WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant fossils

  1. Future requirements for fossil power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spliethoff H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing installation of technologies to convert renewable energy into power influences the operation of conventional power plants. New requirements on the technology, on the operation and on the economic have to be considered for already running and future power plants. Currently, first experiences with such a production and market situation are available. Technologies are discussed to store power and to reduce CO2 emissions. New compensation models are necessary to enable economic operation of fossil power plants in base load. This article gives a short review about available technologies and future challenges.

  2. The First Observation on Plant Cell Fossils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; CUI Jinzhong

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, paleontologists have been focusing on hard parts of organisms during different geological periods while soft parts are rarely reported. Well-preserved plant cells, if found in fossils, are treated only as a rarity. Recent progress in research on fossil cytoplasm indicates that plant cytoplasm not only has excellent ultrastructures preserved but also may be a quite commonly seen fossil in strata. However, up to now there is no report of plant cell fossils in China yet. Here plant cell fossils are reported from Huolinhe Coal Mine (the early Cretaceous), Inner Mongolia, China. The presence of plant cytoplasm fossils in two cones on the same specimen not only provides further support for the recently proposed hypothesis on plant cytoplasm fossilization but also marks the first record of plant cytoplasm fossils in China, which suggests a great research potential in this new area.

  3. Adaptation, plant evolution, and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Niklas, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of adaptation in determining patterns of evolution has become an important focus of debate in evolutionary biology. As it pertains to paleobotany, the issue is whether or not adaptive evolution mediated by natural selection is sufficient to explain the stratigraphic distributions of taxa and character states observed in the plant fossil record. One means of addressing this question is the functional evaluation of stratigraphic series of plant organs set in the context of paleoenvironmental change and temporal patterns of floral composition within environments. For certain organ systems, quantitative estimates of biophysical performance can be made on the basis of structures preserved in the fossil record. Performance estimates for plants separated in time or space can be compared directly. Implicit in different hypotheses of the forces that shape the evolutionary record (e.g. adaptation, mass extinction, rapid environmental change, chance) are predictions about stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental trends in the efficacy of functional performance. Existing data suggest that following the evolution of a significant structural innovation, adaptation for improved functional performance can be a major determinant of evolutionary changes in plants; however, there are structural and development limits to functional improvement, and once these are reached, the structure in question may no longer figure strongly in selection until and unless a new innovation evolves. The Silurian-Devonian paleobotanical record is consistent with the hypothesis that the succession of lowland floodplain dominants preserved in the fossil record of this interval was determined principally by the repeated evolution of new taxa that rose to ecological importance because of competitive advantages conferred by improved biophysical performance. This does not seem to be equally true for Carboniferous-Jurassic dominants of swamp and lowland floodplain environments. In these cases

  4. Zeolites replacing plant fossils in the Denver formation, Lakewood, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Verbeek, E.R.; Grout, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Well-developed crystals of heulandite and stilbite, within fossil wood, occur in sedimentary rocks in Lakewood, Jefferson County. The rocks belong to the Denver formation, a locally fossiliferous deposit of fluvial claystone, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate, containing some volcanic mudflows (andesitic) of late Cretaceous to Palaeocene age. Altered volcanic glass released Na and Ca into the ground-water and subsequently zeolites were crystallized in the open spaces between grains and within fossil plant structures. Minor pyrite, quartz (jasper), calcite and apatite also occur as replacements of fossil wood. Similar zeolite occurrences in other areas are reviewed.-R.S.M.

  5. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  7. Recognition of the Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuel Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı FINDIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environment that is the natural residential area of live life is among the interests of the various sciences. Within the scope of accounting science, the concept of social awareness requires a social responsibility based approach and this causes some additional environmental costs emerged when interaction of business with their environment considered. In the Uniform Accounting Plan there exists a special account relating with monitoring, controlling and managing of environmental costs. This study deals with environmental accounting for enterprises and introduces determination and recognition of the environmental costs of fossil fuel plants that use coal as a fuel

  8. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Allani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS. This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System that integrates the parabolic trough into a fossil fired combined cycle, which allows a larger exergy potential of the fuel to be converted. b the HSTS (Hybrid Solar Tower System which uses high concentration optics (via a power tower generator and high temperature air receivers to drive the combined cycle power plant. In the latter case, solar energy is used at a higher exergy level as a heat source of the topping cycle. This paper presents the results of a thermoeconomic investigation of an ISCCS envisaged in Tunisia. The study is realized in two phases. In the first phase, a mixed approach, based on pinch technology principles coupled with a mathematical optimization algorithm, is used to minimize the heat transfer exergy losses in the steam generators, respecting the off design operating conditions of the steam turbine (cone law. In the second phase, an economic analysis based on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC approach was carried out for the configurations, which provided the best concepts during the first phase. A comparison of ISCCS with pure fossil fueled plants (CC+GT is reported for the same electrical power load. A sensitivity analysis based on the relative size of the solar field is presented.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  9. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  10. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants - Thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipippo, R.; Kestin, J.; Avelar, E. M.; Khalifa, H. E.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants to compound systems which combine the features of the two previously analyzed hybrid plants, the geothermal preheat and the fossil superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A complete summary of formulae to assess the performance of the plants is included for completeness. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at several geothermal sites in the western United States.

  11. High Temperature as a Mechanism for Plant Cytoplasm Preservation in Fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    Because the cytoplasm of a plant normally degrades after the death of the plant, finding cytoplasm in a plant body after a prolonged period of time, especially in fossil plants, is unexpected.Recent work on several 100-Myr-old plant fossils from Kansas, USA indicates, however, that cells and their contents can be preserved. Most of the cells in these fossil plants appear to be in a state of plasmolysis, and these fossil cells bear a strong resemblance to laboratory-baked cells of extant plant tissues. Based on a comparison with extant material plus biophysical and biochemical analyses of the cytoplasm degrading process, a new hypothesis for cytoplasm preservation in nature is proposed: high temperature, a concomitant of commonly seen wildfires, may preserve cytoplasm in fossil plants. This hypothesis implies that fossilized cytoplasm should be rather common and an appropriate substance for research, unlike previously thought. Research on fossil cytoplasm closely integrates paleobotany with biochemistry, biophysics, as well as fire ecology, and invites inputs from these fields to paleobotany to interpret these provocative findings.

  12. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  13. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 11 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use...Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations Michael Tubman and Timothy Welp Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory...sensitive emissions, increase use of renewable energy, and reduce the use of fossil fuels was conducted with funding from the U.S. Army Corps of

  14. The Development and Research on the Coordinate Control Strategy Between Turbine and Boiler in Fossil Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research on domestic and international automatic technical development in fossil power plant, the paper analyses the recent situation of the coordinate control system between turbine and boiler of domestic fossil Power Plant, provides the development thought of coordinate control system between turbine and boiler, and describes the application prospect in control system of fossil power plant combining with the application experience.

  15. Proceedings of the 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants was held at Newport Beach, California, June 19--21, 1978. It was sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy - Fossil Energy, and the Instrument Society of America - Orange County Section. Thirty-nine papers have been entered individually into the data base. (LTN)

  16. [Lipids from fossil plants and their relation to modern plants. Example s of Cenomanian flora from Anjou and Bohemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, T N; Derenne, S; Largeau, C; Pons, D; Broutin, J; Mariotti, A; Bocherens, H

    2000-01-01

    Comparative analyses of lipids from fossil plants and from their extant counterparts were undertaken in order to test the taxonomic significance of lipids in palaeobotany. The comparison between lipids from a fossil Ginkgoaceae, Eretmophyllum andegavense, and its extant counterpart, Ginkgo biloba, revealed the presence of original molecules, dimethoxyalkylcoumarins, in lipids from both plants. Such compounds confirm, on chemical grounds the relationship between these extant and fossil Ginkgoaceaes. Moreover, differences in n-alkane distribution between E. andegavense and E. obtusum which are very similar morphologically, confirm that these fossil plants do not belong to the same species. Furthermore, comparative analyses of a fossil Cheirolepidiaceae, Frenelopsis alata, and its extant counterpart, the Cupressaceae Tetraclinis articulata, revealed some similarities between these two species although they do not belong to the same family. Otherwise, comparative analyses of fungi-infected and uninfected samples of F. alata demonstrated that these micro-organisms can significantly affect the chemical composition of fossil plant lipids. In conclusion, even if chemical analyses alone are not sufficient to determine the genus or species of a given fossil plant, they can precise the taxonomy of some specimens that have been previously studied by palaeobotanists.

  17. An option for solar thermal repowering of fossil fuel fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D. [Technical University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-02-15

    Global climate change urges immediate measures to be taken to limit greenhouse gas emission coming from the fossil fuel fired power plants. Solar thermal energy can be involved in different ways in existing power generation plants in order to replace heat produced by fossil fuels. Solar field feed water preheating is mainly discussed in this paper as an option for fast and feasible RES penetration. Rankine regenerative steam cycled power plant has been modelled with Thermoflow software. The plant model incorporates also a field with solar Fresnel collectors that directly heats boiler's feed water. The proposed plant modification yields substantial fossil fuel input reduction. The best results can be obtained when the group of high pressure heaters is replaced and feed water temperature exceeds its original design value. The solar power generation share can reach up to 23% of the power plant capacity in this case, having efficiency higher than 39% for the best solar hour of the year.

  18. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants: thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.; Avelar, E.M.

    1979-06-01

    The analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants is extended to compound hybrid systems which combine the features of previously analyzed systems: the geothermal-preheat and the fossil-superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A compilation of working formulae from earlier studies is included for completeness. Results are given for parametric analyses of compound hybrid plants. System performance was determined for wellhead conditions of 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C, and for steam fractions of 10, 20, 30, and 40%. For two-stage systems an additional cycle variable, the hot water flash fraction, was varied from 0 to 100% in increments of 25%. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and are shown to have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at six geothermal sites in the western United States. The question of the optimum match between the energy resources and the power plant is addressed, and an analysis given for a hypothetical geothermal resource.

  19. Changes in dominance patterns in upper Carboniferous plant-fossil assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.; Thomson, Margaret C.

    1982-12-01

    Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) terrestrial clastic rocks from North America and Europe contain compression-impression plant-fossil assemblages that represent the remains of plant communities that grew on floodplains, levees, and other clastic facies of fluvial and deltaic lowlands. Quantitative analysis of 66 plant-fossil assemblages spanning the entire late Carboniferous demonstrates that before the middle of the Westphalian D Stage the majority of plant-fossil assemblages are dominated by pteridosperms and sphenopsids. Lycopods and cordaites dominate only a few assemblages counted. Ferns do not dominate any assemblages. These findings contrast sharply with the dominance of lycopods reported by others from coal swamps of the same time interval. Above the middle of the Westphalian D, however, one-third of the compression-impression assemblages counted are dominated by ferns. The change in dominance pattern in compression-impression plant-fossil assemblages occurs half a stage earlier than the previously reported change from lycopod-dominated to fern-dominated assemblages at the Westphalian-Stephanian boundary in coal swamps. A trend toward dryer climate during Westphalian D apparently influenced plants growing on better-drained alluvial soils earlier than those growing on water-logged soils of contemporaneous coal swamps. *Present address: Room 108 Math.-Geology Building, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55812

  20. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.; O' Fallon, N.M.

    1977-09-01

    Progress during the quarter of January through March 1977 on ANL 189a 49622R2, Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), on development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. Progress in these areas is described.

  1. MEM-BRAIN gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czyperek, M.; Zapp, P.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Modigell, M.; Peinemann, K.-V.; Voigt, I.; Meulenberg, W.A.; Singheiser, L.; Stöver, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the MEM-BRAIN project is the development and integration of gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants. This will be achieved by selective membranes with high permeability for CO2, O2 or H2, so that high-purity CO2 is obtained in a readily condensable form. The project

  2. Gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants: MEM-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czyperek, M.; Zapp, P.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Modigell, M.; Ebert, K.; Voigt, I.; Meulenberg, W.A.; Singheiser, L.; Stöver, D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the “MEM-BRAIN” project is the development and integration of ceramic and polymeric gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants. This will be achieved using membranes with a high permeability and selectivity for either CO2, O2 or H2, for the three CO2 capture

  3. Gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants: MEM-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czyperek, M.; Zapp, P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Modigell, M.; Ebert, K.; Voigt, I.; Meulenberg, W.A.; Singheiser, L.; Stöver, D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the “MEM-BRAIN” project is the development and integration of ceramic and polymeric gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants. This will be achieved using membranes with a high permeability and selectivity for either CO2, O2 or H2, for the three CO2 capture proc

  4. New discovery of fossil cycad-like plants from the Middle Jurassic of West Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongdong; ZHANG Wu; ZHENG Shaolin; SAIKI Keni'chi; LI Nan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Cycadales are one of the most ancient lineages ofseed plants, with a fossil record that extends over 250 mil-lion years. Cycads are believed to have originated fromthe Late Palaeozoic, and reached its maximum diversityand distribution during the Mesozoic; however, their evo-lutionary history has remained relatively poorly under-stood[1―4].

  5. MEM-BRAIN gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czyperek, M.; Zapp, P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Modigell, M.; Peinemann, K.-V.; Voigt, I.; Meulenberg, W.A.; Singheiser, L.; Stöver, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the MEM-BRAIN project is the development and integration of gas separation membranes for zero-emission fossil power plants. This will be achieved by selective membranes with high permeability for CO2, O2 or H2, so that high-purity CO2 is obtained in a readily condensable form. The project

  6. Revegetation of fossil-fuel power plant spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, V.

    1981-10-01

    This paper evaluates land reclamation of spoil banks used for disposal of fly ash from the Hodonin and Opatovice coal power plants. The evaluation concentrates on assessment of plant growth over a 5 year period. Types of fertilizers, quantity ratio per ha and fertilizer composition are given. During the first year 54 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorous pentoxide and 120 kg potassium oxide were used for one ha of spoil bank. In the second year 150 kg/ha of calcium nitrate were used. During the third year 150 kg ammonium sulfates and 300 kg superphosphate were used for one ha. During the fifth year 150 kg/ha calcium nitrate were used for the second time. Growth intensity of plants is evaluated in two tables. The following plants were used: Onobrychis sativa, Melilotus albus, Trifolium hybrydum, Lotus corniculatus, Festuca rubra, Lovium multiflorum. In the Hodonin spoil bank growth of Onobrychis sativa was most intensive. In the Opatovice spoil bank growth of Lolium multiflorum was satisfactory. (8 refs.) (In Czech)

  7. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P K; Hewitt, C N; Wildt, J; Blande, J D; Eller, A S D; Fares, S; Gentner, D R; Gilman, J B; Graus, M; Greenberg, J; Guenther, A B; Hansel, A; Harley, P; Huang, M; Jardine, K; Karl, T; Kaser, L; Keutsch, F N; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Kleist, E; Lerner, B M; Li, T; Mak, J; Nölscher, A C; Schnitzhofer, R; Sinha, V; Thornton, B; Warneke, C; Wegener, F; Werner, C; Williams, J; Worton, D R; Yassaa, N; Goldstein, A H

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  8. The Fossil Record of Plant-Insect Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, Conrad C.; Currano, Ellen D.

    2013-05-01

    Progress toward understanding the dynamics of ancient plant-insect associations has addressed major patterns in the ecology and evolution of herbivory and pollination. This advancement involves development of more analytical ways of describing plant-insect associational patterns in time and space and an assessment of the role that the environment and internal biological processes have in their control. Current issues include the deep origins of terrestrial herbivory, the spread of herbivory across late Paleozoic landscapes, recoveries from sudden major crises, reaction to and accommodation of protracted environmental perturbations, and the nature of herbivory and pollination before the appearance of angiosperms during the mid-Mesozoic. These and other exploratory research themes provide a more complete account of a great nexus of ecological activity that has been wedged between the two most diverse organismic groups on land for the past 410 million years.

  9. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yassine Allani; Klaus Ziegler; Daniel Favrat; Malick Kane

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors) featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS). This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a) the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System)...

  10. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  11. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  12. Ceramic membranes for gas separation in advanced fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenberg, W.A.; Baumann, S.; Ivanova, M.; Gestel, T. van; Bram, M.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction or elimination of CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation power plants fuelled by coal or gas is a major target in the current socio-economic, environmental and political discussion to reduce green house gas emissions such as CO{sub 2}. This mission can be achieved by introducing gas separation techniques making use of membrane technology, which is, as a rule, associated with significantly lower efficiency losses compared with the conventional separation technologies. Depending on the kind of power plant process different membrane types (ceramic, polymer, metal) can be implemented. The possible technology routes are currently investigated to achieve the emission reduction. They rely on different separation tasks. The CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation is the main target in the post-combustion process. Air separation (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) is the focus of the oxyfuel process. In the pre-combustion process an additional H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation is included. Although all separation concepts imply different process requirements they have in common a need in membranes with high permeability, selectivity and stability. In each case CO{sub 2} is obtained in a readily condensable form. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation membranes like microporous membranes or polymer membranes are applicable in post-combustion stages. In processes with oxyfuel combustion, where the fuel is combusted with pure oxygen, oxygen transport membranes i.e. mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes with mainly perovskite or fluorite structure can be integrated. In the pre-combustion stages of the power plant process, H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation membranes like microporous membranes e.g. doped silica or mixed protonic electronic conductors or metal membranes can be applied. The paper gives an overview about the considered ceramic materials for the different gas separation membranes. The manufacturing of bulk materials as well as supported thin films of these membranes along

  13. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  14. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  16. An improved system for routine performance testing in fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, P.J.; Hansen, D.B.; March, P.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    A data acquisition and analysis system has been developed that reduces the time and labor required to perform routine performance tests on power plant components. The system uses modem data acquisition and computation technologies to integrate the process of data acquisition, data analysis, and reporting of results. During a test run, the data acquisition system reads the data and transfers it to a Microsoft Excel workbook via a dynamic data exchange (DDE) link. In Excel, the system computes and displays real-time trend plots. Real-time plots typically include a display of precision errors, thus providing an immediate indication of the quality of the current test. Upon completion of a run, the system saves results and creates plots in a workbook dedicated to test results. The plots can display computed values such as turbine or boiler feedpump efficiency. Benchmark data can also be included in the plots to provide immediate feedback concerning the change in the performance of a component and the dollar cost due to the performance change. The data tables and plots provide a preliminary report that is available immediately upon completion of the test.

  17. New martensitic steels for fossil power plant: Creep resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaybyshev, R. O.; Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Shchenkova, I. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the origin of high-temperature strength of heat-resistant steels belonging to martensitic class developed on the basis of the Fe—9%Cr alloy for the boiler pipes and steam pipelines of power plants at steam temperatures of up to 620°C and pressures to 300 atm. In addition, we give a brief information on the physical processes that determine the creep strength and consider the alloying philosophy of traditional heat-resistant steels. The effect of the chemical and phase composition of heat-resistant steels and their structure on creep strength is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the combination of the solid-solution alloying by elements such as W and Mo, as well as the introduction of carbides of the MX type into the matrix with the formation of a dislocation structure of tempered martensite, ensures a significant increase in creep resistance. The steels of the martensitic class withstand creep until an extensive polygonization starts in the dislocation structure of the tempered martensite(“troostomartensite”), which is suppressed by V(C,N) and Nb(C,N) dispersoids. Correspondingly, the service life of these steels is determined by the time during which the dispersed nanocarbonitrides withstand coalescence, while tungsten and molybdenum remain in the solid solution. The precipitation of the Laves phases Fe2(W,Mo) and the coalescence of carbides lead to the development of migration of low-angle boundaries, and the steel loses its ability to resist creep.

  18. Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

  19. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  20. Proceedings of the 1977 symposium on instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants was held at Hyatt Regency O'Hare, Chicago, Illinois, July 13 to 15, 1977. It was sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Instrument Society of America (Chicago Section). Seventeen papers from thee proceedings were entered individually into EDB and ERA (three papers weree entered previously). (LTN)

  1. Developing the optimum boiler water and feedwater treatment for fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, B. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Over the last two years a new set of cycle chemistry guidelines has been developed for each of the treatments used in fossil plants. These revisions have been based on research conducted over the last ten years, much at the international collaborative level. By careful selection and optimization of the boiler water and feedwater treatments, it will be possible to accrue large financial, maintenance, availability and performance improvements. (au) 14 refs.

  2. Paleoclimate from fossil plants and application to the early Cenozoic Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Wladimir Köppen called vegetation "crystallized, visible climate," and his metaphor encouraged paleobotanists to climb the chain of inference from fossil plants to paleovegetation to paleoclimate. Inferring paleovegetation from fossils has turned out to be very difficult, however, and today most paleobotanical methods for inferring paleoclimate do not try to reconstruct paleovegetation as a first step. Three major approaches are widely use to infer paleoclimate from plant fossils: 1) phylogenetic inferences rely on the climatic distributions of extant relatives of fossils, 2) morphological inferences use present-day correlations of climate with plant morphology (e.g, leaf shape, wood anatomy), and 3) chemical inferences rely on correlations between climate and the stable isotopic composition of plants or organic compounds. Each approach makes assumptions that are hard to verify. Phylogenetic inference depends on accurate identification of fossils, and also assumes that evolution and/or extinction has not shifted the climatic distributions of plant lineages through time. On average this assumption is less valid for older time periods, but probably it is not radically wrong for the early Cenozoic. Morphological approaches don't require taxonomic identification of plant fossils, but do assume that correlations between plant form and climate have been constant over time. This assumption is bolstered if the ecophysiological cause of the morphology-climate correlation is well understood, but often it isn't. Stable isotopic approaches assume that present-day correlations between isotopic composition and climate apply to the past. Commonly the chemical and physiological mechanisms responsible for the correlation are moderately well known, but often the variation among different taxonomic and functional groups of plants is poorly characterized. In spite of limitations and uncertainties on all methods for inferring paleoclimate from fossil plants, broad patterns emerge from

  3. Solar-Augment Potential of U.S. Fossil-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.; Langle, N.; Bedilion, R.; Libby, C.

    2011-02-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize solar thermal energy for the generation of electric power. This attribute makes it relatively easy to integrate CSP systems with fossil-fired power plants. The 'solar-augment' of fossil power plants offers a lower cost and lower risk alternative to stand-alone solar plant construction. This study ranked the potential to add solar thermal energy to coal-fired and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants found throughout 16 states in the southeast and southwest United States. Each generating unit was ranked in six categories to create an overall score ranging from Excellent to Not Considered. Separate analysis was performed for parabolic trough and power tower technologies due to the difference in the steam temperatures that each can generate. The study found a potential for over 11 GWe of parabolic trough and over 21 GWe of power tower capacity. Power towers offer more capacity and higher quality integration due to the greater steam temperatures that can be achieved. The best sites were in the sunny southwest, but all states had at least one site that ranked Good for augmentation.

  4. Environmental benchmarking of the largest fossil-fueled electricity generating plants in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Joseph

    2004-02-01

    Environmental management, to be effective, requires performance evaluation and process improvement. This is especially the case in fossil-fueled electricity generating plants. Although eco-efficient management of these types of organizations are critical to local, national and global environmental issues, few studies have focused on performance measurement and eco-efficiency improvements in this industry. This study evaluates the eco-efficiencies of the top 100 major U.S. fossil-fueled electricity generating plants from 1998 data. Using a multi-criteria non-parametric productivity model (data envelopment analysis) efficiency scores are determined. These efficiency scores are treated by a clustering method in identifying benchmarks for improving poorly performing plants. Efficiency measures are based on three resource input measures including boiler generating capacity, total fuel heat used, and total generator capacity, and four output measures including actual energy generated, SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold, to introduce the methodology"s application to eco-efficiency performance measurement and show some characteristics of the benchmarked plants and groups.

  5. The Life Assessment of Steam Turbine Rotors for Fossil Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sungho; Song, Geewook; Kim, Bumshin; Hyun, Jungseb; Ha, Jeongsoo

    The operational mode of thermal power plants has been changed from base load to duty cycle. From the changeover, fossil power plants cannot avoid frequent thermal transient states, for example, start up and stop, which results in thermal fatigue damage at the heavy section components. The rotor is the highest capital cost component in a steam turbine and requires long outage for replacing with a new one. For an optimized power plant operational life, inspection management of the rotor is necessary. It is known in general that the start-up and shutdown operations greatly affect the steam turbine life. The start-up operational condition is especially severe because of the rapid temperature and rotational speed increase, which causes damage and reduction of life of the main components life of the steam turbine. The start-up stress of a rotor which is directly related to life is composed of thermal and rotational stresses. The thermal stress is due to the variation of steam flow temperature and rotational stress is due to the rotational speed of the turbine. In this paper, the analysis method for the start-up stress of a rotor is proposed, which considers simultaneously temperature and rotational speed transition, and includes a case study regarding a 500MW fossil power plant steam turbine rotor. Also, the method of quantitative damage estimation for fatigue-creep damage to operational conditions, is described. The method can be applied to find weak points for fatigue-creep damage. Using the method, total life consumption can be obtained, and can be also be used for determining future operational modes and life extension of old fossil power units.

  6. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  7. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.

    1977-07-01

    Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter and composition analysis system, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  8. Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E

    2012-03-01

    Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion.

  9. Green Web or megabiased clock? Plant fossils from Gondwanan Patagonia speak on evolutionary radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Escapa, Ignacio H

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary divergence-age estimates derived from molecular 'clocks' are frequently correlated with paleogeographic, paleoclimatic and extinction events. One prominent hypothesis based on molecular data states that the dominant pattern of Southern Hemisphere biogeography is post-Gondwanan clade origins and subsequent dispersal across the oceans in a metaphoric 'Green Web'. We tested this idea against well-dated Patagonian fossils of 19 plant lineages, representing organisms that actually lived on Gondwana. Most of these occurrences are substantially older than their respective, often post-Gondwanan molecular dates. The Green Web interpretation probably results from directional bias in molecular results. Gondwanan history remains fundamental to understanding Southern Hemisphere plant radiations, and we urge significantly greater caution when using molecular dating to interpret the biological impacts of geological events.

  10. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  11. Fossil-fired steam/electric gypsum plant + wallboard plant + powerplant = win-win-win

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority has invested in a wall board plant adjacent to its Cumberland power plant to process gypsum slurry. Synmat built the gypsum processing plant to dewater and concentrate the slurry to produce gypsum cake; Temple-Inland build a wallboard plant on 124 acres nearby, the two facilities being linked by conveyor. A 20-ft-high hill of gypsum that had accumulated since 1994 and 1999 when the wallboard plant was built is utilized to meet shortfalls in raw material. The slurry is retrieved from a 10-ft deep water-filled pit that was dug into the stockpile to accept an unmanned floating pump dredge and then pumped through a 6-in line to the Synmat plant. 3 photos.

  12. Palaeoclimate reconstruction within the upper Eocene in central Germany using fossil plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraweck, Karolin; Kunzmann, Lutz; Uhl, Dieter; Kleber, Arno

    2013-04-01

    The Eocene has been commonly called "The world`s last greenhouse period" covering the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) as well as the Eocene-Oligocene turnover. In the mid-latitudes of Europe this turnover was characterized by pronounced climatic changes from subtropical towards temperate conditions that were accompanied by significant vegetational changes on land. Fossil plants are regarded as excellent palaeoenvironmental proxies, because leaf physiognomy often reflects climate conditions. The study site, the Paleogene Weißelster basin in central Germany, including fluvial, estuarine and lacustrine deposits, provides several excellently preserved megafloras for reconstructions of terrestrial palaeoclimate. For our case study we used material from different stratigraphic horizons within the late Eocene Zeitz megafloral assemblage recovered from the open-cast mines of Profen and Schleenhain. These horizons cover a time interval of ca. 3 Ma. The Zeitz megafloral assemblage ("Florenkomplex") was characterized by mainly evergreen, notophyllous vegetation, consisting of warm-temperate to subtropical elements. Tropical species are present but very rare. To infer the regional climatic conditions and putative climate changes from these fossil plants we compare proxy data obtained by the application of standard methods for quantitative reconstruction of palaeoclimate data: the coexistence approach (CA), leaf margin analysis (LMA) and Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP).Before the CA was applied to the material the list of putative nearest living relative species (NLR) was carefully revisited and partly revised. In case of the LMA approach information of so-called "silent taxa" (fossil species preserved by diaspores, leaf margin state is inferred from NLR data) were partly included in the data set. The four floras from the Zeitz megafloral assemblage show slightly different floral compositions caused by various taphonomic processes. An aim of the

  13. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Annual technical progress report, October 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for FDP, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, composition analysis system, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  14. The Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant - from vision to reality.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, L.; Sauthoff, M.

    2007-07-01

    Sufficient supply of energy without fossil fuels is not possible the next fifty years. Thus, we must find a solution to use coal, without endangering the environment. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, might be the answer. At a cost of about 20 Euro/ton CO{sub 2}, there exist technologies, which can be ready for commercial application in 2020. After that, even more cost effective technologies will be developed. To reduce emissions by more than half until 2050, cannot be reached without CCS. However, CCS is very powerful, but not the only tool. All ways to reduce emissions, including renewables and nuclear must be used. To put emphasis behind the words, Vattenfall has started an R and D program to develop technology for CCS in a ten year program. As part of that, Vattenfall is building a Pilot Plant including all process steps from coal input to liquid CO{sub 2}. It will be ready in 2008. In parallel, preparations for a demonstration plant are ongoing. It will be a coal fired full size plant with storage on shore. That will be ready for operation in 2015. (auth)

  15. Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting carbon footprint of fossil fuel power plants based on life cycle assessment scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dalir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pseudo comprehensive carbon footprint model for fossil fuel power plants is presented. Parameters which their effects are considered in this study include: plant type, fuel type, fuel transmission type, internal consumption of the plant, degradation, site ambient condition, transmission and distribution losses. Investigating internal consumption, degradation and site ambient condition effect on carbon footprint assessment of fossil fuel power plant is the specific feature of the proposed model. To evaluate the model, a sensitivity analysis is performed under different scenarios covering all possible choices for investigated parameters. The results show that carbon footprint of fossil fuel electrical energy that is produced, transmitted and distributed, varies from 321 g CO2 eq/kWh to 980 g CO2 equivalent /kWh. Carbon footprint of combined cycle with natural gas as main fuel is the minimum carbon footprint. Other factors can also cause indicative variation. Fuel type causes a variation of 28%. Ambient condition may change the result up to 13%. Transmission makes the carbon footprint larger by 4%. Internal consumption and degradation influence the result by 2 and 2.5%, respectively. Therefore, to minimize the carbon footprint of fossil fuel electricity, it is recommended to construct natural gas ignited combined cycles in low lands where the temperature is low and relative humidity is high. And the internal consumption is as least as possible and the maintenance and overhaul is as regular as possible.

  16. Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.; Shubik, V. M.

    2004-07-01

    Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

  17. Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

  18. Compiling a multistate emissions inventory. [Fossil-Fuel Power Plant related air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C M

    1978-01-01

    The goal of the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S) is to develop and demonstrate an improved, verified capability of numerically simulating the present conditions and potential changes in pollutant concentration, atmospheric behavior, and precipitation chemistry that result, or will result, from pollutants released to the atmosphere by large-scale power production processes. Due to the multistate nature of the MAP3S area of interest, the emissions inventory project has been based on obtaining pertinent data gathered by other agencies, and computerizing, correlating, and updating such data. This paper describes the development of the project to date. Topics to be covered include the acquisition of both emissions and ancillary data, techniques developed for quality assurance and data updating, as well as descriptions of current and future plans in both upgrading and using the inventory. The MAP3S program is charged with studying the entire spectrum of atmospheric pollutants ascribed to fossil-fuel electric power production or that may interact in the atmosphere with power plant emissions. These pollutants include: sulfur oxides, sulfites, and sulfates; nitrogen oxides and their secondary reaction products, including oxidants; hydrocarbons, including polycyclic organic matter; trace inorganic elements; and particulates, which may contain any or all of the above substances and elemental carbon or soot.

  19. A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, G J

    2001-05-17

    To understand better the link between atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate over geological time, records of past CO2 are reconstructed from geochemical proxies. Although these records have provided us with a broad picture of CO2 variation throughout the Phanerozoic eon (the past 544 Myr), inconsistencies and gaps remain that still need to be resolved. Here I present a continuous 300-Myr record of stomatal abundance from fossil leaves of four genera of plants that are closely related to the present-day Ginkgo tree. Using the known relationship between leaf stomatal abundance and growing season CO2 concentrations, I reconstruct past atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the past 300 Myr, only two intervals of low CO2 (times. But for most of the Mesozoic era (65-250 Myr), CO2 levels were high (1,000-2,000 p.p.m.v.), with transient excursions to even higher CO2 (>2,000 p.p.m.v.) concentrations. These results are consistent with some reconstructions of past CO2 (refs 1, 2) and palaeotemperature records, but suggest that CO2 reconstructions based on carbon isotope proxies may be compromised by episodic outbursts of isotopically light methane. These results support the role of water vapour, methane and CO2 in greenhouse climate warming over the past 300 Myr.

  20. Digital viscosity controller for fossil power plants; Controlador digital de viscosidad para plantas termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista B, Amberto; Ocampo P, Carlos; Gutierrez A, Ruben; Madinaveitia V, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Upon the need of increasing the efficiency of the existing fossil power plants in Mexico, the Instrumentation and Control Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) designed and built a viscosity controller to enhance the fuel oil heating process. The system strategy, that allows the control either by temperature or viscosity considers, as an important element, the changing characteristics of the supplied fuels. The equipment that is utilized forms apart of the line Acquisition and Control System (ACS) developed at the same Institute, that has been successfully applied in other systems. [Espanol] Ante la necesidad de aumentar la eficiencia de las plantas termoelectricas existentes en Mexico, el Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), diseno y construyo un controlador de viscosidad para mejorar el proceso de calentamiento del aceite combustible. La estrategia del sistema, que permite controlar ya sea por viscosidad o por temperatura, considera como elemento importante las caracteristicas cambiantes de los combustibles suministrados. El equipo que se utiliza forma parte de la linea SAC (sistema de adquisicion y control), desarrollada en el mismo Instituto, que se ha aplicado satisfactoriamente en otros sistemas.

