCs. PMID:28223976

  3. [Epigenetics of plant vernalization regulated by non-coding RNAs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Feng; Li, Xiao-Rong; Sun, Chuan-Bao; He, Yu-Ke

    2012-07-01

    Many higher plants must experience a period of winter cold to accomplish the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. This biological process is called vernalization. Some crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) produce seeds as edible organs, and therefore special measures of rotation and cultivation are necessary for plants to go through an early vernalization for flower differentiation and development, whereas the other crops such as Chinese cabbage (B rapa ssp. pekinenesis) and cabbage (Brassica napus L.) produce leafy heads as edible organs, and additional practice should be taken to avoid vernalization for a prolonged and fully vegetative growth. Before vernalization, flowering is repressed by the action of a gene called Flowering Locus C (FLC). This paper reviewed the function of non-coding RNAs and some proteins including VRN1, VRN2, and VIN3 in epigenetic regulation of FLC during vernalization.

  4. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heven Sze

    2008-06-22

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  5. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heven Sze

    2008-06-22

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  6. Dynamic Regulation and Function of Histone Monoubiquitination in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eFeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyubiquitin chain deposition on a target protein frequently leads to proteasome-mediated degradation whereas monoubiquitination modifies target protein property and function independent of proteolysis. Histone monoubiquitination occurs in chromatin and is in nowadays recognized as one critical type of epigenetic marks in eukaryotes. While H2A monoubiquitination (H2Aub1 is generally associated with transcription repression mediated by the Polycomb pathway, H2Bub1 is involved in transcription activation. H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 levels are dynamically regulated via deposition and removal by specific enzymes. We review knows and unknowns of dynamic regulation of H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 deposition and removal in plants and highlight the underlying crucial functions in gene transcription, cell proliferation/differentiation, and plant growth and development. We also discuss crosstalks existing between H2Aub1 or H2Bub1 and different histone methylations for an ample mechanistic understanding.

  7. 高效液相色谱法测定果蔬中八种植物生长促进剂残留%Determination of Eight Plant Growth Regulators in Fruits and Vegetables by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 鹿毅; 杨涛; 张煌涛; 李明; 王吉德

    2012-01-01

    建立了果蔬中八种植物生长促进剂残留量的检测方法.本实验采用ODS2C18色谱柱(200×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈/磷酸磷酸氢二铵缓冲溶液(0.01 mol/L,pH=3.50)为流动相,梯度洗脱,紫外检测器变换波长检测,分离测定了赤霉素(GA3)、6-苄氨基嘌呤、对氯苯氧乙酸、噻苯隆、吲哚丁酸、2,4-滴、α-萘乙酸、氯吡脲八种植物生长促进剂.采用外标法定量,相对标准偏差均小于6.43%,方法检出限在0.26~0.75 mg/kg之间.采用该法对果蔬样品中植物生长促进剂残留量进行分析,添加低、中、高三个浓度八种化合物混标,分别为2.50、10.0、25.0mg/kg,回收率为80.0%~106.0%,结果表明,该方法样品处理简单,色谱分离完全,结果准确可靠,可用于果蔬中植物生长促进剂的检测.%A high performance liquid chromatographic ( HPLC) method was developed for the determination of eight plant growth regulators in fruits and vegetables in this paper. The samples were analyzed on an ODS2 C18 column (200× 4.6 mm, 5 μm), and the acetonitrile/phosphoric acid-diammonium hydrogen phosphate(0.01 mol/L,pH = 3. 50) was used as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The eight plant growth regulators, including gibberellin ( GA3 ), 6-benzylaminopurine, parachlorophenoxyacetic acid, thidiazuron, indolebutyric acid, 2, 4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid, α~ naphthalene acid and forchlorfenuron were base-line separated. The samples were quantified with the external calibration method, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than in 6. 43%, the detection limits of method were between 0. 26 to 0. 75 mg/kg. The method was used to detect the contents of plant growth regulators in fruits and vegetables, and recoveries for the spiked samples were ranged from 80. 0% to 106. 0%.

  8. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    AlShareef, Sahar A.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  9. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  10. Redução de sementes do tangor 'Murcote' com a aplicação de biorreguladores durante o florescimento Reduction of seeds in 'Honey' orange by application of plant growth regulators during reproductive stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Christian Serpa Domingues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi conduzido em cultivo comercial do tangor 'Murcote' e teve por objetivo avaliar a atuação dos biorreguladores 2,4-D (auxina, NAA (auxina, GA3 (giberelina e BA (citocinina, na redução do número de sementes, sem afetar a qualidade dos frutos cítricos. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; 10 e 20 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D; 100, 150 e 200 mg.L-1 de NAA, 100 e 200 mg.L-1 de GA3 e 20 e 40 mg.L-1 de BA. Verificou-se que nenhum dos reguladores vegetais influenciou na qualidade dos frutos de tangor 'murcote', sem redução de peso, tamanho e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Já em relação ao número de sementes, nenhum dos reguladores vegetais foi efetivo na redução de sementes inviáveis, porém mostraram efeito na redução de sementes viáveis, conseqüentemente com redução do número total de sementes nos frutos, quando tratados com NAA a 100 e 200 mg.L-1 juntamente com GA3 a 100 mg.L-1, com redução de 30 % do total de sementes.The present experiment was conducted in a commercial tangor 'Murcote' citrus grove in Pratania, São Paulo State, Brazil and had the objective to evaluate the effects of, 2,4-D (auxin, NAA (auxin, GA3 (gibberellin and BA (cytokinin, on the reduction of seed number, without modifications on citrus fruit quality. The treatments sprayed were as follow: control (water; 10 and 20 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D; 100, 150 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA; 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of GA3 ; 20 and 40 mg.L-1 of BA. The results showed that none of plant growth regulators influenced fruit quality, without weight reduction, diameter or ºBrix. In relation to seed number, none of the plant growth regulators were effective on reduction of seed number, however the reduced of viable seed number and total seed number of fruits, specially with the treatment of 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA and 100 mg.L-1 of GA3, that showed a reduction of 30% of total seed of tangor murcott fruits.

