WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant fiber yarn

  1. Properties of Plant Fiber Yarn Polymer Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    of aligned hemp yarn composites have been investigated. Moisture diffusion is non-Fickian, and is characterised by so-called two-stage diffusion behaviour, which is a well-known phenomenon in synthetic fibre composites. The rate of moisture diffusion is largest along the fibres, and also different in the two....... This underlines a critical aspect in the use of plant fibres; i.e. their properties are less controllable in comparison to the properties of synthetic fibres. The axial tensile properties of the composites are affected only little by the degree of fibre/matrix compatibility. Even for composites with a strong...

  2. Properties of Plant Fiber Yarn Polymer Composites:An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The properties of plant fibre composites and their potential for industrial products have been increasingly addressed in research studies over the last few decades. During this period a growing number of such products have been introduced e.g. in the building industry, the furniture industry, and particularly in the automotive industry. The scientific work has so far been focused mainly on plant fibre composites with a random fibre orientation, which produces moderate mechanical properties. E...

  3. Blended Yarns of Modacrylic Fibers with Silk Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慧

    2001-01-01

    The fiber properties of modacrylic fibers with silk protein and spinning technology for blended knitting yarns are studied. By testing the fiber properties, fiber spinnability is analysed. Modacrylic fibers with silk protein are brittle and have poor cohesion, so the key to process modacrylic fibers with silk protein lies in forming lap and sliver. During opening and carding, low speed is used to decrease fiber damage and the proper static resistant oil is applied to eliminate lapping fibers. Besides, the temperature and relative humidity have to be strictly controlled. The applications of modacrylic fibers with silk protein are also put forward.

  4. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  5. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Morón, Moisés; Monzón, Mario D.; Badalló, Pere; Paz, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight) at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production. PMID:28773490

  6. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF RIPPLE OF POLYACRYLONITRILIC FIBERS COTTON TYPE ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed the influence of the number of undulations of polyacrylonitrile fibers, cotton type, on the properties of yarns with Nm50/1 fineness, made on BD 200 the rotor spinning machine. Rotor spinning of the synthetic fibers is largely influenced by some characteristics of the fibers as being: the quality and quantity of the avivage, frequency of undulations and the number of defects fiber. Tensile properties and structural characteristics aspect of the yarns carried on BD 200 rotor spinning machine are determined, at the fiber content, the structural model and the technological parameters of processing, by the result of the transfer of fibers proprieties, into the meaning fiber-yarn. The yarns structural compactness, determined by the degree of twisting and tensional properties are defining for the quality of yarns and warrants the corresponding to their destination. Structural characteristics of the yarns which are characterized by complexity and diversity of their actions were studied by determining the linear irregularity (U% , standard deviation (CV% and the imperfections in the form of thinning (S, thickening (G, neppines (N, relative to 1000 m yarn.

  8. Absorption and Permeability of Air-jet Textured Glass Fiber Yarn and Its Fabric for Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马会英; 隋全侠; 邹祖伟

    2003-01-01

    The Absorption and permeability of air-jet textured glass fiber yarn and its fabric and bonded tenacity of the fabric have been studied in relation to the main parameters, air supplied pressure and overfeed ratio.It has been observed that increasing the level of main parameters improves the coated ratio of the textured yarn and its fabric as well as the bonded tenacity of the fabric made of textured yarn. Comparison of absorption or permeability between textured and supplied yarns, and comparison of absorption or permeability and bonded tenacity between the two kinds of fabrics have been elucidated.

  9. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoon Jitjaicham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers.

  10. Application of an automatic yarn dismantler to track changes in cotton fiber properties during full scale processing of cotton into carded yarn

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fassihi, A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available of fibers from dismantled yarn was higher, and SFC lower, than that in the twistless strand before twist insertion, indicating that, during twist insertion, short fibers were lost as fly and through suction. Fiber linear density and maturity showed similar...

  11. Effect of Yarn Distortion on the Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Bar Composites Reinforced by Three-Dimensional Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huairong; Shan, Zhongde; Zang, Yong; Liu, Feng

    2016-04-01

    A meso-structure model of fiber-bar composites reinforced by three-dimensional weaving (FBCR3DW) is proposed. Optical microscopy images of the preform structure revealed that the fibers along the circumference of the yarn cross-weave were twisted randomly due to alternating yarn winding on either side of the fiber bars during the manufacturing process. Sections of the cross-woven yarn were divided into five regions based on the twist characteristics. Stochastic function theory was used to describe the twist characteristics and to calculate the compliance tensor for each twisted yarn region. The twist characteristics and compliance tensor of each region were then introduced into a finite element model to calculate the elastic properties of the twisted yarn and FBCR3DW; unidirectional tensile stress-strain curves were generated based on the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. Several FBCR3DW specimens with randomly twisted yarns inside the weave structure were used in experimental tests. Our numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental values. Yarn distortion had a significant effect on the elastic properties and axial tensile strength of the yarn; specifically, the influence of yarn distortion on the transverse elastic modulus and transverse shear modulus of FBCR3DW was severe, whereas only a slight effect occurred with regard to the other elastic constants and unidirectional tensile properties. Thus, the proposed method provides an effective reference for modeling fiber composites with a weave structure.

  12. Multiscale modeling of interwoven Kevlar fibers based on random walk to predict yarn structural response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Stephen

    Kevlar is the most common high-end plastic filament yarn used in body armor, tire reinforcement, and wear resistant applications. Kevlar is a trade name for an aramid fiber. These are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited. The bulk material is extruded into filaments that are bound together into yarn, which may be chorded with other materials as in car tires, woven into a fabric, or layered in an epoxy to make composite panels. The high tensile strength to low weight ratio makes this material ideal for designs that decrease weight and inertia, such as automobile tires, body panels, and body armor. For designs that use Kevlar, increasing the strength, or tenacity, to weight ratio would improve performance or reduce cost of all products that are based on this material. This thesis computationally and experimentally investigates the tenacity and stiffness of Kevlar yarns with varying twist ratios. The test boundary conditions were replicated with a geometrically accurate finite element model, resulting in a customized code that can reproduce tortuous filaments in a yarn was developed. The solid model geometry capturing filament tortuosity was implemented through a random walk method of axial geometry creation. A finite element analysis successfully recreated the yarn strength and stiffness dependency observed during the tests. The physics applied in the finite element model was reproduced in an analytical equation that was able to predict the failure strength and strain dependency of twist ratio. The analytical solution can be employed to optimize yarn design for high strength applications.

  13. Fiber Migration and Distribution of Twist at Different Radial Positions of Rotor Yarn-by Hi-Scope Video Microscope System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shan-yuan; CHEUNG H.W.; LO M.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes systematic measurement of fiber migration and distribution pattern of twist at different radial positions of rotor spun yarn mixed tracer fiber by Hi- Scope Video Microscope System. The positions of tracer fibers were measured in three dimensions accurately, and the migration index and the twist distribution at different radial positions of rotor yarn were calculated and analyzed. This research result serves structural mechanics of rotor spun yarn.

  14. Study on Dyeing of a Novel, Pro-environment Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fiber Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; MIN Jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen disperse dyes including anthraquinone, azo, methine, nitro, and quinoline dyes were applied to dye the Polylactic Acid (PLA) yarns at different conditions, and the dyebath exhaustion was determined. The result shows that C.I. disperse red 167, C.I. disperse orange 30, and C.I. disperse blue 284 have dye-uptakes greater than 80%. Therefore, they can be used as the three principal dyes for PLA yams. The experiment discovered that the dyes, because of their Monoazo and ester group contents, have a higher dye-uptake for the PLA fiber. The research on the optimization of dyeing techniques suggests that PLA yarn can obtain a high level of dyeing effectiveness at the following conditions: pH 4-5, dyeing temperture 110℃ for 30- 40 min. Color fastness to perspiration, and water-washing fastness increased 1 - 1. 5 by the addition of the abstergent FB during the reduction clearing.

  15. Fiber and fabric solar cells by directly weaving carbon nanotube yarns with CdSe nanowire-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Ji, Chunyan; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-08-21

    Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications of semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes in woven photovoltaics.

  16. Fiber and fabric solar cells by directly weaving carbon nanotube yarns with CdSe nanowire-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Ji, Chunyan; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-07-01

    Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications of semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes in woven photovoltaics.Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications

  17. 75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... does not produce within the U.S. yarns made from staple para-aramid fiber. DoD has now identified 72... there are many small entities involved in the weaving and production of para-aramid fabrics and that it would be devastating to the textile industry to expand the rule to cover the import of woven fabric...

  18. 聚乳酸纤维包芯纱的开发%Development of Polylactic Acid Fiber Core Spun Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊愈波; 郭建生

    2011-01-01

    探讨聚乳酸纤维包芯纱的生产工艺.阐述了在环锭细纱机上纺制聚乳酸纤维包芯纱的方法及各生产工序的工艺要点,并通过正交试验确定了纱线捻度和细纱后区牵伸倍数的最优工艺配置,最终顺利纺制出了21.4 tex(55.6 dtex)聚乳酸纤维包芯纱,质量达到了较好水平.%Processing of polylactic acid fiber core spun yarn was discussed. Spinning method and key technology in each process of spinning polylactic acid fiber core spun yarn on ring spinning frame were introduced. The best optimization of yarn twist and multiples in back zone were selected through orthogonal test. Finally 21.4 tex(55.6 dtex) polylactic acid fiber core spun yarn can be spun successfully, the yam quality can reach better level.

  19. An Investigation into Reducing Time Dependent Creep of a Polyethylene Geotextile using Glass Fiber Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun

    An investigation has been carried out to reduce the deformation behavior of polyethylene (PE) woven geotextile fabric by making PE fabric-glass yarn composite structure using stitching and laminating. The results showed that reinforcement significantly reduced the creep and IED as long as the tensile stress is lower than the total load bearing capacity of the glass yarns in the composite structure. However, the strength of PE-glass composite fabric was solely dependent on the strength of the glass yarns. The strength from PE yarns only contributes when all glass yarns are broken. Cast result of concrete columns using the glass yarn reinforced PE fabric by stitching method suggested that the glass yarn must face outside of the fabric formwork to avoid damage of both fabric surface and column surface.

  20. 聚乳酸纤维/氨纶弹力包芯纱的开发%Development of Polylactic Acid Fiber Spandex Core Spun Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞云; 郭建生

    2012-01-01

    文章探讨了聚乳酸纤维/氨纶弹力包芯纱的生产工艺,阐述了在环锭细纱机上纺制聚乳酸纤维/氨纶弹力包芯纱的方法及各生产工序的工艺要点,对影响聚乳酸纤维/氨纶弹力包芯纱的主要工艺参数进行了工艺试验,并通过正交试验确定了纱线捻度和氨纶丝预牵伸倍数的最优工艺配置,最终顺利纺制出了40.13tex(77dtex)聚乳酸纤维与氨纶弹力包芯纱,质量达到了较好水平。%Processing of polylactic acid fiber spandex core spun yarn was discussed. Spinning method and key technology in each process of spinning polylactic acid fiber spandex core spun yarn on ring spinning frame were introduced. The process tests have been done in main processing parameters which influence the polylactic acid fiber spandex core spun yarn. The best optimization of yarn twist and pre-drafting ratio of spandex were selected through orthogonal test. Finally, 40.13tex(77dtex)polylactic acid fiber spandex core spun yarn could be spun successfully, the yarn quality could reach better level.

  1. Effect of Blending Ratio on Modal Fiber Cotton Blended Yarn Quality%混纺比对Modal纤维棉混纺纱性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严瑛

    2012-01-01

    探讨混纺比对Modal纤维棉混纺纱性能的影响.选取Modal纤维与棉为原料,分别纺制14.5 tex的纯棉精梳纱、纯Modal纱以及Modal与棉混纺比分别为20/80、30/70、40/60、50/50的混纺精梳纱,并通过对比试验,分析了混纺比对成纱强伸性能、条干、毛羽的影响.结果表明:从提高混纺纱断裂强度考虑,混纺比选择50/50比较适宜;Modal纤维的含量在40%左右时,成纱条干较好;混纺比为40/60或50/50左右时,成纱毛羽数较低.%Effect of blending ratio on Modal fiber cotton blended yarn quality was discussed. Modal fiber and cotton were selected as raw material,pure cotton 14. 5 tex combed yarn was spun,pure Modal 14. 5 tex yarn was spun,Modal cotton blended yarns were spun as well,the blending ratio was 20/80,30/70,40/60 and 50/50- Through contrast and test,effect of blending ratio on yarn strength and elongation,evenness and hairiness were analyzed. The result shows when adopting the blending ratio of 50/50 breaking intensity of the blended yarn is better,when adopt the blending ratio of 40/60 evenness of the blended yarn is better, when adopt the blending ratio of 50/50 or 40/60 hairiness of the blended yarns are better.

  2. Spinning of Cotton Hemp Bamboo Fiber Blended Yarn%棉汊麻竹浆纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙治海

    2011-01-01

    To spinning cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn,hemp fiber were reconditioned and pretreated. Processing of raw material blending was selected to improve spinnability. Raw material feed ratio was controlled rationally, waste percentages in comb process, opening and picking process were controlled well to ensure yam blending ratio. Drawing processing was adjusted rationally to improve draw sliver evenness. In spinning less nipper gauge was used, new top pin was adopted to reduced float area and increase yarn quality. In winding process, winding tension and electronic yarn clearer parameter were selected rationally to ensure winding shape,finally cotton/hemp/bamboo 50/25/25 29. 2 tex blended yarn was spun successfully. It is pointed out quality demand of cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn can be ensured only to adjust technology measures in each process according to hemp property.%为纺制棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱,对汉麻纤维进行养生及预分梳处理;选用原料混和工艺改善可纺性;合理控制原料投料比例并控制开清棉与梳棉落棉率,保证成纱混纺比;并条工序合理调整工艺,提高熟条条干;细纱工序使用小钳口隔距,使用新型上销,缩短浮游区,以提高成纱质量;络筒工序选择适当的电清参数和络纱张力,以保证成形良好,结果顺利纺制出棉/汉麻/竹浆50/25/25 29.2 tex混纺纱.指出:只有针对汉麻纤维特点调整各工序纺纱技术措施,方能纺制出符合质量要求的棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱.

  3. Modal/涤纶混纺纱上浆工艺研究%Research on Sizing Technology of Modal/Polyester Fiber Blend Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金龙; 沈兰萍; 钱现

    2012-01-01

    根据Modal/涤纶混纺纱性能,制定出4种浆料配方,并对浆液及浆膜性能进行了测试分析.分别采用这4种配方的浆料对Modal/涤纶混纺纱进行浆纱试验,测试了不同配方浆纱的各项性能,从而得:出适合Modal/涤纶混纺纱的浆料配方.%According to the properties of Modal/polyester fiber blend yarn, four kinds of sizing formula were deterimined. Sizing liquors and sizing film were analysed. Four kinds of sizing formula were used to sizing the yarns, then sizing properties and sizing effect were analysed. According to the experimental results, sizing formula that suites for Modal/polyester fiber blend yarn was sure.

  4. EFFECTS OF DYNEL FIBER BLENDING ON YARN SHRINKAGE AND WOVEN-FABRIC PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 50/50 picker blend warp was woven with fillings from the various blends and twists. The fabrics were scoured and treated for water repellency . Highest...results of yarn and fabric shrinkage and air permeability. All water repellency tests were poor; fabrics with low-twist fillings were better than those

  5. Experiments on fatigue damage failure test of carbon fiber yarn%碳纤维束疲劳损伤失效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱元林; 崔海涛; 温卫东; 徐颖; 张宏建

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the fatigue characteristics of the carbon fiber yarn and the residual strength of the carbon fiber yarn after fatigue loading, an experiment program was designed and conducted under the static and fatigue loading conditions. The test data was used to establish a micromechanics analysis model for analyzing the fatigue characteristics of carbon fiber composite materials. The stress-life (S-N) curve of the carbon fiber yarn was fitted by the least squares method. A static tension experiment was conducted using carbon fiber yarn after fatigue loading to set up the expression of the residual strength model. The experimental results show that the conditional fatigue limit of the carbon fiber yarn is 80.47% of the static tension strength. Carbon fiber yarn going through a certain number of tension-tension fatigue loading cycles can increase its strength. The residual strength of the carbon fiber yarn increases firstly and then decreases with the increasing of fatigue loading cycles.%为了解碳纤维束的疲劳特性及疲劳加载后剩余强度的变化, 为建立碳纤维复合材料疲劳性能的细观力学分析模型提供必要的基础数据, 研究设计了碳纤维束静载力学性能及疲劳特性试验方案, 并进行了试验。采用最小二乘法拟合得到了单束碳纤维的应力-寿命(S-N)曲线。对经过预疲劳的碳纤维束试验件进行了剩余强度试验, 采用最小二乘法拟合得到了碳纤维束疲劳加载剩余强度模型。试验结果表明: 试验所用碳纤维束的条件疲劳极限为静拉伸强度的80.47%; 碳纤维束经历一定循环次数的拉-拉疲劳可以提高其强度, 其剩余强度随着疲劳加载循环次数的增加先增加后减小。

  6. 咖啡碳纤维和纱线的性能研究%Study on the properties of coffee carbon fiber and yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊; 孟家光; 张琳玫; 董旭凤

    2015-01-01

    为满足市场对功能性咖啡碳纤维针织产品的需求,首先通过扫描电镜、红外光谱测试分析咖啡碳纤维的截面形态与成分;然后对咖啡碳纤维长丝纱的强度、条干均匀度、含湿量、耐热性以及耐酸碱性进行测试。结果表明,咖啡碳纤维的主要成分是涤纶,其中含有咖啡碳粉体;咖啡碳纤维长丝纱耐湿热性、干热性较好,耐酸不耐碱;纱线强力、断裂伸长率、条干均匀度均符合针织用纱的要求。%In order to meet the market demand of functional coffee carbon fiber knitted products , scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectrum method is used to test coffee carbon fiber cross‐section shape .A series of properties testing and analysis about strength ,evenness ,mois‐ture content ,heat resistance and acid and alkali resistance of coffee carbon fiber filament yarn are completed .T he results show that the main component of coffee carbon fiber is polyester , w hich contains coffee carbon particle .T he w et heat resistance and dry heat resistance of coffee carbon fiber filament yarn are both good ,and its acidic resistance is better than alkali resist‐ance .The yarn strength ,elongation at break and evenness of coffee carbon fiber filament yarn all meet the requirements of knitting yarn .