  1. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by

  2. Flexibility requirements for fossil-fired power plants to support the growth of the share of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Lars; Fruth, Mathias [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Pfaff, Imo [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The planned increase of renewable generation in Germany to more than 100,000 MW of installed capacity within the next decade will result in significant changes to the existing electrical energy system. Fossil-fired power plants will remain inevitable to guarantee supply security. The maximum, securely available power plant capacity probably has to correspond to current level. This power plant park has to meet more stringent requirements in order to support the further extension of renewables-based generation. However, economic incentives, like e.g. necessary reward of flexible operation, are being missing. (orig.)

  3. Alkane distribution and carbon isotope composition in fossil leaves: An interpretation of plant physiology in the geologic past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H. V.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The relative chain-length distribution and carbon-isotope composition of n-alkanes extracted from sedimentary rocks are important geochemical tools for investigating past terrestrial ecosystems. Alkanes preserved in ancient sediments are assumed to be contemporaneous, derived from the same ecosystem, and integrated from the biomass present on the landscape at the time of deposition. Further, there is an underlying assumption that ancient plants exhibited the same metabolic and physiological responses to climate conditions that are observed for modern plants. Interpretations of alkane abundances and isotopic signatures are complicated by the strong influence of phylogenetic affiliation and ecological factors, such as canopy structure. A better understanding of how ecosystem and taxa influence alkane properties, including homologue abundance patterns and leaf-lipid carbon isotope fractionation would help strengthen paleoecological interpretations based on these widely employed plant biomarkers. In this study, we analyze the alkane chain-length distribution and carbon-isotope composition of phytoleim and alkanes (d13Cleaf and d13Clipid) extracted from a selection of Cretaceous and Paleocene fossil leaves from the Guaduas and Cerrejon Formations of Colombia. These data were compared with data for the same families in a modern analogue biome. Photosynthetic and biosynthetic fractionation (∆leaf and elipid) values determined from the fossil material indicate carbon metabolism patterns were similar to modern plants. Fossil data were incorporated in a biomass-weighted mixing model to represent the expected lipid complement of sediment arising from this ecosystem and compared with alkane measurements from the rock matrix. Modeled and observed isotopic and abundance patterns match well for alkane homologs most abundant in plants (i.e., n-C27 to n-C33). The model illustrates the importance of understanding biases in litter flux and taphonomic pressures inherent in the

  4. Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

  5. Early Oligocene plant diversity along the Upper Rhine Graben: The fossil flora of Rauenberg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovar-Eder Johanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroflora of Rauenberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is treated monographically. The plant-bearing sediments are marine, mainly well-bedded clay- to siltstones, the so-called Fischschiefer, which are part of the Bodenheim Formation. Based on nannoplankton they are dated to nannoplankton zone NP 23 (Rupelian, Lower Oligocene. The plant remains, mainly leaves and some fructifications, are preserved as compressions. The taxonomic assignment is based on gross morphology and cuticle characteristics. The flora yields marine algae and remains of the very diverse terrestrial flora. A total of 68 taxa, including three types of algae, one cycad, 12 conifers, and 49 dicots, among them 5 palms, are described. The following fossil species are described for the first time: Laurophyllum rauenbergense, Myrica obliquifolia, Distylium metzleri, ? Berchemia altorhenana, ? Ternstroemites maritiae, Trachelospermum kelleri, Oleinites altorhenana, O. rauenbergensis, Dicotylophyllum badense, D. oechsleri, D. vesiculaeferens, D. ziegleri, ? Viscophyllum hendriksiae, and Cladites vesiculaeferens. Dicotylophyllum vesiculaeferens and Cladites vesiculaeferens bear peculiar, complex cuticular structures presumably representing salt-secreting glands. Both taxa are interpreted to derive from one plant species of yet uncertain systematic affinity. The flora bears a high proportion of broad-leaved, presumably evergreen taxa, whereas the diversity of modern Arcto-Tertiary taxa (sensu Kvaček 1994 is rather low. Most abundant are Platanus neptuni, Daphnogene cinnamomifolia, and Tetraclinis salicornioides. On the family level, Lauraceae (10 species and Pinaceae (8 are most diverse, followed by Arecaceae (4-5, Cupressaceae, and Myricaceae (4 species each. Surprisingly, Fagaceae are documented solely by a single leaf of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis f. haselbachensis, and the record of Pentaphyllaceae remains ambiguous (? Ternstroemites maritiae. Sloanea olmediaefolia is recorded

  6. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M; Bump, T. R.; Cohn, C. E.; Doering, R. W.; Duffey, D.; Kirsch,; Lipinski, W. C.; Managan, W. W.; Porges, K. G.; Raptis, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The final report of the state-of-the-art study of instrumentation for process control and safety in large-scale coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion systems was distributed in November. A conceptual design for the Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility has been initiated, the major components identified, and vendors located. Work on acoustic flow measurement has included theoretical feasibility studies of acoustic/ultrasonic techniques for mass-flow measurements of slurries and solid/gas media. Initial planning was conducted to establish a laboratory facility necessary to verify theoretical findings. A survey of the literature relating to capacitive measurements was begun to provide a basis for conceptual designs and preliminary bench tests of the feasibility of these designs. Conceptual design of a capacitive on-line solids density measuring device and calculations to select the type of system for initial feasibility tests were carried out. Preliminary tests of neutron capture gamma analysis for on-line elemental composition of liquid and solid streams in coal plants indicate that most coal elements can be detected quantitatively through the pipe walls. A computer program for peak-fitting in the gamma spectrum was modified for requirements of this work. A literature search was started to determine the state-of-the-art in dynamic process modeling of fossil energy system components, physical property models, and process control models. A partial review of abstracts from a computerized literature search has identified over 50 references having possible application to process analysis activities in this program.

  7. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by

  8. The age of the plant fossil assemblage in the Liuqu Conglomerate of southern Tibet and its tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Aimin; YAN Zhen; LIU Xiaohan; PAN Yusheng; LI Jiliang; YU Liangjun; HUANG Feixing; TAO Junrong

    2006-01-01

    The Liuqu Conglomerate, situated to the south of Yarlung Tsangbo Suture Zone (YTSZ), is a suit of molasse formed in a foreland basin of the Himalayan orogenic belt after the collision between the two plates of the Indian and Eurasion. It is of great significance in constraining the younger limit time of the collision of the two plates and providing stratigraphic evidence to reveal the post-collisional tectonic evolution and uplifting history of the Tibet plateau. However, the age of this molasse suit and its correlation to other synchronous strata distributed in southern Tibet have been in great disputes for a long time. Especially in recent years, argues on its ages are growing violently with the recognition of the great sedimentary tectonic significances of this molasse. During the field work carried out recently on this molasse suit, a lot of plant fossils were found preserved in fairly good conditions in the upper part of this strata, which is of great help in determining its age. By identification, the assemblage of the plant fossils belongs to a tropic to subtropic flora developed in the southern margin of the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent during the Middle to Later Eocene, which can provide good constraint on its formation age. This paper is to give a brief introduction of the plant assemblage and its age, and to discuss their tectonic significances.

  9. Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Δ14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that Δ14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the Δ14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of Δ14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) Δ14C in summer and low Δ14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean Δ14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating Δ14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

  10. Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2010-10-15

    In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16μgm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric CO2 from the late Oligocene to early Miocene reconstructed from photosynthesis data and leaf characteristics of fossil plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Michaela; Oehm, Christoph; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten; Kunzmann, Lutz; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-04-01

    In the Cenozoic era, global climate changed from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. During the Oligocene, the comparatively cool phase in the earlier part of the late Oligocene is followed by the Late Oligocene Warming and a major glaciation event at the Oligocene-Miocene transition (Mi-1). Various studies indicate that these climate events were coupled to changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. In this study, atmospheric CO2 from the late Oligocene to the early Miocene was reconstructed by using photosynthesis data and fossil leaf characteristics. We used plant material from various sites located in Germany and Austria comprising fossil leaves of four angiosperm plant species: Platanus neptuni (Platanaceae), Quercus rhenana, Q. praerhenana and Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (all Fagaceae). A mechanistic-theoretical approach based on stomatal parameters, photosynthesis data and gas exchange parameters was applied to model palaeoatmospheric CO2 levels. Detailed climate data of the considered sites were reconstructed as well since the mechanistic-theoretical approach requires climate data as input parameters for calculating both assimilation rate and transpiration rate. Our results indicate a steady CO2 level of about 400 ppm for all sites and therefore suggest a decoupling of CO2 and cooling/warming events for the considered time slices.

  12. Using annual plants as atmospheric 14CO2 samplers for regional fossil fuel emissions estimates: crop modeling and intensive sampling approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhinova, D.; Peters, W.; Combe, M.; Palstra, S. W.; Meijer, H. A.; Krol, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Using radiocarbon (14C) as a tracer for fossil fuel emissions is promising, even as sampling atmospheric 14CO2 for long periods of time is demanding and expensive. An alternative is to use plants to record the atmospheric carbon isotopic abundances, as plants naturally integrate carbon during their

  13. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  14. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene in Jurassic sediments and a set of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the transformation of terrestrial cyclic terpenoids during diagenesis, constituting a general pathway for all terpenoids.

  15. The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) 'On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianne; Kenrick, Paul

    2015-04-19

    During the 1920s, the botanist W. H. Lang set out to collect and investigate some very unpromising fossils of uncertain affinity, which predated the known geological record of life on land. His discoveries led to a landmark publication in 1937, 'On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales', in which he revealed a diversity of small fossil organisms of great simplicity that shed light on the nature of the earliest known land plants. These and subsequent discoveries have taken on new relevance as botanists seek to understand the plant genome and the early evolution of fundamental organ systems. Also, our developing knowledge of the composition of early land-based ecosystems and the interactions among their various components is contributing to our understanding of how life on land affects key Earth Systems (e.g. carbon cycle). The emerging paradigm is one of early life on land dominated by microbes, small bryophyte-like organisms and lichens. Collectively called cryptogamic covers, these are comparable with those that dominate certain ecosystems today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  16. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  17. Robust optimisation for self-scheduling and bidding strategies of hybrid CSP-fossil power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pousinho, H.M.I.; Contreras, J.; Pinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a profit-maximisation model for a hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP) producer participating in a day-ahead market with bilateral contracts, where there is no correlation between the electricity market price and the solar irradiation. Backup system coordination is included...... between the molten-salt thermal energy storage (TES) and a fossil-fuel backup to overcome solar irradiation insufficiency, but with emission allowances constrained in the backup system to mitigate carbon footprint. A robust optimisation-based approach is proposed to provide the day-ahead self......-schedule under the worst-case realisation of uncertainties due to the electricity market prices and the thermal production from the solar field (SF). These uncertainties are modelled by asymmetric prediction intervals around average values. Additionally, a budget parameter is used to parameterise the degree...

  18. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.-G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene to Jurassic sediments and a set of of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. Aromatized derivatives were the major components, consisting of one or two aromatic ring species with the abietane and occasionally pimarane skeletons. The saturated structures were comprised primarily of the abietane and pimarane skeletons having from three to five carbon (C1, C2, etc.) substituents. Kaurane and phyllocladane isomers were present in only minor amounts. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids as saturated and partial or fully aromatized forms were also common in these samples, but only traces of sesterterpenoids and triterpenoid derivatives were found. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the

  19. Structural biomacromolecules in plants : what can be learnt from the fossil record?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Bergen, P.F. van; Blokker, P.; Collinson, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    The invasion of the land by plants may have forced the evolution of specific physiological adaptation to survive this hostile new environment. Two of the main problems plants had to overcome included an increase in the levels of UV radiation and water loss or desiccation. Studying the resistant macr

  20. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  1. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant has been completed for four geothermal Resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. Brown University provided the theoretical basis for the hybrid study. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant. Costing methods followed recommendations issued by the Energy research and Development Administration.

  2. State of the art in fossil plant cycle chemistry on the threshold of the next millenium; Kreislaufchemie in fossil befeuerten Anlagen - Stand der Technik an der Schwelle zum naechsten Jahrtausend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursik, A.

    1999-11-01

    In 1994, a plenary lecture describing the state of the art in fossil plant cycle chemistry was presented in the course of the 12th International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam. This paper takes the mentioned publication as its starting-point defining the state of the art on the threshold of the next millenium. Five years ago, the major topics of interest were boiler design and plant cycle chemistries, feedwater conditioning, boiler water treatment, basic application problems and areas of uncertainties, fossil plant cycle chemistry needs, and the vision for plant cycle chemistry needs, and the vision for plant cycle chemistry. It is pleasant to realize that in the areas listed as plant cycle chemistry needs at that time, as - volatility of alkalizing agents and contaminants in steam, - deposition phenomena and mechanisms around the cycle, and - turbine chemistry, particularly the processes occurring in or affecting the phase transition zone in steam turbines marked improvements have been achieved in the past five years. (orig.) [German] In einem Plenarvortrag bei der 12. Internationalen Konferenz ueber die Eigenschaften von Wasser und Dampf 1994 wurde der Stand der Technik in der Kreislaufchemie von fossil befeuerten Anlagen beschrieben. Dieser Beitrag verwendet die erwaehnte Publikation als Basis beim Definieren des Standes der Technik an der Schwelle zum naechsten Jahrtausend. Vor fuenf Jahren waren die wichtigsten Themen die Wechselwirkung zwischen dem Kesseldesign und der Kreislaufchemie, die Speisewasser- und Kesselwasserkonditionierung, die grundlegenden Anwendungsprobleme und die Unsicherheitsbereiche, Forschungsbedarf in der Kreislaufchemie sowie der Ausblick auf die Zukunft der Chemie des Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaufes. Es ist sehr angenehm festzustellen, dass in den vergangenen fuenf Jahren in den Bereichen, wo eine Forschung als erforderlich erachtet wurde, wie - Dampffluechtigkeit der Konditionierungsmittel und Verunreinigungen

  3. Accelerating progress toward operational excellence of fossil energy plants with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Turton, R. Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTARTM). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This paper will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture.

  4. Hettangian (early jurassic) plant fossils from Puale Bay (peninsular terrane, Alaska)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Middle Hettangian (Early Jurassic) plant macrofossils from the Kamishak Formation at Puale Bay,Alaska occur mainly as leaves and leafy shoots found together with...

  5. Computer Program Application Study for Newly Constructed Fossil Power Plant Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Park, Jong Jeng [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The power plant is affected in its availability and economy significantly by the equipment degraded gradually as operation continues, which makes it quite important to evaluate the plant performance more accurately and analyze its effects to the plant economy quantitatively. The methodology thereof includes many calculation steps and requires huge man hours and efforts but would produce relatively less precise results than desired. The object of the project first aims to figure out a methodology which can analyze numerically the inherent effects of each equipment on the cycle performance as well as its performance evaluation and which further helps to determine more reasonable investment for the effective plant economy. Another aspect of the project results in the implementation of the methodology which is embodied in the sophisticated computer programs based on the conventional personal computer with the interactive graphic user interface facilities. (author). 44 refs., figs.

  6. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  7. Paleovegetation changes recorded by n-alkyl lipids bound in macromolecules of plant fossils and kerogens from the Cretaceous sediments in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Y.; Sawada, K.; Nakamura, H.; Takashima, R.; Takahashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Resistant macromolecules composing living plant tissues tend to be preserved through degradation and diagenesis, hence constituate major parts of sedimentary plant-derived organic matter (kerogen), and their monomer compositions vary widely among different plant taxa, organs and growth stages. Thus, analysis of such macromolecule may serve as new technique for paleobotanical evaluation distinctive from classical paleobotnical studies depends on morphological preservation of fossils. In the present study, we analyzed plant fossils and kerogens in sediments from the Cretaceous strata in Japan to examine chemotaxonomic characteristics of fossil macromolecules and to reconstruct paleovegetation change by kerogen analysis. The kerogens were separated from the powdered sediments of Cretaceous Yezo Group, Hokkaido, Japan. All kerogens have been confirmed to be mostly originated from land plant tissues by microscopic observation. Mummified angiosperm and gymnosperm fossil leaves were separated from carbonaceous sandstone of the Cretaceous Ashizawa Formation, Futaba Group. The kerogens and plant fossils were extracted with methanol and dichloromethane, and were subsequently refluxed under 110°C to remove free compounds completely. The residues are hydrolyzed by KOH/methanol under 110°C. These released compounds are analyzed by GC-MS. As main hydrolyzed products (ester-bound molecular units) from all kerogens, C10-C28 n-alkanoic acids and C10-C30 n-alkanols were detected. Recent studies on the hydrolysis products of plant tissues suggested the long chain (>C20) n-alkanols were predominantly abundant in deciduous broadleaved angiosperms. Correspondingly, the stratigraphic variation of the ratios of long chain (>C20) n-alkanols to fatty acids was concordant with the variation of angiosperm/gymnosperm ratios recorded by land plant-derived terpenoid biomarkers. In addition, we found that the long chain n-alkanols/fatty acids ratio in the angiosperm fossil leaf was

  8. Model-based Fuel Flow Control for Fossil-fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    such sources may vary unpredictably meaning that the desired level of generation cannot always be achieved upon request. On-demand production from controllable units, such as thermal power plants, must change quickly in order to ensure balance between consumer demands and electricity generation. Coal......-fired power plants represent the largest reserve of such controllable power sources in several countries. However, their production take-up rates are limited, mainly due to poor fuel flow control. The thesis presents analysis of difficulties and potential improvements in the control of the coal grinding...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE RISK-BASED MAINTENANCE OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM FOR FOSSIL POWER PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Watanabe; Y.Chuman; N.Nishimura; H.Matsumoto; K.Tominaga; F.Sakata; T.Kuroishi

    2004-01-01

    Cost reduction in electric power generation is a major management concern, and it is therefore necessary to reduce maintenance expenses while upholding plant reliability.A maintenance optimization system "FREEDOM", which uses RBM technique, DCF (discounted cash flow) and NPV (net present value) calculation functions, has been newly developed. This system probabilistically evaluates the lifetime of boiler and turbine and quantitatively calculates the risk defined as the cumulative probability of failure multiplied by the consequence of failure. Economically optimized timing of inspection and alternative countermeasure such as repair and replacement are then recommended. This system has already been applied to seven plants in Japan, and its effectiveness has been confirmed.

  10. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  11. Marquee Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2008-01-01

    Professors of an online graduate-level paleontology class developed the concept of marquee fossils--fossils that have one or more unique characteristics that capture the attention and direct observation of students. In the classroom, Marquee fossils integrate the geology, biology, and environmental science involved in the study of fossilized…

  12. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  13. Electrochemical techniques application in corrosion problems of fossil power plants; Aplicacion de tecnicas electroquimicas en problemas de corrosion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Garcia Ochoa, Esteban Miguel; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Mariaca Rodriguez, Liboria; Malo Tamayo, Jose Maria; Uruchurtu Chavarin, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Some aspects of the electrochemical techniques employed to evaluate the corrosion at low temperature in fossil power plants are commented, as well as the results obtained with the application of them in three power plants of this type. [Espanol] Se comentan algunos aspectos de tecnicas electroquimicas utilizadas para evaluar la corrosion en baja temperatura en centrales termoelectricas, asi como los resultados de la aplicacion de las mismas en tres centrales de este tipo.

  14. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  15. Comparative analysis of structural concrete quality assurance practices on three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.L. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    The basic objective of this research effort was to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. This analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which apply on nuclear power plant projects. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which can be considered managerial in nature (i.e., organizational relationships, types of Quality Assurance programs, corrective action procedures, etc.) an attempt has been made to present the alternative approaches that were identified. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which are technical in nature (i.e., the frequency of testing for slump, compressive strength, etc.) an attempt has been made to present a comparative analysis between projects and in relation to the recommended or mandated practices presented in the appropriate industry codes and standards.

  16. State of the art in fossil plant cycle chemistry on the threshold of the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursik, A. [PowerPlant Chemistry GmbH, Neulussheim (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The present day cycle chemistry control practices used by power utilities were reviewed with emphasis on the achievements made in understanding the basic chemical process in the power generation cycles. The new problems created by external commercial pressures were also discussed. The four most significant changes currently influencing power plant chemistry are: (1) privatization and power market deregulation, (2) efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, (3) rapid implementation of combined cycles/heat recovery steam generator systems, and (4) increased competition among major power cycle component manufacturers. This paper presented a brief description for each of the following control practices: (1) feedwater treatment, (2) boiler water treatment, (3) boiler tube failures, (4) steam chemistry, (5) turbine steam path damage, (6) startup, cycling, shutdown and lay-up, (7) units with advanced parameters, (8) combined cycles, and (9) plant cycle chemistry needs. 35 refs.

  17. Research and development of CO2 Capture and Storage Technologies in Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Pilař

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project on the suitability of post-combustion CCS technology in the Czech Republic. It describes the ammonia CO2 separation method and its advantages and disadvantages. The paper evaluates its impact on the recent technology of a 250 MWe lignite coal fired power plant. The main result is a decrease in electric efficiency by 11 percentage points, a decrease in net electricity production by 62 MWe, and an increase in the amount of waste water. In addition, more consumables are needed.

  18. Gain-Scheduled Control of a Fossil-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the objective is to optimize the control of a coal fired 250 MW power plant boiler. The conventional control system is supplemented with a multivariable optimizing controller operating in parallel with the conventional control system. Due to the strong dependence of the gains...... and dynamics upon the load, it is beneficial to consider a gain-scheduling control approach. Optimization using complex mu synthesis results in unstable LTI controllers in some operating points of the boiler. A recent gain-scheduling approach allowing for unstable fixed LTI controllers is applied. Gain...

  19. GNOCIS - an on-line NO{sub X} emission and plant performance optimizer for fossil fuel-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Stallings, J.W.; Smouse, S.M. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Generic NO{sub x} Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS) is an on-line enhancement to existing digital control systems (DCS) designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired boilers while meeting other operational constraints on the unit (principally heat rate and other regulated emissions). Using artificial intelligence techniques, GNOCIS utilizes a model of the combustion characteristics of the boiler that includes NO{sub x} emissions and boiler efficiency. The software applies an optimizing procedure to identify the best set points for the plant, which can be implemented automatically without operator intervention in a closed-loop mode, or at the plant`s discretion, conveyed to the plant operators for implementation in an open-loop mode. GNOCIS can be viewed as a low-cost long-term means to maintain short-term optimized plant performance. Development of GNOCIS was funded by a consortium consisting of the Electric Power Research Institute, PowerGen, Radian International, Southern Company, U.K. Department of Trade and Industry, and U.S. Department of Energy. The first commercial installation of GNOCIS was at Georgia Power`s Hammond Unit 4, a 500 MW opposed wallfired boiler. Hammond Unit 4 serves as the host site of a U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program project, wherein a stepwise long-term evaluation of three technologies to reduce NO{sub x} emissions was conducted: (1) Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA), (2) Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB), and (3) LNB + AOFA. A general overview of the CCT project and GNOCIS technology is presented along with performance results from Plant Hammond. Preliminary GNOCIS data from Hammond Unit 4 show an efficiency gain of 0.5 percent, a reduction in fly ash loss-on-ignition of 1-3 percentage points, and NO{sub x} reduction of 10-15 percent at full load. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  1. Metallic substrate materials for thin film oxygen transport membranes for application in a fossil power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Y.; Baumann, S.; Sebold, D.; Meulenberg, W.A.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF) - IEF-1 Materials Synthesis and Processing

    2010-07-01

    La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}CO{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF58428) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CO{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF5582) exhibit high oxygen permeability due to their high ionic and electronic conductivity. For this reason they are under discussion for application in oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) in zero-emission power plants using oxyfuel technology. A thin film membrane which can increase the oxygen flux is beneficial and a structural substrate is required. Two types of Ni-base alloys were studied as substrate material candidates with a number of advantages, such as high strength, high temperature stability, easy joining and similar thermal expansion coefficient to the selected perovskite materials. Chemical compositions and thermal expansion coefficients of Ni-base alloys were measured in this study. LSCF58428 and BSCF5582 layers were screen printed on Ni-based alloys and co-fired at high temperature in air. The microstructure and element analysis of samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDX). A Ni-base alloy, MCrAlY, with a high Al content was the most suitable substrate material, and showed better chemical compatibility with perovskite materials at high temperature than Hastelloy X, which is a chromia-forming Ni-base alloy. A reaction occurred between Sr in the perovskite and the alumina surface layers on MCr-AlY. However, the reaction zone did not increase in thickness during medium-term annealing at 800 C in air. Hence, it is expected that this reaction will not prevent the application of MCr-AlY as a substrate material. (orig.)

  2. Ediacara Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Now, a research team from Virginia Tech and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology has discovered uniquely well-preserved fossil forms from 550-million-year-old rocks of the Ediacaran Period. The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The discovery of these unusually preserved fossils reveals unprecedented…

  3. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  4. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  5. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with

  6. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  7. Characterisation of perovskite-type high-temperature membranes used for oxygen supply in fossil fuelled power plant processes; Charakterisierung perowskitischer Hochtemperaturmembranen zur Sauerstoffbereitstellung fuer fossil gefeuerte Kraftwerksprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebius, Sigrid Annett

    2010-03-12

    In this thesis thermochemical properties of mixed conducting perovskite-type materials were investigated. Those materials are assumed to be applicable as gas separation membranes in the oxyfuel process. Here, the materials are aimed to produce the required oxygen for the combustion more energy-efficient than using cryogenic air separation. High-temperature materials which are applicable for this purpose must be gastight and should exhibit a high oxygen permeation rate and a preferably low thermal expansion coefficient. Moreover, the materials need to be long-term stable under power plant relevant conditions. The aim of this work is a better understanding of the material behaviour. Furthermore, on the basis of the results it should be possible to draw conclusions concerning the suitability of the material for application in oxyfuel power plant processes. Therefor, the influence of the chemical composition (doping elements and stoichiometry) of the perovskites, the temperature and the oxygen content in the ambient atmosphere on the thermochemical properties are studied systematically. In the framework of this thesis it could be stated that the thermochemical behaviour of prospective membrane materials strongly depends on the above mentioned parameters. In addition, the degradation behaviour (thermochemical stability) of the materials was investigated. The degradation behaviour influences the suitability of the material to be used in oxyfuel power plant processes. Here, the influence of the chemical composition of the perovskites, the temperature and the CO{sub 2}-concentration in dry and humid atmospheres was also studied. On the basis of the results it could be stated that the thermochemical stability strongly depends on the surrounding atmosphere and on the chemical composition of the perovskites. (orig.)

  8. Fossil furnace with solar support. Part 1. Paths towards a forward-looking plant technology; Fossile Heizkessel mit solarer Unterstuetzung. Teil 1. Wege zu einer zukunftsfaehigen Anlagentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagnitz, M. [Zentralverband Sanitaer Heizung Klima, Potsdam (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Kyoto, climate targets, energy price discussions - the list of keywords is long. However the effects are mostly unclear. The only thing, which is for sure, nothing will remain as it is.This three-part series explains, how the different heating systems can be incorporated into the logic of the new Regulation for Renewable Energy and into which direction the development in the field of plant technology will go. Different systems for one-family houses are compared with each other as an example. (orig.)

  9. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Sedimentary paleoenvironment and fossil plants of the El freno formation (early jurassic in Las leñas valley, Neuquén basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lanés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-marine Early Jurassic successions in Las Leñas valley and their paleofloristic fossil content have been known since late nineteenth century, though they are scarce in the bibliography. It led us to study the sedimentology and paleobotanical content of El Freno Formation outcrops in the surroundings of the Portezuelo and Peuquenes creeks, report the first finding of fossil plants there and interpret their taphonomic features and enclosing sedimentary environment. The studied section is a lensoidal, fining- and thinning-upwards, conglomerate and sandy succession, with carbonaceous plant impressions and silicified trunks. It records the evolution of a gravel braided fluvial system (with longitudinal and transverse bars, abandoned channels and strong topographic irregularities into a sand braided fluvial system (with transverse bars, overbank deposits and no evidence of lateral migration. Both flowed mainly towards the NNW and show a continuously increasing accommodation probably driven by a relative base level rise and regional sag or erosional lowering of the topography. Collected fossil plants include Dictyophylum (Dictyophylum sp., Goeppertella sp. and undetermined Equisetopsida. Goeppertella sp. is recorded for the first time in this unit. Equisetopsida would have thrived in semi-permanent water bodies on abandoned channels and Dipteridaceae, in well-drained zones of the channel belt above the permanent channel level. Conversely, the trees would have lived in higher and well-drained areas with well-developed soils, probably outside the channel belt. Based largely on lithostratigraphical considerations, the age of the studied deposits was limited to the Hettangian?-Middle Sinemurian without identifying hiatus inside the fluvial succession or between it and the overlain marine beds.

  11. Effective heat transport of Gulf Stream to subarctic North Atlantic during Miocene cooling: evidence from "Köppen signatures" of fossil plant assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Denk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shallowing of the Panama Sill and the closure of the Central American Seaway initiated the modern Loop Current/Gulf Stream circulation pattern during the Miocene but no direct evidence has yet been provided for effective heat transport to the northern North Atlantic during that time. Climatic signals from 11 precisely-dated plant-bearing sedimentary rock formations in Iceland, spanning 15–0.8 million years (Myr, resolve the impacts of the developing Miocene global thermohaline circulation on terrestrial vegetation in the subarctic North Atlantic region. "Köppen signatures" were implemented to express climatic properties of fossil plant taxa and their potential modern analogues using the principal concept of the generic Köppen–Geiger climate system, which is based on plant distribution patterns. Using Köppen signatures and the correlation between Köppen climate zones and major global vegetation zones, fossil assemblages were used to trace major vegetation shifts. This evidence was combined with evidence from tectonics and palaeoceanography. In contrast to the global climatic trend, the vegetation record reveals no cooling between ~ 15 and 12 Myr, whereas periods of climatic deterioration between 12–10 Myr, 8–4 Myr, and in the Pleistocene are in phase with increased pulses of ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere. The observed sequence of climate change in the northern North Atlantic can only be explained by an effective Gulf Stream-mediated heat transport from the middle Miocene onwards.

  12. Δ(14)CO2 from dark respiration in plants and its impact on the estimation of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaohu; Zhou, Weijian; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Shugang; Niu, Zhenchuan; Du, Hua; Lu, Xuefeng; Fu, Yunchong; Burr, George S

    2017-04-01

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the (14)C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the (14)C content of CO2 derived from plants has been equated with the (14)C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking. Here we present accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon results of CO2 respired from 21 plants using a lab-incubation method and associated bulk organic matter. From the respired CO2 we determine Δ(14)Cres values, and from the bulk organic matter we determine Δ(14)Cbom values. A significant difference between Δ(14)Cres and Δ(14)Cbom (P < 0.01) was observed for all investigated plants, ranging from -42.3‰ to 10.1‰. The results show that Δ(14)Cres values are in agreement with mean atmospheric Δ(14)CO2 for several days leading up to the sampling date, but are significantly different from corresponding bulk organic Δ(14)C values. We find that although dark respiration is unlikely to significantly influence the estimation of CO2ff, an additional bias associated with the respiration rate during a plant's growth period should be considered when using Δ(14)C in plants to quantify atmospheric CO2ff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 7. Power plant reliability-availability and state regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Bouromand, I.N.M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Data from the Edison Electric Institute annual report on equipment availability are briefly examined with a view to determining the breadth of effort which would be required to reduce outage time caused by equipment difficulties. For nuclear units, for several size categories of fossil units, and for gas turbine units, the basic data are examined to establish the basic operating experience and related outage and availability rates, and to assign outages to major plant systems. Related data giving detailed outage causes are grouped to yield data on component failure versus outage time, information that is required to determine the possible impact of research and regulatory efforts on reliability and availability.

  14. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  15. Vertical Design Research of Fossil Fuel Power Plants in the Mountainous Area%山区火电厂厂区竖向设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁宝

    2013-01-01

    In view of the complex and diversified characteristics of fossil fuel power plants in the mountains, combined with engineering examples for plant vertical design of the main factors for analysis, the article proposed the optimal design of the vertical thinking, providing references for similar projects.%本文针对山区火电厂地势复杂多样的特点,结合工程实例对厂区竖向设计的主要因素进行分析,提出合理确定厂区竖向设计最佳方案的思路,对类似工程提供参考。

  16. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. The State-of-the-Art of Materials Technology Used for Fossil and Nuclear Power Plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuqing

    Combined with the development of energy in China during the past 30 years, this paper clarified that high steam parameters ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plants and 1000MW nuclear power plants are the most important method to optimize energy structure and achieve national goals of energy saving and CO2 emission in China. Additionally, requirement of materials technology in high steam parameters USC coal-fired power plants and 1000MW nuclear power plants, current research and major development of relevant materials technology in China were briefly described in this paper.