  11. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant de

  12. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  13. Effects of plant growth regulators, carbon sources and pH values on callus induction in Aquilaria malaccensis leaf explants and characteris-tics of the resultant calli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashita JAYARAMAN; Nurul Hazwani DAUD; Rasmina HALIS; Rozi MOHAMED

    2014-01-01

    The endangered tropical tree, Aquilaria malaccensis, produces agarwood for use in fragrance and medicines. Efforts are currently un-derway to produce valuable agarwood compoundsn tissue culture. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimal growth medium, specif-ically, the best hormone combination for callus suspension culture. Using nursery-grown A. malaccensis, sterilized leaf explants were first incu-bated on basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) gel medium containing 15g/L sucrose and at pH 5.7. Different auxin types including 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), were tested at various concentrations (0.55, 1.1 and 1.65 µM) using the basic medium. Leaf explants were incubated for 30 days in the dark. Callus induced by 1.1 µM NAA had the highest biomass dry weight (DW) of 17.3 mg;however the callus was of a compact type. This auxin concentration was then combined with either 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin at 0.55, 1.1, 2.2 or 3.3 µM to induce growth of friable callus. The 1.1µM NAA+2.2µM BAP com-bination produced friable callus with the highest biomass (93.3mg DW). When testing the different carbon sources and pHs, sucrose at 15g/L and pH at 5.7 yielded highest biomasses at 87.7mg and 83mg DW, respec-tively. Microscopic observations revealed the arrangement of the friable cells as loosely packed with relatively large cells, while for the compact callus, the cells were small and densely packed. We concluded that MS medium containing 15 g/L sucrose, 1.1 µM NAA + 2.2 µM BAP hor-mone combination, and a pH of 5.7 was highly effective for inducing friable callus from leaf explants of A. malaccensis for the purpose of establishing cell suspension culture.

  14. Interactive Effects of Growth Regulators, Carbon Sources, pH on Plant Regeneration and Assessment of Genetic Fidelity Using Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPARS) Techniques in Withania somnifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Ahmad, Iqbal; Anis, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    An improved and methodical in vitro shoot morphogenic approach through axillary bud multiplication was established in a drug yielding plant, Withania somnifera L. Effects of plant growth regulators [6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin), 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), and thidiazuron (TDZ)] either singly or in combination with α-napthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were tested. The highest regeneration frequency (90 %) with optimum number of shoots (32 ± 0.00)/explant were obtained on MS medium fortified with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 μM NAA and 30 g/l sucrose at pH 5.8. Among the tried TDZ concentrations, 0.5 μM resulted in maximum number of shoots (20.4 ± 0.40)/explant after 4 weeks of exposure. The proliferating shoot cultures established by repeated subculturing of the mother explants on the hormone-free medium produced the highest shoot number (29.4 ± 0.40) with shoot length (6.80 ± 0.12 cm)/explant at fourth subculture passage, which a decline in shoot proliferation was recorded. Different concentrations of NAA were tested for ex vitro rooting of microshoots. The maximum percentage of rooting 100 % with maximum roots (18.3 ± 0.1) was achieved in soilrite when basal portion of the microshoots were treated with 200 μM (NAA) for 15 min per shoot. The plantlets went through hardening phase in a growth chamber, prior to ex vitro transfer. The PCR-based single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods which include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and direct amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers has been used for assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets. No variation was observed in DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated and the donor plants illustrating their genetic uniformity.