  7. Yarn essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fasale, Amol

    2015-01-01

    If you have a working knowledge of Hadoop 1.x but want to start afresh with YARN, this book is ideal for you. You will be able to install and administer a YARN cluster and also discover the configuration settings to fine-tune your cluster both in terms of performance and scalability. This book will help you develop, deploy, and run multiple applications/frameworks on the same shared YARN cluster.

  8. Testing and Analysis of Properties of New Protein Fiber Blended Yarns%新型蛋白纤维混纺纱线性能测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 曹春祥; 冯波; 黄翔; 张佩华

    2015-01-01

    Based on the basic properties introduction of the rose-protein-fiber, emerald-protein-fiber and chitin-fiber, three kinds of blended yarns such as rose/chitin/cotton yarn (30∶40∶30), emerald/cotton (30∶70) one-ply yarn and emerald/cotton (30∶70) two-ply yarn are selected to evaluate their knitting ability by testing and analyzing their properties including mechanical property, twist, evenness and hairiness. The results show that the mechanical prop-erty of emerald/cotton two-ply yarn is best; the twisting degree of emerald/cotton one-ply yarn is highest; the hairi-ness of rose/chitin/cotton is larger than that of others. The properties of these three kinds of yarns can meet the knitting demand by testing, which can provide a reference for developing the knitting yarns.%基于柔丝蛋白纤维、翡翠蛋白纤维与甲壳素纤维的基本性能介绍,选择柔丝、甲壳素、长绒棉混纺纱(30∶40∶30),翡翠、长绒棉混纺纱(30∶70)单股与双股两种,测试并分析各纱线性能及其可编织性,包括拉伸断裂性能、捻度、条干均匀度、毛羽等。结果表明:3种混纺纱线中,翡翠、长绒棉(股纱)纱线强度最大;翡翠、长绒棉(单纱)纱线加捻程度最高;柔丝、甲壳素、长绒棉混纺纱毛羽最多,条干均匀度最好。经测试,3种纱线各项性能均符合针织编织需求,为针织用纱的开发提供参考。

  9. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  10. Yarn Expo Chinalo Bridge the Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Zhao Zihan

    2012-01-01

    Yarn Expo China kicked off March 29th with 130 upstream yarns and fibers suppliers from ten countries including China (105 exhibitors), India (26 exhibitors), Pakistan (8 exhibitors), plus individual exhibitors from Hong Kong China, Indonesia, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. The three day event was hosted at the China World Trade Center and featured a variety of natural fibers and yarns including cotton, wool, flax/ramie specialty products; elastic, fancy and blended yarns aswell as regenerated and synthetic man-made fibers.

  11. Development of antibacterial knitted products with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber%镀银纤维/棉混纺纱抗菌针织产品的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国华; 陈朱捷; 敖利民

    2013-01-01

    镀银纤维具有优异的抗菌性能,其针织面料的开发应用前景非常广阔。分析镀银纤维/棉混纺纱的外观特征和抗菌特点,并利用镀银纤维/棉混纺纱在单面针织机上开发了几种抗菌针织面料。测试结果表明,开发的镀银纤维/棉混纺纱针织面料具有良好的抗菌效果。%Silver-plated fiber has excellent antibacterial property , which makes its knitted fabrics have a vast potential for further development and application .The external appearance and antibacterial characteristics of blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were analyzed .Several antibacterial knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were developed.The test results show all the knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber have good antibacterial properties .

  12. Physical and Thermal Comfort Properties of Viscose Fabrics made from Vortex and Ring Spun Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, G.; Muthukumar, N.; Kumar, V. Kiran; Sadasivam, Sanjay; Sidharth, P. Mithun; Nikhil Jain, G.

    2016-11-01

    Viscose fiber is frequently preferred for various types of inner and outer knitwear products for its comfort and visual characteristics. In this study, the physical and thermal comfort properties of viscose fabrics made from ring and vortex yarns have been studied to explore the impact of spinning process on fabric properties. 100% viscose fibers were spun into yarns by ring and vortex spinning and the developed yarns were converted to single jersey fabrics. The results indicated that fabrics made from vortex spun yarns had better pilling resistance over that of those from ring spun yarns. There was no significant difference between bursting strength values of vortex and ring spun yarn fabrics. Fabrics made from ring yarn had better dimensional stability compared to fabrics made from vortex yarn. The air permeability and water vapour permeability of vortex yarn fabrics were higher than ring spun yarn fabrics. The vortex yarn fabrics had better thermal comfort properties compared to ring yarn fabrics.

  13. Effect of novel taker-in on yarn quality of polyester fibers%新型梳针刺辊对涤纶纱质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明光; 于学智; 孙鹏子

    2011-01-01

    Effect of the novel taker-in on the quality of card slivers and yarns of polyester was studied. The content of short fibers and neps of the card slivers processed at different operation speeds of the taker-in and saw-tooth taker-in was examined by type Y111 roller fiber length tester and visual evaluation. YG ( B)021DX table type electronic single yarn strength tester and Premier yarn evenness tester were used to test the strength and yam evenness of the yarns processed by the taker-in and saw-tooth taker-in. Test results showed that the card slivers processed by the taker-in exhibited less neps and short fiebrs than those by saw-tooth taker-in; the quality of yarns produced by using the taker-in, such as parameters of yarn evenness, yarn defects, breaking elongation, and so on, was better than that by saw-tooth taker-in, especially the parameters of yarn strength and strength CV value. It is concluded that the novel taker-in leads to less fiber damage and lower nep content, this may be attributed to its smooth surface without edge, and smaller tooth-top area.%研究新型梳针刺辊对涤纶生条和纱线质量的影响.用Y111型罗拉式纤维长度分析仪和棉条目检法检测了梳针刺锯和锯齿刺辊在不同速度条件下所加工生条中的短绒和棉结,用YG(B)021DX台式电子单纱强力仪和Premier条干仪对梳针和锯齿刺辊所加工的纱线进行强力和条干检测.结果发现,梳针刺辊加工的生条其棉结和短绒要比锯齿刺辊少,梳针刺辊所加工的纱线其条干、常发性纱疵、伸长等质量指标要好于锯齿刺辊,在强力及强力CV值的质量指标上梳针刺辊明显优于锯齿刺辊.分析认为梳针表面光滑、没有棱角、齿顶面积小是梳针刺辊对纤维损伤小、去除棉结效果好的主要原因.

  14. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  15. A feasibility study of yarns and fibers with annexed electronic functions: the ARIANNE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, A; De Rossi, D; Kirstein, T; Locher, I; Mameli, F; Paradiso, R; Vozzi, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper several issues concerning the development of fibers endowed with electronic functions will be presented and discussed. In particular, issues concerning materials, structures, electronic models and the mechanical constraints due to textile technologies will be detailed. All these aspects have been studied in the framework of the project ARIANNE, funded by the European Community during the V Frame Programme.

  16. Fibre Distribution in Friction-spun Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Oyondi Nganyi; YU Chong-wen

    2006-01-01

    According to the yarn forming characteristics in friction spinning, the arrangement of fed sliver is designed, to get the desired fiber distribution in the resultant yarn. On the base of that, the relation between the theoretical fibre distribution and the actual fibre distribution is analyzed by use of electron microscope.

  17. Efeito da tenacidade da fibra sobre propriedades tecnológicas do fio de algodão Effect of the cotton fiber strength on yarn properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideraram-se três variedades de algodão com valores de tenacidade da fibra variando de 20,5 a 22,2 g/Tex: IAC 16, IAC 13-1 e IAC 17, classificadas, respectivamente, como de alta, média e baixa tenacidade. Tais variedades apresentaram características tecnológicas semelhantes quanto a comprimento, uniformidade de comprimento, índice de finura Micronaire e maturidade. As amostras foram processadas em estabelecimentos industriais, da maneira convencional, produzindo, cada uma, fios de títulos Ne20, Ne30 e Ne40. Para cada título, empregaram-se sete coeficientes de torção, representados pelas constantes 3,4, 3,6, 3,8, 4,0, 4,2, 4,5 e 4,7. Efetuaram-se as análises da variância dos resultados, de acordo com o delineamento fatorial 3 x 3 x 7, representado pelas três variedades, pelos três títulos e pelos sete níveis de coeficientes de torção. Mediante os resultados, conclui-se que fibras de algodão com alta tenacidade produzem fios mais resistentes e elásticos do que aquelas de baixa tenacidade, para qualquer título ou torção. A quantidade de torções requeridas para a obtenção de máxima resistência dos fios de algodão é pouco afetada pela tenacidade da fibra. Os fios de títulos mais altos têm os menores valores de tenacidade e elongação. A variedade IAC 16 apresentou fios com os maiores valores de tenacidade, seguida da 'IAC 13-1' e da 'IAC 17', e fios mais elásticos, acompanhada da 'IAC 17' e da 'IAC 13-1'.Three cottons with fiber strength of 20.5, 20.9 and 22.2 g/Tex and having other important fiber properties approximately equal were selected. The cottons were processed on conventional processing equipment into 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 yarn counts, using a range of twist multipliers of 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0, 4.2, 4.5 and 4.7. Yarn strength and elongation determinations were made on a pendulum-type tester of 150-300 lbs capacity. It was found that: 1 - High strength cotton produced stronger yarns than low strength for any

  18. Modal牛奶蛋白改性纤维色纺针织纱的开发%Development of Modal Milk Protein Modified Fiber Color Spinning Knitting Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 王前文

    2013-01-01

    Processing of Modal Milk protein modified fiber color spinning knitting yarn was discussed. The two kinds fiber were pre-treated before spinning according to the two dyed fiber properties, processing in each spinning process were optimized. The spinning practice shows that after dying, breaking strength of the two fiber is reduced in a certain degree. Quality of Modal milk protein modified fiber color spinning knitting yarn can reach the demands of high grade knitting product quality through optimizing spinning processing, strengthening machine clean, keeping semi-finished product and product channel smooth, controlling workshop temperature and humidity.%探讨Modal纤维与牛奶蛋白改性纤维色纺针织纱的生产工艺.针对经槐米染色后Modal纤维和牛奶蛋白改性纤维的性能特点,对两种纤维进行纺前预处理,并优化配置各工序纺纱工艺参数.纺纱实践表明:经染色后两种纤维的断裂强度虽有一定程度的下降,但可通过优化纺纱工艺参数配置,加强设备的清洁管理,保持半制品和成品通道光滑,控制车间温湿度等措施,纺制出满足高档针织产品质量要求的Modal牛奶蛋白改性纤维色纺针织纱.

  19. VACUUM STEAMING PROCESSES APPLIED TO YARNS, ITS APPLICATION FIELDS AND IMPROVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ÖZDEMİR

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques used today focus mainly on increases in production speed. For this reason yarns to be used in high speed machines is required to be of high quality. On the other hand high speed frequently causes the degree of yarn moisture to fall minimum level. This decreases in the degree of yarn moisture have negative effects on yarn strength. Since better moisture level increases the yarn strength, yarn is worked more efficiently in weaving and knitting. However each production step in textile plants causes tension in yarn and fibre. Yarns tend to snarl in order to relax themselves.Tension and snarling may lead to problems in the following proceses, thus decreasing productivity. Therefore, the moisture content of yarns should be increased and their tension should be eleminated. In this article we have studied vacuum steaming widely used to remedy above mentioned yarn problems, its application fields and new improvements in this field.

  20. On the Mechanical Properties and Uncertainties of Jute Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMM Sharif Ullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Products made from natural materials are eco-friendly. Therefore, it is important to supply product developers with reliable information regarding the properties of natural materials. In this study, we consider a widely used natural material called jute, which grows in Bangladesh, India, and China. We described the results of tensile tests on jute yarns, as well as the energy absorption patterns leading to yarn failure. We have also used statistical analyses and possibility distributions to quantify the uncertainty associated with the following properties of jute yarn: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and strain to failure. The uncertainty and energy absorption patterns of jute yarns were compared with those of jute fibers. We concluded that in order to ensure the reliability and durability of a product made from jute, it is good practice to examine the material properties of yarns rather than those of fibers.

  1. Development of Plain Fabrics Spun by BlendedYarn of Color Cotton/ Lyocell/Ramie/Spun Silk Fiber%彩棉/Lyocell/苎麻/绢丝混纺纱平纹织物的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟

    2012-01-01

      本文通过彩棉、苎麻、Lyocell、绢丝混纺纱线的合理组合,探索出了最优的配棉工艺,纺出了9.8  tex的高档高支纱,其织成的面料经过酶处理,免烫整理,可作高档衬衫面料.%  This paper searched the optimal cotton distribution technology for high-grade blended yarn of 9.8 tex by reasonable combination of cotton, ramie, lyocell and silk fiber. The fabric woven with this blended yarn could be used as high-quality shirt fabrics after the enzyme and non-iron finishing treatment.

  2. The Effect of Various Weave Designs on Mechanical Behavior of Lamina Intraply Composite Made from Kenaf Fiber Yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The development of lamina intraply composite is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balance mechanical properties of polymer composite. This research will focuses on the effects of weave designs on the mechanical behavior of a single ply or also known as lamina intraply composite. The six (6) specimens of lamina intraply composites were made by kenaf fiber as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno and leno weave. The vacuum infusion technique was adopted due to advantages over hand lay-up. It was found that the plain, twill and satin weave exhibited better mechanical properties on tensile strength. The fiber content of the specimen was 40% and the result of the resin content of the specimen was 60% due to the higher permeability of natural fiber.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Smart Diapers with Antibacterial Yarn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, intelligent eco-diapers are made by combining antibacterial yarns coated with quaternary ammonium salts with conductive yarns to improve caretaking for urinary incontinence. The combination of conductive yarns and sensors can detect the moisture content in eco-diapers, and an alarm is sent when moisture is significant. A wireless module is used to send detected signals to a smartphone or tablet PC via the Internet. This concept is used for a scenario in which nurses do not randomly check on patients in a long-term care institution. When used offline, eco-diapers can send caregivers an alarm for the need to change diapers via cell phones. The diameters of the copper and silver-plated copper fibers are 0.08 and 0.10 mm, respectively. Cotton yarns are twisted with copper and silver-plated copper fibers to form the conductive yarns, which are 0.12 mm in diameter. Moreover, 30-count cotton and 150 D nylon yarns are coated with quaternary ammonium salt via dyeing and finishing processes to form antibacterial yarns. In the current study, intelligent eco-diapers are tested for their electrical and antibacterial properties as specified by AATC and JISL test standards.

  4. The influence of yarn treatment on the tensile properties of biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širvaitienė, Anne; Jankauskaitė, Virginija; Bekampienė, Paulė; Sankauskaitė, Audronė

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of cotton and linen yarns treatments at different hierarchical levels on the biocomposite tensile properties. The biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) resin was used as the matrix polymer. The water based mercerization and low pressure plasma treatment were applied for chemical modification of yarns macro- and microfibrils. To improve fiber orientation of fibre bundles and single fibers the pretension of yarn was used. It was obtained that the most efficient is the complex yarns treatment, plasma treatment with subsequent pre-tension, where especially notable was the positive effect of low-pressure plasma.

  5. The Effect of Plain-Weaving on the Mechanical Properties of Warp and Weft P-Phenylene Terephthalamide (PPTA) Fibers/Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-15

    and the performance of the coarser-scale structures (e.g., yarns, fabrics, plies, laminae, and laminates ). The type, size/potency, and the concentration...Zhou E, Wang Y, Cheeseman BA (2008) Mechanics of textile composites: micro-geometry. Compos Sci Technol 68:1671–1678 36. Grujicic M, Pandurangan B

  6. YARNsim: Simulating Hadoop YARN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Xi; Sun, Xian-He; Jenkins, John; Ross, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the Apache Hadoop system, its success has been limited by issues such as single points of failure, centralized job/task management, and lack of support for programming models other than MapReduce. The next generation of Hadoop, Apache Hadoop YARN, is designed to address these issues. In this paper, we propose YARNsim, a simulation system for Hadoop YARN. YARNsim is based on parallel discrete event simulation and provides protocol-level accuracy in simulating key components of YARN. YARNsim provides a virtual platform on which system architects can evaluate the design and implementation of Hadoop YARN systems. Also, application developers can tune job performance and understand the tradeoffs between different configurations, and Hadoop YARN system vendors can evaluate system efficiency under limited budgets. To demonstrate the validity of YARNsim, we use it to model two real systems and compare the experimental results from YARNsim and the real systems. The experiments include standard Hadoop benchmarks, synthetic workloads, and a bioinformatics application. The results show that the error rate is within 10% for the majority of test cases. The experiments prove that YARNsim can provide what-if analysis for system designers in a timely manner and at minimal cost compared with testing and evaluating on a real system.

  7. Composite yarns of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with metallic electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeniya, Lakshman K; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Tran, Canh-Dung

    2010-08-16

    Unique macrostructures known as spun carbon-nanotube fibers (CNT yarns) can be manufactured from vertically aligned forests of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These yarns behave as semiconductors with room-temperature conductivities of about 5 x 10(2) S cm(-1). Their potential use as, for example, microelectrodes in medical implants, wires in microelectronics, or lightweight conductors in the aviation industry has hitherto been hampered by their insufficient electrical conductivity. In this Full Paper, the synthesis of metal-CNT composite yarns, which combine the unique properties of CNT yarns and nanocrystalline metals to obtain a new class of materials with enhanced electrical conductivity, is presented. The synthesis is achieved using a new technique, self-fuelled electrodeposition (SFED), which combines a metal reducing agent and an external circuit for transfer of electrons to the CNT surface, where the deposition of metal nanoparticles takes place. In particular, the Cu-CNT and Au-CNT composite yarns prepared by this method have metal-like electrical conductivities (2-3 x 10(5) S cm(-1)) and are mechanically robust against stringent tape tests. However, the tensile strengths of the composite yarns are 30-50% smaller than that of the unmodified CNT yarn. The SFED technique described here can also be used as a convenient means for the deposition of metal nanoparticles on solid electrode supports, such as conducting glass or carbon black, for catalytic applications.