  18. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  19. A new method to determine the ratio of electricity production from fossil and biogenic sources in waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Johann; Cencic, Oliver; Rechberger, Helmut

    2007-04-01

    New directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from renewable sources in the waste feed. Until now, the standard method to determine the portion of renewable electricity is sorting the wastes into defined fractions of fossil organic and biogenic waste components and determining the lower heating value of these fractions. Out of it the amount of electricity production from renewables is calculated. This practice is labor and cost intensive. Therefore, it is usually carried out once a year which provides only a snapshot analysis of limited significance. This paper proposes a method to calculate the portion of electricity produced from renewable materials in waste continuously by solving a set of equations. All data required are either available from literature or from operating data routinely measured in WTE plants. The advantages are statistically derived uncertainty of the result, temporal resolution of the result down to daily mean values, low implementation efforts, and virtually no operational costs. An example of the implementation of the method to a 60 000 tons per year WTE plant is given.

  20. The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) ‘On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianne; Kenrick, Paul

    2015-01-01

    During the 1920s, the botanist W. H. Lang set out to collect and investigate some very unpromising fossils of uncertain affinity, which predated the known geological record of life on land. His discoveries led to a landmark publication in 1937, ‘On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales’, in which he revealed a diversity of small fossil organisms of great simplicity that shed light on the nature of the earliest known land plants. These and subsequent discoveries have taken on new relevance as botanists seek to understand the plant genome and the early evolution of fundamental organ systems. Also, our developing knowledge of the composition of early land-based ecosystems and the interactions among their various components is contributing to our understanding of how life on land affects key Earth Systems (e.g. carbon cycle). The emerging paradigm is one of early life on land dominated by microbes, small bryophyte-like organisms and lichens. Collectively called cryptogamic covers, these are comparable with those that dominate certain ecosystems today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750238

  1. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This study identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. Specific conclusions are as follows: (1) To implement CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration on a national scale will decrease power plant net efficiencies and significantly increase the cost of electricity. To make responsible societal decisions, accurate and consistent economic and environmental analysis of all alternatives for atmospheric CO{sub 2} mitigation are required. (2) Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive and energy intensive, exists today. (3) The most promising approach to more economical CO{sub 2} capture is to develop power plant systems that facilitate efficient CO{sub 2} capture. (4) While CO{sub 2} disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is feasible today, the ability to dispose of large quantities Of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain because of both technical and institutional issues. Disposal into the deep ocean or confined aquifers offers the potential for large quantity disposal, but there are technical, safety, liability, and environmental issues to resolve. Therefore, the highest priority research should focus on establishing the feasibility of large scale disposal options.

  2. Towards space based verification of CO2 emissions from strong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions as seen by a CarbonSat constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krings

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important man-made greenhouse gas (GHG that cause global warming. With electricity generation through fossil-fuel power plants now being the economic sector with the largest source of CO2, power plant emissions monitoring has become more important than ever in the fight against global warming. In a previous study done by Bovensmann et al. (2010, random and systematic errors of power plant CO2 emissions have been quantified using a single overpass from a proposed CarbonSat instrument. In this study, we quantify errors of power plant annual emission estimates from a hypothetical CarbonSat and constellations of several CarbonSats while taking into account that power plant CO2 emissions are time-dependent. Our focus is on estimating systematic errors arising from the sparse temporal sampling as well as random errors that are primarily dependent on wind speeds. We used hourly emissions data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA combined with assimilated and re-analyzed meteorological fields from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP. CarbonSat orbits were simulated as a sun-synchronous low-earth orbiting satellite (LEO with an 828-km orbit height, local time ascending node (LTAN of 13:30 (01:30 p.m. LT and achieves global coverage after 5 days. We show, that despite the variability of the power plant emissions and the limited satellite overpasses, one CarbonSat has the potential to verify reported US annual CO2 emissions from large power plants (≥5 Mt CO2 yr−1 with a systematic error of less than ~4.9% and a random error of less than ~6.7% for 50% of all the power plants. For 90% of all the power plants, the systematic error was less than ~12.4% and the random error was less than ~13%. We additionally investigated two different satellite configurations using a combination of 5 CarbonSats. One achieves global coverage everyday but only samples the targets at fixed local times. The other

  3. Towards space based verification of CO2 emissions from strong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions as seen by a CarbonSat constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gerilowski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important man-made greenhouse gas (GHG that cause global warming. With electricity generation through fossil-fuel power plants now as the economic sector with the largest source of CO2, power plant emissions monitoring has become more important than ever in the fight against global warming. In a previous study done by Bovensmann et al. (2010, random and systematic errors of power plant CO2 emissions have been quantified using a single overpass from a proposed CarbonSat instrument. In this study, we quantify errors of power plant annual emission estimates from a hypothetical CarbonSat and constellations of several CarbonSats while taking into account that power plant CO2 emissions are time-dependent. Our focus is on estimating systematic errors arising from the sparse temporal sampling as well as random errors that are primarily dependent on wind speeds. We used hourly emissions data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA combined with assimilated and re-analyzed meteorological fields from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP. CarbonSat orbits were simulated as a sun-synchronous low-earth orbiting satellite (LEO with an 828-km orbit height, local time ascending node (LTAN of 13:30 (01:30 p.m. and achieves global coverage after 5 days. We show, that despite the variability of the power plant emissions and the limited satellite overpasses, one CarbonSat can verify reported US annual CO2 emissions from large power plants (≥5 Mt CO2 yr−1 with a systematic error of less than ~4.9 % for 50 % of all the power plants. For 90 % of all the power plants, the systematic error was less than ~12.4 %. We additionally investigated two different satellite configurations using a combination of 5 CarbonSats. One achieves global coverage everyday but only samples the targets at fixed local times. The other configuration samples the targets five times at two-hour intervals approximately every 6th day but

  4. Are the oldest 'fossils', fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative statistical study has been carried out on populations of modern algae, Precambrian algal microfossils, the 'organized elements' of the Orgueil carbonaceous meteorite, and the oldest microfossil-like objects now known (spheroidal bodies from the Fig Tree and Onverwacht Groups of the Swaziland Supergroup, South Africa). The distribution patterns exhibited by the more than 3000 m.y.-old Swaziland microstructures bear considerable resemblance to those of the abiotic 'organized elements' but differ rather markedly from those exhibited by younger, assuredly biogenic, populations. Based on these comparisons, it is concluded that the Swaziland spheroids could be, at least in part, of nonbiologic origin; these oldest known fossil-like microstructures should not be regarded as constituting firm evidence of Archean life.

  5. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  6. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  7. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be

  8. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  9. A high-resolution global inventory of fossil fuel CO2 emission derived using a global power plant database and satellite-observed nightlight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomohiro; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    We developed the Open-source Data Inventory of Anthropogenic CO2 emissions (ODIAC), a global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory for the years 1980-2007, by applying a combination of country-level fuel consumption statistics, a global point source database, and satellite-observed nightlight data. The primary goal of ODIAC is to provide a-priori information of fossil fuel CO2 emission to the flux inversions using observational data of the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a critical quantity required by the established flux inversion framework, as it is assumed to be a known quantity. Recent studies have suggested the feasibility of regional flux inversions using satellite-observed CO2 beyond the established global inversion, and thus spatiotemporally detailed information of fossil fuel CO2 emissions will be needed for emerging regional flux inversions. National emissions are often available in the gridded form, and the disaggregation of national emissions have been done using a common surrogate such as population and nightlight data; however, these approaches correlate poorly with sources at a resolution beyond country and city level. In this study, national total emissions were derived from country-level fuel consumption statistics and emissions from point sources were separately calculated. We utilized point source emission and geographic location data available in the global power plant database CARMA (Carbon Monitoring and Action). The individual point source emissions were placed at the exact locations specified by CARMA. Emissions from other sources, the residual of national total emissions minus point source emissions, were distributed using nightlight data obtained by the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Project-Operational Line Scan (DMSP-OSL) instruments. As DMSP-OSL instruments often meet instrumental saturation over bright regions such as city cores, the single use of normal

  10. Prediction of atmospheric δ13CO2 using fossil plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahren, A. Hope [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Arens, Nan Crystal [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY (United States); Harbeson, Stephanie A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-06-30

    To summarize the content: we presented the results of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the relationship between plant tissue δ13C and δ13CO2 values under varying environmental conditions, including differential pCO2 ranging from 1 to 3 times today’s levels. As predicted, plants grown under elevated pCO2 showed increased average biomass compared to controls grown at the same temperature. Across a very large range in δ13Ca (≈ 24 ‰) and pCO2 (≈ 740 ppmv) we observed a consistent correlation between δ13Ca and δ13Cp (p<0.001). We show an average isotopic depletion of -25.4 ‰ for above-ground tissue and -23.2 ‰ for below-ground tissue of Raphanus sativus L. relative to the composition of the atmosphere under which it formed. For both above- and below-ground tissue, grown at both ~23 °C and ~29 °C, correlation was strong and significant (r2 ≥ 0.98, p<0.001); variation in pCO2 level had little or no effect on this relationship.

  11. Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. [Public health hazards of fossil-fuel, combined cycle, combustion turbine, and geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, W.S.; Israel, W.J.; Sacramo, R.F.

    1978-07-01

    Public health and safety hazards have been identified for five types of power plants: coal-fired, oil-fired steam turbine, combined cycle, combustion (gas) turbine, and geothermal. The results of the analysis show that air pollutants are the major hazard that affects the health and safety of the general public. A total of ninety plant hazards were identified for the five plant types. Each of these hazards were rated in six categories as to their affect on the general public. The criteria used in the analysis were: area/population exposed; duration; mitigation; quantity to toxicity ratio; nature of health effects; and public attitude. Even though ninety hazards were identified for the five plants analyzed, the large majority of hazards were similar for each plant. Highest ratings were given to the products of the combustion cycle or to hydrogen sulfide emissions from geothermal plants. Water pollution, cooling tower effects and noise received relatively low ratings. The highest rated of the infrequent or hypothetical hazards were those associated with potential fires, explosions, and chlorine releases at the plant. Hazards associated with major cooling water releases, water pollution and missiles received the lowest ratings. Since the results of the study clearly show that air pollutants are currently considered the most severe hazard, additional effort must be made to further understand the complex interactions of pollutants with man and his environment. Of particular importance is the determination of dose-response relationships for long term, low level exposure to air pollutants. (EDB)

  12. An AFM Observation on Fossil Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; YU Junping; FANG Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Fossil cytoplasm is a new research topic of interest in paleobotany. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new technology applied widely in physics and biology; however, it is rarely used in paleontology. Here we applied AFM for the first time to study fossil cytoplasm. The results indicate that the fossil cytoplasm is heterogeneous and full of ultrastructures, just like extant cytoplasm, and that the application of AFM, especially in combination with other techniques, can reveal the subcellular details of fossil plants with more confidence.

  13. Spatial and temporal trends in contaminant concentrations in Hexagenia nymphs following a coal ash spill at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John G; Baker, Tyler F; Murphy, Cheryl A; Jett, R Trent

    2016-05-01

    A dike failure at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee, United States, in December 2008, released approximately 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash into the Emory River. From 2009 through 2012, samples of mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia bilineata) were collected each spring from sites in the Emory, Clinch, and Tennessee Rivers upstream and downstream of the spill. Samples were analyzed for 17 metals. Concentrations of metals were generally highest the first 2 miles downstream of the spill, and then decreased with increasing distance from the spill. Arsenic, B, Ba, Be, Mo, Sb, Se, Sr, and V appeared to have strong ash signatures, whereas Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb appeared to be associated with ash and other sources. However, the concentrations for most of these contaminants were modest and are unlikely to cause widespread negative ecological effects. Trends in Hg, Cd, and Zn suggested little (Hg) or no (Cd, Zn) association with ash. Temporal trends suggested that concentrations of ash-related contaminants began to subside after 2010, but because of the limited time period of that analysis (4 yr), further monitoring is needed to verify this trend. The present study provides important information on the magnitude of contaminant exposure to aquatic receptors from a major coal ash spill, as well as spatial and temporal trends for transport of the associated contaminants in a large open watershed.

  14. Advances in the research line of diagnosing of faults in fossil fuel power plants; Avances en la linea de investigacion de diagnostico de fallas en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruz H, Jose A [Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Sanchez C, Edgar N [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A; Quintero R, Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This article deals with a research in progress searching to take care of the faults that occur with greatest frequency in the fossil fuel power plants of Mexico with the aid of tools of computational intelligence such as the neuronal networks and the fuzzy logic, for the online recognition of the dynamic behavior patterns of variable groups. What this research looks for is the development of individual systems, in relation to the computational intelligence techniques that continuously supervise the functioning of the unit and inform the operator of the eventual faults in the understanding that on time attention to the faults will result in a minimum cost. The advantages of these diagnosis mechanisms are established in comparison to alternative diagnosis methods, such as their associative memory useful to store fault patterns. [Spanish] Se trata de una investigacion en progreso que busca atender las fallas que ocurren con mayor frecuencia en las unidades termoelectricas de Mexico con la ayuda de herramientas de inteligencia computacional como las redes neuronales y la logica difusa, para el reconocimiento en linea de patrones de comportamiento dinamico de grupos de variables. Lo que esta investigacion busca es desarrollar sendos sistemas, en relacion a las tecnicas de inteligencia computacional, que supervisen continuamente el funcionamiento de la unidad e informen al operador de fallas eventuales, en el entendido que la oportuna atencion a fallas redituara en un costo minimo. Las ventajas de estos mecanismos de diagnostico se establecen en comparacion a metodos de diagnostico alternativos, como su memoria asociativa util para almacenar patrones de falla.

  15. Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Timothy D.; Jei-Fu Shaw; Liang Zheng; Chun-Lan Huang; YiLung Chang; ChuanWei Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils, reports a new discovery of well preserved three dimensional macro body fossils of the Ediacaran Period in central YunNan province in the People's Republic of China. These body fossils will enable more detailed and in-depth exploration of the evolution of multi-cellular macro organisms on this planet, whereas in the past, researches could only rely on cast or imprint fossils.

  16. The Fossile Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an inital pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form expr...

  17. The Fossil Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  18. High Power Diode Laser-Treated HP-HVOF and Twin Wire Arc-Sprayed Coatings for Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with high power diode laser (HPDL) surface modification of twin wire arc-sprayed (TWAS) and high pressure high velocity oxy-fuel (HP-HVOF) coatings to combat solid particle erosion occurring in fossil fuel power plants. To overcome solid particle impact wear above 673 K, Cr3C2-NiCr-, Cr3C2-CoNiCrAlY-, and WC-CrC-Ni-based HVOF coatings are used. WC-CoCr-based HVOF coatings are generally used below 673 K. Twin wire arc (TWA) spraying of Tafa 140 MXC and SHS 7170 cored wires is used for a wide range of applications for a temperature up to 1073 K. Laser surface modification of high chromium stainless steels for steam valve components and LPST blades is carried out regularly. TWA spraying using SHS 7170 cored wire, HP-HVOF coating using WC-CoCr powder, Ti6Al4V alloy, and high chromium stainless steels (X20Cr13, AISI 410, X10CrNiMoV1222, 13Cr4Ni, 17Cr4Ni) were selected in the present study. Using robotically controlled parameters, HPDL surface treatments of TWAS-coated high strength X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel and HP-HVOF-coated AISI 410 stainless steel samples were carried out and these were compared with HPDL-treated high chromium stainless steels and titanium alloy for high energy particle impact wear (HEPIW) resistance. The HPDL surface treatment of the coatings has improved the HEPIW resistance manifold. The improvement in HPDL-treated stainless steels and titanium alloys is marginal and it is not comparable with that of HPDL-treated coatings. These coatings were also compared with "as-sprayed" coatings for fracture toughness, microhardness, microstructure, and phase analyses. The HEPIW resistance has a strong relationship with the product of fracture toughness and microhardness of the HPDL-treated HP-HVOF and TWAS SHS 7170 coatings. This development opens up a possibility of using HPDL surface treatments in specialized areas where the problem of HEPIW is very severe. The HEPIW resistance of HPDL-treated high chromium stainless steels and

  19. Fossil energy program. Progress report, July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L. E.

    1980-10-01

    This report - the seventy-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process and program analysis, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, fossil energy applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international assessment of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology, and PFBC systems analysis.

  20. Likelihood estimations of vegetative alteration near known or proposed sources of air pollution. 1st annual progress report. [Computer simulation of effects on plants of SO/sub 2/ from fossil-fuel power plants sited in rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.

    1978-08-01

    There is an increasing trend to locate fossil-fuel electric generating stations in rural areas. These stations emit large quantities of air pollutants capable of causing serious alterations to the surrounding environment. The major phytotoxic air pollutant emitted is sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). The best way to predict the potential impact of new or expanded sources in rural areas would be to develop a computer model to simulate and predict SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation. The proposed simulator would provide valuable input information for tasks such as site selection and compilation of environmental impact statements. Such a model would also provide data to management operators for the regulation of emissions. The model would also aid in our basic understanding of the complex interactions which influence plant susceptibility to air pollution. Input to the model would consist of biological and physical data and the output would include the probability of SO/sub 2/ injuring vegetation near existing or proposed sites. The model would be validated using a field situation. This report presents the results obtained during the first year of the project (August 1, 1977 to July 31, 1978).

  1. Factors contributing to fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐菁

    2010-01-01

    As the most prominent feature of interlanguage, fossilization is a complex and essential topic in the field of SLA research. Various causes, in spite quantity of them are only theories, have been studied by different researchers from multiple points of view. Daiwei Dong(1990) has pointed out that virtually every inaccurate cause leads to language fossilization. This paper tries to conclude update causes of fossilization.

  2. Review of air quality modeling techniques. Volume 8. [Assessment of environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Air transport and diffusion models which are applicable to the assessment of the environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation are reviewed. The general classification of models and model inputs are discussed. A detailed examination of the statistical, Gaussian plume, Gaussian puff, one-box and species-conservation-of-mass models is given. Representative models are discussed with attention given to the assumptions, input data requirement, advantages, disadvantages and applicability of each.

  3. New methods reveal oldest known fossil epiphyllous moss: Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov. (Bryidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barclay, Richard S; McElwain, Jennifer C; Duckett, Jeffrey G; van Es, Maarten H; Mostaert, Anika S; Pressel, Silvia; Sageman, Bradley B

    2013-01-01

    ...s. In contrast to the extensive fossil record for the leaves of their host plants, the record is virtually nonexistent for the epiphylls themselves, despite a fossil record for mosses that begins...

  4. Fossil turbulence revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  5. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be unreliabl

  6. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European large

  7. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European

  8. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European large

  9. Current Status of Fossil Fuel Power Plant's Secondary Electrical System and Its Development%火力发电厂电气二次系统的现状及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱治海

    2001-01-01

    针对我国火力发电厂电气控制系统的现状,分析了火力发电厂电气二次系统当前存在的问题,讨论了火力发电厂电气二次系统的最新设计原则,并据此提出了改进意见。%According to the current status of fossil fuel power plant's electrical control system in China, the existing problems in its secondary electrical system are analyzed, the latest design principles of it are discussed, and the improvement opinions are put forward.

  10. First fossil chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrearty, Sally; Jablonski, Nina G

    2005-09-01

    There are thousands of fossils of hominins, but no fossil chimpanzee has yet been reported. The chimpanzee (Pan) is the closest living relative to humans. Chimpanzee populations today are confined to wooded West and central Africa, whereas most hominin fossil sites occur in the semi-arid East African Rift Valley. This situation has fuelled speculation regarding causes for the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages five to eight million years ago. Some investigators have invoked a shift from wooded to savannah vegetation in East Africa, driven by climate change, to explain the apparent separation between chimpanzee and human ancestral populations and the origin of the unique hominin locomotor adaptation, bipedalism. The Rift Valley itself functions as an obstacle to chimpanzee occupation in some scenarios. Here we report the first fossil chimpanzee. These fossils, from the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya, show that representatives of Pan were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene, where they were contemporary with an extinct species of Homo. Habitats suitable for both hominins and chimpanzees were clearly present there during this period, and the Rift Valley did not present an impenetrable barrier to chimpanzee occupation.

  11. Fossilization of feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul G.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    1995-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of feathers has revealed evidence that a bacterial glycocalyx (a network of exocellular polysaccharide fibers) played a role in promoting their fossilization in some cases. This mode of preservation has not been reported in other soft tissues. The majority of fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces. More rarely, bacteria on the surface are replicated by authigenic minerals (bacterial autolithification). The feathers of Archaeopteryx are preserved mainly by imprintation following early lithification of the substrate and decay of the feather. Lacustrine settings provide the most important taphonomic window for feather preservation. Preservation in terrestrial and normal-marine settings involves very different processes (in amber and in authigenically mineralized coprolites, respectively). Therefore, there may be a significant bias in the avian fossil record in favor of inland water habitats.

  12. Recent synchronous radiation of a living fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingum, N S; Marshall, C R; Quental, T B; Rai, H S; Little, D P; Mathews, S

    2011-11-11

    Modern survivors of previously more diverse lineages are regarded as living fossils, particularly when characterized by morphological stasis. Cycads are often cited as a classic example, reaching their greatest diversity during the Jurassic-Cretaceous (199.6 to 65.5 million years ago) then dwindling to their present diversity of ~300 species as flowering plants rose to dominance. Using fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies, we show that cycads underwent a near synchronous global rediversification beginning in the late Miocene, followed by a slowdown toward the Recent. Although the cycad lineage is ancient, our timetrees indicate that living cycad species are not much older than ~12 million years. These data reject the hypothesized role of dinosaurs in generating extant diversity and the designation of today's cycad species as living fossils.

  13. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 4. Radiological emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the state of emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California. Attention is given to the role of Federal agencies, particularly the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in planning for both on and off site emergency measures and to the role of State and local agencies for off site planning. The relationship between these various authorities is considered. Existing emergency plans for nuclear power plants operating or being constructed in California are summarized. The developing role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission is examined.

  14. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 2. Radiological health and related standards for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Wong, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the status and basis of radiation protection standards, with a view to identifying how they particularly apply to nuclear power plants. The national and international organizations involved in the setting of standards are discussed, paying explicit attention to their jurisdictions and to the considerations they use in setting standards. The routine and accidental radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are characterized, and the effect of these emissions on ambient radiation levels is discussed. The state of information on the relationship between radiation exposures and health effects is summarized.

  15. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  16. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating foss

  17. Fossil Dot Com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , and the transformation has moved 50% of us to live in cities, whereas a mere 3% dwelled in cities in 1800. However, this 200 year long fossil fuelled bubble is coming to an end, which affects societies around the world and the way we design products and services for these societies beyond imagination. With rich...

  18. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  19. Assessment of the US EPA's determination of the role for CO2 capture and storage in new fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Victoria R; Herzog, Howard J

    2014-07-15

    On September 20, 2013, the US Environmental and Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a revised rule for "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units". These performance standards set limits on the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be emitted per megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity generation from new coal-fired and natural gas-fired power plants built in the US. These limits were based on determinations of "best system of emission reduction (BSER) adequately demonstrated". Central in this determination was evaluating whether Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) qualified as BSER. The proposed rule states that CCS qualifies as BSER for coal-fired generation but not for natural gas-fired generation. In this paper, we assess the EPA's analysis that resulted in this determination. We are not trying to judge what the absolute criteria are for CCS as the BSER but only the relative differences as related to coal- vs natural gas-fired technologies. We conclude that there are not enough differences between "base load" coal-fired and natural gas-fired power plants to justify the EPA's determination that CCS is the BSER for coal-fired power plants but not for natural gas-fired power plants.

  20. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  1. Early evolutionary colocalization of the nuclear ribosomal 5S and 45S gene families in seed plants: evidence from the living fossil gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galián, J A; Rosato, M; Rosselló, J A

    2012-06-01

    In seed plants, the colocalization of the 5S loci within the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the nuclear 45S tandem units is restricted to the phylogenetically derived Asteraceae family. However, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) colocalization of both multigene families has also been observed in other unrelated seed plant lineages. Previous work has identified colocalization of 45S and 5S loci in Ginkgo biloba using FISH, but these observations have not been confirmed recently by sequencing a 1.8 kb IGS. In this work, we report the presence of the 45S-5S linkage in G. biloba, suggesting that in seed plants the molecular events leading to the restructuring of the ribosomal loci are much older than estimated previously. We obtained a 6.0 kb IGS fragment showing structural features of functional sequences, and a single copy of the 5S gene was inserted in the same direction of transcription as the ribosomal RNA genes. We also obtained a 1.8 kb IGS that was a truncate variant of the 6.0 kb IGS lacking the 5S gene. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the 1.8 kb variants are pseudogenes that are present exclusively on the satellite chromosomes bearing the 45S-5S genes. The presence of ribosomal IGS pseudogenes best reconciles contradictory results concerning the presence or absence of the 45S-5S linkage in Ginkgo. Our finding that both ribosomal gene families have been unified to a single 45S-5S unit in Ginkgo indicates that an accurate reassessment of the organization of rDNA genes in basal seed plants is necessary.

  2. The Review of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄露

    2011-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is a common phenomenon in second language acquisition. This paper reyiews the important achievements in the study of interlanguage fossilization, analyzing its definition, types and causes. And then find some ways to re- duce the interference of interlanguage fossilization in second language learning.

  3. The largest fossil rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000 kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2 Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

  4. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.

    2015-11-01

    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  5. Problems and recommendations for setting up bridge on flanges of metal pipes in fossil-fueled power plants%火力发电建设项目金属管道法兰跨接问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉玺

    2014-01-01

    Fossil-fueled power plants exist hazardous chemicals such as hydrogen,ammonia and diesel,where lightning and static electricity can result in fire and explosion. Unsafe hidden troubles appeared when unsuitable setting up bridge on flanges of metal pipes. In this paper,combined with practical application of fossil-fueled power plants,the risk for lightning and static electricity,as well as the risk for flanges of metal pipes are analyzed. light-ing and static electricity current can be released by metal pipes,risk will be reduced by decreasing pipeline system resistance. setting up bridge on flanges of metal pipes is an effective measure for anti-lightning and anti-electrostat-ics. Setting up bridge on flanges of metal pipes must be strictly performed according to the technical standards.%火力发电建设项目氢气、液氨(氨气)、燃油等系统存在氢、氨、柴油等危险化学品,一旦发生雷击或静电打火,可引发火灾爆炸。针对部分建设项目法兰跨接设置不当,给项目安全运行带来隐患的情况,结合火力发电建设项目实际,对雷电和静电的危害及法兰的存在对雷电和静电危害造成的影响进行了分析,并根据相关标准对建设项目法兰跨接常见问题进行了探讨。金属管道系统是雷电电流泄放及静电释放的通道,减小管道系统电阻可以降低雷击或静电打火风险,金属管道法兰跨接是防雷防静电的有效措施,相关单位应严格按照标准要求对法兰设置跨接,确保管道系统的电流导通性,防止雷电和静电引发火灾爆炸事故。

  6. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  7. Abstracts: Eighth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    Abstracts are presented for about 40 papers. The Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials program is an integrated materials research activity of the fossil energy coal program, whose objective is to conduct R and D for all advanced coal conversion and utilization technologies. The program is aimed at understanding materials behavior in coal system environments and the development of new materials for improving plant operations and reliability. A generic approach is used for addressing multiple coal technologies; for example, the hot-gas particulate filter development is applicable to pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle, coal combustion, and indirectly fired combined-cycle systems.

  8. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  9. Fossil Plants As Proxies For Climate Change In The Tropics During Greenhouse To Icehouse And Icehouse To Greenhouse Conditions During The Late Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, H. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; DiMichele, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Vascular plants first experienced the effects of major glaciation during the Carboniferous (glaciation ~ 326 to 305 million years ago). The response of tropical vegetation to these climatic fluctuations, especially the transitions from greenhouse to icehouse conditions (ice age sensu lato) and back to warm times, can now be characterized based on results from large paleobotanical data sets originally collected to solve stratigraphic and paleoecologic questions. The data come from North America and central Europe, which at that time were part of a single continent situated in the tropics. At the onset of icehouse conditions innovation (species origination) occurred in ever-wet climates and environments, while floras in drier environments were still dominated by holdovers/survivors. The changes that did occur happened step-wise spread over a significant time. During the height of the ice age, glacial-interglacial cycles produced large sea-level fluctuations, and concomitant climatic changes, so that significant areas of continents in the tropics were alternately covered by shallow seas or densely vegetated terrestrial environments. In spite of the repeated destruction of wet lowland habitats during each transgression of the sea, most of the species and the basic configuration of the plant communities in the wetland biome returned again and again. This resilience demonstrates that glacial-interglacial cycles by themselves do not produce extirpations or extinctions. Actually, the Carboniferous icehouse time has the lowest values for extinctions or originations. At the transition from icehouse to greenhouse conditions evolutionary innovation was occurring on a major scale in dry environments while wet environments retained their "conservative" species make up. Thus, environmental threshold-crossing marked both the beginning and end of this cold interval, and produced extinctions and innovation, although a reversal is seen in the environments that support innovation at

  10. Fossil Plants from the Bantou Formation of Yong' an,Fujian Province and Their Paleoclimatic Significance%福建永安坂头组植物及古气候分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴静; 孙柏年; 谈树成; 高博; 赵志芳; 王永栋

    2013-01-01

    分析了福建永安盆地早白垩世坂头植物群的组成特征.共计报道该植物群化石24属52种左右,包括未定种以及存疑种21个.植物群的组成以具鳞片状叶的松柏类化石为主,苏铁类化石次之,并以本内苏铁目占绝对优势,然后是真蕨类化石,以小羽片小而质厚为特征,银杏化石及其少见,未发现被子植物.坂头组植物的组成面貌与欧洲Wealden植物群、日本外带领石植物群,以及我国南方植物区,如浙江、山东等地的早白垩世植物群比较一致,说明坂头组合化石层位年龄为早白垩世早期.坂头组大多数植物主要分布于热带或亚热带地区,具有耐干旱炎热的特点,反映了较干旱而炎热的气候特征.除此之外,还发现少量适宜生活在温凉潮湿气候环境下的植物.根据这些对气候具有指示意义的代表分子在坂头组中的数量以及分布情况,推断永安盆地早白垩世早期气候总体上比较干旱炎热,且伴随有不同程度季节性的潮湿.%The composition of fossil plants from the Bantou Formation of Yong'an, western Fujian Province, is analyzed and summarized. 52 species (including 21 indeterminate and suspicious species) ascribed to 24 genus have been reported from the formation up to now. Among them, the conifers with spiral scales are dominant; cycads are mainly composed of Bennettitales; ferns are characterized by small and thick pinnules; Ginkgoales are very few, and angiosperms are absent. The fossil assemblage of the Bantou Florais comparatively consistent with that of the Wealden Flora in Europe, the ryoseki Flora in outer zone of Japan, as well as the Early Cretaceous floras from the South Floristic Region in China, such as Zhejiang and Shandong provinces. This indicates that the age of fossil beds of the Bantou Formation is early Early Cretaceous. Meanwhile, most of the species from the Bantou Formation are xerophilous and are mainly distributed in tropical and

  11. Starting of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant, using predictive control based in a neuronal model; Arranque del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica, usando control predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Dominguez, Tonatiuh

    2004-09-15

    In this thesis work it is presented the design and implementation of a simulator of total scope of a predictive controller based in the neuronal model of the temperature in two stages of the heating of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant. An implemented control scheme is detailed, as well as the methodology for the identification of a neuronal model utilized for the control. Finally the results of the implementation in the simulator located at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are shown to be satisfactory. This control structure is not applied directly in closed circuit, but provides the value of the control actions to a human operator. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno e implementacion, en un simulador de alcance total, de un controlador predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal para el control de la temperatura en dos etapas del calentamiento del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica. Se detalla el esquema de control implementado, asi como la metodologia de identificacion de un modelo neuronal utilizado para la sintesis del control. Finalmente se muestran los resultados de la implementacion en el simulador que se encuentra en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); dichos resultados fueron satisfactorios. Esta estructura de control no se aplica directamente en lazo cerrado, sino que provee el valor de las acciones de control a un operador humano.

  12. Modelling turbulent fluid flows in nuclear and fossil-fired power plants; La modelisation des ecoulements turbulents rencontres dans les reacteurs nucleaires et dans les centrales thermiques a flamme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viollet, P.L.

    1995-06-01

    The turbulent flows encountered in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic studies or fossil-fired plant thermo-aerodynamic analyses feature widely varying characteristics, frequently entailing heat transfers and two-phase flows so that modelling these phenomena tends more and more to involve coupling between several branches of engineering. Multi-scale geometries are often encountered, with complex wall shapes, such as a PWR vessel, a reactor coolant pump impeller or a circulating fluidized bed combustion chamber. When it comes to validating physical models of these flows, the analytical process highlights the main descriptive parameters of local flow conditions: tensor characterizing the turbulence anisotropy, characteristic time scales for turbulent flow particle dynamics. Cooperative procedures implemented between national or international working parties can accelerate validation by sharing and exchanging results obtained by the various organizations involved. With this principle accepted, we still have to validate the products themselves, i.e. the software used for the studies. In this context, the ESTET, ASTRID and N3S codes have been subjected to a battery of test cases covering their respective fields of application. These test cases are re-run for each new version, so that the sets of test cases systematically benefit from the gradually upgraded functionalities of the codes. (author). refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Carbon isotopes from fossil packrat pellets and elevational movements of Utah agave plants reveal the Younger Dryas cold period in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Arundel, Samantha T.