  15. Regulation of expression and biochemical characterization of a beta-class carbonic anhydrase from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simarjot; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Tripathi, Anil K

    2009-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; [EC 4.2.1.1]) is a ubiquitous enzyme catalysing the reversible hydration of CO(2) to bicarbonate, a reaction that supports various biochemical and physiological functions. Genome analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, a nonphotosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing, rhizobacterium, revealed an ORF with homology to beta-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Biochemical characteristics of the beta-class CA of A. brasilense, analysed after cloning the gene (designated as bca), overexpressing in Escherichia coli and purifying the protein by affinity purification, revealed that the native recombinant enzyme is a homotetramer, inhibited by the known CA inhibitors. CA activity in A. brasilense cell extracts, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that bca was constitutively expressed under aerobic conditions. Lower beta-galactosidase activity in A. brasilense cells harbouring bca promoter: lacZ fusion during the stationary phase or during growth on 3% CO(2) enriched air or at acidic pH indicated that the transcription of bca was downregulated by the stationary phase, elevated CO(2) levels and acidic pH conditions. These observations were also supported by RT-PCR analysis. Thus, beta-CA in A. brasilense seems to be required for scavenging CO(2) from the ambient air and the requirement of CO(2) hydration seems to be higher for the cultures growing exponentially at neutral to alkaline pH.

  16. Rendimento de óleo essencial de Salvia officinalis L. sob ação de reguladores vegetais = Essential oil yield in Salvia officinallis L. under the action of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Povh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes reguladores vegetais no rendimento do óleo essencial de plantas de Salvia officinalis L. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, consistindo em cinco tratamentos com três repetições cada. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3, benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido 2-cloroetil-fosfônico (ethephon e Stimulate a 2%, comparados com plantas controle (água. A pulverização, via foliar, dos reguladores vegetais foram realizadas em três épocas, aos 15, 25 e 35 dias após o transplante de plântulas previamente germinadas em câmaras de germinação a 25ºC e luz constante. A produção de massa seca da parte aérea e rendimento do óleo essencial foi avaliada aos 131 dias após o transplante. A parte aérea das plantas foi seca em estufa a 35ºC determinando a massa seca e a extração do óleo foi realizada pelo método de hidrodestilação, determinando o volume de óleo. Plantas tratadas com GA3 e Stimulateapresentaram incrementos no teor de óleo essencial, enquanto que as plantas tratadas com BAP e ethephon apresentaram diminuição no volume de óleo essencial comparado às plantas controle.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different plant growthregulators on essential oil yield in Salvia officinalis L. plants. The experiment was held in a greenhouse and the experimental design was completely randomized, with 5 treatments and three replications. The Treatments consisted in the application of gibberellic acid (GA3,benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid (ethephon, and Stimulate at 2%, compared with control plants (water. Applications of plant growth regulators were performed in three consecutive periods, in turn, 15, 25 and 35 days after transplanting of seeding germinating in the light at 25ºC. The dry mass yield of the aerial part and the oil essential content

  17. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley L Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a glass wastebasket. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction.

  18. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kimberley L; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Sanchez, Jessica; Potma, Eric O; Santos, Guaciara M

    2015-01-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate, and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin, and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a "glass wastebasket." Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins, and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction.

  19. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  20. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  1. Sweet pepper seed responses to inoculation with microorganisms and coating with micronutrients, aminoacids and plant growth regulators Tratamento de sementes de pimentão com microrganismos, micronutrientes, aminoácidos e reguladores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Almeida Diniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized seeds, such as the horticultural species, have limited quantities of reserves that can be balanced by coating then with essential nutrients for their initial development. In addition, inoculation of the seeds with microorganisms may protect the plants against phytopathogens, thus enhancing their growth. The present work had the objective of evaluate the physiological quality and seedling development of sweet pepper seeds and seedlings coated with several kind of films. Seeds were first coated with polymers and then with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma polysporhum, Trichoderma stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, mycorrhizas, aminoacids, micronutrients and plant growth regulators. Evaluation was performed for percentage of germination and for seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, number of plants, dry mass of the aerial and root parts and height of the seedlings. Inoculation with Trichoderma viride increased the percentage and rate of the seedlings emergence Inoculation with Trichoderma viride, Metarhizium anisopliae and mycorrhizas promote better seedling development; seed microbiolization with microorganisms Trichoderma viride, T. polysporhum, T. stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae. Mycorrhizas mixture negatively affected seeds and seedling quality. Seed covering with plant growht regulator, at a 5 mL kg-1 dose increased the roots dry matter.Em sementes pequenas, como as de espécies hortícolas, as limitadas quantidades de reservas podem ser equilibradas por meio do seu recobrimento com nutrientes essenciais para o seu desenvolvimento inicial. Além disso, a inoculação dessas sementes com microrganismos, além de proteger as plantas contra fitopatógenos, pode promover o seu crescimento. Assim, objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tipos de revestimentos na qualidade de sementes e mudas de pimentão (Capsicum annum. Para tanto, as