  8. Identification of Stochastic Nature of Yarn Hairiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MILITK(Y) Ji(r)í; IBRAHIM Sayed; KRUPINCOVA Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Yarn hairiness is a complex concept, which generally cannot be completely defimed by a single figure. Hairiness can be considered as the fiber ends and loops standing out from the main compact yarn body. Uster hairiness system characterizes the hairiness by H value, i.e. the mean value of the total length of all hairs within one centimeter of yarn.The raw data Hi are in fact realization of spatial process (hairiness spatial process - HSP) and can be used for more complex evaluation of hairiness characteristics in the space and frequency domain. The main aim of this contribution is description of some tools for spatial characterization of yarn hairiness. The simple methods for complex characterization of HSP statistical behavior (stationarity, independence,linearity etc. ) are presented. The techniques based on the embedding dimension and correlation integral or long-range dependences evaluation are discussed. The selected methods are core of HYARN program in MATLAB. Application of this program for deeper characterization of artificial data and cotton type yam are shown.

  9. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  10. Modelling and Predicting the Breaking Strength and Mass Irregularity of Cotton Rotor-Spun Yarns Containing Cotton Fiber Recovered from Ginning Process by Using Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shanbeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main methods to reduce the production costs is waste recycling which is the most important challenge for the future. Cotton wastes collected from ginning process have desirable properties which could be used during spinning process. The purpose of this study was to develop predictive models of breaking strength and mass irregularity (CV% of cotton waste rotor-spun yarns containing cotton waste collected from ginning process by using the artificial neural network trained with backpropagation algorithm. Artificial neural network models have been developed based on rotor diameter, rotor speed, navel type, opener roller speed, ginning waste proportion and yarn linear density as input parameters. The parameters of artificial neural network model, namely, learning, and momentum rate, number of hidden layers and number of hidden processing elements (neurons were optimized to get the best predictive models. The findings showed that the breaking strength and mass irregularity of rotor spun yarns could be predicted satisfactorily by artificial neural network. The maximum error in predicting the breaking strength and mass irregularity of testing data was 8.34% and 6.65%, respectively.

  11. The application of poly(amidoamine dendrimers for modification of jute yarns: Preparation and dyeing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Zolriasatein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, poly(amidoamine (PAMAM G-2 dendrimer was used for jute yarn. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed that all carbonyl groups of jute fibers reacted with amino groups of polyamidoamine dendrimers. SEM observation indicated the good dispersion PAMAM dendrimers. Jute yarns pretreated with PAMAM dendrimer displayed markedly enhanced color strength with reactive dyes, even when dyeing had been carried out in the absence of electrolyte or alkali. Dendrimer-treated jute yarn showed much better light-fastness than untreated jute yarn.

  12. Dwindling the resistance value of PEDOT:PSS - coated on fabric yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amba Sankar K., N.; Mohanta, Kallol

    2016-05-01

    Herein we describe by dip coating method to transform typical fabric yarn to conductive fiber. Different types of yarns have been used to coat from a known conductive polymer, Poly (3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly (styrene sulfonic acid). We have optimized the method to have lesser resistance of the conductive yarns. The minimum resistance achieved has a value of 77 Ω/cm. This value is not high as metals but could be comparable to that of metal oxides or semiconducting materials. However, flexibility of yarns and feeling of fabric combining with the conductivity developed in this process is suitable for wearable electronics and also as gas sensors, electromagnetic shielding.

  13. Dwindling the resistance value of PEDOT:PSS – coated on fabric yarns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amba Sankar, K.N., E-mail: amb@psgias.ac.in; Kallol, Mohanta [Nanotechnology Research, Innovation & Incubation Centre, Organic Solar cell lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore – 641 004, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Herein we describe by dip coating method to transform typical fabric yarn to conductive fiber. Different types of yarns have been used to coat from a known conductive polymer, Poly (3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly (styrene sulfonic acid). We have optimized the method to have lesser resistance of the conductive yarns. The minimum resistance achieved has a value of 77 Ω/cm. This value is not high as metals but could be comparable to that of metal oxides or semiconducting materials. However, flexibility of yarns and feeling of fabric combining with the conductivity developed in this process is suitable for wearable electronics and also as gas sensors, electromagnetic shielding.

  14. 抗紫外线功能有色涤纶纤维和纱线开发%Development of Colored Polyester Fiber and Yarn with Anti-Ultraviolet Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝文斌; 崔鸿钧

    2014-01-01

    介绍了抗紫外线功能有色涤纶纤维及纱线的生产关键技术。并对抗紫外线功能有色涤纶纤维的色母粒优化设计及切片干燥、纺丝温度,以及清花、梳棉、粗纱、细纱等纺纱关键工艺进行了探讨。%This paper introduces the key production technology of colored polyester fiber and yarn with anti-ultraviolet and discusses the optimized design of the color master batch, the chip drying, the spinning tem-perature and the key spinning technologies of blowing, cotton carding, roving and spinning.

  15. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  16. Properties and performance of flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    and transverse directions are well simulated by rule of mixtures models. In the axial direction, at a fiber volume fraction of 0.50, the experimental tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress are 32 GPa and 350 MPa, respectively. In comparison, for glass fiber composites at a fiber volume fraction of 0.......50, the tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress are calculated to be 38 GPa and 1800 MPa, respectively. The flax yarn composites show better specific tensile modulus than the glass fiber composites with values of 23 GPa/g/cm3 and 20 GPa/g/cm3, respectively. An analysis of data from previous studies...... of unidirectional natural fibre composites demonstrates comparatively good reinforcement efficiency of the flax yarn fibers with an effective tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the fibers in the area of 70 GPa and 800 MPa, respectively. Altogether, it is demonstrated that composites with high...

  17. 玻纤捆绑纱双轴向经编碳纤维增强复合材料拉伸性能的研究%STUDY ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF BIAXIAL CARBON WARP-KNITTED REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH GLASS-FIBER BINDER YARN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兆; 陈南梁; 刘黎民; 魏贺

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨玻璃纤维捆绑纱对复合材料拉伸性能的影响,对使用高性能玻璃纤维作为捆绑纱的双轴向碳纤维织物以及复合材料进行了拉伸性能测试,分析了材料的破坏模式以及影响因素.结果表明,使用玻纤捆绑纱并未提高增强织物的经向和45.的拉伸强度;玻纤捆绑纱可改善树脂浸渍,减少捆绑纱附近的应力集中,增强碳纤维层间的结合,大大提高碳纤维断裂同时性,从而提高其拉伸性能.捆绑纱相同时,经平组织试样经向强度优于编链组织,凸显了玻纤纱的优势,材料的拉伸性能更好.%In order to study the effect of glass-fiber binder yarn on tensile properties of composites,we tested the tensile properties of biaxial carbon warp-knitted fabrics and its reinforced composites which use high performance glass-fiber as binder yarn, analyzed failure modes of materials and influencing factors. The results show that glass-fiber doesnt improve the tensile properties of reinforced fabrics in warp and 45°direction. However, glass-fiber binder yarn improves impregnation of resin, decreases stress concentration around binder yarn, enhances the interlayer bonding of carbon fabric, and greatly increases carbon fibers'fracture simultaneity. Thus tensile properties of composites are improved. Tensile properties in warp of tricot stitch structure are better than chain stitch structure when binder yarns are the same. So tricot stitch structure could display the advantage of glass-fiber yarn and higner the tensile properties of composite.

  18. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF WOOL TYPE USED IN A YARN, IN TERMS OF TENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Dorina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of yarns for manufacturing textiles is increasing in modern times, and new, better methods for making yarns are employed. Yarns are the elements of which textiles are made. In order to diversify the assortment of textile products, more and more types of yarn are made, called heterogeneous yarns, which are yarns made using different types of fibers or filaments. From a technological standpoint, the purpose of mixing fibers is to seek to improve certain physical and mechanical characteristics such as fineness, strength, uniformity etc., which influence the properties of the textile products. A significant increase in yarn strength is achieved by introducing in a mix of wool fibers a certain percentage of synthetic fibers, such as polyester, which have double or even triple the strength of wool fibers. Synthetic fibers however have the downside of having a low hygroscopicity. For this reason, the yarns commonly used are those which have a a natural component, namely wool. One of the main objectives of mixing is to better use the available raw materials. Thus, from soft yarns one can make soft fabrics and knits, and, with the same quantity of raw material, can obtain a larger surface of fabric or knits, with direct impact on costs. With regard to the quality and properties of the textile products, the decisive element is not only the type of the fiber and the proportion in which it is present in the mix, but, fundamentally, the right choice of characteristics for those components (length, fineness, cross-section.

  19. Research on tensile fracture process of ring-spun yarn based on AE technique and HHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing XUE

    Full Text Available The audio signals of polyester filament and ring-spun yarn were collected respectively during tensile failure by self-built Acoustic Emission detection system (AE for short, which is based on the conventional yarn tensile strength tester. And then the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT program was compiled by Matlab software to analysis and process the collected signals, in order to get the time-frequency characteristics of each damage source in the yarn tensile fracture process. The results show that, AE signal via HHT can be identified two modes involved in polyester ring-spun yarn tensile fracture process, which are fiber fracture and fiber slippage. And the characteristic frequencies of the modes are 30, 20 kHz and 6, 3 kHz respectively. Thus, this paper provides an effective new approach for the analysis and further research of yarn tensile fracture mechanism.

  20. A comparison of wood and plant fiber properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robson, D.J.; Hague, J.

    1996-01-01

    Huge quantities of wood and nonwood plant fi-bers are produced each year. There is increasing interest in the use of nonwood fibers in composites. Many of these fibers are traded worldwide and have established prices. Prices range from $2,500 per tonne for cotton to $35 per tonne for straw. Fibers h

  1. Modeling and Experiments on Ballistic Impact into UHMWPE Yarns Using Flat and Saddle-Nosed Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leigh Phoenix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn shooting experiments were conducted to determine the ballistically-relevant, Young’s modulus and tensile strength of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fiber. Target specimens were Dyneema® SK76 yarns (1760 dtex, twisted to 40 turns/m, and initially tensioned to stresses ranging from 29 to 2200 MPa. Yarns were impacted, transversely, by two types of cylindrical steel projectiles at velocities ranging from 150 to 555 m/s: (i a reverse-fired, fragment simulating projectile (FSP where the flat rear face impacted the yarn rather than the beveled nose; and (ii a ‘saddle-nosed projectile’ having a specially contoured nose imparting circular curvature in the region of impact, but opposite curvature transversely to prevent yarn slippage off the nose. Experimental data consisted of sequential photographic images of the progress of the triangular transverse wave, as well as tensile wave speed measured using spaced, piezo-electric sensors. Yarn Young’s modulus, calculated from the tensile wave-speed, varied from 133 GPa at minimal initial tension to 208 GPa at the highest initial tensions. However, varying projectile impact velocity, and thus, the strain jump on impact, had negligible effect on the modulus. Contrary to predictions from the classical Cole-Smith model for 1D yarn impact, the critical velocity for yarn failure differed significantly for the two projectile types, being 18% lower for the flat-faced, reversed FSP projectile compared to the saddle-nosed projectile, which converts to an apparent 25% difference in yarn strength. To explain this difference, a wave-propagation model was developed that incorporates tension wave collision under blunt impact by a flat-faced projectile, in contrast to outward wave propagation in the classical model. Agreement between experiment and model predictions was outstanding across a wide range of initial yarn tensions. However, plots of calculated failure stress versus yarn pre

  2. Characterization of antibacterial silver coated yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, M; Russo, M; Licciulli, A; Sannino, A; Maffezzoli, A

    2009-11-01

    Surface treatments of textile fibers and fabrics significantly increase their performances for specific biomedical applications. Nowadays, silver is the most used antibacterial agent with a number of advantages. Among them, it is worth to note the high degree of biocompatibility, an excellent resistance to sterilization conditions, antibacterial properties with respect to different bacteria associated with a long-term of antibacterial efficiency. However, there are only a few antibacterial fibres available, mainly synthetic with high production cost and limited effectiveness. Cotton yarns with antimicrobial properties are most suitable for wound healing applications and other medical treatments thanks to their excellent moisture absorbance while synthetic based fibres are most suitable for industrial applications such as automotive tapestry and air filters. The silver-coated fibers were developed applying an innovative and low cost silver deposition technique for natural and synthetic fibers or yarns. The structure and morphology of the silver nanoclusters on the fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) and XRD analysis, and quantitatively confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. Good silver coating stability has been confirmed performing several industrial washing. Antimicrobial tests with Escherichia coli were performed.

  3. Magnetic-Assisted, Self-Healable, Yarn-Based Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Meng, Wenjun; Pei, Zengxia; Liu, Chang; Hu, Hong; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-06-23

    Yarn-based supercapacitors have received considerable attention recently, offering unprecedented opportunities for future wearable electronic devices (e.g., smart clothes). However, the reliability and lifespan of yarn-based supercapacitors can be seriously limited by accidental mechanical damage during practical applications. Therefore, a supercapacitor endowed with mechanically and electrically self-healing properties is a brilliant solution to the challenge. Compared with the conventional planar-like or large wire-like structure, the reconnection of the broken yarn electrode composed of multiple tiny fibers (diameter supercapacitor that ensures the reconnection of broken electrodes has been successfully developed by wrapping magnetic electrodes around a self-healing polymer shell. The strong force from magnetic attraction between the broken yarn electrodes benefits reconnection of fibers in the yarn electrodes during self-healing and thus offers an effective strategy for the restoration of electric conductivity, whereas the polymer shell recovers the configuration integrity and mechanical strength. With the design, the specific capacitance of our prototype can be restored up to 71.8% even after four breaking/healing cycles with great maintenance of the whole device's mechanical properties. This work may inspire the design and fabrication of other distinctive self-healable and wearable electronic devices.

  4. Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

    2013-01-01

    , and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non......-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fiber composites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen......The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates...

  5. 汉麻纤维与微孔聚酯纤维紧密纺纱的生产实践%Production Practice of Spinning Compact Yarn Blended with Hemp Fiber and Microporous Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐萍

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of hemp fiber was introduced. Aimed at poor uniformity and spinnabili- ty,compact spinning process was adopted. The production practice of spinning hemp/microporous pol- yester 35/65 16.4 tex K compact spun yarn was elaborated from the aspects of controlling blending ratio in feeding material,pretreatment of hemp and microporous polyester, process and quality control in production process.%文章介绍了汉麻纤维的性能,针对汉麻纤维整齐度差,可纺性不好的困难,采用紧密纺工艺流程,从投料控制混纺比、汉麻纤维及微孔聚酯涤纶的预处理、以及生产工艺过程的质量控制方面阐述了纺制汉麻/微孔聚酯35/6516.4texK紧密纱的生产实践。

  6. Fabrication of a multifunctional carbon nanotube "cotton" yarn by the direct chemical vapor deposition spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Hua; Li, Ya-Li; Feng, Jian-Min; Kang, Yan-Ru; Han, Shuai-Shuai

    2012-09-21

    A continuous cotton-like carbon nanotube fiber yarn, consisting of multiple threads of high purity double walled carbon nanotubes, was fabricated in a horizontal CVD gas flow reactor with water vapor densification by the direct chemical vapor deposition spinning process. The water vapor interaction leads to homogeneous shrinking of the CNT sock-like assembly in the gas flow. This allows well controlled continuous winding of the dense thread inside the reactor. The CNT yarn is quite thick (1-3 mm), has a highly porous structure (99%) while being mechanically strong and electrically conductive. The water vapor interaction leads to homogeneous oxidation of the CNTs, offering the yarn oxygen-functionalized surfaces. The unique structure and surface of the CNT yarn provide it multiple processing advantages and properties. It can be mechanically engineered into a dense yarn, infiltrated with polymers to form a composite and mixed with other yarns to form a blend, as demonstrated in this research. Therefore, this CNT yarn can be used as a "basic yarn" for various CNT based structural and functional applications.

  7. Prediction of Rotor Spun Yarn Strength Using Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System and Linear Multiple Regression Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NURWAHA Deogratias; WANG Xin-hou

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison study of two models for predicting the strength of rotor spun cotton yarns from fiber properties. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy system inference (ANFIS) and Multiple Linear Regression models are used to predict the rotor spun yarn strength. Fiber properties and yarn count are used as inputs to train the two models and the count-strength-product (CSP) was the target. The predictive performances of the two models are estimated and compared. We found that the ANFIS has a better predictive power in comparison with linear multipleregression model. The impact of each fiber property is also illustrated.