    2005-09-01

    Carbon isotopes in rodent fecal pellets were measured on packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens from the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The pellet samples reflect the abundance of cold-intolerant C4 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant species relative to the predominant C3 vegetation in the packrat diet. The temporal sequence of isotopic results suggests a temperature decline followed by a sharp increase corresponding to the Bølling/ Allerød Younger Dryas early Holocene sequence. This pattern was then tested using the past distribution of Utah agave (Agave utahensis). Spatial analyses of the range of this temperature-sensitive CAM species demonstrate that its upper elevational limit is controlled by winter minimum temperature. Applying this paleotemperature proxy to the past elevational limits of Utah agave suggests that minimum winter temperatures were ˜8 °C below modern values during the Last Glacial Maximum, 4.5 6.5 °C below modern during the Bølling/Allerød, and 7.5 8.7 °C below modern during the early Younger Dryas. As the Younger Dryas terminated, temperatures warmed ˜4 °C between ca. 11.8 ka and 11.5 ka. These extreme fluctuations in winter minimum temperature have not been generally accepted for terrestrial paleoecological records from the arid southwestern United States, likely because of large statistical uncertainties of older radiocarbon results and reliance on proxies for summer temperatures, which were less affected.

  14. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  15. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A; Mrachko, Gregory T; Squires, Charles H

    2003-06-01

    Biotechnological techniques enabling the specific removal of sulfur from fossil fuels have been developed. In the past three years there have been important advances in the elucidation of the mechanisms of biodesulfurization; some of the most significant relate to the role of a flavin reductase, DszD, in the enzymology of desulfurization, and to the use of new tools that enable enzyme enhancement via DNA manipulation to influence both the rate and the substrate range of Dsz. Also, a clearer understanding of the unique desulfinase step in the pathway has begun to emerge.

  16. Fossiler i Grønland. 2. del

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David Alexander Taylor; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    Dette er anden og sidste del af POST Greenlands serie om fossiler i Grønland med tre frimærker, der beretter om de mange og spændende fossilfund fra Grønland. Mærkerne fortsætter vores rejse gennem nogle af nøglebegivenhederne i livets historie, smukt illustreret af endnu flere unikke fossiler....... Disse tre fossiler, en plante, et bløddyr og et hvirveldyr, er fra de yngre aflejringer i Grønland med aldre spændende fra for 200 millioner og indtil kun 8.000 år siden....

  17. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  18. Future fossil fuel electricity generation in Europe: options and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzimas, E.; Georgakaki, A.; Peteves, S.D.

    2009-07-01

    The study investigates the development of the fossil fuel fired power generation in Europe up to 2030 and identifies the critical factors that influence its evolution. Through the application of the least-cost expansion planning methods, the technology and fuel mix of fossil fuel power plant portfolios emerging from the twenty-four techno-economic scenarios are described. The different scenarios present alternative views for the role of non-fossil fuel power generation, the development of the world fuel and carbon markets and the carbon capture power generating technologies. The study estimates the needs for new fossil fuel capacity and identifies the optimal power plant mix for all possible combinations of the cases mentioned above. The impacts of the resulting portfolios on the objectives of the European energy policy are assessed using as indicators the capital investment fo the construction of the required capacity, the fuel consumption, the composition of the fuel mix, the CO{sub 2} emission levels, and the average production cost of electricity from the fossil fuelled fleet. The report finds that high CO{sub 2} prices need to be maintained and carbon capture technology must be developed and become commercialised. If these conditions re met and medium or high fossil fuel prices prevail, the portfolio of fossil fuel power plants that will be deployed will be compatible wit the European goal for the development of a more sustainable and secure energy system. The key conclusion is that for a sustainable and secure energy system we need to invest, both in the increase of non-fossil fuel power generation and to ensure that carob n capture and storage technologies are ready to be deployed when needed. 46 refs.,

  19. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.

  20. Boiler model of a 300 Mw fossil fuel power plant for the turbine turning simulator; Modelo de caldera de una planta termoelectrica de 300 Mw para el simulador de rodado de turbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the model is to reproduce the behavior of a boiler of a 300 Mw fossil fuel unit, in the training turbine turning simulator. This simulator was designed to be used in the training that is performed in the control rooms or training centers of the fossil fuel power plants of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). In this article the equations of the model for a 300 Mw thermal plant are described, based in balances and physical relationships. The basic considerations and simplifications are shown. The model considers the combustion in the furnace, the dome, the downcomers, the recirculation pumps, the water walls, the superheater and the reheater. The mass and energy balances take into account the sensible heat of all the constituents involved, as well as the combustion heat. Heat transference zones by convection or by a combined mechanism convective-radiant, in the boiler furnace, are considered. The dome pressure is modeled with basis in the mass and energy balance, considering all the existing sources and sinks. The simulation also reflects the pressure transients due to thermal variations, combustion variations, and steam demand variations. The heat transference by convection is considered for all the tube banks along the combustion gases path to the stack. Comparisons were made with the design and operation data of the power station, using a selection of transient states to demonstrate de model fidelity. This selection was focussed of transients states, at the unit start up, since in this operation stage the turning and the heating of the turbine is accomplished. [Espanol] El objetivo del modelo es reproducir el comportamiento de una caldera de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 Mw, en el simulador para entrenamiento en rodado de turbina. Este simulador se diseno para ser utilizado en el entrenamiento que se realiza en los cuartos de control o centros de entrenamiento de las plantas termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE

  1. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the

  2. Problems with fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedsvig, K.G. [AEDENAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-10-01

    Three coal-fired power plants are responsible for 60% of the Spanish emissions of sulphur dioxide. These are: the As Pontes and the Meirama plants fired with brown lignite and the Andorra plant fired with black lignite. Permissible emission limits of SO{sub 2} were increased from 8000 mg/m{sup 3} to 12,500 mg/m{sup 3} when the As Pontes and Andorra plants were put into operation. As Pontes will change from brown lignite to imported hard coal to reduce sulphur emissions but this coal will have to be hauled 50 km by 750 20-ton trucks, or one every other minute in each direction, around the clock, from port to power plant. The Andorra complex, will be equipped for flue gas desulphurisation. Two new plants included in the programme of the state-owned ENDESA power company include a 175 MW generator with fluidised-bed combustion and a 350 MW installation for coal gasification. ENDESA has been criticised by AEDENAT the Spanish environmentalist group for continued investment in nuclear plants and little use of renewable resources. This short paper is based on an article by AEDENAT entitled `Atmospheric pollutants from electric power generation in peninsular Spain`. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  3. Fossil Leaves and Fossil Leaf n-Alkanes: Reconstructing the First Closed Canopied Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H. V.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Although the age and location is disputed, the rise of the first closed-canopy forest is likely linked with the expansion of angiosperms in the late Cretacous or early Cenozoic. The carbon isotope 'canopy effect' reflects the extent of canopy closure, and is well documented in δ13C values of the leaves and leaf lipids in modern forests. To test the extent of canopy closure among the oldest documented angiosperm tropical forests, we analyzed isotopic characteristics of leaf fossils and leaf waxes from the Guaduas and Cerrejón Formations. The Guaduas Fm. (Maastrichtian) contains some of the earliest angiosperm fossils in the Neotropics, and both leaf morphology and pollen records at this site suggest an open-canopy structure. The Cerrejón Fm. (Paleocene) contains what are believed to be the first recorded fossil leaves from a closed-canopy forest. We analyzed the bulk carbon isotope content (δ13Cleaf) of 199 fossil leaves, as well as the n-alkane concentration and chain-length distribution, and δ13C of alkanes (δ13Clipid) of 73 fossil leaves and adjacent sediment samples. Fossil leaves are dominated by eudicots and include ten modern plant families (Apocynaceae, Bombaceae, Euphorbaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Moraceae, Sapotaceae). We interpreted extent of canopy coverage based on the range of δ13Cleaf values. The narrow range of δ13C values in leaves from the Guaduas Fm (2.7‰) is consistent with an open canopy. A significantly wider range in values (6.3‰) suggests a closed-canopy signature for site 0315 of the Cerrejón Fm,. In contrast, at Site 0318, a lacustrine deposit, leaves had a narrow range (3.3‰) in δ13C values, and this is not consistent with a closed-canopy, but is consistent with leaf assemblages from a forest edge. Leaves that accumulate in lake sediments tend to be biased toward plants living at the lake edge, which do not experience closed-canopy conditions, and do not express the isotopic

  4. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991. Fossil Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. [comps.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  5. Catalogue of the Lower Cretaceous fossil plant collection from the Autonomous Region of La Rioja (Spain) held at the Geominero Museum (Spanish Geological Survey); Catalogo de la coleccion de plantas fosiles del Cretacico Inferior de la Comunidad Autonoma de La Rioja (Espana) depositada en el Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, M de la; Gomez, B.

    2008-07-01

    The Collection of Fossil Invertebrate and Flora from Spain constitutes a 76% of the total collections in the Geominero Museum. The fossil plant mega remains form the Lower Cretaceous of La Rioja, included in such collection, have been revised from the bibliographical, museological, systematic and taxonomic points of view, and have shown significant historical and palaeobotanical interests. The 22 specimens come from the localities of Ortigosa de Cameros and Prejano. The samples from Prejano, collected during the production of the Spanish Geological Map of Calahorra in 1947, have an outstanding interest. They allowed giving an accurate age to the lignite in which the fossil plants were found (Lower Cretaceous), after several wrong determinations. The museological study has allowed reorganizing the collections through inventorying, correction of errors and inclusion of new data. In relation to the taxonomic and systematic revision, it has provided a catalogue in which diverse genera and species of ferns (Sphenopteris [Brongniart] Sternberg, 1825; Weichselia reticulata [Stokes and Webb] Fontaine emend. Alvin, 1971) and conifers (Brachyphyllum Brongniart, 1828, Pagiophyllum Heer, 1881, Sphenolepis cf. debile Heer, 1881) have been identified. Moreover, the analysis of the collection from those points of view enabled the detection of specimens that do not belong to it (Pagiophyllum pedreranum Barale, 1989; Montsechia vidalii [Zeiller] Teixeira, 1954). Lower Cretaceous flora collections known from Cameros Basin are rare and fragmentary; as a result, the collection held at the Geominero Museum has additional interest. (Author) 40 refs.

  6. Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; van Dongen, Bart E; Lockyer, Nick P; Bull, Ian D; Orr, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we use pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to assess the mode of preservation of fossil microstructures, confirmed as melanosomes based on the presence of melanin, preserved in frogs from the Late Miocene Libros biota (NE Spain). Our results reveal a high abundance of organosulfur compounds and non-sulfurized fatty acid methyl esters in both the fossil tissues and host sediment; chemical signatures in the fossil tissues are inconsistent with preservation of phaeomelanin. Our results reflect preservation via the diagenetic incorporation of sulfur, i.e. sulfurization (natural vulcanization), and other polymerization processes. Organosulfur compounds and/or elevated concentrations of sulfur have been reported from melanosomes preserved in various invertebrate and vertebrate fossils and depositional settings, suggesting that preservation through sulfurization is likely to be widespread. Future studies of sulfur-rich fossil melanosomes require that the geochemistry of the host sediment is tested for evidence of sulfurization in order to constrain interpretations of potential phaeomelanosomes and thus of original integumentary colour in fossils.

  7. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  8. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  10. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B. [Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia). School of Resource Science and Management; Torrence, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Division of Anthropology

    1999-11-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO{sub 2}nH{sub 2}0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  11. A PRIMARY STUDY OF FOSSIL HILL FLORA FROM FILDES PENINSULA OF KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    The fossil plants studied in this paper were collected by the Chinese Antarctic Expeditions (1986—1987 and 1987—1988) from the locality Fossil Hill on the Fildes Peninsula southwest of the King George Island of the South Shetland Islands.

  12. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  13. Oldest Known Lichen Fossils Found in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Lichens are believed to play a pioneering role in transforming the earth surface when they appeared on land hundreds of million years ago, paving the way for the evolution of terrestrial plants and animals. But most habitats where lichens dominate,such as tundra, mountains, and deserts, have a very low chance of preserving fossils. Until recently the earliest known lichen fossils were discovered in 1995 by Thomas N.Taylor, a University of Kansas researcher, from 400 million-year old deposits in Scotland.

  14. Turbulence and diffusion fossil turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2000-01-01

    Fossil turbulence processes are central to turbulence, turbulent mixing, and turbulent diffusion in the ocean and atmosphere, in astrophysics and cosmology, and in most other natural flows. George Gamov suggested in 1954 that galaxies might be fossils of primordial turbulence produced by the Big Bang. John Woods showed that breaking internal waves on horizontal dye sheets in the interior of the stratified ocean form highly persistent remnants of these turbulent events, which he called fossil turbulence. The dark mixing paradox of the ocean refers to undetected mixing that must exist somewhere to explain why oceanic scalar fields like temperature and salinity are so well mixed, just as the dark matter paradox of galaxies refers to undetected matter that must exist to explain why rotating galaxies don't fly apart by centrifugal forces. Both paradoxes result from sampling techniques that fail to account for the extreme intermittency of random variables involved in self-similar, nonlinear, cascades over a wide ra...

  15. A Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    How old are the oldest stars? Using ESO's VLT, astronomers recently measured the age of a star located in our Galaxy. The star, a real fossil, is found to be 13.2 billion years old, not very far from the 13.7 billion years age of the Universe. The star, HE 1523-0901, was clearly born at the dawn of time. "Surprisingly, it is very hard to pin down the age of a star", the lead author of the paper reporting the results, Anna Frebel, explains. "This requires measuring very precisely the abundance of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium, a feat only the largest telescopes such as ESO's VLT can achieve." ESO PR Photo 23a/07 ESO PR Photo 23a/07 The 'Cosmic Clock' This technique is analogous to the carbon-14 dating method that has been so successful in archaeology over time spans of up to a few tens of thousands of years. In astronomy, however, this technique must obviously be applied to vastly longer timescales. For the method to work well, the right choice of radioactive isotope is critical. Unlike other, stable elements that formed at the same time, the abundance of a radioactive (unstable) isotope decreases all the time. The faster the decay, the less there will be left of the radioactive isotope after a certain time, so the greater will be the abundance difference when compared to a stable isotope, and the more accurate is the resulting age. Yet, for the clock to remain useful, the radioactive element must not decay too fast - there must still be enough left of it to allow an accurate measurement, even after several billion years. "Actual age measurements are restricted to the very rare objects that display huge amounts of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium," says Norbert Christlieb, co-author of the report. ESO PR Photo 23b/07 ESO PR Photo 23b/07 Uranium Line in the Spectrum of an Old Star Large amounts of these elements have been found in the star HE 1523-0901, an old, relatively bright star that was discovered within the Hamburg/ESO survey [1]. The

  16. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  17. Fossil Group Origins VII. Galaxy substructures in fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Aguerri, J A L; Boschin, W; Barrena, R; del Burgo, C; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Corsini, E M; D'Onghia, E; Kundert, A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R

    2016-01-01

    Fossil groups are expected to be the final product of galaxy merging within galaxy groups. In simulations, they are predicted to assemble their mass at high redshift. This early formation allows for the innermost $M^\\ast$ galaxies to merge into a massive central galaxy. Then, they are expected to maintain their fossil status because of the few interactions with the large-scale structure. In this context, the magnitude gap between the two brightest galaxies of the system is considered a good indicator of its dynamical status. As a consequence, the systems with the largest gaps should be dynamically relaxed. In order to examine the dynamical status of these systems, we systematically analyze, for the first time, the presence of galaxy substructures in a sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems with redshift $z \\le 0.25$. We apply a number of tests in order to investigate the substructure in fossil systems in the two-dimensional space of projected positions out to $R_{200}$. Moreover, for a subsam...

  18. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  19. Economics of scale in the production of steam with solar thermal-fossil boiler hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. R.; Lindner, D. L.; Vitko, J., Jr.

    1983-03-01

    Levelized energy costs for steam plants in the size range 15 MM Btu/h to 400 MM Btu/h were estimated for steam produced by several different technologies, including stand alone oil and coal burning plants and solar central receiver fossil boiler hybrid plants. Models for the costs of plant subsystems used in these calculations are presented. Designs of the solar fossil hybrids examined were optimized for solar fraction and amount of thermal storage used by simulation of plant operation. The resulting levelized energy costs and their sensitivity to various modelling parameters are discussed.

  20. Sustainable Development and the Relative Prices of Fossil and Non-fossil Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    direction of the market forces relevant to a sustainable supply of physical energy for a globalized HiTec-culture taking into account the redoubling of the price of crude oil during the last years.      Changes in the supply pattern of physical energy is supposed to be ruled by the relative unit costs...... of production in new (marginal) plants for substituting sources of energy, primarily.      A review of the production price per kWh of electricity according to statistics from OECD/IEA where substitution relationships between fossil and non-fossil energy are multiple gives the following results: (1) Sun...... are expected to rise while the price of wind energy is expected to continue a trend of moderate decline due to economies of scale. In all, renewables as wind energy are becoming more and more competitive relative to fossil energy in the production of electricity and may approach a level of 50%. However...

  1. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  2. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  3. Fossil energy program. Progress report for May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1980-08-01

    This report - the seventieth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component and process evaluation studies, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, performance assurance system support and international energy technology assessment.

  4. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1980-06-01

    This report - the sixty-ninth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component and process evaluation studies, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, performance assurance system support, and international energy technology assessment.

  5. Fossil Polypodiaceae and their spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1991-01-01

    In this publication emphasis is laid on the modern definition of the family Polypodiaceae (Filicales), which is based on an extensive study of Recent material and which is much restricted with respect to older circumscriptions of the family as usually applied by palaeobotanists. Fossils of fems belo

  6. Equatorial spread F fossil plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Ossakow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of equatorial spread F (ESF fossil plumes, i.e., ESF plumes that have stopped rising, is examined using the NRL SAMI3/ESF three-dimensional simulation code. We find that fossil bubbles, plasma density depletions associated with fossil plumes, can persist as high-altitude equatorial depletions even while being "blown" by zonal winds. Corresponding airglow-proxy images of fossil plumes, plots of electron density versus longitude and latitude at a constant altitude of 288 km, are shown to partially "fill in" in most cases, beginning with the highest altitude field lines within the plume. Specifically, field lines upon which the E field has fallen entirely to zero are affected and only the low altitude (≤600 km portion if each field line fills in. This suggests that it should be possible to observe a bubble at high altitude on a field line for which the corresponding airglow image no longer shows a depletion. In all cases ESF plumes stop rising when the flux-tube-integrated ion mass density inside the upper edge of the bubble is equal to that of the nearby background, further supporting the result of Krall et al. (2010b.

  7. Fossil Polypodiaceae and their spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1991-01-01

    In this publication emphasis is laid on the modern definition of the family Polypodiaceae (Filicales), which is based on an extensive study of Recent material and which is much restricted with respect to older circumscriptions of the family as usually applied by palaeobotanists. Fossils of fems

  8. Fossil Energy: Drivers and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Julio

    2007-04-01

    Concerns about rapid economic growth, energy security, and global climate change have created a new landscape for fossil energy exploration, production, and utilization. Since 85% of primary energy supply comes from fossil fuels, and 85% of greenhouse gas emissions come from fossil fuel consumption, new and difficult technical and political challenges confront commercial, governmental, and public stakeholders. As such, concerns over climate change are explicitly weighed against security of international and domestic energy supplies, with economic premiums paid for either or both. Efficiency improvements, fuel conservation, and deployment of nuclear and renewable supplies will help both concerns, but are unlikely to offset growth in the coming decades. As such, new technologies and undertakings must both provide high quality fossil energy with minimal environmental impacts. The largest and most difficult of these undertakings is carbon management, wherein CO2 emissions are sequestered indefinitely at substantial incremental cost. Geological formations provide both high confidence and high capacity for CO2 storage, but present scientific and technical challenges. Oil and gas supply can be partially sustained and replaced through exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels such as tar-sands, methane hydrates, coal-to-liquids, and oil shales. These fuels provide enormous reserves that can be exploited at current costs, but generally require substantial energy to process. In most cases, the energy return on investment (EROI) is dropping, and unconventional fuels are generally more carbon intensive than conventional, presenting additional carbon management challenges. Ultimately, a large and sustained science and technology program akin to the Apollo project will be needed to address these concerns. Unfortunately, real funding in energy research has dropped dramatically (75%) in the past three decades, and novel designs in fission and fusion are not likely to provide any

  9. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  10. Paleophysiology: From Fossils to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2015-10-01

    Future environments may resemble conditions that have not existed for millions of years. To assess the adaptive options available to organisms evolving under such circumstances, it is instructive to probe paleophysiology, the ways in which ancient life coped with its physical and chemical surroundings. To do this, we need reliable proxies that are based on fundamental principles, quantitatively verified in living species, and observable in fossil remains. Insights have already come from vertebrates and plants, and others will likely emerge for marine animals if promising proxies are validated. Many questions remain about the circumstances for the evolution of environmental tolerances, metabolic rates, biomineralization, and physiological responses to interacting species, and about how living organisms will perform under exceptional conditions.

  11. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators).

  12. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators). PMID:28074936

  13. Pyrite framboids associated with the Mesozoic Jehol Biota in northeastern China: Implications for microenvironment during early fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Despite of the recent influx of reports describing important fossil specimens from the Mesozoic Jehol Biota, detailed information on the mechanism of fossilization and paleoenvironment in which these fossils were deposited is scanty. We present an analysis of microenvironment based upon scanning electron microscope observations of in situ pyrite framboids and microcrystallines of plant and vertebrate feather fossils in the Jehol Biota. Pyrite microcrystallines and framboids occur extensively inside and on surface of plant fossils.Framboids found on feathers and in sedimentary matrix were in a lower abundance. These framboids have diameters ranging from 6 μm to 31 μm with an average of 20 μm, indicating a dysoxic aqueous condition with free oxygen level less than 30 μmol/L for the microenvironment where these framboids were formed. The outgrowth of framboids inside plant tissues suggests the presence of water molecules and free oxygen at the cellular level during pyritization; the relative timing between tissue decay and framboid formation implies a rapid tissue degradation occurred during the very early stage of fossilization. This line of reasoning is consistent with the observation that cell level structure of plant fossils from these deposits is rarely preserved. We propose a "fossil envelop" model to accommodate the different geochemical conditions between the microenvironment surrounding the fossil material and the macroenvironment of background lake bottom water.

  14. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  15. Looking at Fossils in New Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    Existing fossils could be studied from a different prospective with the use of new methods of analysis for gathering more information. The new techniques of studying fossils binds the new and the old techniques and information and provides another way to look at fossils.

  16. Molecular and Fossil Evidence on the Origin of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, James A.

    2012-05-01

    Molecular data on relationships within angiosperms confirm the view that their increasing morphological diversity through the Cretaceous reflected their evolutionary radiation. Despite the early appearance of aquatics and groups with simple flowers, the record is consistent with inferences from molecular trees that the first angiosperms were woody plants with pinnately veined leaves, multiparted flowers, uniovulate ascidiate carpels, and columellar monosulcate pollen. Molecular data appear to refute the hypothesis based on morphology that angiosperms and Gnetales are closest living relatives. Morphological analyses of living and fossil seed plants that assume molecular relationships identify glossopterids, Bennettitales, and Caytonia as angiosperm relatives; these results are consistent with proposed homologies between the cupule of glossopterids and Caytonia and the angiosperm bitegmic ovule. Jurassic molecular dates for the angiosperms may be reconciled with the fossil record if the first angiosperms were restricted to wet forest understory habitats and did not radiate until the Cretaceous.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. H.; Freire, P. T. C.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Silva, J. A. F.; Saraiva, G. D.; de Lima, F. J.; Barros, O. A.; Bantim, R. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  19. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  20. Determination of fossil carbon content in Swedish waste fuel by four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frida C; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bisaillon, Mattias; Lindberg, Daniel K; Hupa, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the content of fossil carbon in waste combusted in Sweden by using four different methods at seven geographically spread combustion plants. In total, the measurement campaign included 42 solid samples, 21 flue gas samples, 3 sorting analyses and 2 investigations using the balance method. The fossil carbon content in the solid samples and in the flue gas samples was determined using (14)C-analysis. From the analyses it was concluded that about a third of the carbon in mixed Swedish waste (municipal solid waste and industrial waste collected at Swedish industry sites) is fossil. The two other methods (the balance method and calculations from sorting analyses), based on assumptions and calculations, gave similar results in the plants in which they were used. Furthermore, the results indicate that the difference between samples containing as much as 80% industrial waste and samples consisting of solely municipal solid waste was not as large as expected. Besides investigating the fossil content of the waste, the project was also established to investigate the usability of various methods. However, it is difficult to directly compare the different methods used in this project because besides the estimation of emitted fossil carbon the methods provide other information, which is valuable to the plant owner. Therefore, the choice of method can also be controlled by factors other than direct determination of the fossil fuel emissions when considering implementation in the combustion plants.

  1. Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André

    2008-02-01

    Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution.

  2. Geoscience Outreach Activity Using Art to Understand Imprint Fossils Engaging K-5 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to engage students in grades 3 through 5 in the geosciences, a hands on science activity was developed and implemented using art as a mechanism to gain knowledge of imprint fossils. The desired learning outcomes of this activity were for students to understand imprint fossils formation and how these fossils can be used to learn about past organisms. For more advanced students, an additional learning outcome was to understand how fossils provide information about depositional environments. Five graduate and undergraduate student volunteers presented imprint fossils and used a game to connect the fossils with the corresponding organisms. Students then made their own imprint fossils using modeling clay, plants, and plastic dinosaur skeletons. Of the 212 participating students, 95% (201) of students completed the hands on activity successfully and reported a knowledge gain in the formation and significance of imprint fossils. The activity was adapted to accommodate a diverse student population across grade and ability levels. Classroom teachers reported incorporating students' art into further classroom learning and requested this activity to be repeated the following year by the outreach group.

  3. General diagnosis on the control of the pollution by combustion gases of the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL); Diagnostico general del control de la contaminacion de los gases de la combustion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Arce, Efren [Central Termica Gonzalo Zevallos, (Ecuador)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the characteristics of the electric sector of Ecuador, its interconnected system, the principal laws in effect on the prevention and control of the environmental pollution related to the electric sector and an overview of the pollution control in the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan las caracteristicas del Sector Electrico del Ecuador, su Sistema Nacional Interconectado, las principales leyes vigentes en el pais sobre la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental relacionadas con el sector electrico y, un panorama general con respecto al control de la contaminacion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

  4. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  5. Latent methane in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.V. Ulyanova; G.P. Starikov; N.N. Kovriga [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2004-07-01

    It is established experimentally using 1H NMR wide line spectroscopy that methane can exist in coals not only in open or closed porosity and fracture systems but also in solid solutions in coal substance, in particular, under methane pressure 2 MPa or higher. Methane dissolved in coal minerals reversibly modifies their lattice parameters as determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. Co-existence of these methane forms in fossil coals causes multi-step desorption kinetics. It is shown experimentally that the long-term latent methane desorption is effected mainly by closed porosity, which in turn is determined by coal rank. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  7. Preliminary investigations on fossil diversity variation of Mesozoic Marattialean ferns in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zikun JIANG; Yongdong WANG; and Ning TIAN

    2008-01-01

    The Marattiales is one of the oldest lineages of vascular plants with extensive fossil records dated back to the Carboniferous. Understanding the fossil diversity variation and distribution pattern is helpful for exploring the evolutionary history of this fern group. In this work, the preliminary analysis of diversity change and distribution of the Mesozoic Marattialean fossil records in China are reported covering the Triassic and Jurassic periods based on available published data. In addition, a brief discussion is made regarding to the potential causes for these variation and distribution of this fern group.

  8. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  9. Reconciling fossil fuel power generation development and climate issues: CCS and CCS-Ready

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paelinck, Philippe; Sonnois, Louis; Leandri, Jean-Francois

    2010-09-15

    This paper intends to analyse how CCS can contribute to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel power plants and to describe what is its current overall status. Its potential future development is assessed, in both developed and developing countries, and an economical assessment of different investment options highlight the importance of CCS retrofit. The paper analyses then the challenges of the development of fossil fuelled power plants and details case examples to illustrate some technical challenges related to CCS and what are the technical solutions available today to ease and address them: CCS-Ready power plants.

  10. Plantas Fósiles del Grupo Choiyoi, Cordillera Frontal a la Latitud del río Mendoza Fossil plants from the Choiyoi Group, Frontal Cordillera at the latitude of the Mendoza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Koukharsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los primeros restos fósiles hallados en sedimentitas, cuyo componente clástico es de origen volcánico, intercaladas en la Formación Tambillos del Grupo Choiyoi, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza. Los mismos consisten en abundantes improntas de Sphenophyta en estado de preservación regular a malo. En la zona estudiada, las rocas de la Formación Tambillos, que son dominantemente volcánicas ácidas y de edad pérmica temprana a media según correlaciones regionales, se depositaron sobre una discordancia erosiva labrada en lavas andesíticas intensamente propilitizadas que se atribuyen a la Formación Portezuelo del Cenizo. Los restos vegetales se encuentran a unos 23 metros de la base, contenidos en niveles de areniscas finas y pelitas depositadas en un ambiente fluvial (microdelta, en los bordes de un lago y fueron coetáneas con los primeros episodios de volcanismo riolítico en la región. Si bien la flora encontrada no permite definir la edad, las formas presentes son comunes en niveles del Carbonífero superior-Pérmico y Triásico de Argentina.In this contribution we report the discovery of the first fossil remains in sedimentary strata belonging to the Tambillos Formation, Choiyoi Group, Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza. In the studied area the Tambillos Formation, which is formed dominantly by acid volcanics rocks of alleged Early to the Middle Permian, were deposited over an erosive unconformity on top of propilytic andesites of the Portezuelo del Cenizo Formation. The vegetal remains were found about 23 meters from the base of the formation, hosted in fine-grained sandstones and shales that were deposited in a fluvial environment (microdelta, along the borders of a lake during the first episodes of the rhyolitic volcanism of the region. The fossil flora includes abundant, poorly preserved impressions of Sphenophyta that does not permit to assign a precise age, although these forms are common in the Upper

  11. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  12. Social Perspective on Fossilization of Interlanguage

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Hulin

    2013-01-01

    The paper is to investigate the role of social factors that influence the fossilization of learners’ interlanguage. In this context, "fossilization" refers to the stopping in the acquisition of a second language (L2) short of native-like proficiency(Towell and Hawkins, 1994). The paper begins with Wolfson’s (1989) overview of social settings that influence the fossilization of learners’ interlanguage and Ellis (2005) discussion of the impact of social factors on L2 proficiency evidenced with ...

  13. The Features and Research Values of the Mesozoic Plant Fossils in Yima Area%浅谈义马中生代植物化石群特征及研究价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学林

    2013-01-01

      义马中生代侏罗纪地层蕴含了丰富的植物化石,其核心分子 Ginkgo yimaensis 是地质历史上已知最古老、保存最完整的银杏化石。该化石群蕴含并揭示了丰富而深刻的科学信息,已引起国际古生物学界的广泛关注,具有极高的科学研究价值和保护价值。%the Mesozoic Jurassic strata in Yima contains a wealth of plant fossils, the core part, Ginkgo yimaensis, is the oldest and the best preserved ginkgo fossils in the world, for containing abundant scientific information. The plant fossil cause wide attention in the international paleontology field and has a very high value of scientific research and conservation.

  14. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mietchen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  15. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  16. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  17. Occurrence of polycadinene in fossil and recent resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarssen, B. G. K.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Collinson, M.; Boon, J. J.; Goth, K.

    1994-01-01

    Dammars produced by Dipterocarpaceae growing in Southeast Asia are partly composed of a macromolecule with a polycadinene structure. This polymer is the precursor of many specific compounds encountered in crude oils and sediment extracts from South Asia. Until recently there was no evidence for a more widespread geographical occurrence of this resinous polymer. Using different pyrolysis methods it is shown that the polymers present in a resinite from Utah, USA, and in resins contained in resin canals of Eocene fossil fruits from Germany and England are also polycadinenes. The fossil fruits were undoubtedly produced by ancient representatives of mastixioid Cornaceae, a group of plants which was widespread in the Tertiary of Europe and North America and which is not related to Dipterocarpaceae. These findings extend the known occurrence and origin of the sesquiterpenoid type resin polymer. It is to be expected that catagenetic products of these resin polymers should be present in oils, coals, and sediment extracts from areas outside Southeast Asia.

  18. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Scott L.; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an ≈58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formatio...

  19. Paleoradiology. Imaging mummies and fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhem, Rethy K. [Western Ontario Univ. London Health Sciences Centre, ON (Canada). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Brothwell, Don R. [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeology

    2008-07-01

    This is an important work on a topic of huge interest to archaeologists and related scientists, since the use of imaging techniques in the field has been expanding rapidly in recent decades. Paleoradiology involves the use of X-rays and advanced medical imaging modalities to evaluate ancient human and animal skeletons as well as biological materials from archaeological sites. Paleoradiological studies have been performed on mummies, skeletal remains and fossils to determine their sex and age at death. Diagnostic paleoradiology is the use of X-ray studies to detect ancient diseases. The broad range of themes and imaging techniques in this volume reflects four decades of research undertaken by Don Brothwell in the fields of anthropology, human paleopathology, and zooarchaeology, combined with two decades of skeletal radiology experience during which Rethy Chhem read over 150,000 skeletal X-ray and CT studies. (orig.)