  2. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima

    2009-09-01

    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence indicating that organelles of prokaryotic origin, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, are integrated into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. An important transducer of calcium in these organelles appears to be calmodulin. In this review we want to give an overview over present data showing that endosymbiotic organelles harbour calcium-dependent biological processes with a focus on calmodulin-regulation.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of axon and dendrite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim F Trakhtenberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroregenerative therapies for central nervous system (CNS injury, neurodegenerative disease, or stroke require axons of damaged neurons to grow and reinnervate their targets. However, mature mammalian CNS neurons do not regenerate their axons, limiting recovery in these diseases (Yiu and He, 2006. CNS’ regenerative failure may be attributable to the development of an inhibitory CNS environment by glial-associated inhibitory molecules (Yiu and He, 2006, and by various cell-autonomous factors (Sun and He, 2010. Intrinsic axon growth ability also declines developmentally (Li et al., 1995; Goldberg et al., 2002; Bouslama-Oueghlani et al., 2003; Blackmore and Letourneau, 2006 and is dependent on transcription (Moore et al., 2009. Although neurons’ intrinsic capacity for axon growth may depend in part on the panoply of expressed transcription factors (Moore and Goldberg, 2011, epigenetic factors such as the accessibility of DNA and organization of chromatin are required for downstream genes to be transcribed. Thus a potential approach to overcoming regenerative failure focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms regulating regenerative gene expression in the CNS. Here we review molecular mechanisms regulating the epigenetic state of DNA through chromatin modifications, their implications for regulating axon and dendrite growth, and important new directions for this field of study.

  4. 叶面喷施植物生长调节剂对马铃薯产量和品质的影响%The Influence on Potato′s Yield and Quality by Spraying Plant Growth Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄峰; 鲁喜荣

    2011-01-01

    Using Jinshu No.16 as test material,a study of effect on potato's yield and quality by spraying plant growth regulator was done.The results showed that paclobutrazol(100 mg/L),DTA-6(100 mg/L) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate(800 mg/L)could increase yield and improve quality,promoted starch content and vitamin C content as well.%以晋薯16号为试验材料,进行叶面喷施植物生长调节剂对其产量和品质的影响研究,结果表明:多效唑(100 mg/L)、DTA-6(100 mg/L)和磷酸二氢钾(800 mg/L)3种植物生长调节剂均可显著提高产量,改善品质,淀粉含量和VC含量也得到提高。

  5. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Cold Resistant of Cornus officinalis from Two Provenances in Henan%植物生长调节剂对河南两种源山茱萸抗寒性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芹; 魏芳

    2009-01-01

    以河南西峡县、鲁山县两种源一年生和两年生山茱萸为试材,在8月份喷施植物生长调节剂--多效唑(PP333)与6-苄基腺嘌呤(6-BA)按质量比1:1配比混合,研究其对山茱萸苗抗寒性的影响.结果表明:西峡县一年生山茱萸喷施植物生长调节剂浓度为450mg/L的抗性最强.%The effect of plant growth regulator on cold resistant of Comus officinalis which PP333 mixed with 6-BA at mass ratio of l:l,sprayed in August was studied with one and two-year-old seedlings from Xixia and Lushan in Henan.The results were as follows:the treatment of one-year-old seedlings from Xixia sprayed the concentration of 450 mg·L-1 was best.

  6. Characterization of Plant Growth under Single-Wavelength Laser Light Using the Model Plant Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Indoor horticulture offers a promising solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available lighting is suboptimal, therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. Lasers are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Besides, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plants. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that laser-grown plants can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteomic data show that the singlewavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture. Furthermore, stomatal movement partly determines the plant productivity and stress management. Abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomatal closure by promoting net K+-efflux from guard cells through outwardrectifying K+ (K+ out) channels to regulate plant water homeostasis. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ (ATGORK) channel is a direct target for ABA in the regulation of stomatal aperture and hence gas exchange and transpiration. Addition of (±)-ABA, but not the biologically inactive (−)-isomer, increases K+ out channel activity in Vicia faba guard cell protoplast. A similar ABA

  7. Genetic regulation of flowering time in annual and perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time plays a significant role in the reproductive success of plants. So far, five major pathways to flowering have been characterized in Arabidopsis, including environmental induction through photoperiod, vernalization, and gibberellins and autonomous floral iation, and aging by sequentially operating miRNAs (typically miR156 and miR172) responding to endogenous cues. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes (FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1) that determine the flowering time. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, antisense RNA and chromatin silencing regulatory mechanisms play an important role in this process by regulating related flowering gene expression. In this review, we discuss the current understanding in genetic regulation of the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth by using Arabidopsis as a model. We also describe how this knowledge has been successfully applied for identifying homologous genes from perennial crops. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between annual and perennial plants flowering will help elucidate the mechanisms of perennial plant maturation and regulation of floral initiation.

  8. 温度和植物生长调节剂对绞股蓝种子萌发的影响%Effects of Temperature and Plant Growth Regulator on Seed Germination of Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小列; 王莎莎; 刘世彪; 彭秀建; 张显卓

    2011-01-01

    在不同光照不同温度(15、20、25、30℃)条件下和有光20℃培养条件下,研究了不同浓度(0.05、0.10、0.20、0.30 mg/L)的植物生长调节剂6-BA、GA3和NAA对绞股蓝种子萌发特性的影响.结果表明:在光照下20℃恒温培养的绞股蓝种子,其萌发率最高,达56.00%,幼苗生长状况良好;在此条件下,0.05 mg/L的GA,处理能够显著地提高绞股蓝种子的发芽势、发芽率、下胚轴长和根长.%The effects of different concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 mg/L) of plant growth regulators (6-BA, GA3 and NAA) on seed germination properties of Gynostemma pentaphyllum were studied under the cultivation conditions that different temperatures (15℃, 20℃, 25℃ and 30℃) with or without light. The results showed that the highest germination rate (36.00%) and great seedling growth conditions of Gynostemma pentaphyllum were found under the conditions of constant temperature cultivation at 20% with light. Under these cultivation conditions, the treatment with 0.05 mg/L of GA3 can significantly increase the germination vigor and rate, and the length of hypocotyls and roots of Gynostemma pentaphyllum seed.