  8. Analysis of Different Breed of Protein Fibres and their Influence on Mechanical Properties of Woollen Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė RAGAIŠIENĖ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyse possibilities of making different woollen blend yarns with sheep’s wool and dog’s hair fibers and to investigate geometrical and mechanical properties of these yarns. In this paper sheep’s wool and dogs’ hair fibers were compared one with other in different geometrical (fibre surface, length, diameter, linear density and mechanical (breaking tenacity, elongation at break, breaking toughness properties. It was estimated that the sheep’s and the dog’s fibers are visually very different, they have various types of scales, also most of the dog’s hair have channels inside them. On the next stage of this work the woollen blend yarns were made by mixing the wool of German Blackface sheep with different breed (English Spaniel, Poodle, Yorkshire Terrier dogs’ hair 15 %, 25 % and 35 %. After evaluating the linear density and mechanical properties of woollen blend yarns, it was estimated that influence of fiber composition in the yarns on these properties is different. Different values of the investigated properties are mostly influenced by spinning system of these yarns. The condenser spinning system affects inequality and unpredictable properties of woollen blend yarns. Also, obtained results depend on the breed of protein fibers, hairy surface, hollow structure and bending rigidity of fiber, the technological process or even compatibility of used devices.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8974

  9. Analysis of Different Breed of Protein Fibres and their Influence on Mechanical Properties of Woollen Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė RAGAIŠIENĖ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyse possibilities of making different woollen blend yarns with sheep’s wool and dog’s hair fibers and to investigate geometrical and mechanical properties of these yarns. In this paper sheep’s wool and dogs’ hair fibers were compared one with other in different geometrical (fibre surface, length, diameter, linear density and mechanical (breaking tenacity, elongation at break, breaking toughness properties. It was estimated that the sheep’s and the dog’s fibers are visually very different, they have various types of scales, also most of the dog’s hair have channels inside them. On the next stage of this work the woollen blend yarns were made by mixing the wool of German Blackface sheep with different breed (English Spaniel, Poodle, Yorkshire Terrier dogs’ hair 15 %, 25 % and 35 %. After evaluating the linear density and mechanical properties of woollen blend yarns, it was estimated that influence of fiber composition in the yarns on these properties is different. Different values of the investigated properties are mostly influenced by spinning system of these yarns. The condenser spinning system affects inequality and unpredictable properties of woollen blend yarns. Also, obtained results depend on the breed of protein fibers, hairy surface, hollow structure and bending rigidity of fiber, the technological process or even compatibility of used devices.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8974

  10. Computational Simulation of Complex Structure Fancy Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A study is reported for mathematical model and simulation of complex structure fancy yarns. The investigated complex structure fancy yarns have a multithread structure composed of three components -core, effect, and binder yams. In current research the precondition was accepted that the cross-sections of the both two yarns of the effect intermediate product in the complex structure fancy yarn remain the circles shaped, and this shape does not change during manufacturing of the fancy yarn. Mathematical model of complex structure fancy yarn is established based on parameter equation of space helix line and computer simulation is further carried out using the computational mathematical tool Matlab 6.5. Theoretical structure of fancy yarn is compared with an experimental sample. The simulation system would help for further the set ofinformation in designing of new assortment of the complex structure fancy yarns and prediction of visual effects of fancy yarns in end-use fabrics.

  11. Abrasion Resistance Comparison between Rotor and Ring Spun Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ping; YU Chong-wen

    2002-01-01

    On the base of literature review and the analysis of yarn properties, yarn structure and some other facts, the abrasion resistance of both rotor spun yarn and ring spun yarns are discussed. The results show that with the same raw material and twist, the rotor spun yarn has lower abrasion resistance than that of ring spun yarn, because of the higher twist employed, the abrasion resistance of rotor spun yarn is higher than that of ring spun yarn.

  12. Wood versus Plant Fibers: Similarities and Differences in Composite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Madsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fiber composites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling in yarn engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patanaik, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter deals with the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling in reducing yarn hairiness during the ring spinning process and thereby “engineering” yarn with desired properties. Hairiness significantly affects the appearance...

  14. YARN HAIRINESS ON COTTON YARN AND FACTORS EFFECTING ON HAIRINESS (LITERATURE REWIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya CAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn hairiness is important quality parameter thanks to novelty of hairiness measurement and increasing of expectation from yarn, in recent years. In this study; firstly the importance of yarn hairiness was stressed after that yarn hairiness is defined and lastly the factors which effect on 100 % cotton ring yarn hairiness were examined in detail. Yarn hairiness is caused by fibre properties, yarn properties, machine parameters in spinning process and operations after spinning process. Hairiness problem could not be solved completely because of the complexity of the factors affecting on it.

  15. Study of Inverse Creep In Textile Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Patil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep has been known and studied for textilematerials for decades. In comparison, a newlyobserved phenomenon of inverse creep seems not tohave received much attention. A new instrument hasbeen fabricated to measure creep and inverse creep intextile materials particularly yarns. Creep and Inversecreep measurements of nylon multifilament yarn,polyester multifilament yarn, cotton and wool yarn atdifferent levels of stress have been studied using thenew instrument and results are reported in the presentpaper.

  16. Yarning Circles in the Literacy Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathy A.; Sunderland, Naomi; Davis-Warra, John

    2014-01-01

    This article explains how the speaking and listening practice of yarning circles can be used in the literacy classroom. The article opens with an account of a live enactment of yarning circles with elementary students in a mainstream classroom in Australia. It explains the purpose and origin of yarning circles in Indigenous communities, and…

  17. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  18. Electron Beam Irradiated Intercalated CNT Yarns For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Gaier, James R.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Lopez Calero, Johnny E.; Ramirez, Christopher; Meador, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled CNT yarns have been experimentally and commercially created to yield lightweight, high conductivity fibers with good tensile properties for application as electrical wiring and multifunctional tendons. Multifunctional tendons are needed as the cable structures in tensegrity robots for use in planetary exploration. These lightweight robust tendons can provide mechanical strength for movement of the robot in addition to power distribution and data transmission. In aerospace vehicles, such as Orion, electrical wiring and harnessing mass can approach half of the avionics mass. Use of CNT yarns as electrical power and data cables could reduce mass of the wiring by thirty to seventy percent. These fibers have been intercalated with mixed halogens to increase their specific electrical conductivity to that near copper. This conductivity, combined with the superior strength and fatigue resistance makes it an attractive alternative to copper for wiring and multifunctional tendon applications. Electron beam irradiation has been shown to increase mechanical strength in pristine CNT fibers through increased cross-linking. Both pristine and intercalated CNT yarns have been irradiated using a 5-megavolt electron beam for various durations and the conductivities and tensile properties will be discussed. Structural information obtained using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy will correlate microstructural details with bulk properties.

  19. DETERMINAÇÃO DO NÚMERO E DO ÂNGULO DE CONVOLUÇÃO DA FIBRA DE ALGODÃO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DA FIBRA E DO FIO COTTON FIBER NUMBER AND CONVOLUTION ANGLE MEASUREMENT AND ITS RELATION TO YARN AND FIBER TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORMA DE MAGALHÃES ERISMANN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A linhagem de algodoeiro IAC 20-233 e as variedades comerciais IAC 21 e IAC 22 foram caracterizadas morfologicamente pelo número e pelo ângulo de convolução de suas fibras, utilizando-se microscopia óptica. A variedade IAC 21 apresentou fibras com menor número e ângulo de convolução que a IAC 20-233 e a IAC 22, enquanto estas foram semelhantes entre si. Os três genótipos apresentaram fibras de maturidade similar. O índice Micronaire (medida do complexo finura + maturidade da variedade IAC 21 foi maior que o dos demais, correspondendo, portanto, a fibras mais grossas. Isso pode ter contribuído para diminuir o número e o ângulo de convolução e, como conseqüência, deprimido a elongação da fibra e do fio de algodão produzido.Two cotton cultivars (IAC 21 and IAC 22 and a breeding line (IAC 20-233 were morphologically characterized by the fiber number of convolutions and the convolution angle determined using optical microscopy. IAC 21 presented a smaller value for those traits than the ones determined for IAC 22 and IAC 20-233, which presented similar values. All three genotypes produced fibers with similar maturity. The highest Micronaire index (measurement of the complex fineness + maturity obtained by the IAC 21 fiber, corresponds to the thickest fibers. This fact may lead to a reduction of the fiber number and angle of convolution and therefore decreased fiber and yarn elongation.

  20. Performance evaluation of fiber optic components in nuclear plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, M.C.; Miller, D.W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); James, R.W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Over the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has funded several projects to evaluate the performance of commercially available fiber optic cables, connective devices, light sources, and light detectors under environmental conditions representative of normal and abnormal nuclear power plant operating conditions. Future projects are planned to evaluate commercially available fiber optic sensors and to install and evaluate performance of instrument loops comprised of fiber optic components in operating nuclear power plant applications. The objective of this research is to assess the viability of fiber optic components for replacement and upgrade of nuclear power plant instrument systems. Fiber optic instrument channels offer many potential advantages: commercial availability of parts and technical support, small physical size and weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, relatively low power requirements, and high bandwidth capabilities. As existing nuclear power plants continue to replace and upgrade I&C systems, fiber optics will offer a low-cost alternative technology which also provides additional information processing capabilities. Results to date indicate that fiber optics are a viable technology for many nuclear applications, both inside and outside of containments. This work is funded and manage& under the Operations & Maintenance Cost Control research target of EPRI`s Nuclear Power Group. The work is being performed by faculty and students in the Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Departments and the staff of the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory of the Ohio State University.

  1. Cryogenic Tensile Strength and Fatigue Life of Carbon Nanotube Multi-Yarn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, H E; Mall, S

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) multi-yarns, consisting of 30 yarns, were tested under monotonic tensile load and fatigue at the room temperature (298 K) and two cryogenic temperatures (232 and 123 K). Tensile stiffness increased with the decrease of temperature. The average ultimate tensile strength was higher at 123 K when compared to the higher temperatures (232 and 298 K). Failure mechanism changed from a combination of classical variant and independent fiber breakage at the two higher temperatures to mostly classical variant failure mechanism at the lower temperature. The CNT-yarn's fatigue life also increased with decreasing temperature. CNT-yarns have been shown to function well at lower temperatures making them usable for applications requiring operation at cryogenic temperatures, such as in satellites and high altitude aircraft.

  2. Multifilament cellulose/chitin blend yarn spun from ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundsinger, Kai; Müller, Alexander; Beyer, Ronald; Hermanutz, Frank; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-10-20

    Cellulose and chitin, both biopolymers, decompose before reaching their melting points. Therefore, processing these unmodified biopolymers into multifilament yarns is limited to solution chemistry. Especially the processing of chitin into fibers is rather limited to distinctive, often toxic or badly removable solvents often accompanied by chemical de-functionalization to chitosan (degree of acetylation, DA, cellulose/chitin blend fibers using ionic liquids (ILs) as gentle, removable, recyclable and non-deacetylating solvents. Chitin and cellulose are dissolved in ethylmethylimidazolium propionate ([C2mim](+)[OPr](-)) and the obtained one-pot spinning dope is used to produce multifilament fibers by a continuous wet-spinning process. Both the rheology of the corresponding spinning dopes and the structural and physical properties of the obtained fibers have been determined for different biopolymer ratios. With respect to medical or hygienic application, the cellulose/chitin blend fiber show enhanced water retention capacity compared to pure cellulose fibers.

  3. Sensor yarns for real-time in situ detection of damage behavior for the purpose of structural health monitoring of textile-reinforced thermoset composites: development of a continuous wet-chemical silvering process for high-performance filament yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onggar, T.; Häntzsche, E.; Nocke, A.; Hund, R. D.; Cherif, Ch

    2017-04-01

    High-performance textile yarns such as glass filament (GF) yarn will be used as the base material for the development of sensor yarns because glass filament yarns offer both high tensile strengths and moduli of elasticity, as well as high melting temperatures and elongation. A new continuous wet-chemical metallization process has been developed for GF yarns on a laboratory scale to achieve special properties such as electrical conductivity. The aim of the work is to develop a continuous wet-chemical silver plating process for the GF-filament yarn in order to achieve electrical conductivity on the GF-surface. The process was carried out continuously in order to metallize the GF, which is sensitive to the shear force. A homogeneous, completely covered and adhered silver layer on the GF yarn surfaces was obtained by the application of this technology. The surface morphology was been determined by light and scanning electron microscopy to assess the silver layer properties such as structure, homogeneity, and cracking. The chemical structure of the surfaces was analyzed by means of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. For structural analysis, GF yarns were investigated using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The dispersive and polar component of the surface energy of the sized and silvered GF yarn was measured by using a single fiber Tensiometer K100. The silver layer thickness and the silver content were determined after the metallization. Textile physical tests of the tensile strength, elasticity modulus, elongation at break, and yarn fineness of the single GF yarns as well as GF bundle were carried out.

  4. The Processing Design of Jute Spun Yarn/PLA Braided Composite by Pultrusion Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anin Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalently, the light has been shed on the green composite from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Jute fibers are natural fibers superior due to light weight, low cost, and being environmentally friendly corresponding to the green composite materials. Meticulously, fibers of polylactic acid (PLA thermoplastic biopolymer were used as the resin fibers. In this study, the fabrication of tubular jute spun yarn/PLA braided composite by pultrusion molding was presented. The intermediate materials were prepared by commingled technique. The braiding technique manufactured preform which had jute fiber diagonally oriented at certain angles with the glass fiber inserted into the braiding yarns along the longitudinal direction. The braided preforms were pulled through a heated die where the consolidation flow took place due to reduced matrix viscosity and pressure. The pultrusion experiments were done with jute/PLA commingled yarns and combined with glass fiber yarns to fabricate the tubular composite. Impregnation quality was evaluated by microscope observation of the pultruded cross-sections. The flexural mechanical properties of the pultruded were measured by four-point bending test.

  5. Electrospinning of continuous piezoelectric yarns for composite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoudas, Natasha C.; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2008-03-01

    The focus of this research is to electrospin continuous yarns of piezoelectric nanofibers. Incorporating piezoelectric polymer fibers in traditional composites can add sensing and actuation capabilities, which creates a wide array of potential applications. To process nanofibers with piezoelectric properties, we are pursuing the electrospinning of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in DMAc. A method of electrospinning on water is used to form the continuous fibers, which are then tested using DSC, XRD, and microscopy. Through this technique, we see evidence that the non-polar α-phase of PVDF is converted to the polar β-phase, which is responsible for its piezoelectric behavior.

  6. Suitability of Aquatic Plant Fibers for Handmade Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordiah Bidin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns for future fiber supplies in pulp and paper industries has shifted interest in nonwood sources from agriculture residues and aquatic plants. Aquatic plants with short growth cycles, in abundance, and with low lignin are a potential fiber source. Five aquatic plant species, Cyperus digitatus, Cyperus halpan, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus, and Typha angustifolia, were examined for fiber dimensions and chemical composition (cellulose, lignin and compared with other nonwood plants. All aquatic plants possessed short (length, 0.71–0.83 mm and thin (diameter, 9.13–12.11 µm fibers, narrow lumen (diameter, 4.32–7.30 µm, and thin cell wall (thickness, 2.25–2.83 µm compared with most other nonwood plants. Slenderness ratio ranged from 73.77 to 89.34 with Typha angustifolia having the highest ratio. Except for Scirpus grossus, the flexibility coefficient ranged from 52.91 to 58.08. Scirpus grossus has low Runkel ratio, 0.84 ± 0.17. Fiber characteristics, short and thin fibers, Slenderness ratio >60, flexibility coefficient within 50–75, and Runkel ratio 34% is suitable for pulp and papermaking. Lignin content in aquatic plants in the present study ranged 9.54–20.04% and below the wood lignin content of <23–30% encountered in pulp and papermaking. Handmade paper sheets produced for paperboard, craft, and decorative purposes are with permissible tensile strength, breaking length, and low moisture content.

  7. Woven-Yarn Thermoelectric Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ah; Aliev, Ali E; Bykova, Julia S; de Andrade, Mônica Jung; Kim, Daeyoung; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lepró, Xavier; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication and characterization of highly flexible textiles are reported. These textiles can harvest thermal energy from temperature gradients in the desirable through-thickness direction. The tiger yarns containing n- and p-type segments are woven to provide textiles containing n-p junctions. A high power output of up to 8.6 W m(-2) is obtained for a temperature difference of 200 °C.

  8. Identification of the shape of the yarn balloon using MATHEMATICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J; Yu, W-d [College of Textiles, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang District, Shanghai, 201620 (China); Chen, R-h [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, 63 Chenglinzhuang Road, Tianjin 300160 (China)], E-mail: wdyu@dhu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    The balloon of yarn in parallel spinning process is studied in this work. In parallel spinning process, a filament yarn was unwound from a package at high rotating speed and twisted on a staple core yarn to form the wrapped yarn. The forces acting on the unwinding yarn made the yarn move as a 3-D curve, which has a great influence on the quality of the final yarn. A nonlinear mathematical model is employed, and a computer software, MATHEMATICA, is applied to identification of the balloon shape and the distribution of the yarn tension.

  9. Fiber optic pressure sensors for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In the last few years, the nuclear industry has experienced some problems with the performance of pressure transmitters and has been interested in new sensors based on new technologies. Fiber optic pressure sensors offer the potential to improve on or overcome some of the limitations of existing pressure sensors. Up to now, research has been motivated towards development and refinement of fiber optic sensing technology. In most applications, reliability studies and failure mode analyses remain to be exhaustively conducted. Fiber optic sensors have currently penetrated certain cutting edge markets where they possess necessary inherent advantages over other existing technologies. In these markets (e.g. biomedical, aerospace, automotive, and petrochemical), fiber optic sensors are able to perform measurements for which no alternate sensor previously existed. Fiber optic sensing technology has not yet been fully adopted into the mainstream sensing market. This may be due to not only the current premium price of fiber optic sensors, but also the lack of characterization of their possible performance disadvantages. In other words, in conservative industries, the known disadvantages of conventional sensors are sometimes preferable to unknown or not fully characterized (but potentially fewer and less critical) disadvantages of fiber optic sensors. A six-month feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the performance and reliability of existing fiber optic pressure sensors for use in nuclear power plants. This assessment will include establishment of the state of the art in fiber optic pressure sensing, characterization of the reliability of fiber optic pressure sensors, and determination of the strengths and limitations of these sensors for nuclear safety-related services.

  10. Recent researches concerning the obtaining of functional textiles based on conductive yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. L.; Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.