  20. Double fossilization in eukaryotic microorganisms from Lower Cretaceous amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microfossils are not only useful for elucidating biological macro- and microevolution but also the biogeochemical history of our planet. Pyritization is the most important and extensive mode of preservation of animals and especially of plants. Entrapping in amber, a fossilized resin, is considered an alternative mode of biological preservation. For the first time, the internal organization of 114-million-year-old microfossils entrapped in Lower Cretaceous amber is described and analyzed, using adapted scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode in association with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis. Double fossilization of several protists included in diverse taxonomical groups and some vegetal debris is described and analyzed. Results In protists without an exoskeleton or shell (ciliates, naked amoebae, flagellates, determinate structures, including the nuclei, surface envelopes (cortex or cytoplasmic membrane and hyaloplasm are the main sites of pyritization. In protists with a biomineralized skeleton (diatoms, silicon was replaced by pyrite. Permineralization was the main mode of pyritization. Framboidal, subhedral and microcrystalline are the predominant pyrite textures detected in the cells. Abundant pyritized vegetal debris have also been found inside the amber nuggets and the surrounding sediments. This vegetal debris usually contained numerous pyrite framboids and very densely packed polycrystalline pyrite formations infilled with different elements of the secondary xylem. Conclusion Embedding in amber and pyritization are not always alternative modes of biological preservation during geological times, but double fossilization is possible under certain environmental conditions. Pyritization in protists shows a quite different pattern with regard to plants, due to the different composition and cellular architecture in these microorganisms and organisms. Anaerobic sulphate

  1. Double fossilization in eukaryotic microorganisms from Lower Cretaceous amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Ana; Wierzchos, Jacek; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos; Alonso, Jesús; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-02-20

    Microfossils are not only useful for elucidating biological macro- and microevolution but also the biogeochemical history of our planet. Pyritization is the most important and extensive mode of preservation of animals and especially of plants. Entrapping in amber, a fossilized resin, is considered an alternative mode of biological preservation. For the first time, the internal organization of 114-million-year-old microfossils entrapped in Lower Cretaceous amber is described and analyzed, using adapted scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode in association with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis. Double fossilization of several protists included in diverse taxonomical groups and some vegetal debris is described and analyzed. In protists without an exoskeleton or shell (ciliates, naked amoebae, flagellates), determinate structures, including the nuclei, surface envelopes (cortex or cytoplasmic membrane) and hyaloplasm are the main sites of pyritization. In protists with a biomineralized skeleton (diatoms), silicon was replaced by pyrite. Permineralization was the main mode of pyritization. Framboidal, subhedral and microcrystalline are the predominant pyrite textures detected in the cells. Abundant pyritized vegetal debris have also been found inside the amber nuggets and the surrounding sediments. This vegetal debris usually contained numerous pyrite framboids and very densely packed polycrystalline pyrite formations infilled with different elements of the secondary xylem. Embedding in amber and pyritization are not always alternative modes of biological preservation during geological times, but double fossilization is possible under certain environmental conditions. Pyritization in protists shows a quite different pattern with regard to plants, due to the different composition and cellular architecture in these microorganisms and organisms. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria could play a crucial role in this microbial

  2. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  3. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated m1

  4. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved Carbonifer

  5. Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1992-05-25

    The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

  6. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  7. Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis inferred from stable isotope analysis of fossil tree rings from the Oligocene of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik L. Gulbranson; Bonnie F. Jacobs; William C. Hockaday; Michael C. Wiemann; Lauren A. Michel; Kaylee Richards; John W. Kappelman

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of reduced nitrogen (N) is essential for plant life, and plants have developed numerous strategies and symbioses with soil microorganisms to acquire this form of N. The evolutionary history of specific symbiotic relationships of plants with soil bacteria, however, lacks evidence from the fossil record confirming these mutualistic relationships. Here we...

  8. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  9. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  10. Approaches to bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soil: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological methods for combating pollutants generated within the fossil fuels ... metabolism of fossil fuel contaminants in soil and water bodies is presented. ... Keywords: Fossil fuels, coal, petroleum hydrocarbons, biodegradation, pollutants

  11. Optimisation of operating cost of fossil-fired power plants through CDM and JI. Option for meeting the emission reduction targets; Optimierung der Betriebskosten fossilbefeuerter Kraftwerke mittels CDM und JI. Optionen zur kosteneffizienten Erreichung der Emissionsminderungsziele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, J. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Fuebi, M. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The optimisation of the power plant park as well as the development of innovate, efficiency-increasing and thus CO{sub 2}-decreasing technologies will make an important contribution to the harmonisation between secure energy supply and the requirements of climate protection. Investments in climate protection projects within the scope of CDM and JI are an additional option to make-up for cost arising in connection with CO{sub 2} control and such projects will make climate protection economically efficient and sustainable. (orig.)

  12. Fossil record of Ephedra in the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian), Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Gabriela G; Iglesias, Ari; Gómez, María A; Prámparo, Mercedes B

    2017-05-20

    Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species. Abundant dispersed ephedroid pollen obtained from the macrofossil-bearing strata also confirms the abundance of Ephedraceae in the basin. The co-occurrence of abundant fossil of Ephedra (adapted to dry habitats) associated with thermophilic cheirolepideacean conifer pollen (Classopollis) in the unit would suggest marked seasonality at the locality during the Early Cretaceous. Furthermore, the floristic association is linked to dry sensitive rocks in the entire section. The macro- and microflora from San Luis Basin are similar in composition to several Early Cretaceous floras from the Northern Gondwana floristic province, but it may represent one of the southernmost records of an arid biome in South America.

  13. Oleaceous laurophyllous leaf fossils and pollen from the European Tertiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, M

    2001-06-01

    By using cuticular analysis for the first time laurophyllous leaf remains from the European Tertiary have been reliably identified as belonging to the Oleaceae. Despite ecologically determined variation in cuticular structures, Late Miocene leaf material from northern Italy is assigned to a single species, Oleinites liguricus Sachse n. sp. The associated oleaceous pollen grains support that this species has been a prominent component, at least locally, of a laurophyllous forest community. From extensive comparisons with leaf cuticles and pollen of extant Oleaceae it may be concluded, that the fossil leaves and probably corresponding pollen represent the tribe Oleeae and may originate from a plant closely comparable to extant Chionanthus and Fraxinus. A reinvestigation of some Oligocene laurophyllous leaf remains has uncovered two more oleaceous species in the European Tertiary: Oleinites maii (Buzek et al.) Sachse comb. nov., and Oleinites hallbaueri (Mai) Sachse comb. nov. Considering the high diversity of laurophyllous Oleaceae in modern evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests and the common presence of oleaceous pollen in the fossil record it may be expected that cuticular analysis of laurophyllous leaf fossils will lead to the recognition of an increased number of oleaceous taxa in Tertiary leaf assemblages.

  14. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  15. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Penney

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiders (Araneae are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant. Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa were compiled from current taxonomic catalogues. Data for extant taxa showed a steady linear increase of approximately 500 new species per year over the last decade, reflecting a rather constant research activity in this area by a large number of scientists, which can be expected to continue. The results for fossil species were very different, with peaks of new species descriptions followed by long troughs, indicating minimal new published research activity for most years. This pattern is indicative of short bursts of research by a limited number of authors. Given the frequent discovery of new fossil deposits containing spiders, a wealth of new material coming to light from previously worked deposits, and the application of new imaging techniques in palaeoarachnology that allow us to extract additional data from historical specimens, e.g. X-ray computed tomography, it is important not only to ensure a sustained research activity on fossil spiders (and other arachnids through training and enthusing the next generation of palaeoarachnologists, but preferably to promote increased research and expertise in this field.

  16. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alexei J.; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth–death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the ‘morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences

  17. Fossil Energy Program progress report for May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This report - the fifty eighth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, and chemical research and development.

  18. Alternative SEM techniques for observing pyritised fossil material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole; Lloyd

    2000-11-01

    Two scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electron-specimen interactions that provide images based on sample crystal structure, electron channelling and electron backscattered diffraction, are described. The SEM operating conditions and sample preparation are presented, followed by an example application of these techniques to the study of pyritised plant material. The two approaches provide an opportunity to examine simultaneously, at higher magnifications normally available optically, detailed specimen anatomy and preservation state. Our investigation suggests that whereas both techniques have their advantages, the electron channelling approach is generally more readily available to most SEM users. However, electron backscattered diffraction does afford the opportunity of automated examination and characterisation of pyritised fossil material.

  19. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report--the forty-fifth of a series--is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion process development, materials engineering, alkali metal vapor topping cycles, a coal equipment test program, an AFB coal combustor for cogeneration (CCC), engineering and support studies, process and program assistance, evironmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation, and AFBC demonstration plant.

  20. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  1. Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W. G.; Wilson, J. V.; Klepper, O. H.

    1977-06-29

    As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service.

  2. Advanced Researech and Technology Development fossil energy materials program: Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the ARandTD Fossil Energy Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined semiannual progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure in which projects are organized according to materials research thrust areas. These areas are (1) Structural Ceramics, (2) Alloy Development and Mechanical Properties, (3) Corrosion and Erosion of Alloys, and (4) Assessments and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Trace fossils in coal-bearing sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1988-03-01

    In the past decade trace fossils have been recorded extensively from coal-bearing sediments, differing widely in facies, age and location. Westphalian or Stephanian 'coal-measures' in Britain, Europe and Eastern Canada contain an ichnofauna produced by invertebrates and/or vertebrates in upper delta plain sediments. This contrasts with the marine-related lower delta plain ichnofaunas known from Pennsylvanian rocks of the United States and Permian Gondwana 'coal-measures' of South Africa. Deltaic complexes of Middle Jurassic age in the North Sea basin and Upper Cretaceous age in North America contain marine trace fossils and dinosaur footprints in coastal coal- bearing facies. These case histories illustrate the importance of trace fossils both in facies analysis of coal-bearing sequences and in recording the presence of animals rarely known as body fossils in such clastic sediments. 80 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  5. Biodiversity Risks from Fossil Fuel Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. Butt; H. L. Beyer; J. R. Bennett; D. Biggs; R. Maggini; M. Mills; A. R. Renwick; L. M. Seabrook; H. P. Possingham

    2013-01-01

    .... Although fossil fuel (FF) extraction has traditionally been seen as a temporary and spatially limited perturbation to ecosystems , even local or limited biodiversity loss can have large cascade effects on ecosystem function and productivity...

  6. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  7. Primate diversification inferred from phylogenies and fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2017-09-14

    Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: 1) diversification rates increased through time; 2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene. Consistent with the first hypothesis, analyses of phylogenies consistently supported increasing speciation rates and negligible extinction rates. In contrast, fossils showed that while speciation rates increased, speciation and extinction rates tended to be nearly equal, resulting in zero net diversification. Partially supporting the second hypothesis, the fossil data recorded a clear pattern of diversity decline in the Oligocene, although diversification rates were near zero. The phylogeny supported increased extinction ∼34 Ma, but also elevated extinction ∼10 Ma, coinciding with diversity declines in some fossil clades. The results demonstrated that estimates of speciation and extinction ignoring fossils are insufficient to infer diversification and information on extinct lineages should be incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The shadow price of fossil groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Reinhard, Stijn; de Bruijn, Jens A.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    The expansion of irrigated agriculture into areas with limited precipitation and surface water during the growing season has greatly increased the use of fossil groundwater (Wada et al., 2012). As a result, the depletion rate of fossil groundwater resources has shown an increasing rate during the last decades (Wada et al, 2010; Konikow, 2011; Wada et al., 2012; De Graaf et al. 2015; Ritchy et al., 2015). Although water pricing has been used extensively to stimulate efficient application of water to create maximum value (e.g. Medellín-Azuara et al., 2012; Rinaudo et al., 2012; Dinar et al., 2015), it does not preclude the use of non-renewable water resources. Here, we use a global hydrological model and historical crop production and price data to assess the shadow price of non-renewable or fossil groundwater applied to major crops in countries that use large quantities of fossil groundwater. Our results show that shadow prices for many crops are very low, indicating economically inefficient or even wasteful use of fossil groundwater resources. Using India as an example, we show that small changes in the crop mix could lead to large reductions in fossil groundwater use or alternatively, create additional financial means to invest in water saving technologies. Our study thus provides a hydro-economic basis to further the sustainable use of finite groundwater resources.

  9. Type specimens of Maastrichtian fossils in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.

    2002-01-01

    The type specimens of Maastrichtian invertebrate fossils from Limburg, The Netherlands, present in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, are listed. The Upper Cretaceous plant type specimens from Limburg of Miquel that were once part of the Staring collection present in the Palaeobotanical

  10. Burmese amber fossils bridge the gap in the Cretaceous record of polypod ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, AR; Heinrichs, J.; Schneider, Harald

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Burmese amber fossils bridge the gap in the Cretaceous record of polypod ferns journaltitle: Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2016.01.003 content_type: article copyright: Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.A. (comp.)

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  12. Glutoxylon Chowdhury (Anacardiaceae): the first record of fossil wood from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, I; Davies, C

    2001-04-01

    This paper documents the first record of silicified fossil wood from a previously undescribed wood-rich horizon in the Sitakund Anticline, Eastern Bangladesh. The outcrop is composed of cross-stratified, fine-medium grained sandstones with bidirectional cross stratification indicative of a tidal environment, deposited ca. 5-5.2 million years before present (Miocene/Pliocene). The wood is characterised by large solitary vessels with alternate intervascular pits, banded parenchyma, uniseriate rays, and multiseriate rays with one radial canal per ray. This character combination closely resembles the wood of extant Gluta L. of the Anacardiaceae. This specimen has been assigned to the organ genus Glutoxylon Chowdhury erected for fossil woods with anatomical similarity to Gluta (including Melanorrhoea Wall.). The excellent preservation of this mature wood specimen illustrates the potential for using fossil wood from the Sitakund locality for palaeoecological studies in terms of biodiversity and adaptational response to climate change. Moreover such investigations of fossil woods from Bangladesh will compliment studies undertaken on fossil plants in other parts of Central and Southeastern Asia which will further the understanding of plant migration routes between India and Southeast Asia during the Tertiary.

  13. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  14. A Brief Analysis of Oral Fossilization of English Major Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-xia

    2014-01-01

    This paper on the basis of former studies and researches has analyzed fossilization particularly oral fossilization. Further more, this paper has analyzed the reasons of fossilization and at the same time put forward some tentative solutions to reduce or avoid fossilization. Hope that this paper can offer some help for both the second language learners and teachers.

  15. Fossil Flora of the John Day Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Frank Hall

    1902-01-01

    For a number of years I have been gradually accumulating material for a thorough revision of the Tertiary floras of the Pacific slope. Fossil plants are known to occur at numerous points within this area, and their study and identification has already furnished valuable data bearing on the geological history of the region, and when still further exploited it is confidently expected that they will afford more exact data for the use of geologists. This investigation is progressing satisfactorily, and at no distant day it is hoped to have it in form for final publication. From time to time various members of the United States Geological Survey, as well as others not connected with this organization, have sent in small collections of fossil plants for determination. These have been studied and reported upon as fully as the condition of the problem permitted, so that the determinations could be immediately available to geologists, but with the reservation that none of the questions could be fully settled until all known material had been studied and properly correlated. The rich fossil plant deposits in the John Day Basin, as set forth more fully in the historical account which follows, have been known for a period of nearly fifty years, but their study has been carried on in a more or less desultory manner. There has also been considerable confusion as to the horizons whence these plants came. As various species of plants described originally from the John Day region were detected in various other localities in Oregon, and in surrounding areas, as central Washington, western Idaho, and northern California, it became more than ever apparent that a thorough study of all material obtainable from this type area would be necessary before any definite or satisfactory conclusions could be reached. The immediate incentive for this revision was furnished by the receipt of a considerable collection of plants, made by Dr. John C. Merriam in 1900 while he was in charge of an

  16. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  17. Molecular fossils in Cretaceous condensate from western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmila Bhattacharya; Suryendu Dutta; Ratul Dutta

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports the biomarker distribution of condensate belonging to the early Cretaceous time frame using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment was inscribed into these molecular fossils which reflected the source and conditions of deposition of the condensate. The saturate fraction of the condensate is characterized by normal alkanes ranging from -C9 to -C29} (CPI-1.13), cycloalkanes and C14 and C15 sesquiterpanes. The aromatic fraction comprises of naphthalene, phenanthrene, their methylated derivatives and cyclohexylbenzenes. Isohexylalkylnaphthalenes, a product of rearrangement process of terpenoids, is detected in the condensate. Several aromatic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids have been recorded. Dihydro-ar-curcumene, cadalene and ionene form the assemblage of sesquiterpenoids which are indicative of higher plant input. Aromatic diterpenoid fraction comprises of simonellite and retene. These compounds are also indicative of higher plants, particularly conifer source which had been a predominant flora during the Cretaceous time.

  18. Comparing primate crania: The importance of fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, John G; Gilbert, Christopher C; Baden, Andrea L

    2016-10-01

    Extant primate crania represent a small subset of primate crania that have existed. The main objective here is to examine how the inclusion of fossil crania changes our understanding of primate cranial diversity relative to analyses of extant primates. We hypothesize that fossil taxa will change the major axes of cranial shape, occupy new areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity of major primate clades, and fill in notable gaps separating major primate taxa/clades. Eighteen 3D landmarks were collected on 157 extant and fossil crania representing 90 genera. Data were subjected to a Generalized Procrustes Analysis then principal components analysis. Relative diversity between clades was assessed using an F-statistic. Fossil taxa do not significantly alter major axes of cranial shape, but they do occupy unique areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity between clades, and fill in notable gaps in primate cranial evolution. Strepsirrhines remain significantly less diverse than anthropoids. Fossil hominins fill the gap in cranial morphospace between extant great apes and modern humans. The morphospace outlined by living primates largely includes that occupied by fossil taxa, suggesting that the cranial diversity of living primates generally encompasses the total diversity that has evolved in this Order. The evolution of the anthropoid cranium was a significant event allowing anthropoids to achieve significantly greater cranial diversity compared to strepsirrhines. Fossil taxa fill in notable gaps within and between clades, highlighting their transitional nature and eliminating the appearance of large morphological distances between extant taxa, particularly in the case of extant hominids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fidelity of fossil n-alkanes from leaf to paleosol and applications to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.; Baczynski, A. A.; Wing, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Long chain n-alkanes (C21-C35) are well-known as biomarkers of terrestrial plants. They can be preserved across a wide range of terrestrial and marine environments, survive in the sedimentary record for millions of years, and can serve as proxies for ancient environments. Most n-alkane records are derived from sediments rather than directly from fossil leaves. However, little is known about the fidelity of the n-alkane record: how and where leaf preservation relates to n-alkane preservation and how patterns of n-alkane carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) compare to living relatives. To examine these questions, we analyzed n-alkanes from fluvial sediments and individual leaf fossils collected in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon isotope excursion. We assessed the fidelity of the n-alkane signature from individual fossil leaves via three separate means. 1) Spatial variations were assessed by comparing n-alkane concentrations on a fossil leaf and in sediments both directly adjacent to the leaf and farther away. Absolute concentrations were greater within the compression fossil than in the directly adjacent sediment, which were in turn greater than in more distant sediment. 2) n-Alkane abundances and distributions were examined in fossil leaves having a range of preservational quality, from fossils with intact cuticle to carbonized fossils lacking cuticle and higher-order venation. The best preserved fossils preserved a higher concentration of n-alkanes and showed the most similar n-alkane distribution to living relatives. However, a strong odd over even predominance suggests a relatively unmodified plant source occurred in all samples regardless of preservation state. 3) n-Alkane δ13C values were measured for both fossil leaves and their living relatives. Both the saw-tooth pattern of δ13C values between odd and even chain lengths and the general decrease in δ13C values with increasing chain length are consistent with

  20. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. (comps.)

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  1. Macroevolutionary developmental biology: Embryos, fossils, and phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-10-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental biology is broadly focused on identifying the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying morphological diversity. Connecting the genotype with the phenotype means that evo-devo research often considers a wide range of evidence, from genetics and morphology to fossils. In this commentary, we provide an overview and framework for integrating fossil ontogenetic data with developmental data using phylogenetic comparative methods to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. We survey the vertebrate fossil record of preserved embryos and discuss how phylogenetic comparative methods can integrate data from developmental genetics and paleontology. Fossil embryos provide limited, yet critical, developmental data from deep time. They help constrain when developmental innovations first appeared during the history of life and also reveal the order in which related morphologies evolved. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful statistical approach that allows evo-devo researchers to infer the presence of nonpreserved developmental traits in fossil species and to detect discordant evolutionary patterns and processes across levels of biological organization.

  2. Fossil fuels in a trillion tonne world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Vivian; Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Tett, Simon F. B.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The useful energy services and energy density value of fossil carbon fuels could be retained for longer timescales into the future if their combustion is balanced by CO2 recapture and storage. We assess the global balance between fossil carbon supply and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores. A hierarchy of value for extraction-to-storage pairings is proposed, which is augmented by classification of CO2 containment as temporary (100,000 yr). Using temporary stores is inefficient and defers an intergenerational problem. Permanent storage capacity is adequate to technically match current fossil fuel reserves. However, rates of storage creation cannot balance current and expected rates of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 consequences. Extraction of conventional natural gas is uniquely holistic because it creates the capacity to re-inject an equivalent tonnage of carbon for storage into the same reservoir and can re-use gas-extraction infrastructure for storage. By contrast, balancing the extraction of coal, oil, biomass and unconventional fossil fuels requires the engineering and validation of additional carbon storage. Such storage is, so far, unproven in sufficiency.

  3. Intelligent control system for the temperature regulation in a gas turbine of a combined cycle fossil fuel power plant; Sistema de control inteligente para regular la temperatura en la turbina de gas de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espindola Vasquez, Agustin

    2004-11-15

    In the Turbogas Units (UTG short for Spanish acronym) of a Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC short for Spanish acronym), from an operative, as well as a safety standpoint the turbine blade temperature is a critical variable. The best performance of a turbogas unit based in the electrical generation is obtained when the greatest thermal efficiency is reached. From the point of view of safety, it is desirable to keep the blades temperature at the limit established by the manufacturer, guaranteeing with this, the integrity of the UTG internal parts; avoiding that great thermal efforts decrease their useful life. In order to keep the blades temperature at the established limit, the UTG control system have a supervision system of blades temperature, that system modifies the controllers reference of the speed or power PI's which regulate the fuel valve of the UTG combustion chamber. This supervision system is based on logic conditions to generate its exit signal. In the process plants whose operation is complex and its dynamic behavior is nonlinear, the strategies of control of single loop do not provide the wished performance when they are applied in control loops to regulate critical variables; thing doing necessary the design of structures with two hierarchical levels; one with direct control and the other with supervisory control. The fuzzy logic has found a wide acceptance [Chiu, 1998] when is used to handle control functions of high level which are outside of the dominion of the conventional control methods. One of these cases is the application of the fuzzy logic to the supervisory control. In this thesis document is presented the accomplishment of a temperature fuzzy supervision system in a turbogas unit, whose purpose is to keep the turbine blades temperature within the established limits, conserving a satisfactory performance from an operative, as well as a safety standpoint. The temperature supervisor was designed with base on fuzzy

  4. Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron Bedd. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, R. C.

    2013-04-01

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene (Chattian 28.4-23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the seasonality in temperature was less pronounced and CMMT (cold month mean temperature) was not less than 18°C with plenty of rainfall, in the region during the period of deposition. The study also indicates that the plant phenology is sensitive towards climate change. The present study is in congruence with the global data.

  5. Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron Bedd. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Srivastava; R C Mehrotra

    2013-04-01

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the seasonality in temperature was less pronounced and CMMT (cold month mean temperature) was not less than 18°C with plenty of rainfall, in the region during the period of deposition. The study also indicates that the plant phenology is sensitive towards climate change. The present study is in congruence with the global data.

  6. THE NUSPLINGEN LITHOGRAPHIC LIMESTONE - A "FOSSIL LAGERSTAETTE" OF LATE KIMMERIDGIAN AGE FROM THE SWABIAN ALB (GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERD DIETL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A short overview is given on the actual excavations within a fossiliferous lithographic limestone site near Nusplingen (western Swabian Alb, SW Germany. In contrast to the better known Early Tithonian Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone, it is much richer in fossils and 0.5 my older (Late Kimmeridgian, Beckeri Zone, Ulmense Subzone. Many of the fossils exhibit an excellent preservation, sometimes even of the organic matter. More than 7.000 specimens have been recorded belonging to almost 300 taxa (plants, microfossils, invertebrates, ichnofossils, and vertebrates.

  7. On The Nature of Fossil Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, F; De la Rosa, I G; Sorrentino, G; Gal, R R; Kohl-Moreira, J L

    2009-01-01

    We present a new sample of 25 fossil groups (FGs) at z < 0.1, along with a control sample of seventeen bright ellipticals located in non-fossil systems. Both the global properties of FGs (e.g. X-ray luminosity) as well as the photometric properties (i.e. isophotal shape parameter, a4) and spectroscopic parameters (e.g. the alpha-enhancement) of their first-ranked ellipticals are consistent with those of the control sample. This result favors a scenario where FGs are not a distinct class of systems, but rather a common phase in the life of galaxy groups. We also find no evidence for an evolutionary sequence explaining the formation of galaxies in fossil systems through the merging of galaxies in compact groups.

  8. Atmospheric composition as a potential taphonomic filter for the fossil leaf record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Karen; Haworth, Matthew; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Controlled environment chambers provide a unique opportunity to investigate plant responses to simulated palaeoatmospheric compositions that reflect previous periods of Earth history. One potentially important role of atmospheric composition that has not been considered in detail, is how it may affect plant preservation in the fossil record. Previous work has shown that plants, particularly angiosperms, have a tendency to increase leaf mass per area (LMA) when grown in above-ambient CO2. We tested the response of six nearest living equivalent taxa for Mesozoic floras to a range of simulated Mesozoic palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. Exposure to high CO2 (~1,500 ppm) led to a statistically significant (p LMA in four out of 6 species and exposure to high CO2 and low O2 (~13%) led to a statistically significant (p LMA in all six species. These findings suggest that atmospheric composition has a highly significant impact on LMA. If this is also the case in fossil floras, then this suggests that atmospheric composition may influence leaf preservation potential in the fossil record. Based on these results, we put forward the hypothesis that atmospheric composition is an important taphonomic filter of the fossil leaf record. Further research is now required to test the significance of atmospheric composition versus other well-known taphonomic filters.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic-supported and metal-supported membrane layers for the separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil-fuel power plants; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von keramik- und metallgestuetzten Membranschichten fuer die CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung in fossilen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauler, Felix

    2010-07-01

    The separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil fuel power plants has become a very important issue due to the contribution of this greenhouse gas to global warming. Thin microporous membranes are promising candidates for separating CO{sub 2} from gas flow before being exhausted into the atmosphere. The membrane demands are good permeation and separation properties and high stability under operation conditions. Novel sol-gel derived materials composed of TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and stabilized SiO{sub 2} seem to be promising due to their good chemical stability and microporous character, especially for the separation of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Metallic substrates should be preferred as membrane support because they exhibit practical advantages combining good mechanical stability and the benefit of facilitated joining. The present thesis deals with the development of sol-gel derived microporous membrane layers on ceramic and metallic supports for the separation of CO{sub 2}. In this context, the optimized preparation of high-quality membranes with TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni, Co, Zr, Ti doped SiO{sub 2} top layers is presented. These multilayered membranes consist of a graded pore structure to provide a smooth transition of the pore size from the support to the functional layer. Due to the good surface properties, the ceramic substrates only need one interlayer, whereas the rough metallic substrates exhibiting larger pores require a total of three interlayers to obtain an enhanced surface quality. On both types of supports, crack-free functional layers with a thickness below 100 nm were deposited by dip-coating. The unsupported and supported sol-gel materials used for the top layers were investigated in terms of structural properties by thermal analysis, sorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Gas permeation tests with He, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} und N{sub 2} were carried out to determine the membrane performance with regard to permeation rates and

  10. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies.

  11. Are pollen fossils useful for calibrating relaxed molecular clock dating of phylogenies? A comparative study using Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Andrew H; Popple, Lindsay W; Carter, Richard J; Ho, Simon Y W; Crisp, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    The identification and application of reliable fossil calibrations represents a key component of many molecular studies of evolutionary timescales. In studies of plants, most paleontological calibrations are associated with macrofossils. However, the pollen record can also inform age calibrations if fossils matching extant pollen groups are found. Recent work has shown that pollen of the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, can be classified into a number of morphological groups that are synapomorphic with molecular groups. By assembling a data matrix of pollen morphological characters from extant and fossil Myrtaceae, we were able to measure the fit of 26 pollen fossils to a molecular phylogenetic tree using parsimony optimisation of characters. We identified eight Myrtaceidites fossils as appropriate for calibration based on the most parsimonious placements of these fossils on the tree. These fossils were used to inform age constraints in a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a sequence alignment comprising two sequences from the chloroplast genome (matK and ndhF) and one nuclear locus (ITS), sampled from 106 taxa representing 80 genera. Three additional analyses were calibrated by placing pollen fossils using geographic and morphological information (eight calibrations), macrofossils (five calibrations), and macrofossils and pollen fossils in combination (12 calibrations). The addition of new fossil pollen calibrations led to older crown ages than have previously been found for tribes such as Eucalypteae and Myrteae. Estimates of rate variation among lineages were affected by the choice of calibrations, suggesting that the use of multiple calibrations can improve estimates of rate heterogeneity among lineages. This study illustrates the potential of including pollen-based calibrations in molecular studies of divergence times.

  12. Microbial Fossils Detected in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, B. E.; Allen, C.; Longazo, T.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data indicate regions with significant levels of hematite (_Fe2O3). Fe-oxides, like hematite, can form as aqueous mineral precipitates and as such may preserve microscopic fossils or other biosignatures. Several potential terrestrial analogues to martian hematite like hydrothermal vents have preserved microfossils. Microbial fossilization in Fe-oxides is often a function of biomineralization. For example, goethite (FeO2H) encrustation of fungal mycelia from the mid-Tertiary preserved fungal morphologies such that their genera could be determined.

  13. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  14. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  15. Fossils, Genes and The Origin of Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, Neil (University of Chicago)

    2011-04-20

    A toolkit of experimental and comparative biology can be applied to understand the great transformations in the history of life. Expeditionary paleontology can be used to target key nodes of the tree of life for which new fossils can provide insights into major morphological transformations. These fossils often have intermediate conditions that allow extant creatures to be compared in new ways. The tools of developmental genetics can then be used to explore these new comparisons to understand the genetic basis for macroevolutionary change. These different approaches can be used to predict new discoveries and this is only possible because of the empirical content of the tree of life.

  16. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, M.; Rap, A.; Reddington, C. L.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, M.; Buermann, W.

    2016-08-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010. Hereby, the substantial increases in fossil fuel aerosol emissions and plant carbon uptake over East Asia were effectively canceled by opposing trends across Europe and North America. This suggests that if the recent increase in the land carbon sink would be causally linked to fossil fuel emissions, it is unlikely via the effect of aerosols but due to other factors such as nitrogen deposition or nitrogen-carbon interactions.

  17. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, M; Rap, A; Reddington, C L; Spracklen, D V; Gloor, M; Buermann, W

    2016-08-16

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010. Hereby, the substantial increases in fossil fuel aerosol emissions and plant carbon uptake over East Asia were effectively canceled by opposing trends across Europe and North America. This suggests that if the recent increase in the land carbon sink would be causally linked to fossil fuel emissions, it is unlikely via the effect of aerosols but due to other factors such as nitrogen deposition or nitrogen-carbon interactions.

  18. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  19. New hominid fossils from Member 1 of the Swartkrans formation, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Travis Rayne; Heaton, Jason L; Clarke, Ronald J; Sutton, Morris B; Brain, C K; Kuman, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Member 1 of the Swartkrans Formation is comprised of two sedimentary infills, the Lower Bank (LB) and the Hanging Remnant (HR). Together, the LB and HR preserve fossils of early Homo and Paranthropus robustus, Earlier Stone Age lithic artifacts, purported bone digging tools and butchered animal bones. Collectively, this evidence was the first to establish the co-existence of two early Pleistocene hominid species and also led to inferences of plant root harvesting and meat-eating by one or both of those species. P. robustus is the more abundant of the two hominids at Swartrkrans, represented in Member 1 by hundreds of fossils that derive from at least 99 individuals. Thus, Swartkrans Member 1 stands as the world's single largest repository of that extinct species. Here we add to the Member 1 sample of hominid fossils with descriptions of 14 newly discovered specimens.

  20. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be significant advantage when using the heated air/heated water process with a less dense less specific surface area packed bed. Use of one configuration over the other depends upon the environment and the desired operating conditions.

  1. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Richard Treglio; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

    2004-07-26

    During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates as high as 423 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was investigated by comparison to composite alloy membranes. Permeation of alloyed membranes showed a strong dependence on the alloying element. Impedance analysis was used to investigate bulk and grain boundary conductivity in cermets. Thin film cermet deposition procedures were developed, hydrogen dissociation catalysts were evaluated, and hydrogen separation unit scale-up issues were addressed.

  2. Development tendencies in cycle chemistry of fossil fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, K. [Skaerbaekvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The development of cycle chemistry during the past 50 years is described and the main tendencies are pointed out. Improvement of cycle purity is the most dominant evolution, which introduces more freedom with respect to pH and redox potential control. Units with once-through boilers have profited most from this development. The development of boiler water chemistry in drum boilers also tends towards higher purity and less chemicals, which raises possibilities for oxygenated treatment. (au)

  3. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  4. Delta13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffrézic, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A novel fossil fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel-CO2-contaminated areas, such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of delta13C value of -8.02 per thousand and of fossil fuel CO2 of average delta13C value of -27.28 per thousand. This isotopic difference should, thus, be recorded in plant carbon. Indeed, this study reveals that grasses growing near a major highway in Paris, France, have strikingly depleted delta13C values, averaging at -35.08 per thousand, versus rural grasses that show an average delta13C value of -30.59 per thousand. A simple mixing model was used to calculate the contributions of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 to the plant tissue. Calculation based on contaminated and noncontaminated isotopic end members shows that urban grasses assimilate up to 29.1% of fossil-fuel-CO2-derived carbon in their tissues. The 13C isotopic composition of grasses thus represents a promising new tool for the study of the impact of fossil fuel CO2 in major cities.