  9. Simultaneous determination of five plant growth regulators in fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaomei; Jin, Fen; Huang, Yuting; Du, Xinwei; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Miao; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-11

    An effective method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized to obtain a complete separation of five representative plant growth regulators (PGRs) [gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron, forchlorfenuron, and paclobutrazol] in fruits. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid, applying modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methodology. LC-MS/MS conditions including composition of mobile phases and mass spectrometry (MS) conditions were evaluated to achieve the highest sensitivity in MS detection. All of the data acquisition was employed in the segmented multiple-reaction monitoring mode for the selected negative and positive transition ions. The octadecylsilyl (C18) dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was found to provide the more satisfied recoveries than primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) for five target PGRs. The optimized method allowed for recoveries of 76-112% for the five PGRs from fruit samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 10%. Limits of quantification (0.5-16.5 μg/kg) were lower than the maximum limit of residues established for PGRs. The results demonstrated that the developed LC-MS/MS and QuEChERS extraction method is highly effective for analyzing trace amounts of target PGRs in fruit samples. Finally, the method was successfully used to detect residual PGRs in Beijing, China, in 2010. The concentrations of 2,4-D (5.1-1503 μg/kg) and paclobutrazol (1-1381 μg/kg) found in orange and peach, respectively, suggesting that the use of these PGRs in these fruits should be regulated in China in the future.

  10. RESEARCH REGARDING THE POTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS ON PLANTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-IRINA PATRICIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that growth and morphogenesis of plant tissue cultures can be improved by small amounts of some organic compounds. Heterocyclic compounds such as chromanones and thiazoles derivatives, valuable because of their potential biological activities, have also been reported as pesticides, herbicides and plant-growth regulators. In the present study, different concentrations of chromanones and thiazoles derivatives were employed to evaluate their effects on plantlets growth of Ocimum basilicum L. and Echinacea purpurea L. The studied compounds were proved to be growth inhibitors at high concentrations. A growth stimulation effect was registered at low concentration.

  11. Mitochondrial retrograde regulation tuning fork in nuclear genes expressions of higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghua Yang; Mingfang Zhang; Jingquan Yu

    2008-01-01

    In plant cells, there are three organelles: the nucleus, chloroplast, and mitochondria that store genetic information. The nucleus possesses the majority of genetic information and controls most aspects of organelles gene expression, growth, and development. In return,organdies also send signals back to regulate nuclear gene expression, a process defined as retrograde regulation. The best studies of organelles to nucleus retrograde regulation exist in plant chloroplast-to-nuclear regulation and yeast mitochondria-to-nuclear regulation. In this review, we summarize the recent understanding of mitochondrial retrograde regulation in higher plant, which involves multiple potential signaling pathway in relation to cytoplasmic male-sterility, biotic stress, and abiotie stress. With respect to mitochondrial retrograde regulation signal pathways involved in cytoplasmic male-sterility, we consider that nuclear transcriptional factor genes are the targeted genes regulated by mitoehondria to determine the abnormal reproductive development, and the MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in this regulation in Brassica juncea. When plants suffer biotic and abiotie stress, plant cells will initiate cell death or other events directed toward recovering from stress. During this process, we propose that mitochondria may determine how plant cell responds to a given stress through retrograde regulation. Meanwhile, several transducer molecules have also been discussed here. In particular, thePaepe research group reported that leaf mitochondrial modulated whole cell redox homeostasis, set antioxidant capacity, and determinedstress resistance through altered signaling and diurnal regulation, which is an indication of plant mitochondria with more active function than ever.

  12. Plant hydraulic traits govern forest water use and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Ashley; Bohrer, Gil; Fiorella, Rich; Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat

    2016-04-01

    Biophysical controls at the leaf, stem, and root levels govern plant water acquisition and use. Suites of sometimes co-varying traits afford plants the ability to manage water stress at each of these three levels. We studied the contrasting hydraulic strategies of red oaks (Q. rubra) and red maples (A. rubrum) in northern Michigan, USA. These two species differ in stomatal regulation strategy and xylem architecture, and are thought to root at different depths. Water use was monitored through sap flux, stem water storage, and leaf water potential measurements. Depth of water acquisition was determined on the basis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from xylem water samples taken from both species. Fifteen years of bole growth records were used to compare the influence of the trees' opposing hydraulic strategies on carbon acquisition and growth. During non-limiting soil moisture conditions, transpiration from red maples typically exceeded that of red oak. However, during a 20% soil dry down, transpiration from red maples decreased by more than 80%, while transpiration from red oaks only fell by 31%. Stem water storage in red maple also declined sharply, while storage in red oaks remained nearly constant. The more consistent isotopic compositions of xylem water samples indicated that oaks can draw upon a steady, deep supply of water which red maples cannot access. Additionally, red maple bole growth correlated strongly with mean annual soil moisture, while red oak bole growth did not. These results indicate that the deeper rooting strategy of red oaks allowed the species to continue transpiration and carbon uptake during periods of intense soil water limitation, when the shallow-rooted red maples ceased transpiration. The ability to root deeply could provide an additional buffer against drought-induced mortality, which may permit some anisohydric species, like red oak, to survive hydrologic conditions that would be expected to favor survival of more isohydric

  13. 78 FR 41866 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... importation of plants for planting. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare...