    2016-08-01

    Modem textile industry is influenced both by consumers' lifestyle and by novel materials. Functional textiles can be included into the group of technical textiles. The functional activity can be shortly interpreted as "sense - react - adapt" to the environment while traditional materials meet only passive protective role, a barrier between body and environment. Functional materials cross the conventional limits because they are designed for specific performances, being part of domains as: telemedicine, medicine, aeronautics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, protective clothes, sportswear, etc. This paper highlights the most recent developments in the field of using conductive yarns for obtaining functional textiles. Conductive fabrics can be done by incorporating into the textile structure the conductive fibers / yarns. The technologies differ from embroidering, sewing, weaving, knitting to braiding and obtaining nonwovens. The conductive fabrics production has a quickly growth because it is a high demand for these textiles used for data transfer in clothing, monitoring vital signs, germ-free garments, brain-computer interface, etc. Nowadays it is of high interest surface treatments of fibers/yarns which can be considered as a novel kind of textile finishing. There are presented some researches related to obtaining conductive yarns by coating PET and PP yarns with PANi conductive polymer.

  11. Computer vision for yarn microtension measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Changhou; Huang, Ran; Pan, Wei; Li, Xueyong

    2016-03-20

    Yarn tension is an important parameter for assuring textile quality. In this paper, an optical method to measure microtension of moving yarn automatically in the winding system is proposed. The proposed method can measure microtension of the moving yarn by analyzing the captured images. With a line laser illuminating the moving yarn, a linear array CCD camera is used to capture the images. Design principles of yarn microtension measuring equipment based on computer vision are presented. A local border difference algorithm is used to search the upper border of the moving yarn as the characteristic line, and Fourier descriptors are used to filter the high-frequency noises caused by unevenness of the yarn diameter. Based on the average value of the characteristic line, the captured images were classified into sagging images and vibration images. The average value is considered a sag coordinate of the sagging images. The peak and trough coordinates of the vibration are obtained by change-point detection. Then, according to axially moving string and catenary theory, we obtain the microtension of the moving yarn. Experiments were performed and compared with a resistance strain sensor, and the results prove that the proposed method is effective and of high accuracy.

  12. Multifunctional smart composites with integrated carbon nanotube yarn and sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Devika; Hou, Guangfeng; Ng, Vianessa; Chaudhary, Sumeet; Paine, Michael; Moinuddin, Khwaja; Rabiee, Massoud; Cahay, Marc; Lalley, Nicholas; Shanov, Vesselin; Mast, David; Liu, Yijun; Yin, Zhangzhang; Song, Yi; Schulz, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Multifunctional smart composites (MSCs) are materials that combine the good electrical and thermal conductivity, high tensile and shear strength, good impact toughness, and high stiffness properties of metals; the light weight and corrosion resistance properties of composites; and the sensing or actuation properties of smart materials. The basic concept for MSCs was first conceived by Daniel Inman and others about 25 years ago. Current laminated carbon and glass fiber polymeric composite materials have high tensile strength and are light in weight, but they still lack good electrical and thermal conductivity, and they are sensitive to delamination. Carbon nanotube yarn and sheets are lightweight, electrically and thermally conductive materials that can be integrated into laminated composite materials to form MSCs. This paper describes the manufacturing of high quality carbon nanotube yarn and sheet used to form MSCs, and integrating the nanotube yarn and sheet into composites at low volume fractions. Various up and coming technical applications of MSCs are discussed including composite toughening for impact and delamination resistance; structural health monitoring; and structural power conduction. The global carbon nanotube overall market size is estimated to grow from 2 Billion in 2015 to 5 Billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 20%. Nanotube yarn and sheet products are predicted to be used in aircraft, wind machines, automobiles, electric machines, textiles, acoustic attenuators, light absorption, electrical wire, sporting equipment, tires, athletic apparel, thermoelectric devices, biomedical devices, lightweight transformers, and electromagnets. In the future, due to the high maximum current density of nanotube conductors, nanotube electromagnetic devices may also become competitive with traditional smart materials in terms of power density.

  13. ASPECTS OF THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON THE TENSION PROPERTIES OF THE YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of some experiments performed using the power system bands directly from the card to the rotor spinning machine and the spinning system used by passing the lanes on two passages mill and fed to the spinning rotor. In this study we analized the influence of technological parameters of the preparation drawing on the assessing indicators for the tensile strength of the Nm20, Nm24, Nm27 Nm34 and Nm40 yarns. The fineness range studied was made of three fiber mixtures of different varieties of cotton, coded as follows: A1-85% Soviet cotton+15% Chinese cotton medium II; A2-100% Turkish cotton medium III; A3-100% American cotton mdium IV. The method of preparation of the bands which are to be powered to the rotor spinning machine, respectively with the aggregate pile-card and the powered bands directly to the rotor spinning machine and the adding of two rolling mill, detemines different structures of bands and different degrees of untangling and orientation of the fibers, which influences the quality of the obtained yarns. This study reveals a considerable improvement of the tensile properties when the yarns are made from rolled band, which is explained by the high degree of correction and parallelization of the fibers of the rolled band, which allows a greater participation of fibers with their resistance to the resistance of the yarns.

  14. Novel Nanostructures of Rutile Fabricated by Templating against Yarns of Polystyrene Nanofibrils and Their Catalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a facile approach to the synthesis of rutile nanostructures in the form of porous fibers or bundles of nanotubes by maneuvering the surface wettability of yarns made of polystyrene nanofibrils. Specifically, hierarchically porous fibers were obtained by hydrolyzing titanium tetraisopropoxide to form TiO2 nanoparticles in the void spaces among hydrophobic nanofibrils in each yarn. After calcination in air at 800 °C, the resultant fibers were comprised of many interconnected rutile nanoparticles whose diameters were in the range of 20–80 nm. After converting the nanofibrils and yarns into hydrophilic surfaces through plasma treatment, however, the TiO2 formed conformal coatings on the surfaces of nanofibrils in each yarn during hydrolysis instead of just filling the void spaces among the nanofibrils. As a result, bundles of rutile nanotubes were obtained after the sample had been calcined in air at 800 °C. The thermodynamically stable rutile nanostructures were then explored as supports for Pt nanoparticles whose catalytic activity was evaluated using the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH4. The Pt supported on porous rutile fibers exhibited a better performance than the Pt on rutile nanotubes in terms of both induction time (tind) and apparent rate constant (kapp). PMID:23763369

  15. Study on Wet Permeability Models of Yarns and Knitted Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其; 冯勋伟

    2001-01-01

    Water transport through the pore structure of the knitted fabric can occur only in place where the fiber-water surface attraction force is greater than the water weight in the capillary. To investigate wet permeability of the knitted yarn in the fabric, a liquid transport model is established. The main factors which have significant influences on the liquid transport have been analyzed. It is derived from the argument that the optimal design for the knitted fabric with quick sweat transport property can be obtained.

  16. A Worsted Yarn Virtual Production System Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董奎勇; 于伟东

    2004-01-01

    Back-Propagation (BP) neural network and its modified algorithm are introduced. Two series of BP neural network models have been established to predict yarn properties and to deduce wool fiber qualities. The results from these two series of models have been compared with the measured values respectively, proving that the accuracy in both the prediction model and the deduction model is high. The experimental results and the corresponding analysis show that the BP neural network is an efficient technique for the quality prediction and has wide prospect in the application of worsted yarn production system.

  17. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati [Drug discovery laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India); Devi, Dipali [Seri biotech laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India); Kalita, Dhaneswar [Government Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Jalukbari, Guwahati, Assam 781014 (India); Kalita, Kasturi [Department of Pathology, Hayat Hospital, Guwahati, Assam 781034 (India); Dash, Suvakanta [Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of pharmaceutical science, Azara, Guwahati, Assam 781017 (India); Kotoky, Jibon, E-mail: jkotoky@gmail.com [Drug discovery laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  18. Deformation and Failure of a Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Yarn Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Jefferson, Gail D.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.

    2008-01-01

    Forests of multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be twisted and manipulated into continuous fibers or yarns that exhibit many of the characteristics of traditional textiles. Macro-scale analysis and test may provide strength and stiffness predictions for a composite composed of a polymer matrix and low-volume fraction yarns. However, due to the nano-scale of the carbon nanotubes, it is desirable to use atomistic calculations to consider tube-tube interactions and the influence of simulated twist on the effective friction coefficient. This paper reports laboratory test data on the mechanical response of a multi-walled, carbon nanotube yarn/polymer composite from both dynamic and quasi-static tensile tests. Macroscale and nano-scale analysis methods are explored and used to define some of the key structure-property relationships. The measured influence of hot-wet aging on the tensile properties is also reported.

  19. Influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of hemp knitted fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Ana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the media have highlighted the damage of the ozone layer and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR reaching the earth’s surface. Prolonged and repeated, both occupational and recreational, sun exposure of the population causes some detrimental effects. Clothing is considered to be one of the most important tools for UV protection. It is generally accepted that synthetic fibres provide a high UV protection capability of textiles, while cellulose fibres (cotton, linen, hemp, viscose have a low UV absorption capacity. However, natural pigments, pectin and waxes in natural cellulose fibers, and lignin in hemp fibers, act as UV absorbers having a favorable effect on UPF of grey-state fabrics. Bearing in mind the trend of reintroduction of hemp fibers as a source of eco-friendly textiles, there is a serious lack of study about the potential of hemp materials in terms of UV protection. Folded yarn is a complex yarn composed of two or more component yarns arranged parallel and twisted together to make a “new quality” yarn. Folding of yarns is an operation undertaken in order to modify single-yarn properties to an appreciable degree. There are very few investigations concerning the relationship between the yarn properties and UV protection effectiveness of the fabric made there from. In addition, there is no any result in the scientific literature about the influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of textile materials. Having this in mind, for our research the idea was to evaluate the effect of yarn folding in this regard. The plain knitted fabrics composed of single or two-folded hemp yarn were compared in terms of UV protection properties. The Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF, as the quantitative measurement of the material effectiveness to protect the human skin against UVR, was determined for the textile materials by in vitro test method according to the European standard EN 13758. The knitted

  20. Effect of airflow on nanofiber yarn spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a new air-jet spinning method for the preparation of continuous twisted nanofiber yarns. The nozzle-twisting device is designed to create the 3-D rotating airflow to twist nanofiber bundles. The airflow characteristics inside the twisting chamber are studied numerically. The airflow field distribution and its effect on nanofiber yarn spinning at different pressures are also discussed.

  1. Advanced materials based on carbon nanotube arrays, yarns and papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Phlip David

    molecular hindrance of the epoxy chains with individual carbon nanotubes occupying about 40% of the composite volume. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was used to study the molecular transitions of neat epoxy resin samples and their corresponding CNT yarn composite samples with varying matrix properties. Dramatic effects on the intensity and temperature at which alpha-transitions occurred were recorded, as well as a marked effect on the smaller segmental motions, or beta-transitions. These changes in the matrix assist in explaining the previously reported tensile property data and the proposed physical explanation of those data. Electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube yarns and hybridized 3-D braided composites consisting of CNT yarns and insulating glass fibers were also investigated. The innovative hybridized structure provided electrical conductivity to the otherwise insulating preforms and composite structures. Finally, a new processing method of "shear pressing" was developed to produce CNT buckypapers. Tall aligned carbon nanotube arrays were converted into aligned CNT buckypaper preforms for composite fabrication. These preforms contained the desired characteristics of millimeter long CNTs, high CNT volume fraction, high CNT alignment, small diameter MWNTs and fast processing speed, which have been challenging to achieve simultaneously and are crucial for obtaining the optimum composite tensile properties. Alignment of CNTs in the buckypaper preforms was confirmed through SEM analysis of the shear pressed films in their as-pressed state and of failure surfaces of a tensile specimen. Mechanical properties of the composite were very promising as they were higher than other CNT-epoxy composites with similar volume fractions. Tensile strength of the composites reached 400 MPa. Electrical conductivity of the composites reached 77 S/cm, proving that they may be useful for composite applications where electrical conductivity is important.

  2. Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Masahito; Namiki, Masaki; Jeong, Tae-Kun; Asahara, Hirosuke; Horiguchi, Keisuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Todoroki, Akira; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a method for the three-dimensional (3D) printing of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on fused-deposition modeling. The technique enables direct 3D fabrication without the use of molds and may become the standard next-generation composite fabrication methodology. A thermoplastic filament and continuous fibers were separately supplied to the 3D printer and the fibers were impregnated with the filament within the heated nozzle of the printer immediately before printing. Polylactic acid was used as the matrix while carbon fibers, or twisted yarns of natural jute fibers, were used as the reinforcements. The thermoplastics reinforced with unidirectional jute fibers were examples of plant-sourced composites; those reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber showed mechanical properties superior to those of both the jute-reinforced and unreinforced thermoplastics. Continuous fiber reinforcement improved the tensile strength of the printed composites relative to the values shown by conventional 3D-printed polymer-based composites.

  3. Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Masahito; Namiki, Masaki; Jeong, Tae-Kun; Asahara, Hirosuke; Horiguchi, Keisuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Todoroki, Akira; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2016-03-11

    We have developed a method for the three-dimensional (3D) printing of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on fused-deposition modeling. The technique enables direct 3D fabrication without the use of molds and may become the standard next-generation composite fabrication methodology. A thermoplastic filament and continuous fibers were separately supplied to the 3D printer and the fibers were impregnated with the filament within the heated nozzle of the printer immediately before printing. Polylactic acid was used as the matrix while carbon fibers, or twisted yarns of natural jute fibers, were used as the reinforcements. The thermoplastics reinforced with unidirectional jute fibers were examples of plant-sourced composites; those reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber showed mechanical properties superior to those of both the jute-reinforced and unreinforced thermoplastics. Continuous fiber reinforcement improved the tensile strength of the printed composites relative to the values shown by conventional 3D-printed polymer-based composites.

  4. 聚乳酸纤维与棉纤维不同混纺比对纱线力学性能的影响%Different Blended Ratio Effected on Yarn Mechanical Properties of the Yarn Blended with Corn Polylactic Acid Fiber and Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 潘福奎; 王春

    2012-01-01

    文章对聚乳酸纤维的性能和发展应用进行了阐述。通过设定实验条件,对聚乳酸纤维和棉纤维不同混纺比下的拉伸性能进行测试、分析,并得出结论。%The properties and application of polylactic acid fiber were elaboreted. The mechanical properties of corn polylactic acid fiber and cotton fiber were tested and analysed, according to setted experimental conditions, and the conclusions drawn.

  5. Tencel A100纱线纺纱工艺的研究%THE STUDY OF TENCEL A100 YARN SPINNING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿琴玉

    2001-01-01

    根据Tencel A100纤维的特点,探讨了Tencel A100纤维的纺纱工艺并开发出14.76tex Tencel A100纤维纱。%According to the properties of the Tencel A100, we studied the yarn spinning technology of Tencel fiber and developed the 14.76 tex Tencel A100 spun yarn.

  6. A method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Kupperman, David S.

    1997-12-01

    A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations includes the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.

  7. A novel method for fabrication of fascinated nanofiber yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential applications of nanofibers as a new-generation of material will be realized if suitable nanofiber yarns become available. Electrospinning has been widely accepted as a feasible technique for the fabrication of continuous nanofiber yarns. However its low output limited its industrial applications. This paper presents a new processing approach to fabrication of fascinated nanofiber yarns which possess excellent properties of nanofibers while enhancing its mechanical strength by the core yarn.

  8. Influence of Spinning Variable on the FR Properties of Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Oyondi Nganyi; YU Chong-wen(郁崇文)

    2003-01-01

    Broadly considered, spinning variables influences the properties of yarns. However there is scant information on the influence on the fire retardancy (FR) properties. The present work aims to establish the influence of the spinning method, twist, and fibre distribution in a blended yarn, on the FR properties of the yarn.

  9. Model to Study Resin Impregnation Process of Premix Made of Friction Spun Core Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁辛; 吴学东

    2001-01-01

    A model was deveIoped to investigate impregnation behavior of thermoplastic resin into filament bundle based on Darcy's law. Consolidation processes of unidirectional laminate were performed to evaluate the validity of the model. Friction spun core yarns were used in the experiments with polypropylene fiber sheath and glass filament core. The processing conditions, such as temperature and pressure, and filament parameters were taken into consideration. A good agreement was found between theoretical prediction and experiment data.

  10. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively heated CVD furnace of pilot-plant scale, whose hot zone is 150 mm in diameter x 300 mm in length, has been adapted for continuous coating of ceramic yarns. Coatings at very low pressures are possible in this facility due to the fact that the entire apparatus, including yarn feeding and collecting equipment, is under vacuum. SiC yarn has been coated with 0.1-0.2 microns of BN at yarn speeds of 60 cm/min; a 500-m spool; was coated in about 14 hrs. Coating capacity was tripled by adding pulleys to allow three yarn passes through the furnace.

  11. Heat transfer of suspended carbon nanotube yarn to gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yukiko; Kita, Koji; Takei, Kuniharu; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the pressure dependence of heat transfer to ambient gases for a suspended carbon nanotube yarn. The heat transport of the yarn including the heat exchange with surrounding gases is investigated using a simple one-dimensional heat transport model under Joule heating of the yarn. It is revealed that the effective diameter of the yarn for heat exchange is much smaller than the geometrical diameter of the yarn. This smaller effective diameter for heat exchange should contribute to realizing higher sensitivity and sensing over a wider range of pressures for heat-exchange-type vacuum gauges and flow sensors.

  12. The Yarn Curve and Tension in Rotor Spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effective way of finding the yarn curve shape and tension of OE(open end) yarn inside the rotor is carried out and treated by dividing the yarn curve into two parts, from which the trajectory of the yarn sliding on the navel surface is also obtained. It is pointed out that the yarn curve shape and tension will both fluctuate with the trajectory's revolving cycle inside the rotor. However, the fluctuation is not too great, so the motion can still be regarded as approximately steady for dynamic analysis.