  5. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Rap, Alex; Reddington, Carly; Spracklen, Dominick; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning have increased the diffuse fraction of incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis leading to increased plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of atmospheric and biospheric models, we find that changes in diffuse light associated with fossil fuel aerosol emission accounts for only 2.8% of the increase in global net primary production (1.221 PgC/yr) over the study period 1998 to 2007. This relatively small global signal is however a result of large regional compensations. Over East Asia, the strong increase in fossil fuel emissions contributed nearly 70% of the increased plant carbon uptake (21 TgC/yr), whereas the declining fossil fuel aerosol emissions in Europe and North America contributed negatively (-16% and -54%, respectively) to increased plant carbon uptake. At global scale, we also find the CO2 fertilization effect on photosynthesis to be the dominant driver of increased plant carbon uptake, in line with previous studies. These results suggest that further research into alternative mechanisms by which fossil fuel emissions could increase carbon uptake, such as nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen interactions, is required to better understand a potential link between the recent changes in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon uptake.

  6. Diversity in obscurity: fossil flowers and the early history of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R

    2010-02-12

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, pioneering discoveries of rich assemblages of fossil plants from the Cretaceous resulted in considerable interest in the first appearance of angiosperms in the geological record. Darwin's famous comment, which labelled the 'rapid development' of angiosperms an 'abominable mystery', dates from this time. Darwin and his contemporaries were puzzled by the relatively late, seemingly sudden and geographically widespread appearance of modern-looking angiosperms in Late Cretaceous floras. Today, the early diversification of angiosperms seems much less 'rapid'. Angiosperms were clearly present in the Early Cretaceous, 20-30 Myr before they attained the level of ecological dominance reflected in some mid-Cretaceous floras, and angiosperm leaves and pollen show a distinct pattern of steadily increasing diversity and complexity through this interval. Early angiosperm fossil flowers show a similar orderly diversification and also provide detailed insights into the changing reproductive biology and phylogenetic diversity of angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous. In addition, newly discovered fossil flowers indicate considerable, previously unrecognized, cryptic diversity among the earliest angiosperms known from the fossil record. Lineages that today have an herbaceous or shrubby habit were well represented. Monocotyledons, which have previously been difficult to recognize among assemblages of early fossil angiosperms, were also diverse and prominent in many Early Cretaceous ecosystems.

  7. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  8. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. On the fossil record of the Gekkota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan D; Bauer, Aaron M; Snively, Eric D

    2014-03-01

    Gekkota is often interpreted as sister to all remaining squamates, exclusive of dibamids, or as sister to Autarchoglossa. It is the only diverse lineage of primarily nocturnal lizards and includes some of the smallest amniotes. The skeleton of geckos has often been interpreted as paedomorphic and/or "primitive" but these lizards also display a wide range of structural specializations of the postcranium, including modifications associated with both scansorial locomotion and limb reduction. Although the concept of "Gekkota" has been variously applied by different authors, we here apply a rigorous apomorphy based definition, recent advances in gekkotan morphology and phylogenetics, and diverse comparative material to provide a comprehensive assessment of 28 known pre-Quaternary geckos, updating the last such review, published three decades ago. Fossils evaluated include both sedimentary fossils and amber-embedded specimens. Known Cretaceous geckos are exclusively Asian and exhibit character combinations not seen in any living forms. Cenozoic gekkotans derive from sites around the world, although Europe is especially well represented. Paleogene geckos are largely known from disarticulated remains and show similarities to Sphaerodactylidae and Diplodactylidae, although resemblances may be plesiomorphic in some cases. Many Neogene gekkotans are referable to living families or even genera, but their geographic occurrences are often extralimital to those of modern groups, as is consistent with paleoclimatic conditions. The phylogenetic placement of fossil gekkotans has important repercusions for timetree calibration, but at present only a small number of fossils can be confidently assigned to even family level groupings, limiting their utility in this regard.

  10. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  11. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  12. Fossil Hunting: Intracluster Stars in Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eric; Bridge, Carrie; Desai, Vandana; Kenney, Jeffrey; Krick, Jessica; Surace, Jason; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    In dense clusters, galaxy interactions and mergers play a significant role in galaxy evolution. During these interactions, tidal forces can lead to the ejection of stars from their parent galaxies; these stars are a fossil record of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution. We propose to map the intr

  13. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  14. Fossil nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan region; Fossile Nickellaterit-Lagerstaetten auf dem Balkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masurenko, Christian [European Nickel PLC, London (United Kingdom); Radosevic, Branislav [Advanced Systems, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-11-15

    Acid heap leaching is common in the gold and copper industry with the majority of new copper projects being heap leaching (cyanide leaching). Although nickel is worth two to three times more than copper, the process had not been used extensively on nickel ores. The geological formation that led to the Caldag nickel deposit lends itself to heap leaching due to the low clay content of the ore. The nickel is present in the goethitic phase and is soluble in diluted sulphuric acid. The lack of clays in the laterite profile assists the percolation of the solutions through the heaps throughout the heap leach cycle, which in Caldag's case is well over a year. European Nickel has demonstrated the percolation and extraction of nickel at a large scale pilot plant continuously over a three year period, irrigating the heaps with dilute sulphuric acid and producing saleable mixed hydroxide product from the downstream precipitation plant. Compared with pyrometallurgical processes ENickel's process is environment benign and easier to control. The process does not lead to any emissions. The production of sulphuric acid even provides electricity in excess which will be, in the case of Caldag, fed into the local grid. Today, also low grade deposits such as the nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan, often with grades lower than 1.0 % Ni, become more and more interesting. ENickel has recently completed a preliminary economic assessment of the Devolli deposit in Albania. Initial results show a capital investment of approx. 369 Mio. Euro and development of more than 700 direct jobs. The capital investment is therefore five to six times smaller than compared with any pyrometallurgical process (> 2 bn Euro). During the last years ENickel tested different ore types from various deposits all over the world (e.g. Kazakhstan, Philippines, India). One can distinguish two different types of laterites. Recent laterites which occur in the tropical regions of Australia, Indonesia and the

  15. Bryophyte-like Fossil (Parafunaria sinensis) from Early-Middle Cambrian Kaili Formation in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGRui-Dong; MAOJia-Rer; ZHANGWei-Hua; JIANGLi-Jun; GAOHui

    2004-01-01

    Abundant well-preserved animal and macroalgal fossils were discovered in the Early-MiddleCambrian Kaili Formation of Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China, which constitute the Kaili Biota,named as one of the three important Burgess Shale-type faunas. The bryophyte-like fossil (Parafunariasinensis Yang gen. et sp. nov) was discovered in the horizon of occurrence of Macroalgal fossils. The fossilof P. sinensis possesses typical characters of bryophyte, such as whorled leaves, capsule and seta, andcomplex rhizoid or foot. We infer that the bryophyte-like fossil could be the ancestor of bryophyte. Thediscovery provides a new lead for further study on the origin and evolution of bryophyte or land plant.

  16. High temperature material developments in fossil energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B. (Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). Joint Nuclear Research Center)

    1992-04-01

    Two major application areas of fossil energy are: - petrochemical processing, - electrical power production. In both of them, there are important common features in the field high temperature, though there are different controlling factors. Furthermore, since they are both concerned with the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, questions of emissions are relevant to both. However, the trend in petrochemical plants has been to use a refined fuel to heat the chemical reactors and this reduces both gaseous and particulate emissions. A major driving force in both areas has always been the attainment of higher efficiencies which implies the use of higher process temperatures. This normally involves higher temperatures for the constructional material. Ideally, the increased temperature capability should be achieved without loss of strength, corrosion resistance, feasibility or reliability. Furthermore, the relative cost of the finished component should not be increased. Clearly, this ideal is seldom attained and an optimization between the competing factors has to be made. 16 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1979-12-01

    This report, the sixty-third of a series, is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  18. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1979-11-01

    This report - the sixty-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  19. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report - the sixty-first of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  20. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  1. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  2. [Raman spectra of fossil dinosaurs from different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qun; Wang, Yi-lin

    2007-12-01

    Raman microscopic spectra in the higher wave number region were obtained from 7 fossil dinosaurs specimens from different regions. The specimens of fossil dinosaurs are different parts of bone. The Raman spectra of fossil dinosaurs indicate the high similarity among peak positions of different fossil dinosaurs; but important differences exist in the spectral peak figures. In the wave number region of 1000-1800 cm(-1) the Raman spectra of the same bone part fossils from different regions are very similar, example similarities between spectra of Lufeing backbone head and Yua nmou backbone head; Lufeng limb bone and Wuding limb bone. There are relations between the same bone part spectra of different fossil dinosaurs. The characteristic does not relate to regions. Raman spectra of fossil dinosaurs cannot be used to distinguish fossil source, although the part of bone can be used as an indicator to narrow the range of possible geographical origins.

  3. First known fossil bird tracks on San Salvador island, Bahamas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, A.J; Whitten, M.J

    2015-01-01

    ...) are the first known vertebrate trace fossils on this well-studied island. The trace fossils, preserved as bedding-plane impressions in an oolitic-bioclastic grainstone, match the size and form of tracks made by modern gulls...

  4. Geochemical characteristics of fossil Solenites murrayana cuticles from the Jurassic in Lanzhou, northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B.N.; Yan, D.F.; Xie, S.P.; Shi, Y.J.; Zhang, C.J.; Lin, Z.C. [Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)

    2006-07-01

    Through geochemical analysis on cuticles of the Jurassic fossil Solenites murrayuna L. et H. from the Yaojie Coalfield in Lanzhou, northwest China, and by comparison of geochemical features with its nearest living equivalent, Ginkgo biloba, we show that the characteristics of organic matter of the fossil plant cuticles accord with evolutionary features of asphalt in oil formation. The content analysis of organic matter indicates that the geochemistry is equivalent to rotten mud-sapropel humus types from Mesozoic and Cenozoic source rock in China. Some analysis data of organic matter indicate that Solenites murrayana cuticles are in a low mature stage, which coincides with the hydrocarbon generation model of cutinite in coal. Moreover, distribution features of soluble organic matter of cuticles show that fossil plant cuticles have a definite action in forming terrestrial high-wax oil, which has testified the contribution of high plants to waxness. The present study proves that Ginkgophytes abundant in the Jurassic were a high potential plant in the formation of coal-bed hydrocarbon.

  5. Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, LC; Barham, LS; Ditchfield, P.; Elton, S; Harcourt-Smith, WH; Dawkins, P

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a large collection of Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa rift valley, Zambia. Stone Age artefacts have been recovered from stratified fluvial contexts, but no in situ fossil fauna have yet been recovered. We report on 500 fossil specimens collected from the surface of point bars exposed seasonally along the banks of the main Luangwa river channel. We used non-destructive x-ray fluorescence analysis of the fossils' chemical signatures to determine whether they derive...

  6. The fossil trade: paying a price for human origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Fossils have been traded for centuries. Over the past two hundred years the market has developed into an organised enterprise with fossils serving multiple functions as scientific objects of study, collectors’ items and investments. Finding fossils, digging them up or purchasing them, transporting...

  7. Probe into the Internal Mechanism of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is normal for second language acquisition. It is also a hotspot for studies on theory of foreign language acquisition. Many reasons cause the interlanguage fossilization. This paper probes into the internal mechanism of interlanguage fossilization from five aspects, namely the physiological aspect, the psychological…

  8. Danmarks Største Fossiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger

    2008-01-01

    For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram.......For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram....

  9. Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James

    2016-10-01

    The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.

  10. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  11. Fossil Biodiversity: Red Noise Plus Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, A L; Melott, Adrian L.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the Fourier power spectrum as well as the Hurst exponent of extinction, origination, and total biodiversity in the marine fossil record, using a recently improved geologic timescale. We find all of them strongly inconsistent with past claims of self-similarity as well as inconsistent with random walk behavior. Instead, they are dominated by low-frequency power, with approximate f^-2 power over one decade in frequency. The spectrum turns over at about 10^5 y, lending plausibility to connections with galactic dynamics. Even in the background of this low-frequency dominance, a previously noted 62 My biodiversity cycle stands out with better than 99% confidence above the noise level, accounting for about 35% of the total variance in the fossil biodiversity record.

  12. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  14. Future Fossil Fuel Alternative; DME (A review)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdener, Hülya; Arinan, Ayca; Orman, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The world energy consumption is steadily growing with the industrial improvements of the developing countries and the readily available fossil fuel reserves lack in fulfilling this energy requirement. The depletion of the easily achievable reserves; gives rise to the concept of oil production from oil shale and tar sands. However, the high cost and the operational difficulties stand as the major drawbacks in front of these technologies. Along with these circumstances, and the environmental co...

  15. The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Knecht, Brian J; Hegna, Thomas A

    2017-04-21

    Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK. Using X-ray microtomography, our principal aim was to resolve details of the limbs and mouthparts which would allow us to test whether this fossil belongs in the extant, relict family Paracharontidae; represented today by a single, blind species Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921. Tomography reveals several novel and significant character states for G. anglicus; most notably in the chelicerae, pedipalps and walking legs. These allowed it to be scored into a phylogenetic analysis together with the recently described Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from the Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) Cambay amber, and Kronocharon prendinii Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber. We recovered relationships of the form ((Graeophonus (Paracharonopsis + Paracharon)) + (Charinus (Stygophrynus (Kronocharon (Charon (Musicodamon + Paraphrynus)))))). This tree largely reflects Peter Weygoldt's 1996 classification with its basic split into Paleoamblypygi and Euamblypygi lineages; we were able to score several of his characters for the first time in fossils. Our analysis draws into question the monophyly of the family Charontidae. Our data suggest that Graeophonus is a crown group amblypygid, and falls within a monophyletic Paleoamblypgi clade, but outside the family Paracharontidae (= Paracharonopsis + Paracharon). Our results also suggest a new placement for the Burmese amber genus Kronocharon, a node further down from its original position. Overall, we offer a

  16. The Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenthaler, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations as well as optical and X-ray observations over the last few years have shown that poor groups of galaxies can evolve to what is called a fossil group. Dynamical friction as the driving process leads to the coalescence of individual galaxies in ordinary poor groups leaving behind nothing more than a central, massive elliptical galaxy supposed to contain the merger history of the whole group. Due to merging timescales for less-massive galaxies and gas cooling timescales of the X-ray intragroup medium exceeding a Hubble time, a surrounding faint-galaxy population having survived this galactic cannibalism as well as an extended X-ray halo similar to that found in ordinary groups, is expected. Recent studies suggest that fossil groups are very abundant and could be the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. However, only a few objects are known to the literature. This article aims to summarize the results of observational fossil group research...

  17. Fossil harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones from Bitterfeld amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dunlop

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi and Eupnoi are described from Bitterfeld amber, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The exact age of this amber has been in dispute, but recent work suggests it is youngest Palaeogene (Oligocene: Chattian. Histricostoma tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Caddo dentipalpus (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854 and Leiobunum longipes Menge, 1854 – all of which are also known from Eocene Baltic amber – are reported from Bitterfeld amber for the first time. They support the idea that both ambers sampled a similar terrestrial arthropod fauna: irrespective of any difference in age. Mitostoma gruberi sp. n. and Amilenus deltshevi sp. n. are described as new. One fossil is, in our opinion, morphologically indistinguishable from the extant species Lacinius erinaceus Staręga, 1966 from the Caucuses, and is tentatively assigned to this taxon. The Bitterfeld material thus includes the first fossil record of the extant genera Amilenus Martens, 1969 and Lacinius Thorell, 1876 respectively.

  18. Fossil Groups Origins III. Characterization of the sample and observational properties of fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Girardi, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Boschin, W; Aguerri, J A L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Corsini, E M; del Burgo, C; D'Onghia, E; Herrera-Ruiz, N; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Bailon, E Jimenez; Muñoz, M Lozada; Napolitano, N; Vilchez, J M

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Fossil systems are group- or cluster-sized objects whose luminosity is dominated by a very massive central galaxy. In the current cold dark matter scenario, these objects formed hierarchically at an early epoch of the Universe and then slowly evolved until present day. That is the reason why they are called {\\it fossils}. We started an extensive observational program to characterize a sample of 34 fossil group candidates spanning a broad range of physical properties. Deep $r-$band images were taken for each candidate and optical spectroscopic observations were obtained for $\\sim$ 1200 galaxies. This new dataset was completed with SDSS DR7 archival data to obtain robust cluster membership and global properties of each fossil group candidate. For each system, we recomputed the magnitude gaps between the two brightest galaxies ($\\Delta m_{12}$) and the first and fourth ranked galaxies ($\\Delta m_{14}$) within 0.5 $R_{{\\rm 200}}$. We consider fossil systems those with $\\Delta m_{12} \\ge 2$ mag or $\\Del...

  19. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  20. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil, Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics include: alloys, ceramics and composite research and development; corrosion and erosion research; environmental analysis and information systems; coal conversion development; mild gasification product characterization; coal combustion research; strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling; and coal structure and chemistry.

  1. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Philip C J; Purnell, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    Fossil organisms offer our only direct insight into how the distinctive body plans of extant organisms were assembled. However, realizing the potential evolutionary significance of fossils can be hampered by controversy over their interpretation. Here, as a guide to evaluating palaeontological debates, we outline the process and pitfalls of fossil interpretation. The physical remains of controversial fossils should be reconstructed before interpreting homologies, and choice of interpretative model should be explicit and justified. Extinct taxa lack characters diagnostic of extant clades because the characters had not yet evolved, because of secondary loss, or because they have rotted away. The latter, if not taken into account, will lead to the spurious assignment of fossils to basally branching clades. Conflicting interpretations of fossils can often be resolved by considering all the steps in the process of anatomical analysis and phylogenetic placement, although we must accept that some fossil organisms are simply too incompletely preserved for their evolutionary significance to be realized.

  2. Direct and indirect fossil records of megachilid bees from the Paleogene of Central Europe (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmann, Sonja; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael S.

    2009-06-01

    Aside from pollen and nectar, bees of the subfamily Megachilinae are closely associated with plants as a source of materials for nest construction. Megachilines use resins, masticated leaves, trichomes and other plant materials sometimes along with mud to construct nests in cavities or in soil. Among these, the leafcutter bees ( Megachile s.l.) are the most famous for their behaviour to line their brood cells with discs cut from various plants. We report on fossil records of one body fossil of a new non-leafcutting megachiline and of 12 leafcuttings from three European sites—Eckfeld and Messel, both in Germany (Eocene), and Menat, France (Paleocene). The excisions include the currently earliest record of probable Megachile activity and suggest the presence of such bees in the Paleocene European fauna. Comparison with extant leafcuttings permits the interpretation of a minimal number of species that produced these excisions. The wide range of size for the leafcuttings indirectly might suggest at least two species of Megachile for the fauna of Messel in addition to the other megachiline bee described here. The presence of several cuttings on most leaves from Eckfeld implies that the preferential foraging behaviour of extant Megachile arose early in megachiline evolution. These results demonstrate that combined investigation of body and trace fossils complement each other in understanding past biodiversity, the latter permitting the detection of taxa not otherwise directly sampled and inferences on behavioural evolution.

  3. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  4. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Replacing fossil oil with fresh oil - with what and for what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders S; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Green, Allan G; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2011-07-01

    Industrial chemicals and materials are currently derived mainly from fossil-based raw materials, which are declining in availability, increasing in price and are a major source of undesirable greenhouse gas emissions. Plant oils have the potential to provide functionally equivalent, renewable and environmentally friendly replacements for these finite fossil-based raw materials, provided that their composition can be matched to end-use requirements, and that they can be produced on sufficient scale to meet current and growing industrial demands. Replacement of 40% of the fossil oil used in the chemical industry with renewable plant oils, whilst ensuring that growing demand for food oils is also met, will require a trebling of global plant oil production from current levels of around 139 MT to over 400 MT annually. Realisation of this potential will rely on application of plant biotechnology to (i) tailor plant oils to have high purity (preferably >90%) of single desirable fatty acids, (ii) introduce unusual fatty acids that have specialty end-use functionalities and (iii) increase plant oil production capacity by increased oil content in current oil crops, and conversion of other high biomass crops into oil accumulating crops. This review outlines recent progress and future challenges in each of these areas.Practical applications: The research reviewed in this paper aims to develop metabolic engineering technologies to radically increase the yield and alter the fatty acid composition of plant oils and enable the development of new and more productive oil crops that can serve as renewable sources of industrial feedstocks currently provided by non-renewable and polluting fossil-based resources. As a result of recent and anticipated research developments we can expect to see significant enhancements in quality and productivity of oil crops over the coming decades. This should generate the technologies needed to support increasing plant oil production into the future

  6. Investigation of Fossil Insect Systematics of Specimens Collected at the Clare Quarry Site in the Florissant Fossil Beds, Florissant, Colorado from 1996 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellare, J. A.; Villalobos, J. I.; Lemone, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clare Quarry is located in the town of Florissant, Teller County, Colorado, approximately 30 miles west of Colorado Springs on State Highway 27. The elevation at the quarry face is 2500 meters ASL. Ar40/Ar39 dating of the upper beds of the Florissant Formation indicates an age of 34.07 +/- 0.10 Ma.An Oreodont fossil jaw and other mammalian fossils place the formation in the Chadronian Age.The basin in which the formation lies is undergirded by Wall Mountain Tuff dated at 37Ma, which sits on Pike's Peak Granite, which is dated at1080 Ma. In the Late Eocene the Florissant region was lacustrine in nature due to the damning of the river valley which runs north into Florissant. The ash and lahars from volcanic eruptions from the Thirty-nine Mile Volcano Field formed impoundments that produced shallow lakes for what is thought to been a period for 5000 years. Repeated ash falls placed plant matter and insect material in the lakes and streams that were formed intermittently during the period. The ash layers in the Florissant Formation are very fine grained, and contain diatomaceous mats that formed on the lake deposited ash layers aiding in the preservation of plant and insects material. Previous work on Florissant Fossils has been done by Lesquereaux (plants) 1878, Scudder (insects) 1890, and Mc Ginitie (plants) 1953. This project began 17 years ago and has consisted of collection trips ranging from one to eight days in the summers at a proprietary quarry owned land adjacent to The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The collection consists of 2700 catalogued plants, insects, and fish fossils. Of this number, 513 are insect fossils (19% of the total collection). Quality of preservation ranges from very poor to very good with the average qualitative evaluation between poor to fair. The largest series identied to family are Tipulids (Craneflies) with 23 specimens in the series. In this series wing venation is often incomplete and smaller characters including

  7. THE GB/3D Fossil Types Online Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M. P.; McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The ICZN and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants require that every species or subspecies of organism (living & fossil), should have a type or reference specimen to define its characteristic features. These specimens are held in collections around the world and must be available for study. Over time, type specimens can deteriorate or become lost. The British Geological Survey, the National Museum of Wales, the Sedgwick Museum Cambridge and the Oxford Museum of Natural History are working together to create an online database of the type fossils they hold. The web portal provides data about each specimen, searchable on taxonomic, stratigraphic and spatial criteria. For each specimen it is possible to view and download high resolution photographs, and for many of them, 'anaglyph' stereo pairs and 3D scans are available. The portal also provides educational resources (OERs). The rise to prominence of the Web has transformed expectations in accessing information and the Web is now usually the first port of call. However, while many geological museums are providing web-searchable text catalogues, few have undertaken a large-scale program of providing images and 3D models. This project has tackled the issues of merging four distinct data holdings, and setting up workflows to image and scan large numbers of disparate fossils, ranging from small invertebrate macrofossils to large vertebrate skeletal elements. There are three advantages in providing such resources: (1) All users can exploit the collections more efficiently. End-users can view specimens remotely and assess their nature, preservation quality and completeness - in some cases this may be sufficient. It will reduce the need for institutions to send specimens (which are often fragile and always irreplaceable) to researchers by post, or for researchers to make possibly long, expensive and environmentally damaging journeys. (2) A public outreach and education dividend - the ability to

  8. Extending the fossil record of Polytrichaceae: Early Cretaceous Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., permineralized gametophytes with gemma cups from Vancouver Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-04-01

    Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is a polytrichaceous moss that is described here. Fossil moss gametophytes preserved in four carbonate concretions were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., a polytrichaceous moss with terminal gemma cups containing stalked, lenticular gemmae. Leaves with characteristic costal anatomy, differentiated into sheathing base and free lamina and bearing photosynthetic lamellae, along with a conducting strand in the stem, place Meantoinea in family Polytrichaceae. The bistratose leaf lamina with an adaxial layer of mamillose cells, short photosynthetic lamellae restricted to the costa, and presence of gemma cups indicate affinities with basal members of the Polytrichaceae, such as Lyellia, Bartramiopsis, and Alophosia. Meantoinea alophosioides enriches the documented moss diversity of an already-diverse Early Cretaceous plant fossil assemblage. This is the third moss described from the Apple Bay plant fossil assemblage and represents the first occurrence of gemma cups in a fossil moss. It is also the oldest unequivocal record of Polytrichaceae, providing a hard minimum age for the group of 136 million years. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  10. Paleobotanical analysis of materials from fossil gopher burrows and upper pleistocene host deposits, the Kolyma River lower reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, D. A.; Zanina, O. G.

    2006-10-01

    The comparative analysis of palynomorphs and plant megafossils (fruits, seeds, twigs, leaves) in the Upper Pleistocene host sediments and materials filling in fossil burrows of gophers, their coprolites included, at the Duvannyi Yar, Stanchikovskii Yar and Zelenyi Mys sites of the Kolyma Lowland is carried out. Genera Salix, Lychnis, Silene, Draba, Potentilla, Larix, and families Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, and Leguminosae are determined among palynological remains and megafossils. Factors responsible for qualitative and quantitative differences in taxonomic compositions of palynological and megafossil assemblages are biological peculiarities of plants, different character of fossilization of palynomorphs and large plant remains, geographic conditions, different genesis of assemblages (allochthonous for microfossils and autochthonous for megafossils), and inadequately known morphology of certain spore and pollen taxa. The comprehensive paleobotanical analysis leads to the conclusion that the study region was occupied in the Late Pleistocene by plant communities of humid to somewhat dryer tundra with separate areas of pioneering and steppe vegetation.

  11. Comparing amber fossil assemblages across the Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, David; Langan, A Mark

    2006-06-22

    To justify faunistic comparisons of ambers that differ botanically, geographically and by age, we need to determine that resins sampled uniformly. Our pluralistic approach, analysing size distributions of 671 fossilized spider species from different behavioural guilds, demonstrates that ecological information about the communities of two well-studied ambers is retained. Several lines of evidence show that greater structural complexity of Baltic compared to Dominican amber trees explains the presence of larger web-spinners. No size differences occur in active hunters. Consequently, we demonstrate for the first time that resins were trapping organisms uniformly and that comparisons of amber palaeoecosystem structure across deep time are possible.

  12. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  13. Fossil Diatoms in a New Carbonaceous Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, J.; Wallis, D. H.; Samaranayake, Anil

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery for the first time of diatom frustules in a carbonaceous meteorite that fell in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka on 29 December 2012. Contamination is excluded by the circumstance that the elemental abundances within the structures match closely with those of the surrounding matrix. There is also evidence of structures morphologically similar to red rain cells that may have contributed to the episode of red rain that followed within days of the meteorite fall. The new data on "fossil" diatoms provide strong evidence to support the theory of cometary panspermia.

  14. Recent developments in biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Feng, Jinhui; Yu, Bo; Li, Fuli; Ma, Cuiqing

    2009-01-01

    The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

  15. The Features of Dasyclad Algae and the Dasycladaceae Fossils in Jiaonan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Songmei; Cheng Liren; Liu Diantao

    2000-01-01

    The features of all fossil assemblage from Jiaonan region are equal to those of the plant in the forth stage or the fifth stage. The time of samples association of Dasycladaceae algae in Jiaonan area should be in early Cretaceous period. The group of Dasycladaceae algae in Jiaonan region is marine plant, and belongs to the Tethys paleobotanic province. They began to distribute westward and eastward from Triassic period in a radiating way. And the geographical position was in tropical or subtropical zoneat that time.

  16. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-05-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  17. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2009-11-03

    Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction.

  18. Les bois fossiles mio-pliocènes de Nkondo (lac Albert, Ouganda), composition minéralogique et mode de formationThe Mio-Pliocene fossil woods from Nkondo (Lake Albert, Uganda), mineralogical composition and formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Delphine; Flicoteaux, René; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul; Médus, Jacques

    2000-08-01

    The fossil wood samples found in the Mio-Pliocene lacustrine sediments of the Nkondo Formation, on the eastern shore of Lake Albert (Uganda), have undergone different mineralisations. The first epigenetic replacement by hematite, goethite and apatite preserved the plant structures, whereas subsequent replacement by goethite erased it. Some precipitations likely to be of microbial origin are associated with the epigenesis in apatite. The characteristics of the different mineralisations reveal that the fossilisation of the wood samples started with their transportation into the lake and continued after their deposition into the ironstone levels that have yielded the fossil woods.

  19. Earth's early fossil record: Why not look for similar fossils on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awramik, Stanley M.

    1989-01-01

    The oldest evidence of life on Earth is discussed with attention being given to the structure and formation of stromatolites and microfossils. Fossilization of microbes in calcium carbonate or chert media is discussed. In searching for fossil remains on Mars, some lessons learned from the study of Earth's earliest fossil record can be applied. Certain sedimentary rock types and sedimentary rock configurations should be targeted for investigation and returned by the Martian rover and ultimately by human explorers. Domical, columnar to wavy laminated stratiform sedimentary rocks that resemble stromatolites should be actively sought. Limestone, other carbonates, and chert are the favored lithology. Being macroscopic, stromatolites might be recognized by an intelligent unmanned rover. In addition, black, waxy chert with conchoidal fracture should be sought. Chert is by far the preferred lithology for the preservation of microbes and chemical fossils. Even under optimal geological conditions (little or no metamorphism or tectonic alteration, excellent outcrops, and good black chert) and using experienced field biogeologists, the chances of finding well preserved microbial remains in chert are very low.

  20. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: generic structures of the FOSSIL2 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. In Volume I, an overview of the basic structures, assumptions, and behavior of the FOSSIL2 model is presented so that the reader can understand the results of various policy tests. The discussion covers the three major building blocks, or generic structures, used to construct the model: supply/demand balance; finance and capital formation; and energy production. These structures reflect the components and interactions of the major processes within each energy industry that directly affect the dynamics of fuel supply, demand, and price within the energy system as a whole.

  1. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, David; Eby, Michael; Brovkin, Victor; Ridgwell, Andy; Cao, Long; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Caldeira, Ken; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Munhoven, Guy; Montenegro, Alvaro; Tokos, Kathy

    2009-05-01

    CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere on timescales of a few centuries. However, a sizeable fraction of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere, awaiting a return to the solid earth by much slower weathering processes and deposition of CaCO3. Common measures of the atmospheric lifetime of CO2, including the e-folding time scale, disregard the long tail. Its neglect in the calculation of global warming potentials leads many to underestimate the longevity of anthropogenic global warming. Here, we review the past literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial results from a model intercomparison project on this topic. The models agree that 20-35% of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere after equilibration with the ocean (2-20 centuries). Neutralization by CaCO3 draws the airborne fraction down further on timescales of 3 to 7 kyr.

  2. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Cladistics and the hominid fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, E

    1990-09-01

    Cladistic methodology has become common in phylogenetic analyses of the hominid fossil record. Even though it has correctly placed emphasis on morphology for the primary determination of affinities between groups and on explicit statements regarding traits and methods employed in making phylogenetic assessments, cladistics nonetheless has limitations when applied to the hominid fossil record. These include 1) the uncritical assumption of parsimony, 2) uncertainties in the identification of homoplasies, 3) difficulties in the appropriate delimitation of samples for analysis, 4) failure to account for normal patterns of variation, 5) methodological problems with the appropriate identification of morphological traits involving issues of biological relevance, intercorrelation, primary versus secondary characters, and the use of continuous variables, 6) issues of polarity identification, and 7) problems in hypothesis testing. While cladistics has focused attention on alternative phylogenetic reconstructions in hominid paleontology and on explicit statements regarding their morphological and methodological underpinnings, its biological limitations are too abundant for it to be more than a heuristic device for the preliminary ordering of complex human paleontological and neonatological data.