  14. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  15. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  16. Efeito de regulador de crescimento na cultura de trigo submetido a diferentes doses de nitrogênio e densidades de plantas Effect of growth regulator on wheat crop under different nitrogen rates and plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zagonel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de um regulador de crescimento no cultivar de trigo IAPAR-53, em diferentes densidades de plantas e submetido a diferentes doses de nitrogênio, instalou-se um experimento na Fazenda-Escola da UEPG em Ponta Grossa-PR, no ano de 1999. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 125 g i.a. ha-1 de trinexapac-ethyl e testemunha sem aplicação, em densidades de 44, 60 e 75 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 0,17 m entre fileiras e nas doses de 0, 45, 90 e 135 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio em cobertura. A aplicação de trinexapac-ethyl resultou em plantas com menor massa seca, entrenós mais curtos, maior diâmetro do caule e aumento do número de espigas m-1, de grãos por espiga e produtividade. Com o aumento da dose de nitrogênio ocorreu aumento da estatura das plantas, do número de espigas m-1, do peso de mil grãos e da produtividade. Com o aumento da densidade de plantas, o diâmetro do caule, a massa seca das plantas e o número de grãos por espiga diminuíram e o número de espigas m-1 e o peso de mil grãos aumentaram, sem efeitos na produtividade. Não foi observado acamamento em nenhum dos tratamentos.An experiment was conducted at the UEPG "Capão da Onça" School Farm in 1999, Paraná-Brazil, to evaluate the effects of a growth regulator on the wheat cultivar IAPAR-53 grown at different plant populations and nitrogen rates. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of applying 125 g a.i. ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and control; plant densities of 44, 60 and 75 plants m-1 in a row spacing of 0.17 m and rates of 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg ha-1 of surface broadcast nitrogen. The application of trinexapac-ethyl resulted in less dry matter and short internodes, increased stem diameter, number of spikes m¹, and grain

  17. Targeted Genome Regulation and Editing in Plants

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    The ability to precisely regulate gene expression patterns and to modify genome sequence in a site-specific manner holds much promise in determining gene function and linking genotype to phenotype. DNA-binding modules have been harnessed to generate customizable and programmable chimeric proteins capable of binding to site-specific DNA sequences and regulating the genome and epigenome. Modular DNA-binding domains from zinc fingers (ZFs) and transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) are amenable to engineering to bind any DNA target sequence of interest. Deciphering the code of TALE repeat binding to DNA has helped to engineer customizable TALE proteins capable of binding to any sequence of interest. Therefore TALE repeats provide a rich resource for bioengineering applications. However, the TALE system is limited by the requirement to re-engineer one or two proteins for each new target sequence. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR associated 9 (Cas9) has been used as a versatile genome editing tool. This machinery has been also repurposed for targeted transcriptional regulation. Due to the facile engineering, simplicity and precision, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is poised to revolutionize the functional genomics studies across diverse eukaryotic species. In this dissertation I employed transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 systems for targeted genome regulation and editing and my achievements include: 1) I deciphered and extended the DNA-binding code of Ralstonia TAL effectors providing new opportunities for bioengineering of customizable proteins; 2) I repurposed the CRISPR/Cas9 system for site-specific regulation of genes in plant genome; 3) I harnessed the power of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool to study the function of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins.

  18. The Plant Heat Stress Transcription Factors (HSFs): Structure, Regulation, and Function in Response to Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Luo, De-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity, and drought adversely affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological, and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs), including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps). In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention.

  19. The plant heat stress transcription factors (HSFs: structure, regulation and function in response to abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity and drought adversely affect the survival, growth and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs, including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs. HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps. In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention.

  20. 20 MW Flywheel frequency regulation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arseneaux, James [Beacon Power LLC, Wilmington, MA (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Hazle designed, built, commissioned, and operates a utility-scale 20 MW flywheel energy storage plant in Hazle Township, Pennsylvania (the Hazle Facility) using flywheel technology developed by its affiliate, Beacon Power, LLC (Beacon Power). The Hazle Facility provides frequency regulation services to the regional transmission organization, PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM), through its participation in PJM’s Regulation Market (a market-based system for the purchase and sale of the Regulation ancillary service). The zero emission Hazle Facility is designed for a 20 year-life over which it is capable of performing at least 100,000 full depth of discharge cycles. To achieve its 20 MW capacity, the Hazle Facility is comprised of two hundred of Beacon Power’s 100 kilowatt (kW)/25 kilowatt/hour (kWh) flywheels connected in parallel. The Hazle Facility can fully respond to a signal from PJM in less than 2 seconds. The Hazle facility was constructed in an economic development zone designated by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and its construction relied on local contractors and labor for completion.