  13. Effect of Various Ring Yarns on Fabric Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort performance of woven structures made of various types of ring spun yarns like carded, combed, and compact spun yarns has been reported in the present study. Carded, combed, and compact spun yarns are entirely different in structure in terms of fibre migration inside the yarn body, level of free space inside the yarn, number of hairs, and length of hairs on yarn surfaces. In this study, 197 dtex and 144 dtex (30s Ne and 40s Ne ring spun combed yarns are used as a warp. The same cotton mixing was used to manufacture 30s Ne and 40s Ne carded, combed, and compact yarns. Both 30s and 40s Ne linear density yarns were prepared by all three carded, combed, and compact yarn manufacturing routes. The structure of fibre strand in filling yarn has a great impact on comfort related properties, that is, thermal conductivity, , air permeability, wicking, and moisture vapour permeability.

  14. 超细旦涤纶与棉、汉麻等异经异纬提花织物的开发%On Developing Jacquard Fabric with Different Warps and Wefts of Blended Yarns between Ultra-ifne Polyester and Cotton, Hemp and Other Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊利

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the key techniques for producing mini-jacquard woven fabric using blended yarns between ultra-fine polyester and cotton, hemp and other fibers as warps and wefts. By analyzing fabric style and difficulties in production, it suggests the rational process route and optimized parameters for warping, sizing and weaving processes. The resulted fabric has special stripped structure and unique look, offering reference for developing and producing high-grade apparel fabric.%探讨了超细旦涤纶与棉、汉麻等异经异纬提花织物生产技术的要点。通过对该面料的织物风格以及生产难点进行分析,选择合理的工艺流程,优化整经、浆纱织造等工序的工艺参数。面料具有特殊的条形结构,风格独特,为高档服装面料的开发及生产提供参考。

  15. Relationship between Silver-planted Fiber Distribution Uniformity and Fabric Antibacterial Property%镀银纤维分布均匀性与织物抗菌性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖利民; 郑元生

    2011-01-01

    探讨镀银纤维在纱线、织物中的分布均匀性对抗茵性的影响.采用琼脂平皿法分别对镀银纤维、镀银纤维介入织物不同技术路线的纱线及其嵌织织物试样的抗茵性进行了测试与分析,结果表明:镀银纤维具有良好的抗菌溶出性,进行抗菌织物设计时,在满足临界用量要求的前提下,可选择混纺、包芯、交捻、交织等多种技术手段开发抗茵织物,但应注意不同的技术手段对分布均匀性要求的差异.%Effect of silver-planted fiber distribution uniformity in yarn and fabric on antibacterial property was discussed. Antibacterial property of silver-planted fiber,yam with different method silver-planted fiber and embodied fabric were tested and analyzed separately by agar plate method. The result shows that antibacterial dissolution of silver-plant fiber is better. When designing antibacterial fabric, antibacterial fabric could be developed by selecting blended spinning,core-spun,cross-twist, interweave while the difference of different technology method to distribution uniformity demand should be paid attention to.

  16. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  17. A yarn interaction model for circular braiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenhorst, van J.H.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Machine control data for the automation of the circular braiding process has been generated using previously published mathematical models that neglect yarn interaction. This resulted in a significant deviation from the required braid angle at mandrel cross-sectional changes, likely caused by an inc

  18. Practice of Spinning Porel Blended Yarn%Porel纤维混纺纱的开发实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞芝; 汪吉艮

    2011-01-01

    To develop Porel fiber blended yarn, according to clothing fabric comfort demands, Porel and combed cotton or viscose were used to blending and spinning. Feasible blending ratio is selected by test. It is considered that blended yarn property of moisture absorbent and dry fast can be reached only by adopting higher Porel content. In front spinning processing,according to fiber property, Porel fiber was pretreated,a series measures of anti-stick and control yarn hairiness & neps were adopted,finally Porel blended yarn with quality demands can be developed.%为顺利开发Porel纤维混纺纱,针对服装面料舒适性要求,采用超仿棉Porel纤维与精梳棉或粘胶纤维混纺,通过试验研究寻求适宜的混纺比例,认为只有采用高比例Porel纤维的混纺纱才能达到优异的吸湿速干性能;生产工艺方面,针对纤维的性能特点,纺前对Porel纤维进行预处理,并在各工序采取一系列防止黏缠、重点控制成纱毛羽和棉结的技术措施,最终开发出符合质量要求的Porel纤维混纺纱.

  19. Structural carbohydrates in a plant biomass: correlations between the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2014-06-18

    We compared the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods to analyze the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass. A good linear correlation was found between both methods. Compared to the more accurate dietary fiber method, the detergent fiber method overestimates the content of cellulose, whereas the detergent fiber method, as compared to the dietary fiber method, overestimates and underestimates the hemicellulose content in commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass, respectively. Because of the good linear correlations, conversion factors were determined to predict the cellulose, hemicellulose, and xylan contents to be expected from the dietary fiber method, on the basis of analyses made by the faster, cheaper, and more commonly practiced detergent fiber method. Nevertheless, the dietary fiber method offers the advantage of providing the detailed composition of the hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan, hemicellulosic glucan, galactan, and mannan), and that is of interest for biorefining purposes.

  20. Technological Status of Man-Made Fiber Laboratory and Pilot Plant%化学纤维实验室与中间试验设备的技术现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦长椿

    2011-01-01

    The commonly-used lab scale spintester, i.e., laboratory and pilot plant suitable for dry spinning,wet spinning and melt spinning are specifically introduced. The spintester includes testing units such as small-scale drawing twister, false-twist drawing texturing machine and industrial yarn unit which are applied for enhancing process, developing new products and reducing the energy consumption. Recently,new pilot plants are emerging in the research of high-performance fiber material which, to some extent,accelerates the renewal speed in man-made fiber technologies.%重点介绍了常用的试验规模的纺丝设备,即采用干法、湿法和熔融法的实验室和中间试验纺丝装置,包括企业为优化生产工艺、开发新产品、降低能耗所配备的诸如小型拉伸机、拉伸变形机、工业丝试验单元等.

  1. 7 CFR 1755.404 - Fiber optic cable telecommunications plant measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiber optic cable telecommunications plant...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.404 Fiber optic cable telecommunications...

  2. Modeling the Tensile Properties of Soybean Protein Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石风俊; 崔世忠

    2003-01-01

    The tensile properties of a series of soybean protein yarns are tested in USTER THINKPAID Ⅲ.A nonlinear viscoelastic model has been proposed to describe the tensile behavior of soybean protein yarns.The model is composed of a Maxwell element,a linear spring and a nonlinear spring.The tensile properties of soybean protein yarn are analyzed.The stress-strain curves of the yarns are fitted.The average breaking tenacity and specific work of rupture are calculated using the average breaking strain.Comparisons indicate that theoretical predictions conform the experimental results very well.

  3. Assessing Texture of Slub-Yarn Fabric Using Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The application of digital image processing to the classification of the slub-yarn texture is discussed. Texture of the slub-yam fabric is analyzed by using the texture analysis techniques. The influence of the slub-yarn parameters on the fabric texture is discussed. Results indicate that texture of the slub-yarn fabric can be reliably measured using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)analysis. The four indices of GLCM, the angular second moment, the contrast, the inverse difference moment and the correlation, are sensitive to the change of the slub-yarn parameters, and can be regarded as the major indices for the texture.

  4. Tensile Behaviour of Spun Yarns under Static State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Das

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The tensile properties of spun yarn are accepted as one of the most important parameters for assessment of yarn quality. The tensile properties decide the performance of post spinning operations; warping, weaving and knitting and the properties of the final textile structure; hence its accurate technical evaluation carries much importance in industrial applications. There is no doubt that all the studies related to tensile behaviour of spun yarns are invaluable both in theory and practice. In this article, a critical review of the theoretical and practical aspect of static tensile behaviour of staple yarns has been discussed.

  5. 牛奶蛋白纤维与精梳棉混纺纱的生产实践%Production Practice of Spinning Milk Protein Fiber and Combed Cotton Blended Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋孝浜; 吴翼翔

    2012-01-01

    文章对牛奶蛋白纤维的特性及纺纱工艺流程进行了介绍,详细阐述了主要工艺参数及质量控制的设计,并对现场管理进行了简介。%The characteristics of milk protein fiber and spinning process were introduced in this ar ticle. The main process parameters and quality control were detailedly described, as well as the site management.

  6. The study about the improvement of the quality for the fabrics made of chenille yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristian, L.; Ostafe, M. M.; Manea, L. R.; Leon, A. L.

    2016-08-01

    The work is a study about the decrease of the serious defects from the fabrics such as: the deviations from quality or the high costs, discovered and seized by customers. The analyzed fabrics have in their structures three types of different chenille yarns, such as: the Article A1 (viscose fiber with cotton, Nm 3500 dyed coil), the Article A2 (textured polyester, Nm 8000 dyed coil), the Article A3 (Trevira CS polyester, Nm 3000 the pre-dyed raw materials). The technology of chenille yarn, regardless of composition and properties is the same and is performed on the twisting machines. This study has found that the most of the flaws in the fabric, noticed by customers, are caused by the production technology of the chenille yarns. In any organization which makes goods, there are concerns about the improvement of the quality through the elimination of the nonquality. It is extremely difficult to get to “zero defects” but the first step is a systematic action plan to reduce drastically the nonconformities and the defects. The continuous improvement of the effectiveness of the integrated quality and environmental management is achieved by applying the PDCA methodology: planning, development, control, action.

  7. Development of Knitted Warm Garments from Speciality Jute Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alok Nath

    2013-09-01

    Jute-polyester blended core and textured polyester multifilament cover spun-wrapped yarn was produced using existing jute spinning machines. The spun-wrapped yarn so produced show a reduction in hairiness up to 86.1 %, improvement in specific work of rupture up to 9.8 % and specific flexural rigidity up to 23.6 % over ordinary jute-polyester blended yarn. The knitted swatch produced out of these spun-wrapped yarn using seven gauge and nine gauge needle in both single jersey and double jersey knitting machines showed very good dimensional stability even after three washing. The two-ply and three-ply yarn produced from single spun-wrapped yarn can be easily used in knitting machines and also in hand-knitting for the production of sweaters. The thermal insulation value of the sweaters produced with jute-polyester blended spun-wrapped yarn is comparable with thermal insulation value of sweaters made from 100 % acrylic and 100 % wool. However, the hand-knitted sweaters showed higher thermal insulation value than the machine-knitted sweaters due to less packing of yarn in hand knitted structure as compared to machine knitting.

  8. Hybrid yarn for thermoplastic fibre composites. Summary of technical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aa.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of the technical results obtained within the framework program: `Hybrid Yarn for Thermoplastic Fibre Composites`. The program which started at the 15th of June 1994 and expired at the 31st of December 1997, was a framework program under the Danish Materials Technology Program, MUP2. A new type of hybrid yarn for production of fibre composites with thermoplastic matrix material is developed and tested. A hybrid yarn is a commingled textured yarn consisting of structural fibres and thermoplastic fibres. In a subsequent heating and consolidation process the plastic fibres melt and become the matrix material in the formed fibre composite material. Two types of processing technology are developed and studied: Vacuum consolidation and press consolidation. Vacuum consolidation of hybrid yarn fabrics is suitable for fabrication of larger parts such as wind turbine blades, and press consolidation is a fast process suitable for smaller parts such as automobile body parts. To demonstrate the potential for industrial use of the developed hybrid yarn and process technologies a section of a wind turbine blade, an inspection cover and a car door-post have been produced. An environmental evaluation of the manufacture of hybrid yarn and composites shows that the use of the hybrid yarn is a gain for both the working environment and the external environment, compared to the use of thermosetting polymer composites. (au)

  9. Yarn Pull-Out as a Mechanism for Dissipation of Ballistic Impact Energy in Kevlar KM-2 Fabric, Part 1: Quasi-Static Characterization of Yarn Pull-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    architectures and fiber types, including Kevlar K29, Spectra,* and Zylon .† The study found that the pull-out forces strongly depend on the transverse...during testing. *Spectra is a registered trademark of Honeywell. † Zylon is a registered trademark of...deformations measured by Shockey et al. (2001) for Zylon and Kevlar K29 fabrics. Therefore, yarn stretching does not play an important role in the

  10. Effects of Factors on Open-End Rotor Yarn Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde BUHARALI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Open-end rotor spinning system, which was begun to be used commercially during late 1960s, is now used as successfully as the conventional ring spinning system. Thanks to open-end rotor yarn spinning machines are very suitable to automation and have high production speeds, use of these machines have increased permanently and today open-end rotor yarn spinning in the world has a share of about 30%. In open-end rotor spinning system yarn properties and production are effected from three main parameters. They are material, sliver preparing process and machine parameters. In this system which manufacture with very high-speed and uses a high-tech, parameters must be selected carefully to ensure best yarn quality with high performance in yarn production

  11. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  12. Extraction of yarn positional information from three-dimensional CT image of textile fabric using a yarn model for its structure analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Shinohara; Jun-ya Takayama; Shinji Ohyama; Akira Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for analyzing a textile fabric structure to extract positional information regarding each yarn using three-dimensional X-ray computed tomography (3D CT) image. Positional relationship among the yarns can be reconstructed using the extracted yarn positional information. In this paper, a sequence of points on the center line of each yarn of the sample is defined as the yarn positional information, since the sequence can be regarded as the representative position of the yarn. The sequence is extracted by tracing the yarn. The yarn is traced by estimating the yarn center and direction and correlating the yarn part of the 3D CT image with a 3D yarn model, which is moved along the estimated yarn direction. The trajectory of the center of the yarn model corresponds to the positional information of the yarn. The application of the proposed method is shown by experimentally applying the proposed method to a 3D CT image of a double-layered woven fabric. Furthermore, the experimental results for a plain knitted fabric show that this method can be applied to even knitted fabrics.

  13. Plant and Endophyte Effect on Fiber, N, and P Concentrations in Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Ben C. Morton; Jagadeesh Mosali

    2011-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Neotyphodium spp.) generally has agronomic advantages over endophyte-free tall fescue. The objective of this study was to determine if endophyte presence (E+) or absence (E−) in three tall fescue genotypes affects concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in field and greenhouse studies. E+ plants had higher concentrations of ADF and NDF (nonsignificant in one ge...

  14. Yarn Strength Modelling Using Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Majumdar, Ph.D.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yarn strength modelling and prediction has remained as the cynosure of research for the textile engineers although the investigation in this domain was first reported around one century ago. Several mathematical, statistical and empirical models have been developed in the past only to yield limited success in terms of prediction accuracy and general applicability. In recent years, soft computing tools like artificial neural networks and neural-fuzzy models have been developed, which have shown remarkable prediction accuracy. However, artificial neural network and neural-fuzzy models are trained using enormous amount of noise free input-output data, which are difficult to collect from the spinning industries. In contrast, fuzzy logic based models could be developed by using the experience of the spinner only and it gives good understanding about the roles played by various inputs on the outputs. This paper deals with the modelling of ring spun cotton yarn strength using a simple fuzzy expert system. The prediction accuracy of the model was found to be very encouraging.

  15. Production Situation and Development Suggestion of Chinese Combed Yarn%我国精梳纱生产现状及开发建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅恩福

    2011-01-01

    分析我国精梳纱的生产现状并提出开发建议.通过调查不同精梳工艺产品、不同原料精梳纱、不同纺纱形式精梳纱的生产现状,分析了产品存在的问题.指出:应加大特细号、色纺、多组分混纺及特殊捻度精梳纱的开发力度,充分利用新型纺纱设备开发品质好、结构特殊的精梳纱产品.同时加大新纤维应用力度,加强纺纱工艺技术创新,充分发挥高效能精梳机的技术优势,强化精梳质量控制,促进高质量、高档次、高附加值精梳纱线的生产.%The current production situation of Chinese combed yarn was analyzed, and the development suggestion was proposed. Product existent problems were analyzed through researching combed yarn with different processing, different material and different spinning form. It is pointed out that the development of super fine yarn, colored spinning,multicomponent blending and special twist combed yarn can be increased, the new spinning equipment can be used to develop combed yarn with good quality and special form. At the same times, application of new fiber and innovation of spinning processing technology can be increased, the technical advantages of high-effect combing machine can be used,and the combed yarn quality can be controlled exactly. Then, the production of combed yarn with high quality, high level and high value-added can be ensured.

  16. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  17. The clinical spectrum of humidifier disease in synthetic fiber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; deMonchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    In a synthetic fiber production site with recirculating cold water humidification systems and small-size-particle (> 0.1 mu <1 mu) oil mist exposure, humidifier disease was diagnosed in several workers. The patients could be divided into three groups illustrating the clinical spectrum of humidifier

  18. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial co

  19. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial co

  20. The clinical spectrum of humidifier disease in synthetic fiber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; deMonchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    1997-01-01

    In a synthetic fiber production site with recirculating cold water humidification systems and small-size-particle (> 0.1 mu <1 mu) oil mist exposure, humidifier disease was diagnosed in several workers. The patients could be divided into three groups illustrating the clinical spectrum of humidifier

  1. Preparation of Antibacterial Nanofibre/Nanoparticle Covered Composite Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yalcinkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial efficiency of nanofibre composite yarns with an immobilized antibacterial agent was tested. This novel type of nanofibrous composite material combines the good mechanical properties of the core yarn with the high specific surface of the nanofibre shell to gain specific targeted qualities. The main advantages of nanofibre covered composite yarns over the standard planar nanofibre membranes include high tensile strength, a high production rate, and their ability to be processed by standard textile techniques. The presented paper describes a study of the immobilization of an antibacterial agent and its interaction with two types of bacterial colonies. The aim of the study is to assess the applicability of the new composite nanomaterial in antibacterial filtration. During the experimental tests copper(II oxide particles were immobilized in the polyurethane and polyvinyl butyral nanofibre components of a composite yarn. The antibacterial efficiency was evaluated by using both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus gallinarum bacteria. The results showed that the composite yarn with polyvinyl butyral nanofibres incorporating copper(II oxide nanoparticles exhibited better antibacterial efficiency compared to the yarn containing the polyurethane nanofibres. The nanofibre/nanoparticle covered composite yarns displayed good antibacterial activity against a number of bacteria.