  4. NEW MATERIAL OF FOSSIL PLANTS FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS MULING FORMATION OF THE JIXI BASIN, EASTERN HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA%黑龙江省东部鸡西盆地早白垩世穆棱组植物化石新材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小菊

    2003-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous flora from the Muling Formation of the Jixi Basin, Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China comprises 38 species, so far as known, belonging to 31 genera of high plants, of which 23 species of 22 genera are described here. The angiospermous leaves Asiatefolium elegans and Dicotylophyllum sp. are found in the Muling Formation for the first time. Cuticles of Tyrmia sp., Nilssoniopteris sp., Ginkgoites cf. sibirica, Sphenobaiera sp., Elatocladus manchurica are studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The flora is mainly composed of leptosporangiate ferns and gymnosperms. Most of them occurred in the Lower Cretaceous. The geological age of the Muling Formation and its flora may be Barremian and probably middle Barremian-early Aptian. No representatives of gymnosperms with needle-like leaves have been found in this flora. The occurrence of abundant tropical- or subtropical-type ferns implies a warm and humid climate dominating over the area. On the other hand, some deciduous gymnosperms including Ginkgoales, and the presence of growth rings in the fossil secondary wood, indicate seasonal changes. Paleophytogeographically, the flora belongs to the Early Cretaceous Siberian or Canada-Siberian province.%系统描述了最近采集的穆棱组植物化石22属23种,其中的两种被子植物叶化石均为具原始被子植物叶特征的小型叶, 在该植物群中尚属首次发现.运用扫描电镜(SEM)等方法对其中的Tyrmia sp.,Nilssoniopteris sp.,Ginkgoites cf.sibirica,Sphenobaiera sp.,Elatocladus manchurica等化石的叶角质层进行了研究.据已有的资料统计,穆棱组迄今已知有化石植物31属38种.该植物群以真蕨类占据绝对优势,裸子植物也相当丰富,其中的大多数种类主要见于早白垩世,穆棱组的地质时代应属早白垩世巴列姆期或巴列姆-阿普梯早期.植物组合中以丰富的热带及亚热带型植物为主要特点,未发现针叶类型的植物,说明早白垩世

  5. A Study of Interlanguage Fossilization in College Students' English writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹

    2014-01-01

    English writing is the college students’synthetical application about the knowledge of English. English writing, how-ever, is the weak segment of the college students' English learning all the time. Based on the researches home and abroad, the pa-per makes an implicational study on interlanguage fossilization in English writing of Chinese college students. Though probing the causes of fossilization in English writing, the paper proposes some measures to reduce the fossilization. In the chapter one, the paper introduces simply the interlanguage fossilization. In the chapter two, the paper analyzes college students English writing and get the causal factors of fossilization:unfavorite learning motivation of students, ineffective feedback to errors, interference of the mother tongue. Then , at the last chapter, the paper put up some measures to overcome and avoid the fossilization in college stu-dents' English writing:promoting students' motivation, providing right feedback, avoiding mother tongue interference.

  6. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  7. Sustainability of fossil fuels and alternative energies for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1989-01-01

    Reserves and production of fossil fuels in Turkey are discussed, as well as projections of production rates to the year 2010. Sustainability of fossil-fuel production has been estimated on the basis of presently known data. Fossil fuels will have a very limited lifetime. Bitumens, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind power, biomass, and nuclear energy are appropriate alternative technologies. The potentials of these alternatives are given and recommendations made to enhance their contributions. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

  9. International comparison of fossil power efficiency and CO2 intensity. Update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, E.

    2011-08-15

    This study is an update of the 2010 study and aims to compare fossil-fired power generation efficiency and CO2-intensity (coal, oil and gas) for Australia, China (including Hong Kong), France, Germany, India, Japan, Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway aggregated), South Korea, United Kingdom and Ireland, and United States. This selection of countries and regions is based on discussions with the client. United Kingdom and Ireland, and the Nordic countries are aggregated, because of the interconnection between their electricity grids. Although all electricity grids in Europe are interconnected, there are a number of markets that operate fairly independent. These are the Nordic market (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway), the Iberian market (Spain and Portugal), Central (Eastern European countries) and United Kingdom and Ireland. Only public power plants are taken into account, including public CHP plants. For the latter a correction for heat extraction has been applied. This chapter gives an overview of the fuel mix for power generation for the included countries and of the amount of fossil-fired power generation. The methodology for this study is described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the efficiency of fossil-fired power generation by fuel source. Chapter 4 gives the conclusions.

  10. International comparison of fossil power efficiency and CO2 intensity. Update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, E.

    2011-08-15

    This study is an update of the 2010 study and aims to compare fossil-fired power generation efficiency and CO2-intensity (coal, oil and gas) for Australia, China (including Hong Kong), France, Germany, India, Japan, Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway aggregated), South Korea, United Kingdom and Ireland, and United States. This selection of countries and regions is based on discussions with the client. United Kingdom and Ireland, and the Nordic countries are aggregated, because of the interconnection between their electricity grids. Although all electricity grids in Europe are interconnected, there are a number of markets that operate fairly independent. These are the Nordic market (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway), the Iberian market (Spain and Portugal), Central (Eastern European countries) and United Kingdom and Ireland. Only public power plants are taken into account, including public CHP plants. For the latter a correction for heat extraction has been applied. This chapter gives an overview of the fuel mix for power generation for the included countries and of the amount of fossil-fired power generation. The methodology for this study is described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the efficiency of fossil-fired power generation by fuel source. Chapter 4 gives the conclusions.

  11. Investigating the cores of fossil systems with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Sanders, J S; Schellenberger, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cores of fossil galaxy groups and clusters (`fossil systems') using archival Chandra data for a sample of 17 fossil systems. We determined the cool-core fraction for fossils via three observable diagnostics, the central cooling time, cuspiness, and concentration parameter. We quantified the dynamical state of the fossils by the X-ray peak/brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the X-ray peak/emission weighted centre separations. We studied the X-ray emission coincident with the BCG to detect the presence of potential thermal coronae. A deprojection analysis was performed for z < 0.05 fossils to obtain cooling time and entropy profiles, and to resolve subtle temperature structures. We investigated the Lx-T relation for fossils from the 400d catalogue to see if the scaling relation deviates from that of other groups. Most fossils are identified as cool-core objects via at least two cool-core diagnostics. All fossils have their dominant elliptical galaxy within 50 kpc of the X-ray peak, and mo...

  12. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.

  13. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  14. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  15. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however......, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  16. A chemical signal possibly related to physiology in fossil cells detected by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X

    2006-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) is a widely used tool employed to detect elemental composition and its spatial distribution in a sample without causing damage. Charcoalified cytoplasm is a new type of fossil material that came to people's attention only recently. In this paper, EDXMA is used for the first time to detect the spatial elemental distribution in charcoalified cytoplasm of two fossil plants that are more than 100 million years old. The results demonstrate certain elemental distribution patterns within charcoalified cytoplasm and the surrounding cell walls. Based on the results from cytological studies of extant material, the heterogeneous spatial elemental distribution within the charcoalified cytoplasm has the potential to be related to the maturation of cells, the presence of certain organelles, and the physiology of these organelles. This is the first chemical signal detected in cytoplasm residue that can possibly be related to plant physiology. This paves the way for further research on fossil cytoplasm, which will better our understanding on the physiology of fossil plants.

  17. High-resolution global fossil fuel CO2 emissions for 1992 to 2010 using integrated in-situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Huang, J.; Song, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The largest single net source of CO2 into the Earth's atmosphere is due to the combustion of fossil fuel and an accurate quantification of the fossil fuel flux is needed to better address the concern of rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In the last decade, there has been a growing need, from both the science and policymaking communities for quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions at finer space and time scales. Motivated by this concern, we have built a global fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory at 0.25° and 0.1° resolutions for the years of 1992 - 2010 using a combination of in situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS). A suite of observations which include nightlights, population, sectoral national emissions and power plant stations are used to constrain the FFDAS model. FFDAS is based on a modified Kaya identity which expresses emissions as the product of areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity of economic activity, and carbon intensity of energy consumption. Nightlights has been shown to correlate well with national and regional GDP and its relationship with population has been used as an initial means of downscaling fossil fuel emissions. However nightlights data are subject to instrumental saturation, causing areas of bright nightlights, such as urban cores, to be truncated. To address the saturation problem during several time periods, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has requested and received data collected at multiple fixed gain settings to observe the bright areas with no saturation. However, this dataset is limited to only four years (1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010). We have applied a numerical technique to these four years of data to estimate the unsaturated values for all years from 1992 to 2010. The corrected nightlights time series is then used in FFDAS to generate a multiyear fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product. Nightlights and population

  18. The molecular fossil record of oleanane and its relation to angiosperms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.; Huizinga, J.; Fago, F.J.; Hickey, L.J.; Peakman, T.M.; Taylor, D.W. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences)

    1994-08-05

    Oleanane has been reported in Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary source rocks and their related oils and has been suggested as a marker for flowering plants. Correspondence of oleanane concentrations relative to the ubiquitous microbial marker 17[alpha]-hopane with angiosperm diversification (Neocomian to Miocene) suggests that oleanane concentrations in migrated petroleum can be used to identify the maximum age of unknown or unavailable source rock. Rare occurrences of pre-Cretaceous oleanane suggest either that a separate lineage leads to the angiosperms well before the Early Cretaceous or that other plant groups have the rarely expressed ability to synthesize oleanane precursors. The authors also isolated 18[alpha]-oleanane from an extract of a Pennsylvanian coal ball, a calcium carbonate concretion containing well-preserved plant material from Illinois, USA. The coal ball represents localized input of vascular plants from a relatively narrow selection of species. Thus at least two samples show oleanane that predates the earliest accepted angiosperm fossil.

  19. Quantifying fossil fuel CO2 from continuous measurements of APO: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickers, Penelope; Manning, Andrew C.; Forster, Grant L.; van der Laan, Sander; Wilson, Phil A.; Wenger, Angelina; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Using atmospheric measurements to accurately quantify CO2 emissions from fossil fuel sources requires the separation of biospheric and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. The ability to quantify the fossil fuel component of CO2 (ffCO2) from atmospheric measurements enables more accurate 'top-down' verification of CO2 emissions inventories, which frequently have large uncertainty. Typically, ffCO2 is quantified (in ppm units) from discrete atmospheric measurements of Δ14CO2, combined with higher resolution atmospheric CO measurements, and with knowledge of CO:ffCO2 ratios. In the United Kingdom (UK), however, measurements of Δ14CO2 are often significantly biased by nuclear power plant influences, which limit the use of this approach. We present a novel approach for quantifying ffCO2 using measurements of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen; a tracer derived from concurrent measurements of CO2 and O2) from two measurement sites in Norfolk, UK. Our approach is similar to that used for quantifying ffCO2 from CO measurements (ffCO2(CO)), whereby ffCO2(APO) = (APOmeas - APObg)/RAPO, where (APOmeas - APObg) is the APO deviation from the background, and RAPO is the APO:CO2 combustion ratio for fossil fuel. Time varying values of RAPO are calculated from the global gridded COFFEE (CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate) dataset, combined with NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) transport model footprints. We compare our ffCO2(APO) results to results obtained using the ffCO2(CO) method, using CO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios (RCO) from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) database. We find that the APO ffCO2 quantification method is more precise than the CO method, owing primarily to a smaller range of possible APO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios, compared to the CO:CO2 emission ratio range. Using a long-term dataset of atmospheric O2, CO2, CO and Δ14CO2 from Lutjewad, The Netherlands, we examine the

  20. Paleoarchean trace fossils in altered volcanic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; DeWit, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Microbial corrosion textures in volcanic glass from Cenozoic seafloor basalts and the corresponding titanite replacement microtextures in metamorphosed Paleoarchean pillow lavas have been interpreted as evidence for a deep biosphere dating back in time through the earliest periods of preserved life on earth. This interpretation has been recently challenged for Paleoarchean titanite replacement textures based on textural and geochronological data from pillow lavas in the Hooggenoeg Complex of the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We use this controversy to explore the strengths and weaknesses of arguments made in support or rejection of the biogenicity interpretation of bioalteration trace fossils in Cenozoic basalt glasses and their putative equivalents in Paleoarchean greenstones. Our analysis suggests that biogenicity cannot be taken for granted for all titanite-based textures in metamorphosed basalt glass, but a cautious and critical evaluation of evidence suggests that biogenicity remains the most likely interpretation for previously described titanite microtextures in Paleoarchean pillow lavas. PMID:26038543

  1. Paleoarchean trace fossils in altered volcanic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; DeWit, Maarten

    2015-06-02

    Microbial corrosion textures in volcanic glass from Cenozoic seafloor basalts and the corresponding titanite replacement microtextures in metamorphosed Paleoarchean pillow lavas have been interpreted as evidence for a deep biosphere dating back in time through the earliest periods of preserved life on earth. This interpretation has been recently challenged for Paleoarchean titanite replacement textures based on textural and geochronological data from pillow lavas in the Hooggenoeg Complex of the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We use this controversy to explore the strengths and weaknesses of arguments made in support or rejection of the biogenicity interpretation of bioalteration trace fossils in Cenozoic basalt glasses and their putative equivalents in Paleoarchean greenstones. Our analysis suggests that biogenicity cannot be taken for granted for all titanite-based textures in metamorphosed basalt glass, but a cautious and critical evaluation of evidence suggests that biogenicity remains the most likely interpretation for previously described titanite microtextures in Paleoarchean pillow lavas.

  2. Fossil birds of the Kibish Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine; Haile-Selassie, Y; Vignaud, P; Likius, A; Brunet, M

    2008-09-01

    The Kibish Formation has yielded a small collection of bird fossils, which are identified here as belonging to five species in four different families: Pelecanidae (pelicans), Anhingidae (darters), Ardeidae (herons) and Phasianidae (gamefowl). Two species of pelicans are identified: Pelecanus cf. P. onocrotalus, and P. aff. P. rufescens. The darter is referrable to Anhinga melanogaster. The heron is identifiable as Ardea sp., and the gamefowl as Numidinae indet. (guineafowl). Pelecanus cf. P. onocrotalus is represented by, among other remains, a well-preserved partial skull. Four of the birds are thus referrable to extant taxa that provide some paleoenvironmental clues for Member I of the Kibish Formation. The two species of pelican, the darter, and the heron indicate the presence of local freshwater bodies, a lake or a slow river, supporting resources of fish. The guineafowl is poorly informative ecologically, but probably excludes the notion that the local terrestrial landscape was treeless.

  3. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere.

  4. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  5. FAST FOSSIL ROTATION OF NEUTRON STAR CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melatos, A., E-mail: amelatos@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2012-12-10

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  6. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  7. Beyond fossil calibrations: Realities of molecular clock practices in evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Anna Hipsley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular-based divergence dating methods, or molecular clocks, are the primary neontological tool for estimating the temporal origins of clades. While the appropriate use of vertebrate fossils as external clock calibrations has stimulated heated discussions in the paleontological community, less attention has been given to the quality and implementation of other calibration types. In lieu of appropriate fossils, many studies rely on alternative sources of age constraints based on geological events, substitution rates and heterochronous sampling, as well as dates secondarily derived from previous analyses. To illustrate the breadth and frequency of calibration types currently employed, we conducted a literature survey of over 600 articles published from 2007 to 2013. Over half of all analyses implemented one or more fossil dates as constraints, followed by geological events and secondary calibrations (15% each. Vertebrate taxa were subjects of nearly half of all studies, while invertebrates and plants together accounted for 43%, followed by viruses, protists and fungi (3% each. Current patterns in calibration practices were disproportionate to the number of discussions on their proper use, particularly regarding plants and secondarily derived dates, which are both relatively neglected. Based on our survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest approaches in clock calibration, and outline strengths and weaknesses associated with each. This critique should serve as a call to action for researchers across multiple communities, particularly those working on clades for which fossil records are poor, to develop their own guidelines regarding selection and implementation of alternative calibration types. This issue is particularly relevant now, as time-calibrated phylogenies are used for more than dating evolutionary origins, but often serve as the backbone of investigations into biogeography, diversity dynamics and rates of phenotypic

  8. Beyond fossil calibrations: realities of molecular clock practices in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsley, Christy A; Müller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-based divergence dating methods, or molecular clocks, are the primary neontological tool for estimating the temporal origins of clades. While the appropriate use of vertebrate fossils as external clock calibrations has stimulated heated discussions in the paleontological community, less attention has been given to the quality and implementation of other calibration types. In lieu of appropriate fossils, many studies rely on alternative sources of age constraints based on geological events, substitution rates and heterochronous sampling, as well as dates secondarily derived from previous analyses. To illustrate the breadth and frequency of calibration types currently employed, we conducted a literature survey of over 600 articles published from 2007 to 2013. Over half of all analyses implemented one or more fossil dates as constraints, followed by geological events and secondary calibrations (15% each). Vertebrate taxa were subjects in nearly half of all studies, while invertebrates and plants together accounted for 43%, followed by viruses, protists and fungi (3% each). Current patterns in calibration practices were disproportionate to the number of discussions on their proper use, particularly regarding plants and secondarily derived dates, which are both relatively neglected in methodological evaluations. Based on our survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest approaches in clock calibration, and outline strengths and weaknesses associated with each. This critique should serve as a call to action for researchers across multiple communities, particularly those working on clades for which fossil records are poor, to develop their own guidelines regarding selection and implementation of alternative calibration types. This issue is particularly relevant now, as time-calibrated phylogenies are used for more than dating evolutionary origins, but often serve as the backbone of investigations into biogeography, diversity dynamics and rates of

  9. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  10. Fossil micro-organisms evidenced by electronic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prashnowsky, A.A.; Oberlies, F.; Burger, K.

    1983-04-01

    Fossil microorganisms in colonies and in the form of isolated cells (iron bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes etc.) were detected by electron microscopy of rocks containing remains of plant roots, carbonaceous substance, and strata of clay iron stone with ooids. These findings suggest an environment favourable to bacterial activity during sedimentation in the Upper Carboniferous and during the later processes of peat and coal formation. They also suggest that bacterial processes are an important factor in coal formation. Accurate data on coal formation can only be obtained by systematic biochemical studies. Analyses of the defined organic substances provide a better understanding of the conversion processes of the original substances. For example, the results of sterine analysis provide information on the mycoplancton, phytoplancton and zooplancton of the Upper Carboniferous. For some types of rock, the ratio of saponifiable to non-saponifiable constituents of the organic compounds yield information on stability under various geochemical conditions. The interactions between the various groups of microorganisms also play a major role in the solution of ecological problems.

  11. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program: April 1, 1993--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. [comp.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with a focus on the longer-term needs for materials with general applicability to the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. The scope of the Program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1995, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. It is the intent of this series of bibliographies to list only those publications that can be conveniently obtained by a researcher through relatively normal channels. The publications listed in this document have been limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles. 159 refs.

  12. Literature Review of Fossilization Research in Interlanguage Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠维露

    2015-01-01

    Fossilization has always been a hot area of research for many years, the overcoming of which has been many scholars' top concerns. This thesis reviews the definition, classification, causes and characteristics of fossilization. Also, the research limitations are presented with suggestions for more empirical future study provided.

  13. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  14. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  15. Size variation in samples of fossil and recent murid teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín Suárez, E.

    1990-01-01

    The variability coefficient proposed by Freudenthal & Cuenca Bescós (1984) for samples of fossil cricetid teeth, is calculated for about 200 samples of fossil and recent murid teeth. The results are discussed, and compared with those obtained for the Cricetidae.

  16. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  17. Fossil remains of fungi, algae and other organisms from Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fungal remains and other fossils from Cainophytic strata of Jamaica have been compared with species described in mycological and algological publications. Only in a few cases morphologically related taxons have been encountered. The stratigraphie significance of these Jamaican fossils is unknown as

  18. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  19. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  20. Size variation in samples of fossil and recent murid teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín Suárez, E.

    1990-01-01

    The variability coefficient proposed by Freudenthal & Cuenca Bescós (1984) for samples of fossil cricetid teeth, is calculated for about 200 samples of fossil and recent murid teeth. The results are discussed, and compared with those obtained for the Cricetidae.

  1. The financial impact of divestment from fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Divesting from fossil companies has been put forward as a means to address climate change. We study the impact of such divesting on investment portfolio performance. To this extent, we systematically investigate the investment performance of portfolios with and without fossil fuel company stocks. We

  2. Fossil Odobenidae in some Dutch collections (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cranial and five postcranial fossil specimens are described and identified as remains of Odobenidae. Two of these (one, from Rhenen, certainly, and the other tentatively) are ascribed to the fossil, Early Pleistocene Odobenus huxleyi (Lankester, 1865), the others to the recent form, O.

  3. Fossilization of Oral Comoetence and Enlightenments on Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桂花

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is going m demonstrate the fossilized or fossilizing tendency in oral productions, to explore its underlying causes and to probe possible approaches to postpone or defossilize these phenomena in oral language training and teaching so that the overall level of oral competence for English learners can be further promoted.

  4. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  5. The preliminary study of urbanization, fossil fuels consumptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... As a result the demand of more energy in form of fossil fuels increased for domestic ... Key words: Urbanization, fossil fuels, CO2 emission, energy consumption, population growth. ..... energy and biofuels. It will help to reduce ...

  6. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  7. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  8. The financial impact of divestment from fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Divesting from fossil companies has been put forward as a means to address climate change. We study the impact of such divesting on investment portfolio performance. To this extent, we systematically investigate the investment performance of portfolios with and without fossil fuel company stocks. We

  9. Implication of IL Fossilization in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Since the phenomenon of fossilization in interlanguage is proposed by Selinker in 1972, it has drawn much attention and commonly acknowledged at home and abroad. This paper introduces the definition, classification, presentation, and causal factors of fossilization in an attempt to help Chinese students better understand the phenomenon and avoid…

  10. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  11. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    , exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  12. World catalog of extant and fossil Corethrellidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art

    2014-05-20

    A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.

  13. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth-death clock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S S; Grimm, Guido W; Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The fossilized birth-death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62-43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51-39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20-1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Fossil Group Origins. VI. Global X-ray scaling relations of fossil galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kundert, A; D'Onghia, E; Girardi, M; Aguerri, J A L; Barrena, R; Corsini, E M; De Grandi, S; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Lozada-Muñoz, M; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Wilcots, E; Zarattini, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the first pointed X-ray observations of ten candidate fossil galaxy groups and clusters. With these Suzaku observations, we determine global temperatures and bolometric X-ray luminosities of the intracluster medium (ICM) out to $r_{500}$ for six systems in our sample. The remaining four systems show signs of significant contamination from non-ICM sources. For the six objects with successfully determined $r_{500}$ properties, we measure global temperatures between $2.8 \\ \\mathrm{keV} \\leq T_{\\mathrm{X}} \\leq 5.3 \\ \\mathrm{keV}$, bolometric X-ray luminosities of $0.6 \\times 10^{44} \\ \\mathrm{ergs} \\ \\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\leq L_{\\mathrm{X,bol}} \\leq 7.2\\times 10^{44} \\ \\mathrm{ergs} \\ \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, and estimate masses, as derived from $T_{\\mathrm{X}}$, of $M_{500} \\gtrsim 10^{14} \\ \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$. Scaling relations are constructed for an assembled sample of fossil and non-fossil systems using global X-ray luminosities, temperatures, optical luminosities, and velocity dispersions. The fit of the sc...

  15. [Infrared spectroscopy and XRD studies of coral fossils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan-li; Zhou, Guan-min; Yin, Zuo-wei

    2012-08-01

    Coral fossil is an old remain of multicellular animal on the earth, and formed by various geological processes. The structural characteristics and compositions of the coral fossils with different color and radial texture on the surface were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses. The results show that the studied coral fossils mainly are composed of SiO2, and the radial microstructure characterized by the calcareous coral cross-section is preserved. It is formed by metasomatism by SiO2. The infrared absorption spectra of the coral fossil with different color and texture are essentially the same, showing typical infrared absorption spectra of the quartz jade. XRD analysis shows that the main components of the coral fossils with different color and texture are consistent and mainly composed of SiO2 with a trace amount of other minerals and without CaCO3.

  16. Combination of Raman, infrared, and X-ray energy-dispersion spectroscopies and X-ray d diffraction to study a fossilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa Filho, Francisco Eduardo de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil); Joao Herminio da Silva [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Cariri, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Saraiva, Antonio Alamo Feitosa; Brito, Deyvid Dennys S. [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil); Viana, Bartolomeu Cruz [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI, (Brazil); Abagaro, Bruno Tavares de Oliveira; Freire, Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante, E-mail: tarso@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    X-ray diffraction was combined with X-ray energy-dispersion, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopies to study the fossilization of a Cretaceous specimen of the plant Brachyphyllum castilhoi, a fossil from the Ipubi Formation, in the Araripe Sedimentary Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Among the possible fossilization processes, which could involve pyrite, silicon oxide, calcium oxide, or other minerals, we were able to single out pyritization as the central mechanism producing the fossil, more than 100 million years ago. In addition to expanding the knowledge of the Ipubi Formation, this study shows that, when combined with other experimental techniques, Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool at the paleontologist's disposal. (author)

  17. Divergence time estimates of mammals from molecular clocks and fossils: Relevance of new fossil finds from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V R Prasad

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a brief review of recent advances in the classification of mammals at higher levels using fossils and molecular clocks. It also discusses latest fossil discoveries from the Cretaceous – Eocene (66–55 m.y.) rocks of India and their relevance to our current understanding of placental mammal origins and diversifications.

  18. Planning of the district heating system in copenhagen from an economic perspective comparing energy-savings versus fossil-free supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    The Danish government has adopted a long-term energy policy of being independent of fossil fuels by 2050, and that the energy supply for buildings should be independent of fossil fuels by 2035. Therefore, urgent action is needed to meet the requirements for the future energy system. One way...... geothermal heating plants, may lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build compared to implementing energy savings. Therefore reducing heat demand of existing buildings before investing in supply capacity will save society half the investment, indicating the importance of carrying out...

  19. The assessment of size in fossil felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O' Regan, H.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of body size in fossil vertebrates depend on establishing the relationships between body mass, overall length or some measure of stature and measurements taken on skeletal elements in living relatives or close proxies. However, most osteological collections lack information on body size for individual specimens, and published investigations usually fa11 back on summary data derived from the literature to plot against measurements taken directly on the skeletal material. The utility of such approaches beyond very general indications of size is open to question. In an effort to reduce these problems we attempt to establish some objective basis for using skeletal elements for the purpose of size estimation in the larger Felidae of the genus Panthera, using data for the jaguar, Panthera onca. We show that cranial length offers a good indication of overall size in the living animal, and that various other cranial dimensions correlate closely with that measurement, while individual teeth, despite their frequent occurrence in assemblages, show a looser relationship and therefore appear less useful for size estimations of fossil material than has been thought.Las estimaciones de la talla corporal en vertebrados fósiles depende de las relaciones establecidas entre el peso corporal, la longitud total o alguna medida de estatura tomada de los elementos esqueléticos de animales actuales emparentados o muy afines. Sin embargo, en muchas colecciones osteológicas falta información sobre la talla corporal de los ejemplares, de forma que las investigaciones publicadas usualmente recurren a datos sintetizados de la literatura que se relacionan con medidas tomadas directamente del material esquelético. La utilidad de estas aproximaciones más allá de indicaciones generales sobre la talla es discutible. En un esfuerzo de minimizar estos problemas intentamos establecer bases objetivas para el uso de los elementos esqueléticos con el propósito de

  20. Contextualizing avian mortality. A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies. (author)

  1. Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

  2. Technological research and development of fossil fuels; Ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico per lo sfruttamento ottimale dei combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-05-01

    The aim of the present document is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this effort are: (1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; (2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this document the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environment problems and alternative fuels, such as biomasses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increasing fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (National Agency for New technologies, Energy and the Environment) Engineering Branch in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented.

  3. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Jin Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the

  4. 78 FR 9016 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Revisions to Fossil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...; Revisions to Fossil Fuel Utilization and Source Registration Regulations and Boiler Industrial Standards... revisions add new monitoring, inspection, maintenance and testing requirements for certain fossil fuel... approval of the state's revised fossil fuel utilization facility regulation, source registration...

  5. Biochar, a substitute for fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Akankshya; Samantray, R.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The present piece of research is envisaged for the possibilities and usefulness of coco peat (coir dust) which is generally not considered for usefulness. Pyrolysis of coco peat was done at two different temperatures to obtain biochars and their properties were investigated. Proximate analysis gave the fixed carbon content which gave a good value for the required purpose. Characterization techniques like Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy were employed. It was observed that depending on the pyrolysis temperature and conditions, new substances formed, the diffraction peaks changed and also there were major changes in functional groups. The cross-links were found to disintegrate with increasing temperature. The peaks unveiled the presence of silicon carbide in the biochar pyrolysed at 1000ºC. The change in the functional groups with increase in temperature manifested higher aromaticity which is an important attribute of fuels viz. petroleum, etc. Thus the present investigation can open up a new era for processing biochar from unutilized biowaste for its use as an alternative to fossil fuels.

  6. Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the central articulations, which raises cautions about reconstructing the mobility of fossil vertebrates. A 3D-model of the Late Triassic turtle Proganochelys quenstedti reveals that this early stem turtle was able to retract its head by tucking it sideways below the shell. The simple ventrolateral bend seen in this stem turtle, however, contrasts with the complex double-bend of extant turtles. The initial evolution of neck retraction therefore occurred in a near-synchrony with the origin of the turtle shell as a place to hide the unprotected neck. In this early, simplified retraction mode, the conical osteoderms on the neck provided further protection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  8. Origin of Metazoa: Sponges as Living Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E. G.

    1998-01-01

    , which code for proteins. The analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences allowed a molecular biological approach to solve the problem of monophyly of Metazoa. Molecules of the extracellular matrix/basal lamina, with the integrin receptor, fibronectin, and galectin as prominent examples, cell-surface receptors (tyrosine kinase receptor), elements of sensory systems (crystallin, metabotropic glutamate receptor), and homologs/modules of an immune system (immunoglobulin like molecules, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich, and short consensus repeats, rhesus system) classify the Porifera as true Metazoa. As living fossils, provided with simple, primordial molecules allowing cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion as well as processes of signal transduction as known in a more complex manner from higher Metazoa, they also show peculiarities not known in other metazoan phyla. Tissues of sponges are rich in telomerase activity, suggesting a high plasticity in the determination of cell lineages. It is concluded that molecular biological studies with sponges as model will not only help to understand the evolution of Protoctista to Metazoa but also the complex, hierarchial regulatory network of cells in higher Metazoa.

  9. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  10. The first darter (Aves: Anhingidae) fossils from India (late Pliocene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Thomas; Patnaik, Rajeev; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Singla, Ankita; Kotla, Simran S

    2017-01-01

    New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia. These fossil specimens begin to fill in a significant geographic and temporal gap in the fossil record of this group that is largely known from other continents and other time periods. The presence of a darter and pelican (along with crabs, fish, turtles, and crocodilians) in the same fossil-bearing horizon strongly indicates the past presence of a substantial water body (large pond, lake, or river) in the interior of northern India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.

  11. Molecular hydrogen isotope analysis of living and fossil plants——Metasequoia as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yang; Qin Leng

    2009-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen isotope analysis preformed on modern and fossil plants has made a significant impact on diverse research fields in biology and geology. Using living and fossil Metasequoia as an example, we review the technology of online GC-IRMS that made the molecular analysis of hydrogen isotope possible and discuss critical issues concerning with the studies of molecular δD and its applica-tions. The apparent hydrogen fractionation factors between lipid molecules and source water (δwater lipid) vary across plant taxonomy and differ among biomolecules and are affected by multiple environmental factors in which precipitation δD values exercise the first order of control. Eco-physiological factors and environmental parameters are also known to influence δD in plants. Molecular hydrogen isotope analysis of chemically stable lipid molecules, such as n-alkanes, finds a wide range of applications in detecting source sediments, recon-struction of paleoclimatic parameters, inference of air-mass trajectory, as well as in petroleum industry and environmental studies.2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Fossil evidence for a hyperdiverse sclerophyll flora under a non-Mediterranean-type climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale Sniderman, J. M.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Cowling, Richard M.

    2013-02-01

    The spectacular diversity of sclerophyll plants in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa and Australia's Southwest Floristic Region has been attributed to either explosive radiation on infertile soils under fire-prone, summer-dry climates or sustained accretion of species under inferred stable climate regimes. However, the very poor fossil record of these regions has made these ideas difficult to test. Here, we reconstruct ecological-scale plant species richness from an exceptionally well-preserved fossil flora. We show that a hyperdiverse sclerophyll flora existed under high-rainfall, summer-wet climates in the Early Pleistocene in southeastern Australia. The sclerophyll flora of this region must, therefore, have suffered subsequent extinctions to result in its current relatively low diversity. This regional loss of sclerophyll diversity occurred at the same time as a loss of rainforest diversity and cannot be explained by ecological substitution of species of one ecological type by another type. We show that sclerophyll hyperdiversity has developed in distinctly non-Mediterranean climates, and this diversity is, therefore, more likely a response to long-term climate stability. Climate stability may have both reduced the intensity of extinctions associated with the Pleistocene climate cycles and promoted the accumulation of species richness by encouraging genetic divergence between populations and discouraging plant dispersal.

  13. Notes on fish, reptilian, and several fragmentary mammalian dental fossils from the Pondaung Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Egi, Naoko; Takai, Masanaru

    2006-01-01

    We provide photos of fish and reptile fossils and several fragmentary mammalian dento-gnathic fossils from the Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar with description of primate-like dento-gnathic fossils. The figured fossils consist of four specimens of fishes, 11 specimens of reptiles (two vertebral specimens of snake-like reptile, six lower jaws of agamid lizard, three jaws of indeterminate lizard, and two teeth of crocodile), and 42 specimens of mammals (24 fragmentary fossils, 12 fossils o...

  14. New record of a fossil haplotilapiine cichlid from Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie B. R. Penk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African freshwater cichlids (Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae are well known for their exceptionally great diversity and their capability of rapid speciation as well as diverse adaptations. The extant Pseudocrenilabrinae can be grouped into 27 tribes, with more than 2000 species harbored in the Great Lakes and surrounding water bodies of the East African Rift System. However, this unique diversity is not reflected in the fossil record because fossil cichlids were predominantly reported based on isolated teeth and bones. Moreover, the few articulated specimens that are known have not been analyzed sufficiently with regard to their systematic position due to lack of comparative material. Here we present a new extraordinarily well-preserved cichlid fish fossil from the Middle Miocene (c. 12.5 Ma Lagerstaette Kabchore, which was recovered during recent fieldwork in the Tugen Hills (Baringo County, Central Kenya Rift. Based on the evidence of tricuspid teeth, the Kabchore fossil can be assigned to the subclade of the Haplotilapiines within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. The multivariate analysis of a large meristic data set, derived from 1014 extant specimens (encompassing all main lineages of Haplotilapiines and usage of available osteological data suggest that this fossil is most likely related to one of the three haplotilapiine tribes Tilapiini, Haplochromini or Oreochromini. Moreover, the fossil specimen closely resembles the extinct cichlid Oreochromis martyni (Van Couvering, 1982, previously described as species of Sarotherodon from the Middle Miocene alkaline Kapkiamu Lake in the Tugen Hills. The analysis of the greatly preserved fossil fish specimen from Kabchore definitely supplements the fragmentary fossil record of Africa’s Cichlidae and will afford new insights into its evolutionary history. We also expect that this fossil will be useful as calibration point for new divergence-time estimates.