  1. Roles, Regulation, and Agricultural Application of Plant Phosphate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duoliya Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential mineral nutrient for plant growth and development. Low availability of inorganic phosphate (orthophosphate; Pi in soil seriously restricts the crop production, while excessive fertilization has caused environmental pollution. Pi acquisition and homeostasis depend on transport processes controlled Pi transporters, which are grouped into five families so far: PHT1, PHT2, PHT3, PHT4, and PHT5. This review summarizes the current understanding on plant PHT families, including phylogenetic analysis, function, and regulation. The potential application of Pi transporters and the related regulatory factors for developing genetically modified crops with high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE are also discussed in this review. At last, we provide some potential strategies for developing high PUE crops under salt or drought stress conditions, which can be valuable for improving crop yields challenged by global scarcity of water resources and increasing soil salinization.

  2. Gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice as affected by plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice, as affected by type and application time of plant growth regulators. A randomized block design, in a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of three growth regulators (mepiquat chloride, trinexapac-ethyl, and paclobutrazol, besides a control treatment applied at two different phenological stages: early tillering or panicle primordial differentiation. The experiment was performed under sprinkler-irrigated field conditions. Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, plant transpiration, and water-use efficiency were measured four times in Primavera upland rice cultivar, between booting and milky grain phenophases. Gas exchange rates were neither influenced by growth regulators nor by application time. There was, however, interaction between these factors on the other variables. Application of trinexapac-ethyl at both tillering and differentiation stages reduced plant height and negatively affected yield components and rice productivity. However, paclobutrazol and mepiquat chloride applied at tillering, reduced plant height without affecting rice yield. Mepiquat chloride acted as a growth stimulator when applied at the differentiation stage, and significantly increased plant height, panicle number, and grain yield of upland rice.

  3. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  4. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Bækgaard, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome...... and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants....

  5. Regulation of abiotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights into ...... through ubiquitination. The wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses that affect crop plants limits agricultural production.......Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights...

  6. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps re...

  7. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries.

  8. The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi eCheng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormones are small molecules derived from various metabolic pathways and are important regulators of plant development. The most recently discovered phytohormone class comprises the carotenoid-derived strigolactones (SLs. For a long time these compounds were only known to be secreted into the rhizosphere where they act as signalling compounds, but now we know they are also active as endogenous plant hormones and they have been in the spotlight ever since. The initial discovery that SLs are involved in the inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth, initiated a multitude of other studies showing that SLs also play a role in defining root architecture, secondary growth, hypocotyl elongation and seed germination, mostly in interaction with other hormones. Their coordinated action enables the plant to respond in an appropriate manner to environmental factors such as temperature, shading, day length and nutrient availability. Here, we will review the current knowledge on the crosstalk between SLs and other plant hormones – such as auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene and gibberellins - during different physiological processes. We will furthermore take a bird’s eye view of how this hormonal crosstalk enables plants to respond to their ever changing environments.

  9. Target of rapamycin signaling regulates metabolism, growth, and lifespan in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOR is a major nutrition and energy sensor that regulates growth and lifespan in yeast and animals. In plants growth and lifespan are intertwined with not only nutrient acquisition but also nutrition generation and unique aspects of development and differentiation. How TOR functions in these process...

  10. 母株年龄和生长调节剂对俄罗斯大果沙棘嫩枝扦插生根的影响%Effects of donor tree ages and plant growth regulators on the softwood cutting propagation of Hippophae rhamnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立学; 王海南; 范晶

    2011-01-01

    研究了母株年龄、植物生长调节剂与其浓度对俄罗斯大果沙棘嫩枝扦插生根效果的影响。结果表明:所有因素对插穗生根率、生根数与平均根长均影响极显著(P〈0.01);母株年龄为1年生插穗的生根效果好于2年生,植物生长调节剂NAA优于IBA与ABT2,植物生长调节剂的浓度以200mg/L为最佳。使用200mg/L的NAA处理1年生大果沙棘的嫩枝插穗30min可以达到最优的生根效果,生根率、生根数与平均根长分别为88.87%、10.8条/穗和10.47cm。同时,因素之间的交互效应对大果沙棘的嫩枝扦插生根具有显著影响,母株年龄与植物生长调节剂的交互效应显著影响大果沙棘扦插的生根率,植物生长调节剂种类与浓度、母株年龄与植物生长调节剂浓度的交互效应对大果沙棘扦插的生根率、生根数与平均根长均具有极显著影响。母株年龄与植物生长调节剂与浓度的交互效应对生根率具有极显著影响。%The rooting effects of donor plant age,plant growth regulators and their concentrations on stem cuttings from Russian seabuckthorn were investigated.The factors mentioned above were highly significant(P0.01) for all studied parameters and the rooting effects of stem cuttings form 1-year-old donor tree were better than from 2-year-old one.NAA was more effective than IBA and ABT2among plant growth regulators and the 200 mg/L concentration of plant growth regulator was the best.Overall,applying 200 mg/L concentration of NAA to treat 1-year-old donor tree cuttings for 30 min could achieve the best rooting,with the rooting rate,root number and average root length being 88.87%,10.8 item/panicle and 10.47 cm,respectivly.Meanwhile,the interaction among the factors also had significant effects on rooting of softwood cuttings.The interactive effects of donor age×plant growth regulators were significant for percent rooting.The interactive effects of plant growth regulators