  2. 开发汉麻棉涡流纱的体会%Experience of Developing Hemp Cotton Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美红

    2012-01-01

    To develop hemp cotton vortex yarn, hemp fiber and long-staple cotton raw material were selected reasonably, hemp fiber was pretreated. According to characteristics of hemp fiber raw material, related technulogy measures were adopted,such as selecting fore-spinning and vortex spinning processing parameters rationally, controlling temperature & humidity strictly,finally hemp/cotton 60/40 21. 6 tex vortex yarn can be developed successfully, yam hairiness can be reduced, yam quality level and usability can be improved. It is considered that it is feasible to use vortex spinning technology producing high content hemp cotton blended yarn,yarn hairiness can be reduced and hemp cotton blended yam quality level can be improved.%为开发高比例汉麻棉涡流纱,通过合理选用汉麻纤维和长绒棉原料,对汉麻纤维进行预处理,针对汉麻纤维原料特点,合理配置前纺和涡流纺工艺参数及采取有关技术措施,严格控制温湿度,结果顺利地开发出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex涡流纱,大幅度降低了成纱毛羽,提升了质量水平和使用性能.认为:利用涡流纺纱技术生产高比例汉麻棉混纺纱在技术上是可行的,有助于大幅度降低纱线毛羽、提升汉麻棉混纺纱质量档次.

  3. Economics and Performance of 10 Gb/s Metro Transport Over Mixed Fiber Plant of G.655 NZDF and G.652.C Zero Water-Peak Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans-Jrg; Thiele; Santanu; Das; Raymond; Boncek; Lynn; E.; Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Using lower-cost lasers, 30% savings are possible for 10-Gb/s uncompensated metro transmission over NZDF, compared to G.652 fiber. We present WDM transmission results for a mixed plant of NZDF rings interconnected to G.652.C-fiber access laterals.

  4. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-06-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. This particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties, as compared to previous approaches. The sensor was characterized in 2-21% gas phase oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  5. Cheese dyeing of cotton/silk yarn%棉/真丝筒子纱染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2012-01-01

    棉/丝纱线筒子染色的前处理工艺采用煮练酶和纯碱,可有效去除棉纤维中的棉蜡和杂质,减少丝纤维的损伤,并降低了前处理温度;采用60℃活性染料恒温染色,射频烘燥后处理.染色产品色差较小,色牢度高于3.5级,饱和度好,色相一致.%Production process of cheese dyeing for cotton/silk blended yarn is introduced. Pretreatment with scouring enzyme and soda ash for cotton/silk yarn can effectively remove the wax and impurities from cotton fiber, reduce the damage of silk fiber and pretreatment temperature. Reactive dyeing at 60 ℃ and radio frequency drying are applied, with less color difference, color fastness above 3.5 grade, good saturation and consistent hue.

  6. Effects of (Oxy-Fluorination on Various High-Performance Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Kruppke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, typical high-performance yarns are oxy-fluorinated, such as carbon fibers, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, poly(p-phenylene sulfide and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide. The focus is on the property changes of the fiber surface, especially the wetting behavior, structure and chemical composition. Therefore, contact angle, XPS and tensile strength measurements are performed on treated and untreated fibers, while SEM is utilized to evaluate the surface structure. Different results for the fiber materials are observed. While polyethylene exhibits a relevant impact on both surface and bulk properties, polyphenylene terephthalamide and polyphenylene sulfide are only affected slightly by (oxy-fluorination. The wetting of carbon fiber needs higher treatment intensities, but in contrast to the organic fibers, even its textile-physical properties are enhanced by the treatment. Based on these findings, the capability of (oxy-fluorination to improve the adhesion of textiles in fiber-reinforced composite materials can be derived.

  7. Biscrolling nanotube sheets and functional guests into yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Márcio D; Fang, Shaoli; Lepró, Xavier; Lewis, Chihye; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Rawat, Neema; Haines, Carter S; Haque, Mohammad H; Aare, Vaishnavi; Stoughton, Stephanie; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-01-07

    Multifunctional applications of textiles have been limited by the inability to spin important materials into yarns. Generically applicable methods are demonstrated for producing weavable yarns comprising up to 95 weight percent of otherwise unspinnable particulate or nanofiber powders that remain highly functional. Scrolled 50-nanometer-thick carbon nanotube sheets confine these powders in the galleries of irregular scroll sacks whose observed complex structures are related to twist-dependent extension of Archimedean spirals, Fermat spirals, or spiral pairs into scrolls. The strength and electronic connectivity of a small weight fraction of scrolled carbon nanotube sheet enables yarn weaving, sewing, knotting, braiding, and charge collection. This technology is used to make yarns of superconductors, lithium-ion battery materials, graphene ribbons, catalytic nanofibers for fuel cells, and titanium dioxide for photocatalysis.

  8. Functionalization of carbon nanotube yarn by acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Misak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT yarn was functionalized using sulfuric and nitric acid solutions in 3:1 volumetric ratio. Successful functionalization of CNT yarn with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (e.g., COOH, COO–, OH, etc. was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction revealed no significant change to the atomic in-plane alignment in the CNTs; however, the coherent length along the diameter was significantly reduced during functionalization. A morphology change of wavy extensions protruding from the surface was observed after the functionalization treatment. The force required to fracture the yarn remained the same after the functionalization process; however, the linear density was increased (310%. The increase in linear density after functionalization reduced the tenacity. However, the resistivity density product of the CNT yarn was reduced significantly (234% after functionalization.

  9. Temperature compensation of the SAW yarn tension sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenke; Feng, Yang; Zhu, Changchun; Zheng, Jianli

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the possibility of the temperature compensation for the surface acoustic wave (SAW) yarn tension sensor. The motivation for this work was prompted by the oscillation frequency of the SAW yarn tension sensor varying with the temperature. In this paper, we deduce the functional relationship between the temperature variation and the oscillation frequency shift caused by the temperature. This functional relationship and the temperature sensor are used to get the oscillation frequency shift caused by the temperature, so that we can use the oscillation frequency shift caused by the temperature to implement the temperature compensation of the SAW yarn tension sensor. In this paper, we also get the relative error of the temperature compensation. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that this temperature compensation method can implement the temperature compensation of the SAW yarn tension sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  11. Comparison for the properties of ring spun yarns blended from cotton and regenerated bamboo%棉/再生竹纤维环锭纺纱线的性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAMIR Ahmed Abro; SOHAIL Yasin; 祝成炎

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortage of cotton fiber and cotton fiber production in China and Pakistan,the study on how to achieve the desired quality parameters for yarn blended from cotton and regenerated bamboo was carried out.In this paper,seven kinds of blended yarn with different blended ratios and same linear density and twist levels were developed.It can be found that the yarn unevenness characteristic was affected by the blended ratio of cotton and regenerated bamboo fiber.If the content of the bamboo fiber is increased,then the unevenness of the yarns will decrease.For the tenacity and the tensile strength of the yarns,the affection of the fiber content is not very obvious.The morphological structures of the blended yarns were also indentified with different blended ratio of cotton and bamboo fibers.The thermal gravimetric analysis shows that the weight loss of the blended yarns decreases with the increasing of the bamboo fiber portion.It can be further observed by the FR-IR spectrometers that the reflectance percentage of yarns increases as decreasing of the bamboo fiber portion.%为了克服棉纱及棉纺织品在中国和巴基斯坦产量的缺乏,本文研究了如何提高棉竹混纺纱的质量参数,开发了7种相同线密度及捻度但具有不同混纺比的纱线.可以得出,纱线的不均匀性受混纺比影响.若竹纤维的比例增加,则纱线的不均匀性降低;就纱线的强度及拉伸强力而言,混纺比的影响并不是十分明显.热重分析显示,随着竹纤维成分的增加,混纺纱线的重量损失减少.这可以进一步通过FR-IR光谱仪观测得到,随着竹纤维成分的减少,纱线反射率增加.

  12. Multifunctional Yarns and Fabrics for Energy Applications (NBIT Phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    biscrolled yarn cathodes for Li-ion batteries, catalytic oxygen cathodes for fuel cells, and superconducting biscrolled yarns. Project Results: We...powerful large-stroke actuation. These project advances could not have been made without the realized highly effective partnership of the...stroke actuation. These project advances could not have been made without the realized highly effective partnership of the laboratories of the US and

  13. Basic Comparison of the Properties of the Loop and Frotte Yarns, Woven and Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Grabowska Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both loop fancy yarns and frotte fancy yarns belong to the group of yarns with continuous effects. The difference between frotte and loop yarn relies on the fact that the loop yarn is constructed with two core yarns and the frotte yarn is constructed with only one core yarn. The differences are evident in the shape of these two types of fancy yarns. These shape differences are the functions of the tensions of component yarns during the twisting process. The shape and construction of the fancy yarn influence its properties. The properties of loop and frotte fancy yarns, woven and knitted fabrics are compared in this article in order to find out the optimal yarn’s and fabric’s production condition to satisfy the final user and maintain low production costs. In terms of economy aspects only, the frotte fancy yarns are believed to be cheaper in production due to lower quantity of components utilize for their production to compare with loop fancy yarns, under conditions of the same settings of ring twisting frame.

  14. Incorporation of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 fibers into ceramic/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ahmad; Janas, Victor; Jadidian, Bahram; French, Jonathan D.; Weitz, Gregory E.; Luke, John E.; Cass, Bud

    1996-05-01

    The processing of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, or PZT, fiber and fiber/polymer composites for transducer applications is discussed. Green PZT fibers, 80 to 100 micrometers in diameter, were formed at Advanced Cerametrics, Inc., using the Viscous Suspension Spinning Process (VSSP). In this process, fine PZT powder is intimately mixed with polymer precursor by high shear mixing. The powder and precursor mixture is spun through a spinneret into a coagulation bath to form fibers. The fibers are washed, dried, and collected on a spool. Yarns containing between 10 and 500 individual fibers were collimated by applying a polymeric sizing to the yarns, and passing the yarns through sizing dies. Yarn bundle tightness and flexibility were controlled by the sizing chemistry. Continuous green yarns were cut to short lengths, or woven in different architectures to create composites with novel microstructures. The short yarns were fired to product PZT straight rods for `pick and place' piezoelectric composites. The woven structures were heat treated and backfilled with polymer to create composites with 1-3, 2-3, and 3-3 connectivity. After heat treatment, the diameter of the individual PZT fibers was 10 to 20 micrometers . Electromechanical characteristics of a number of composites were determined, and will be reported. The PZT VSSP fibers can be used to form fine-scale, large area piezoelectric fiber/polymer composites for use in hydrophones, transducers for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-destructive evaluation, and as sensors and actuators in vibration and noise control.

  15. Influence of Warp Yarn Tension on Cotton Woven Fabric Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of the warp and weft yarn tension is an important factor. In this research, effect of warp yarn tension variations on the quality of greige and dyed woven fabrics was investigated. Six fabric samples (three Plain and three Twill weaves were woven on shuttle loom at varied warp yarn tension. The fabric samples were then pre-treated and dyed (Drimarene Red Cl 5B, 3% owf using laboratory singeing machine and HT dyeing machine. Greige fabric quality such as fabric inspection, fabric length, fabric width, GSM (Gram per Square Meter, EPI (Ends per Inch, PPI (Picks per Inch, and dyed fabric quality such as L*, a*, b*, C, h o , (K/S ?max and fastness properties were assessed according to the standard. It has been observed that fabric samples, both Plain and Twill weave; woven at improper warp yarns tension gives rejected greige fabric quality and 1-7% lower (K/S 550nm values as compared to the fabric weave at requisite warp yarn tension such as 38-39cN for Plain fabric and 78cN for Twill fabric for 42x38 and 64x36 tex construction. Hence, among other weave faults, warp yarn tension variation has influence on the greige fabric quality as well as caused improper and uneven dyeing behavior.

  16. Ultrasensitive and highly selective graphene-based single yarn for use in wearable gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong Ju; Hong, Won G; Choi, Nak-Jin; Kim, Byung Hoon; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2015-06-04

    Electric components based on fibers or textiles have been investigated owing to their potential applications in wearable devices. High performance on response to gas, drape-ability and washing durability are of important for gas sensors based on fiber substrates. In this report, we demonstrate the bendable and washable electronic textile (e-textile) gas sensors composed of reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) using commercially available yarn and molecular glue through an electrostatic self-assembly. The e-textile gas sensor possesses chemical durability to several detergent washing treatments and mechanical stability under 1,000 bending tests at an extreme bending radius of 1 mm as well as a high response to NO2 gas at room temperature with selectivity to other gases such as acetone, ethanol, ethylene, and CO2.

  17. Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Graphene-Based Single Yarn for Use in Wearable Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju Yun, Yong; Hong, Won G.; Choi, Nak-Jin; Hoon Kim, Byung; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Electric components based on fibers or textiles have been investigated owing to their potential applications in wearable devices. High performance on response to gas, drape-ability and washing durability are of important for gas sensors based on fiber substrates. In this report, we demonstrate the bendable and washable electronic textile (e-textile) gas sensors composed of reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) using commercially available yarn and molecular glue through an electrostatic self-assembly. The e-textile gas sensor possesses chemical durability to several detergent washing treatments and mechanical stability under 1,000 bending tests at an extreme bending radius of 1 mm as well as a high response to NO2 gas at room temperature with selectivity to other gases such as acetone, ethanol, ethylene, and CO2.

  18. 植物纤维工艺性能及其复合材料应用研究进展%Research on processing property of plant fiber and plant fiber reinforced composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白一峰; 佟文清

    2013-01-01

    概述了近年来在植物纤维的渗透率、可压缩性等工艺性能方面的研究进展,揭示了植物纤维织物渗透性能及可压缩性能影响因素,并总结了多种植物纤维复合材料的研究进展,包括植物纤维/热塑性复合材料、植物纤维/可降解复合材料、植物纤维/热固性复合材料等.随着研究的不断深入,植物纤维复合材料会有更广泛的应用.%The study on processing property of plant fiber in recent years was outlined,such as impregnation property and compressibility,revealing affecting factors of processing property.Meanwhile,the development of different plant fiber reinforced composites was also summarized,including plant fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites,plant fiber reinforced biodegradable composites and plant fiber reinforced thermoset composites.With the research deepening of plant fiber,the plant fiber reinforced composites will be more widely used in future.

  19. Up-regulating the human intestinal microbiome using whole plant foods, polyphenols, and/or fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Kieran M; Conterno, Lorenza; Gasperotti, Mattia; Viola, Roberto

    2012-09-12

    Whole plant foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals, protect against chronic human diseases such as heart disease and cancer, with fiber and polyphenols thought to contribute significantly. These bioactive food components interact with the gut microbiota, with gut bacteria modifying polyphenol bioavailability and activity, and with fiber, constituting the main energy source for colonic fermentation. This paper discusses the consequences of increasing the consumption of whole plant foods on the gut microbiota and subsequent implications for human health. In humans, whole grain cereals can modify fecal bacterial profiles, increasing relative numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Polyphenol-rich chocolate and certain fruits have also been shown to increase fecal bifidobacteria. The recent FLAVURS study provides novel information on the impact of high fruit and vegetable diets on the gut microbiota. Increasing whole plant food consumption appears to up-regulate beneficial commensal bacteria and may contribute toward the health effects of these foods.

  20. Properties and Processing of the Pineapple Leaf Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元明; 郁崇文

    2001-01-01

    The properties and constituent of pineapple fiber were tested, and on the base of that, chemical treatment was used to improve the spinnability of the fiber, and the pure and blended yarn of pineapple fiber were produced in worsted and cotton spinning system.

  1. Post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small concrete walls reinforced with plant fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Soto

    Full Text Available Structural masonry using concrete blocks promotes the rationalization of construction projects, lowering the final cost of a building through the elimination of forms and the reduction of the consumption of reinforcement bars. Moreover, production of a block containing a combination of concrete and vegetable fiber sisal results in a unit with properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness, flexibility, ability to absorb energy, and post-cracking behavior that are comparable to those of a block produced with plain concrete. Herein are reported the results of a study on the post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small walls reinforced with sisal fibers (lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm added at volume fractions of 0.5% and 1%. Tests were performed to characterize the fibers and blocks and to determine the compressive strength of the units, prisms, and small walls. The deformation modulus of the elements was calculated and the stress-strain curves were plotted to gain a better understanding of the values obtained. The compression test results for the small walls reinforced with fibers were similar to those of the reference walls and better than the blocks and prisms with added fibers, which had resistances lower than those of the corresponding conventional materials. All elements prepared with the addition of sisal exhibited an increase in the deformation capacity (conferred by the fibers, which was observed in the stress-strain curves. The failure mode of the reference elements was characterized by an abrupt fracture, whereas the reinforced elements underwent ductile breakage. This result was because of the presence of the fibers, which remained attached to the faces of the cracks via adhesion to the cement matrix, thus preventing loss of continuity in the material. Therefore, the cement/plant fiber composites are advantageous in terms of their ductility and ability to resist further damage after cracking.

  2. The effects of growth conditions and of processing into yarn on dislocations in hemp fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2011-01-01

    at harvest in hemp fibres from plants grown in a green house under three different regimes (wind free, windy and dry) with the percentage found in commercial hemp yarn. As expected a higher percentage of the cell wall consisted of dislocations in the processed fibres, but the increase was only significant......Dislocations are irregular regions within the cell wall of natural fibres. Dislocations have also been called slip planes or nodes, and are important for the properties of natural fibres within a number of applications. This study compares the percentage of the cell wall consisting of dislocations...