  15. Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

    2010-09-15

    Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

  16. Structure and evolution of fossil H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccray, R.; Schwarz, J.

    1971-01-01

    The structure and evolution of a fossil H II region created by a burst of ionizing radiation from a supernova is considered. The cooling time scale for the shell is about 10 to the 6th power years. Superposition of million-year-old fossil H II regions may account for the temperature and ionization of the interstellar medium. Fossil H II regions are unstable to growth of thermal condensations. Highly ionized filamentary structures form and dissipate in about 10,000 years. Partially ionized clouds form and dissipate in about 10 to the 6th power years.

  17. Fossil fuel prospects for the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, R.C. [Institute on Energy and Man, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The consumption of fossil fuels for power generation to sustain global economic development is bound to fail, it is argued. By examining data on global natural gas, coal and petroleum reserves, in relation to historic data and various forecasts for economic and industrial growth measures (as fossil fuel consumption total use and per capita use) the author points out two inevitable consequences of fossil fuel consumption, subsoil depletion and environmental damage, and reveals the urgent necessity to find a new primary energy source. (UK)

  18. A Study of Dispelling Lexical Fossilization for English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Ai-ling

    2016-01-01

    Fossilization was first proposed by the famous British linguist Larry Selinker in his article Interlanguage in 1972. Non-English majors make many lexical errors in the process of English writings in universities. Therefore, their writing levels may reach a plateau and fail to make progress. Once English vocabulary is fossilized, it will prevent the development of students’ writing competence. Inspired and stimulated by the observation of lexical errors in the university, the author intends to explore effective and feasible methods of dispelling lexical fossilization from the perspective of the theories of prototype and basic-level category and tries to provide a useful supplement in this area.

  19. Fossil proboscidea and edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, James Williams

    1926-01-01

    A preliminary report on the fossil vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collected by Kirk Bryan and me in the winter of 1920 and 1921 was published in 1922. This report includes a brief statement regarding the geology of the locality and a preliminary list of fossil vertebrates obtained by the expedition of 1921, with descriptions of the rodents and rabbits. Two additional papers on this interesting fauna have also appeared, one on the turtles by C.W. Gilmore and one on the birds by Alexander Wetmore. The present contribution deals with the proboscideans and edentates and gives a somewhat fuller discussion of the geology of the fossil-bearing beds.

  20. Challenges faced when using radiocarbon measurements to estimate fossil fuel emissions in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Allen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating the anthropogenic component of carbon dioxide emissions from direct atmospheric measurements is difficult, due to the large natural carbon dioxide fluxes. One way of determining the fossil fuel component of atmospheric carbon dioxide is the use of radiocarbon measurements. Whilst carbon reservoirs with a reasonably fast carbon exchange rate all have a similar radiocarbon content, fossil fuels are completely devoid of radiocarbon due to their age. Previous studies have 14CO2 (UK) this approach is compromised by the high density of 14CO2 emitting nuclear power plants. Of the 16 nuclear reactors in the UK, 14 are advanced gas cooled reactors, which have one of the highest 14CO2 emission rates of all reactor types. These radiocarbon emissions not only lead to a serious underestimation of the recently added fossil fuel CO2, by masking the depletion of 14C in CO2, but can in fact overshadow the depletion by a factor of 2 or more. While a correction for this enhancement can be applied, the emissions from the nuclear power plants are highly variable, and an accurate correction is therefore not straightforward. We present the first attempt to quantify UK fossil fuel CO2 emissions through the use of 14CO2. We employ a sampling strategy that makes use of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, in combination with nuclear industry emission estimates, to forecast "good" sampling times, in an attempt to minimize the correction due to emissions from the nuclear industry. As part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project, 14CO2measurements are performed at two measurement sites in the UK and Ireland, as well as during science flights around the UK. The measurement locations have been chosen with a focus on high emitting regions such as London and the Midlands. We discuss the unique challenges that face the determination of fossil fuel emissions through radiocarbon measurements in the UK and our sampling strategy to deal with them. In addition we

  1. Fossil energy will take the most lives; The catastrophe in Japan; Fossil energi tar flest liv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovland, Kjetil Malkenes; Nilsen, Jannicke; Seehusen, Joachim; Valmot, Odd Richard

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear accident in Japan has blown life into the debate about nuclear power's future. But to replace nuclear power with fossil fuels will likely lead to more death. Examples of energy-related deaths: Hydropower - nearly 30 000 people dead and millions of buildings disappeared when Banqio Dam in China collapsed in 1975. Coal Production - 2433 died in Chinese coal mines in 2010; nuclear power - there have been 20 nuclear accidents with fatalities. Oil - in the period 1969 - 2000 3700 people died in connection with oil production in OECD countries. (AG)

  2. Before the turning point. Pt. 1. Fossil energy economy; Vor dem Scheitelpunkt. T. 1. Fossile Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas [' Energy Watch Group' (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Energy policy has so far neglected the real availability of energy resources. From the global point of view a dramatic shortage of fossil fuels must be expected; uranium is even now in short supply. At the same time, the availability of renewable energy sources has increased faster than even optimists would have expected. To develop realistic strategies, energy policy, energy economy and also the general public need more objective information and greater transparency. Because of this, the Energy Watch Group meticulousnessly gathered, analysed and combined data to make them available. (orig./GL)

  3. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  4. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management.

  5. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary`s Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management.

  6. Controversies on Energy: Fossil, hydroelectric, nuclear, renewable; Les controverses de l'energie. Fossile, hydroelectrique, nucleaire, renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romerio, F

    2007-07-01

    In Switzerland, energy policy was the subject of several referendums and decision takings in the past few decades. This book explains the numerous aspects to be considered when choosing a strategy which should warrant in the future a sufficient and safe access to energy, with a special emphasis on electric power. There is a tight, but not linear, coupling between the price of energy and the economic development. The pollution of environment induced by the use of fossil energy jeopardizes the survival of our Earth planet. Modeling the effects of the pollution is difficult and inaccurate because of complex feedbacks. In order to conciliate development progress, energy and environment, technology is needed but at the same time involves risks. In order to warrant the life quality in the long run, it is necessary to move to a sustainable development, which implies technological progress and changing the individual behaviours. The safety of the energy supply is warranted by diversifying the energy sources. But accurately define the mid and long term goals and also adapt the instruments which should enable their achievement, is a very demanding task. Privatising the electricity production and distribution networks leads in principle to increasing competition, but the electricity price becomes very variable with huge daily and seasonal fluctuations. To date, Switzerland counts 900 electric utilities. Opening the electricity market induces concentration and company merges. To promote an energy strategy, it is necessary to face in a lump the technological, economical and social realities. In the long run, renewable energies: small-scale hydroelectric power plants, biomass, wind, photovoltaics, geothermal energy, should have an important share in electricity production. In the mid term, natural gas and nuclear reactors will be used as transition energy sources. But all electric power plants, whenever nuclear or gas, or even renewable (as for instance wind power plants) must

  7. Instrumentation and Control for Fossil-Energy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation and control requirements for fossil-energy processes discussed in working document. Published to foster advancement of instrumentation and control technology by making equipment suppliers and others aware of specifications, needs, and potential markets.

  8. Formative Assessment Probes: Mountaintop Fossil: A Puzzling Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue describes using formative assessment probes to uncover several ways of thinking about the puzzling discovery of a marine fossil on top of a mountain.

  9. Legislative and Regulatory Timeline for Fossil Fuel Combustion Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This timeline walks through the history of fossil fuel combustion waste regulation since 1976 and includes information such as regulations, proposals, notices, amendments, reports and meetings and site visits conducted.

  10. First Record of Fossil Mesocupes from China (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Cupedidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three new fossil species of the genus Mesocupes of fossil cupedids, M. angustilabialis sp.nov., M. latilabialis sp. nov. and M. collaris sp. nov., are described from the Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. These new species are the first three records of fossil Mesocupes in China as well as the oldest ones in the world now. This finding also extends the geographical distribution of this genus from Central to East Asia. In addition, based on the ratio of the length of the last to the penultimate abdominal ventrites of new beetles distinctly lower than that of the species from the Karabastau Formation, the age of Daohugou fossil-bearing beds might be older than that of Karatau assemblage and consequently of Middle Jurassic.

  11. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  12. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N. (comps.)

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  13. Fossil Proboscidea from the Malay Archipelago and the Punjab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1955-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 1 Fossil Proboscidea and the stratigraphy of the Pleistocene in Southeastern Asia. 3 Order Proboscidea............. 9 Suborder Elephantoidea.......................... 9 Family Elephantidae............ 9 Subfamily Stegodontinae........... 9 Stegolophodon stegodont

  14. Application of advanced austenitic alloys to fossil power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Most power and recovery boilers operating in the US produce steam at temperatures below 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) and pressures below 24 MPa (3500 psi). For these operating conditions, carbon steels and low alloy steels may be used for the construction of most of the boiler components. Austenitic stainless steels often are used for superheater/reheater tubing when these components are expected to experience temperatures above 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) or when the environment is too corrosive for low alloys steels. The austenitic stainless steels typically used are the 304H, 321H, and 347H grades. New ferritic steels such as T91 and T92 are now being introduced to replace austenitic: stainless steels in aging fossil power plants. Generally, these high-strength ferritic steels are more expensive to fabricate than austenitic stainless steels because the ferritic steels have more stringent heat treating requirements. Now, annealing requirements are being considered for the stabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels when they receive more than 5% cold work, and these requirements would increase significantly the cost of fabrication of boiler components where bending strains often exceed 15%. It has been shown, however, that advanced stainless steels developed at ORNL greatly benefit from cold work, and these steels could provide an alternative to either conventional stainless steels or high-strength ferritic steels. The purpose of the activities reported here is to examine the potential of advanced stainless steels for construction of tubular components in power boilers. The work is being carried out with collaboration of a commercial boiler manufacturer.

  15. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  16. The global Cretaceous-Tertiary fire: Biomass or fossil carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Iain; Guenther, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The global soot layer at the K-T boundary indicates a major fire triggered by meteorite impact. However, it is not clear whether the principal fuel was biomass or fossil carbon. Forests are favored by delta value of C-13, which is close to the average for trees, but the total amount of elemental C is approximately 10 percent of the present living carbon, and thus requires very efficient conversion to soot. The PAH was analyzed at Woodside Creek, in the hope of finding a diagnostic molecular marker. A promising candidate is 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene (retene,), which is probably derived by low temperature degradation of abietic acid. Unlike other PAH that form by pyrosynthesis at higher temperatures, retene has retained the characteristic side chains of its parent molecule. A total of 11 PAH compounds were identified in the boundary clay. Retene is present in substantial abundance. The identification was confirmed by analysis of a retene standard. Retene is characteristic of the combustion of resinous higher plants. Its formation depends on both temperature and oxygen access, and is apparently highest in oxygen-poor fires. Such fires would also produce soot more efficiently which may explain the high soot abundance. The relatively high level of coronene is not typical of a wood combustion source, however, though it can be produced during high temperature pyrolysis of methane, and presumably other H, C-containing materials. This would require large, hot, low O2 zones, which may occur only in very large fires. The presence of retene indicates that biomass was a significant fuel source for the soot at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The total amount of elemental C produced requires a greater than 3 percent soot yield, which is higher than typically observed for wildfires. However, retene and presumably coronene imply limited access of O2 and hence high soot yield.

  17. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  18. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF UTILIZING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS ON THE PLANT PERFORMANCE AND FUEL SAVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet DAĞDAŞ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The share of electricity production from thermal power plants for Turkey is about 61 %. Since the fossil fuels are rapidly consumed, the concept of fossil fuel saving is very important for humanity. In this paper, the effects of boiler feed water preheating by means of geothermal brine on overall performance and fossil fuel savings in thermal power plants are examined. According to the performed analysis, power plant thermal efficiency could be increased of 2-4 % via geothermal preheating. In this analysis, a hypothetical thermal power plant is considered and its performance is evaluated. According to analysis, 1 million US$ in fossil fuel savings and 4.1 % increase in thermal efficiency could be achieved by the use of geothermal preheating.

  20. Fossil AGN jets as ultra high energy particle accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Remnants of AGN jets and their surrounding cocoons leave colossal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fossil structures storing total energies ~10^{60} erg. The original active galacic nucleus (AGN) may be dead but the fossil will retain its stable configuration resembling the reversed-field pinch (RFP) encountered in laboratory MHD experiments. In an RFP the longitudinal magnetic field changes direction at a critical distance from the axis, leading to magnetic re-connection there, and to slow decay of...

  1. Proceedings of the Eight Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1994-08-01

    Objective of the meeting was to conduct R and D on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into ceramics, new alloys, corrosion, and technology assessment/transfer. The 39 papers are arranged under the session headings: ceramics, ceramics and new alloys, and intermetallics and advanced austenitics; a workshop on new materials development and applications is summarized briefly. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  2. Instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The 1982 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes was held June 7 through 9, 1982, at Adam's Mark Hotel, Houston, Texas. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Fifty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; eleven papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  3. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  4. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  5. New burgess shale fossil sites reveal middle cambrian faunal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Briggs, D; Morris, S C

    1983-10-14

    Soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized Burgess shale fossils have been found at more than a dozen new localities in an area extending for 20 kilometers along the front of the Cathedral Escarpment in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation of the Canadian Rockies. Five different fossil assemblages from four stratigraphic levels have been recognized. These assemblages represent distinct penecontemporaneous marine communities that together make up a normal fore-reef faunal complex.

  6. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  7. Likelihood of tree topologies with fossils and diversification rate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Gilles; Fau, Marine; Laurin, Michel

    2017-04-18

    Since the diversification process cannot be directly observed at the human scale, it has to be studied from the information available, namely the extant taxa and the fossil record. In this sense, phylogenetic trees including both extant taxa and fossils are the most complete representations of the diversification process that one can get. Such phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from molecular and morphological data, to some extent. Among the temporal information of such phylogenetic trees, fossil ages are by far the most precisely known (divergence times are inferences calibrated mostly with fossils). We propose here a method to compute the likelihood of a phylogenetic tree with fossils in which the only considered time information is the fossil ages, and apply it to the estimation of the diversification rates from such data. Since it is required in our computation, we provide a method for determining the probability of a tree topology under the standard diversification model.Testing 21 our approach on simulated data shows that the maximum likelihood rate estimates from the phylogenetic tree topology and the fossil dates are almost as accurate as those obtained by taking into account all the data, including the divergence times. Moreover, they are substantially more accurate than the estimates obtained only from the exact divergence times (without taking into account the fossil record).We also provide an empirical example composed of 50 Permo-carboniferous eupelycosaur (early synapsid) taxa ranging in age from about 315 Ma (Late Carboniferous) to 270 Ma (shortly after the end of the Early Permian). Our analyses suggest a speciation (cladogenesis, or birth) rate of about 0.1 per lineage and per My, a marginally lower extinction rate, and a considerable hidden paleobiodiversity of early synapsids. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  8. World catalog of extant and fossil Chaoboridae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art

    2014-05-20

    A world catalog of extant and fossil Chaoboridae provides full type information, distribution of each species, references to keys, references to latest descriptions of each species, and summaries of bionomic information.  There are 51 extant species in six genera and 41 fossil species (2 unplaced) in 19 genera, two of which are extant. Chaoborus lanei (Belkin, Heinemann & Page) is a new synonym of C. braziliensis (Theobald) and C. annulatus Cook is a new synonym of C. festivus Dyar & Shannon.

  9. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  10. Survival of fossils under extreme shocks induced by hypervelocity impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M J; McDermott, K H; Price, M C; Yolland, L J

    2014-08-28

    Experimental data are shown for survival of fossilized diatoms undergoing shocks in the GPa range. The results were obtained from hypervelocity impact experiments which fired fossilized diatoms frozen in ice into water targets. After the shots, the material recovered from the target water was inspected for diatom fossils. Nine shots were carried out, at speeds from 0.388 to 5.34 km s(-1), corresponding to mean peak pressures of 0.2-19 GPa. In all cases, fragmented fossilized diatoms were recovered, but both the mean and the maximum fragment size decreased with increasing impact speed and hence peak pressure. Examples of intact diatoms were found after the impacts, even in some of the higher speed shots, but their frequency and size decreased significantly at the higher speeds. This is the first demonstration that fossils can survive and be transferred from projectile to target in hypervelocity impacts, implying that it is possible that, as suggested by other authors, terrestrial rocks ejected from the Earth by giant impacts from space, and which then strike the Moon, may successfully transfer terrestrial fossils to the Moon.

  11. Trace fossils from the Talchir carbonate concretions, Giridih Basin, Jharkhand

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Das; Mahesh Kumar Tripathi

    2009-02-01

    The carbonate concretions occurring at the bottom of Talchir fissile shale facies preserved signatures of various trace fossils along with a cast of doubtful organisms and cyanobacterial mat structures. The host shale deposited under glacial melt water fed lacustrine condition.The concretions,formed in poorly oxygenated conditions,are either of syndepositional origin and/or deposited a little below the sediment water interface and were later exhumed to the depositional surface due to erosion of soft mud overlying them. The trace fossils are both megascopic and microscopic in nature.The megascopic trace fossils are identified on the basis of their morphology as Monocraterion and Rhizocorallium. Some of the megascopic structures described remain problematic at present.The microscopic trace fossils are formed due to the activity of marine meiofauna (possibly by nematodes),which,although produced morphologically show similar traces of known larger ichnogeneras but much smaller than them. The discovery of these trace fossils apparently indicate the in flux of saline water into a lacustrine domain during the Talchir sedimentation at Giridih basin.Moreover, presence of the above two megascopic trace fossils in the marine lacustrine carbonate concretions may lead researchers to consider their much wider environmental significance than hitherto believed.

  12. Integrating fossils with molecular phylogenies improves inference of trait evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham J; Harmon, Luke J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Comparative biologists often attempt to draw inferences about tempo and mode in evolution by comparing the fit of evolutionary models to phylogenetic comparative data consisting of a molecular phylogeny with branch lengths and trait measurements from extant taxa. These kinds of approaches ignore historical evidence for evolutionary pattern and process contained in the fossil record. In this article, we show through simulation that incorporation of fossil information dramatically improves our ability to distinguish among models of quantitative trait evolution using comparative data. We further suggest a novel Bayesian approach that allows fossil information to be integrated even when explicit phylogenetic hypotheses are lacking for extinct representatives of extant clades. By applying this approach to a comparative dataset comprising body sizes for caniform carnivorans, we show that incorporation of fossil information not only improves ancestral state estimates relative to those derived from extant taxa alone, but also results in preference of a model of evolution with trend toward large body size over alternative models such as Brownian motion or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Our approach highlights the importance of considering fossil information when making macroevolutionary inference, and provides a way to integrate the kind of sparse fossil information that is available to most evolutionary biologists. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Paleoatmospheric CO2 Level Based on Stomatal Characters of Fossil Ginkgo from Jurassic to Cretaceous in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A better theoretical and practical understanding of the linkage between paleo-CO2 and climate during geological history is important to enhance the sustainable development of modern human society. Development in plant physiology since the 1980s has led to the realization that fossil plants can serve as a proxy for paleoatmosphere and paleobiosphere. As a relict gymnosperm with evolutionary stasis, Ginkgo is well suited for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This paper analyzes fossil Ginkgo species from integrated strata in the north of China using anatomic data of plant physiology. Using stomatal parameters, a trend for the paleo-CO2 level during the Early-Middle Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous was obtained, which is consistent with the estimates by GEOCARB.The trend is also similar to that of Mean Global Surface Temperature in geological time. Compared with three other atmospheric CO2 concentration parameters, the trend of paleo-CO2 level based on the stomatal parameter of the fossil Ginkgo specimens from three contiguous strata is more exact.

  14. Fossils from Quaternary fluvial archives: Sources of biostratigraphical, biogeographical and palaeoclimatic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tom S.; Bridgland, David R.; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2017-06-01

    Fluvial sedimentary archives have the potential to preserve a wide variety of palaeontological evidence, ranging from robust bones and teeth found in coarse gravel aggradations to delicate insect remains and plant macrofossils from fine-grained deposits. Over the last decade, advances in Quaternary biostratigraphy based on vertebrate and invertebrate fossils (primarily mammals and molluscs) have been made in many parts of the world, resulting in improved relative chronologies for fluviatile sequences. Complementary fossil groups, such as insects, ostracods and plant macrofossils, are also increasingly used in multi-proxy palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, allowing direct comparison of the climates and environments that prevailed at different times across widely separated regions. This paper reviews these topics on a regional basis, with an emphasis on the latest published information, and represents an update to the 2007 review compiled by the FLAG-inspired IGCP 449 biostratigraphy subgroup. Disparities in the level of detail available for different regions can largely be attributed to varying potential for preservation of fossil material, which is especially poor in areas of non-calcareous bedrock, but to some extent also reflect research priorities in different parts of the world. Recognition of the value of biostratigraphical and palaeoclimatic frameworks, which have been refined over many decades in the 'core regions' for such research (particularly for the late Middle and Late Pleistocene of NW Europe), has focussed attention on the need to accumulate similar palaeontological datasets in areas lacking such long research histories. Although the emerging datasets from these understudied regions currently allow only tentative conclusions to be drawn, they represent an important stage in the development of independent biostratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental schemes, which can then be compared and contrasted.

  15. Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in China, 2000~2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Electricity consumption increases rapidly with the rapid development of China. The environmental damage costs of electricity generation are very important for both policy analysis and the proper management of the environment. A method was developed in this work to estimate gross environmental damage costs according to emission inventory and environmental cost factors, and to extend the costs from provincial to national level with population density. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fired power plants over 6000 kW were selected as index pollutants to quantify the environmental costs of damages on human health and global warming. With the new developed method, environmental damage costs, caused by 3 types of fired power plants in 30 provinces and 6 economic sectors during the years 2000 to 2003, were evaluated and analyzed. It can be seen that the calculated total national environmental damage costs of electricity have rapidly increased from 94930.87× 106 USD in 2000 to about 141041.39× 106 USD in 2003, with an average annual growth rate of 14.11%. Environmental damage costs of SO2, NOx, PM10, and CO2 are 69475.69× 106, 30079.29×106, 28931.84× 106, and 12554.57× 106 USD and account for 49.26%, 21.33%, 20.51%, and 8.90% of total environmental costs in fossil electricity generation, respectively. With regard to regional distribution, external costs caused by fossil electricity generation are mainly concentrated in the more populated and industrialized areas of China, i.e., the Eastern Central and Southeastern areas.

  16. Fossil energy program. Progress report, May 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    Results are reported from hydrocarbonization of Illinois No. 6 coal in the bench-scale reactor. All heat treatment for as-quenched, quenched and tempered, and stress relieved samples of 2-/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel is complete and some aging is in progress. Impact testing of material that was slow-cooled (0.3 K/sec) from 1038/sup 0/C and subsequently heat treated has been completed. Work is underway on COGAS process residues and attempts are underway to secure representative SRC wastes. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook was completed. Technical assistance was provided to DOE/FE on four demonstration plants: Grace/Ebasco; Memphis Light, Gas and Water; ICGG; and CONOCO Work was initiated on the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion assessment. In process modeling the revised physical properties package was received from Purdue and has been compiled and linked into the subroutine library. Evaluation of market demand for coal conversion equipment is continuing. Process flowsheets were completed for all major plant units of the in situ syngas-to-gasoline facility. Material and heat balances for the M-gasoline plant were revised. In hygas modeling work continues on the areas of devolatilization, the characterization and thermal cracking behavior of coal derived liquids, model definition and thermal cracking behavior, model definition and development of a multiple bed simulation program. Information for the H-Coal process has been collected. Fixed capital cost estimates and profitability analyses for the SRC-II, CSF, and H-Coal processes are in progress. Monitoring of the HYGAS Pilot Plant continues.

  17. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1993-07-01

    Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ulevicius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires. Non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1 was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM and a source apportionment with the multilinear engine (ME-2 running the positive matrix factorization (PMF model was applied to the organic aerosol fraction to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning. Satellite observations over regions of biomass burning activity supported the results and identification of air mass transport to the area of investigation. Sharp increases in biomass burning tracers, such as levoglucosan up to 683 ng m−3 and black carbon (BC up to 17 μg m−3 were observed during this period. A further separation between fossil and non-fossil primary and secondary contributions was obtained by coupling ACSM PMF results and radiocarbon (14C measurements of the elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon fractions. Non-fossil organic carbon (OCnf was the dominant fraction of PM1, with the primary (POCnf and secondary (SOCnf fractions contributing 26–44 % and 13–23 % to the TC, respectively. 5–8 % of the TC had a primary fossil origin (POCf, whereas the contribution of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOCf was 4–13 %. Non-fossil EC (ECnf and fossil EC (ECf ranged from 13–24 % and 7–12 %, respectively. Isotope ratio of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to distinguish aerosol particles associated with solid and liquid fossil fuel burning.

  19. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  20. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  1. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  2. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

  3. Phylogenetic investigation of the complex evolutionary history of dispersal mode and diversification rates across living and fossil Fagales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Johnson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    As a primary determinant of spatial structure in angiosperm populations, fruit dispersal may impact large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Essential to understanding these mechanisms is an accurate reconstruction of dispersal mode over the entire history of an angiosperm lineage. A total-evidence phylogeny is presented for most fossil fruit and all extant genera in Fagales over its c. 95 million yr history. This phylogeny - the largest of its kind to include plant fossils - was used to reconstruct an evolutionary history directly informed by fossil morphologies and to assess relationships among dispersal mode, biogeographic range size, and diversification rate. Reconstructions indicate four transitions to wind dispersal and seven to biotic dispersal, with the phylogenetic integration of fossils crucial to understanding these patterns. Complexity further increased when more specialized behaviors were considered, with fluttering, gliding, autorotating, and scatter-hoarding evolving multiple times across the order. Preliminary biogeographic analyses suggest larger range sizes in biotically dispersed lineages, especially when pollination mode was held constant. Biotically dispersed lineages had significantly higher diversification rates than abiotically dispersed lineages, although transitions in dispersal mode alone cannot explain all detected diversification rate shifts across Fagales.

  4. Alectorioid Morphologies in Paleogene Lichens: New Evidence and Re-Evaluation of the Fossil Alectoria succini Mägdefrau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Heinrichs, Jochen; Krings, Michael; Myllys, Leena; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon.

  5. Alectorioid Morphologies in Paleogene Lichens: New Evidence and Re-Evaluation of the Fossil Alectoria succini Magdefrau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Kaasalainen

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon.

  6. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150...

  7. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 2: Fossil energy in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keeville, H. [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Task 2, the authors establish a baseline for evaluating energy use in Hawaii, and examine key energy and economic indicators. They provide a detailed look at fossil energy imports by type, current and possible sources of oil, gas and coal, quality considerations, and processing/transformation. They present time series data on petroleum product consumption by end-use sector, though they caution the reader that the data is imperfect. They discuss fuel substitutability to identify those end-use categories that are most easily switched to other fuels. They then define and analyze sequential scenarios of fuel substitution in Hawaii and their impacts on patterns of demand. They also discuss energy security--what it means to Hawaii, what it means to neighboring economies, whether it is possible to achieve energy security. 95 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  9. Efficiency of Modern Power Plants of Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers efficiency and prospects in development of different types of fossil-fuel power plants – gas turbine, steam turbine and combined (gas and steam cycles.The paper provides information on plant selection, fuel consumption, specific output cost. It describes main advantages of various power plants.

  10. Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence in Oceans and Lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pak-Tao Leung; Carl H. Gibson

    2004-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-turbulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent

  11. The reconstruction of fossil planation surface in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of results of relative subjects, the fossil planation surface has been discussed by the authors from the point of geomorphologic view. The discussion contents included the characteristic information, research methods, paleotopography (gradient and altitude) and other problems about fossil planation surface. The recognition and reconstruction of fossil planation surface mainly rely on the following characteristic information: ( i ) the character of erosion unconformity surface; (ii) the paleo-weathering crust and residual deposits; (iii) the paleo-karst and filled deposit in the paleo-karst under the unconformity surface,and (iv) the character and environment of sediment above the unconformity surface. According to the above-mentioned characteristic information, the authors recognized and reconstructed two stages of fossil planation surface on Paleo-land of North China and Yangtze Paleo-land. These two fossil planation surfaces formed from Middle Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous and from Lower Permian to Upper Permian respectively. The paleo-gradient of fossil planation surface changed within 0.31‰-1.32‰, mostly less than 1.0‰. According to the developing depth of paleo-karst, the authors considered that in Suqiao buried-hill region of Paleo-land of North China, the paleo-altitude is 300 m or so above paleo-sea-level. The authors hope that the research is in favor of discussion about rising scale and process of the Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the research of fossil planation surface can provide a theoretical base for relative research,such as the reconstruction of paleoenvironment, the evolution and drift of paleo-continent, the formation and distribution of weathering ore deposits, the reservior and prospection of oil and gas, etc.

  12. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  13. Detecting long-term changes in point-source fossil CO2 emissions with tree ring archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Elizabeth D.; Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Norris, Margaret W.

    2016-05-01

    We examine the utility of tree ring 14C archives for detecting long-term changes in fossil CO2 emissions from a point source. Trees assimilate carbon from the atmosphere during photosynthesis, in the process faithfully recording the average atmospheric 14C content in each new annual tree ring. Using 14C as a proxy for fossil CO2, we examine interannual variability over six years of fossil CO2 observations between 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 from two trees growing near the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant in rural Taranaki, New Zealand. We quantify the amount of variability that can be attributed to transport and meteorology by simulating constant point-source fossil CO2 emissions over the observation period with the atmospheric transport model WindTrax. We compare model simulation results to observations and calculate the amount of change in emissions that we can detect with new observations over annual or multi-year time periods, given both the measurement uncertainty of 1ppm and the modelled variation in transport. In particular, we ask, what is the minimum amount of change in emissions that we can detect using this method, given a reference period of six years? We find that changes of 42 % or more could be detected in a new sample from one year at the same observation location or 22 % in the case of four years of new samples. This threshold is reduced and the method becomes more practical the more the size of the signal increases. For point sources 10 times larger than the Kapuni plant (a more typical size for power plants worldwide), it would be possible to detect sustained emissions changes on the order of 10 %, given suitable meteorology and observations.

  14. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for April 1, 2002, Through March 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2003-06-19

    The mission of the Fossil Energy Program is to conduct research and development that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The ORNL Fossil Energy Program shares with DOE Oak Ridge Operations technical management responsibility for all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program. The Advanced Research Materials Program includes research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  15. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  16. Untapped Fossil Fuel and the Green Paradox: A classroom calibration of the optimal carbon tax

    OpenAIRE

    Rick van der Ploeg

    2013-01-01

    A classroom model of global warming, fossil fuel depletion and the optimal carbon tax is formulated and calibrated. It features iso-elastic fossil fuel demand, stock-dependent fossil fuel extraction costs, an exogenous interest rate and no decay of the atmospheric stock of carbon. The optimal carbon tax reduces emissions from burning fossil fuel, both in the short and medium run. Furthermore, it brings forward the date that renewables take over from fossil fuel and encourages the market to ke...

  17. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  18. The Fossil Phase in the Life of a Galaxy Group

    CERN Document Server

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hoeft, Matthias; Khalatyan, Arman; Klypin, Anatoly; Mueller, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of fossil groups in a concordance LCDM cosmological simulation. We consider haloes with masses between $(1-5)\\times10^{13} \\hMsun$ and study the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of the large gap in magnitude between the brightest and the second most bright group member, which is typical for these fossil systems. Fossil groups are found to have high dark matter concentrations, which we can relate to their early formation time. The large magnitude-gaps arise after the groups have build up half of their final mass, due to merging of massive group members. We show that the existence of fossil systems is primarily driven by the relatively early infall of massive satellites, and that we do not find a strong environmental dependence for these systems. In addition, we find tentative evidence for fossil group satellites falling in on orbits with typically lower angular momentum, which might lead to a more efficient merger onto the host. We find a population of grou...

  19. Turbulence and fossil turbulence lead to life in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than all the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Fossil turbulence is a perturbation produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid ceases to be turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Because vorticity is produced at small scales, turbulence must cascade from small scales to large, providing a consistent physical basis for Kolmogorovian universal similarity laws. Oceanic and astrophysical mixing and diffusion are dominated by fossil turbulence and fossil turbulent waves. Observations from space telescopes show turbulence and vorticity existed in the beginning of the universe and that their fossils persist. Fossils of big bang turbulence include spin and the dark matter of galaxies: clumps of ~ 10^12 frozen hydrogen planets that make globular star clusters as seen by infrared and microwave space telescopes. When the planets were hot gas, they hosted the formation of life i...

  20. Selective flotation of fossil resin from western coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1992-03-20

    The test program has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process. The proof-of-concept testing has resulted in significant interest from several coal mining companies and has sparked the desire of local and state government to establish a fossil resin industry in the Wasatch Plateau coal field. In this view, the results from the current proof-of-concept testing program have been successful. This special report provides theoretical and analytical data on some surface chemistry work pertinent to fossil resin characterization, and other efforts carried out during the past months.