  11. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... fertilizers, are highly effective in improving root morphology and growth in safflower. .... made by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955). ... In case of cv. Saif-32 ..... Previous studies showed that plant growth promotion.

  12. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  13. Plant growth regulator losses in cotton as affected by adjuvants and rain Perdas de reguladores de crescimento do algodoeiro em função de adjuvante e de chuva simulada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rafael Echer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of Brazilian cotton is produced in regions where annual rainfall exceeds 1,500mm, hence plant growth regulators (PGR may be washed from the leaves before being absorbed. The objective of this research was to evaluate mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride washing from cotton leaves by rains occurring at different moments post spraying. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Both PGR were sprayed to cotton at pin-head square at 15g ha-1 a.i. with and without a silicon-based adjuvant, and simulated rains were applied at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24 hours after spraying, plus a control without rainfall. Addition of silicon adjuvant increased PGR uptake. Rainfall occurring up to 24 hours after spraying resulted in some PGR loss from cotton leaves, mainly in the absence of the adjuvant. The decreased uptake implies that in order to achieve the desired level of growth reduction, at least a fraction of the original PGR rate should be reapplied.Nas maiores regiões algodoeiras no Brasil, chove mais de 1.500mm anuais, existindo risco de ocorrer lavagem de reguladores de crescimento aplicados às folhas do algodoeiro, antes que sejam absorvidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a lavagem dos reguladores de crescimento cloreto de mepiquat e cloreto de chlormequat de folhas de algodoeiro por chuva, ocorrendo em diferentes momentos após a aplicação. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação. Ambos os reguladores foram aplicados no aparecimento do primeiro botão floral, na dose de 15g ha-1 de i.a. com e sem adjuvante siliconado, e chuva simulada foi aplicada aos 0, 0,75; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 12,0 e 24 horas após a aplicação dos reguladores, mais um tratamento sem chuva. A adição de adjuvante siliconado melhorou a absorção dos produtos. A ocorrência de chuva até mesmo 24 horas após a aplicação dos reguladores pode lavar parte dos produtos das plantas de algodoeiro, com maior intensidade para o tratamento sem

  14. [Luminescent and physiological indices of triticale under the treatment of seeds with growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmatskaia, O A; Karavaev, V A; Gunar, L É; Miakin'kov, A G

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the before-sowing treatment of triticale seeds with growth regulators epin and zircon resulted in the increase in the F742/F686 ratio of the stationary fluorescence intensities of the plant leaves at the wavelength bands, 742 and 686 nm, corresponding to the maxima in the leaf fluorescence spectrum. Triticale under the treatment of seeds with growth regulators showed higher chlorophyll content, higher productivity and higher indices of the crop yield.

  15. CYCD3 D-type cyclins regulate cambial cell proliferation and secondary growth in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Carl; Maruthi, M.N.; Courtney E. Jahn

    2015-01-01

    A major proportion of plant biomass is derived from the activity of the cambium, a lateral meristem responsible for vascular tissue formation and radial organ enlargement in a process termed secondary growth. In contrast to our relatively good understanding of the regulation of primary meristems, remarkably little is known concerning the mechanisms controlling secondary growth, particularly how cambial cell divisions are regulated and integrated with vascular differentiation. A genetic loss-o...

  16. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swadhin Swain; Nidhi Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2015-03-01

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.

  17. Plant Nitrogen Acquisition Under Low Availability: Regulation of Uptake and Root Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiba, Takatoshi; Krapp, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen availability is a major factor determining plant growth and productivity. Plants acquire nitrogen nutrients from the soil through their roots mostly in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Since these nutrients are scarce in natural soils, plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with the environment. One of the most important responses is the regulation of nitrogen acquisition efficiency. This review provides an update on the molecular determinants of two major drivers of the nitrogen acquisition efficiency: (i) uptake activity (e.g. high-affinity nitrogen transporters) and (ii) root architecture (e.g. low-nitrogen-availability-specific regulators of primary and lateral root growth). Major emphasis is laid on the regulation of these determinants by nitrogen supply at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which enables plants to optimize nitrogen acquisition efficiency under low nitrogen availability.

  18. New plant-growth medium for increased power output of the Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Kuijken, R.C.P.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In a Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell anode-conditions must be created that are favorable for plant growth and electricity production. One of the major aspects in this is the composition of the plant-growth medium. Hoagland medium has been used until now, with added phosphate buffer to reduce potential