  3. Effective AC needleless and collectorless electrospinning for yarn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, P; Kostakova, E; Sanetrnik, F; Mikes, P; Chvojka, J; Kalous, T; Bilek, M; Pejchar, K; Valtera, J; Lukas, D

    2014-12-28

    Nanofibrous materials are essential components for a wide range of applications, particularly in the fields of medicine and material engineering. These include protective materials, sensors, cosmetics, hygiene, filtration and energy storage. The most widely used and researched technology in these fields is electrospinning. This method for producing fibers yields highly promising results thanks to its versatility and simplicity. Electrospinning is employed in multiple forms, among which needle and needleless direct current (DC) variants are the most distinctive. The former is based on the generation of just one single jet from a nozzle; hence this fabrication process is not very productive. The latter uses the destabilization of free liquid surfaces by means of an electric field, which enhances the throughput since it produces numerous jets, emitted from the surfaces of rollers, spheres, strings and spirals. However, although some progress in total producibility has been achieved, the efficiency of the DC method still remains relatively low. A further drawback of DC electrospinning is that both variants need a collector, which makes it difficult to combine DC electrospinning easily with other technologies due to the presence of the high field strength within the entire spinning zone. This paper describes our experiments with AC electrospinning. We show that alternating current (AC) electrospinning based on a needleless spinning-electrode provides a highly productive smoke-like aerogel composed of nanofibers. This aerogel rises rapidly from the electrode like a thin plume of smoke, without any need for a collector. Our work shows that AC needleless electrospinning gains its efficiency and collector-less feature thanks to the creation of a perpetually charge-changing virtual counter-electrode composed of the nanofibers emitted. High-speed camera recordings demonstrate the formation mechanism of the nanofibrous plume, which is wafted by an electric wind. This wind

  4. Relationship between Yarn Properties and Process Parameters in False-Twist Textured Yarn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yildirim, Ph.D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of false-twist textured yarns in the aspects of crimp characteristic and tensile behavior depend mainly on the draw ratio and the D/Y ratio. This study comprises investigations of the effect of D/Y ratio and draw ratio on the crimp and tensile properties and percent crystallinity. While there was no noticeable change on the percent crystallinity by altering these parameters, tenacity increased and crimp contraction decreased with increasing draw ratio, and crimp stability decreased when the D/Y ratio increased. K/S value also decreased with increasing draw ratio.

  5. Properties Of Viscose Vortex Yarns Depending On Technological Parameters Of Spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moučková Eva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between technological parameters of spinning of 100% CV Vortex yarns of different counts and its selected geometrical parameters (a lead of helix of wrapping fibre ribbon, yarn diameter as well as yarn properties. The number of twist of wrapping fibre layer is determined. The effect of the yarn delivery speed, hollow spindle diameter, and the main draft on the hairiness, mass irregularity, tenacity, elongation, resistance to abrasion and bending rigidity of Vortex yarn is observed. The yarn properties are compared with the properties of open-end rotor spun yarns. Slivers of the same spinning lot were used for the production of both kinds of yarn. The results showed that the delivery speed in combination with spindle diameter affects yarn diameter, hairiness and abrasion resistance. Mass irregularity and imperfections of yarn is mainly affected by the main draft of drafting unit. Technological parameters of spinning do not affect the level of bending rigidity of the Vortex yarn. Tested rotor spun yarns had a larger diameter, higher hairiness, lower tenacity and higher elongation, lower mass irregularity and number of imperfections, higher abrasion resistance and lower bending rigidity compared to tested Vortex spun yarns.

  6. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. Due to the improved mechanical properties of this approach high temperature sensor measurements were performed up to 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  7. Method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns using acoustical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.; Kupperman, D.S.

    1998-05-19

    A slashing process is disclosed for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations including the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns. 2 figs.

  8. Traditions and Inovations of Yarns in Lithuanian Folk Fabrics (19th Century)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inga NĖNIENĖ; Audronė RAGAIŠIENĖ; Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2013-01-01

    ... tendencies of their distribution. This investigation seeks to discover alternation of home weaving traditions establishing raw material of yarns, types of yarn structure and features of threads colours in authentic folk fabrics used...

  9. Statistical Tensile Strength for High Strain Rate of Aramid and UHMWPE Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; XIONG Tao; XIONG Jie

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic tensile impact properties of aramid (Technora(R)) and UHMWPE (DC851) fiber bundles were studied at two high strain rates by means of reflecting type Split Hopkinson Bar, and stress-strain curves of fiber yarns at different strain rates were obtained. Experimental results show that the initial elastic modulus, failure strength and unstable strain of aramid fiber yarns are strain rate insensitive, whereas the initial elastic modulus and unstable strain of UHMWPE fiber yarns are strain rate sensitive. A fiber-bundle statistical constitutive equation was used to describe the tensile behavior of aramid and UHMWPE fiber bundles at high strain rates. The good consistency between the simulated results and experimental data indicates that the modified double Weibull function can represent the tensile strength distribution of aramid and UHMWPE fibers and the method of extracting Weibull parameters from fiber bundles stress-strain data is valid.

  10. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-01-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. We have extensively characterized two fiber sensors at high temperature. We obtain quenching ratios between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen as high as 3.9 x at 70 C. For the first sensor at 60 C we obtained a {+-} 1% variation in the quenching ratio over 6 cycles of measurement, and monitored the device performance over 23 days. We were able to operate the second sensor continuously for 14 hours at 70 C, and the sensor quenching ratio was stable to 5% over that time period. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  11. EFFECT OF POLIESTER POY FIBRE CROSS-SECTION ON THE YARN PROPERTIES OF AIRJET TEXTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANOGLU Suat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available POY yarns are well know and commercialized since 1970s. On the other hand, air-jet textured yarns are very common due to their unique structure which looks like natural spun-staple yarns. In the air-jet texturing process, the yarn is textured by overfeeding into a high-pressure of air to create a looped and more natural yarn appearance and also the bulkiness level of the yarn is controlled by input speed and jet-take out speed. This process reassigns flat, continous synthetic yarns into entangled, convoluted, bulky, spun like structured yarns. They are of higher bulk, exhibits increased covering power, have a more subdued lustre and are warmer in hand. Therefore, air-jet textured yarns possess some unique properties that require investigation. Hence, in this study, first the texturing process is introduced briefly and its principle of manufacturing is illustrated, later four different types of yarns were produced with two different fibre cross-sections at the three different nozzle types and three different core yarn feeding. The produced yarn production details are given and their breaking strength, elongation and work of rupture are studied along with their morphological structures by using light microscope and SEM. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of POY fibre cross-section on air-jet textured yarn mechanical properties. The overall results showed that coarser air-jet textured yarns with a round shape have higher breaking strength, elongation and work of rupture than the trilobal shaped yarns. On the other hand, half matted yarn which was applied TiO2 has also presented better breaking strength and elongation.

  12. Modal 5.9 tex纱的纺纱实践%Spinning of Modal 5.9 tex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵利韬; 闫海江; 张绍森

    2012-01-01

    为了使Modal 5.9 tex纱满足轻薄型家纺产品需要,针对Modal纤维的性能特点,提出了原料选配方案,确定了各工序适宜的工艺参数配置及控制要点,优选了关键纺专器材,控制好各工序温湿度,并对半制品及成纱的质量水平进行过程监控,最终使Modal 5.9 tex纱的质量满足了使用要求.%To ensure Modal 5.9 tex yarn reaching thin home textiles demands,according to Modal fiber property, raw material selection plan was put forward. Proper processing data configuration and control key points in each process were defined. Key equipments were optimized. Temperature & humidity in each process were controlled well. Semiproduct and yarn qualities were monitored. Finally quality of Modal 5.9 tex yarn can reach use demands.

  13. High-performance multifunctional graphene yarns: toward wearable all-carbon energy storage textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Jalili, Rouhollah; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Salari, Maryam; Gholamvand, Zahra; Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Shepherd, Roderick L; Chen, Jun; Moulton, Simon E; Innis, Peter Charles; Minett, Andrew I; Razal, Joselito M; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-03-25

    The successful commercialization of smart wearable garments is hindered by the lack of fully integrated carbon-based energy storage devices into smart wearables. Since electrodes are the active components that determine the performance of energy storage systems, it is important to rationally design and engineer hierarchical architectures atboth the nano- and macroscale that can enjoy all of the necessary requirements for a perfect electrode. Here we demonstrate a large-scale flexible fabrication of highly porous high-performance multifunctional graphene oxide (GO) and rGO fibers and yarns by taking advantage of the intrinsic soft self-assembly behavior of ultralarge graphene oxide liquid crystalline dispersions. The produced yarns, which are the only practical form of these architectures for real-life device applications, were found to be mechanically robust (Young's modulus in excess of 29 GPa) and exhibited high native electrical conductivity (2508 ± 632 S m(-1)) and exceptionally high specific surface area (2605 m(2) g(-1) before reduction and 2210 m(2) g(-1) after reduction). Furthermore, the highly porous nature of these architectures enabled us to translate the superior electrochemical properties of individual graphene sheets into practical everyday use devices with complex geometrical architectures. The as-prepared final architectures exhibited an open network structure with a continuous ion transport network, resulting in unrivaled charge storage capacity (409 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)) and rate capability (56 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1)) while maintaining their strong flexible nature.

  14. Thermal Comfort Properties of Clothing Fabrics Woven with Polyester/Cotton Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdemir Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, thermal and water vapor resistance, components of thermal comfort of 65/35 and 33/67% polyester/ cotton (PES/CO blend fabrics woven with 2/2 twill, matt twill, cellular and diced weaves, which are commonly used for clothing, were determined. The results indicate that both the fabric construction and the constituent fiber properties affect thermal comfort properties of clothing woven fabrics. Cellular weave, which is derivative of sateen weave and diced weave, which is compound weave, has the highest thermal resistance appropriating for cold climatic conditions. On the other hand, the 2/2 twill weave and matt twill weave, which is derivative of sateen weave, depicted the lowest water vapor thermal resistance, making it convenient for hot climatic conditions. Besides, fabrics woven with 65/35% PES/CO blend yarns have higher thermal resistance, so they are suitable for cold climatic conditions. Fabrics woven with 33/67% PES/CO blend yarns have lower water vapor resistance, so they are convenient for hot climatic conditions.

  15. Validity of plant fiber length measurement : a review of fiber length measurement based on kenaf as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...

  16. Yarn Strength Modelling Using Genetic Fuzzy Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debamalya; Ghosh, Anindya; Das, Subhasis

    2013-05-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of cotton yarn strength using genetic fuzzy expert system. Primarily a fuzzy expert system has been developed to model the cotton yarn strength from the constituent fibre parameters such as fibre strength, upper half mean length, fibre fineness and short fibre content. A binary coded genetic algorithm has been used to improve the prediction performance of the fuzzy expert system. The experimental validation confirms that the genetic fuzzy expert system has significantly better prediction accuracy and consistency than that of the fuzzy expert system.

  17. Statistical Modeling for the Effect of Rotor Speed, Yarn Twist and Linear Density on Production and Quality Characteristics of Rotor Spun Yarn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmed Arain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model for the effect of RS (Rotor Speed, YT (Yarn Twist and YLD (Yarn Linear Density on production and quality characteristics of rotor spun yarn. Cotton yarns of 30, 35 and 40 tex were produced on rotor spinning machine at different rotor speeds (i.e. 70000, 80000, 90000 and 100000 rpm and with different twist levels (i.e. 450, 500, 550, 600 and 700 tpm. Yarn production (g/hr and quality characteristics were determined for all the experiments. Based on the results, models were developed using response surface regression on MINITAB�16 statistical tool. The developed models not only characterize the intricate relationships among the factors but may also be used to predict the yarn production and quality characteristics at any level of factors within the range of experimental values.

  18. Rule-based expert system to establish the linkage between yarn twist factor and end-use.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concepts and development of a rule-based expert system to establish the optimum linkage between the yarn twist factor and end-use of a yarn and determine the appropriate twist for the particular yarn. The quality of a yarn...

  19. Yarn spun from carbon nanotube forests: Production, structure, properties and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menghe Miao

    2013-01-01

    The discovery ofdrawable carbon nanotube forests opened up the possibility of constructing a wide range of pure carbon nanotube macrostructures and sparked interests in developing applications from these structures,especially pure carbon nanotube yarns.This review examines the various facets of the drawable carbon nanotube forests,synthesis and drawability,and their resulting yarns,structure,production,properties and applications.The structure,formation and properties of carbon nanotube yarns are compared with those of conventional textile yarns in order to obtain a better understanding of the science,structural mechanics and processing technology involved in carbon nanotube yarns.

  20. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-05-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. The response of the sensor to oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C was measured in 2-21% gas phase oxygen. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, at 100 C the sensitivity is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  1. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-07-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor is being developed that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Two critical materials issues are the cluster's ability to withstand high temperatures when immobilized in a porous the sol-gel support, and whether after heating to high temperatures, the sol-gel matrix maintains a high and constant permeability to oxygen to support rapid quenching of luminescence. We used a composite materials approach to prepare stable sensing layers on optical fibers. We dispersed 60 w/w% of a pre-cured sol-gel composite containing the potassium salt of molybdenum clusters (K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}) into a sol-gel binder solution, and established the conditions necessary for deposition of sol-gel films on optical fibers and planar substrates. The fiber sensor has an output signal of 5 nW when pumped with an inexpensive commercial 365 nm ultraviolet light emitting diode (LED). Quenching of the sensor signal by oxygen was observed up to a gas temperature of 175 C with no degradation of the oxygen permeability of the composite after high temperature cycling. On planar substrates the cluster containing composite responds within <1 second to a gas exchange from nitrogen to oxygen, indicating the feasibility of real-time oxygen detection.

  2. Traditions and Inovations of Yarns in Lithuanian Folk Fabrics (19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga NĖNIENĖ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is actually for history of textile technologies and Lithuanian culture heritage to investigate deeply peculiarities of manufacturing and appearance of folk textile, to establish local and global tendencies of their distribution. This investigation seeks to discover alternation of home weaving traditions establishing raw material of yarns, types of yarn structure and features of threads colours in authentic folk fabrics used in Lithuanian villages in the 19th century in peasants clothing and showing yarns types territorial distribution in Lithuanian regions Žemaitija and Aukštaitija. It was investigated 468 pieces of clothing of this period from the album saved in National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art. It is unexpected that cotton yarns are very common in warp of hand made clothing fabrics at the end of the 19th century. Cotton yarns replaced flax and wool in warp. It was established that plied yarns dominate in warp and plain yarns – in weft. Fancy dyed, mouline, melange and yarns with multiplex winding were identificated in the fabrics. Also it was innovative to found the metallic thread in weft of two examples of the fabrics. Frequency of colours distribution was established analyzing colours of yarns. The analysis of territorial distribution of fancy yarns types showed the tendency to spread the novelties of yarns and threads in traditional textile from the West part of the country.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4436

  3. Traditions and Inovations of Yarns in Lithuanian Folk Fabrics (19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga NĖNIENĖ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is actually for history of textile technologies and Lithuanian culture heritage to investigate deeply peculiarities of manufacturing and appearance of folk textile, to establish local and global tendencies of their distribution. This investigation seeks to discover alternation of home weaving traditions establishing raw material of yarns, types of yarn structure and features of threads colours in authentic folk fabrics used in Lithuanian villages in the 19th century in peasants clothing and showing yarns types territorial distribution in Lithuanian regions Žemaitija and Aukštaitija. It was investigated 468 pieces of clothing of this period from the album saved in National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art. It is unexpected that cotton yarns are very common in warp of hand made clothing fabrics at the end of the 19th century. Cotton yarns replaced flax and wool in warp. It was established that plied yarns dominate in warp and plain yarns – in weft. Fancy dyed, mouline, melange and yarns with multiplex winding were identificated in the fabrics. Also it was innovative to found the metallic thread in weft of two examples of the fabrics. Frequency of colours distribution was established analyzing colours of yarns. The analysis of territorial distribution of fancy yarns types showed the tendency to spread the novelties of yarns and threads in traditional textile from the West part of the country.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4436

  4. Scratch-resistant, highly conductive, and high-strength carbon nanotube-based composite yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Sun, Yinghui; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2010-10-26

    High-strength and conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are very attractive in many potential applications. However, there is a difficulty when simultaneously enhancing the strength and conductivity of CNT yarns. Adding some polymers into CNT yarns to enhance their strength will decrease their conductivity, while treating them in acid or coating them with metal nanoparticles to enhance their conductivity will reduce their strength. To overcome this difficulty, here we report a method to make high-strength and highly conductive CNT-based composite yarns by using a continuous superaligned CNT (SACNT) yarn as a conductive framework and then inserting polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the intertube spaces of the framework through PVA/dimethyl sulphoxide solution to enhance the strength of yarns. The as-produced CNT/PVA composite yarns possess very high tensile strengths up to 2.0 GPa and Young's moduli more than 120 GPa, much higher than those of the CNT/PVA yarns reported. The electric conductivity of as-produced composite yarns is as high as 9.2 × 10(4) S/m, comparable to HNO(3)-treated or Au nanoparticle-coated CNT yarns. These composite yarns are flexible, lightweight, scratch-resistant, very stable in the lab environment, and resistant to extremely humid ambient and as a result can be woven into high-strength and heatable fabrics, showing potential applications in flexible heaters, bullet-proof vests, radiation protection suits, and spacesuits.

  5. STUDY REGARDING YARN TENSION DURING KNITTING ON CIRCULAR MACHINE WITH SMALL DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLAD Dorin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available If yarn tension is controlled properly during knitting, it gives an improved and uniform fabric appearance. The main objective of knitters is to feed yarn to the knitting point at a low and uniform tension. To ensure that the stress do not affect yarn properties, literature recommends that the yarn tension shall be so adjusted that it fits in the field elastic. The value of the yarn stress influences not only quality of knitted product, but also the value of the knitting machine production, by the frequency rupture of yarns. This is influenced directly by the yarn stress and yarn quality. The value of this tension is influenced by a complex of factors, such as: technological diagram of the routing of the yarn from coils up to the knitting area, the structure and characteristics of the raw materials, the typo of knitting, type supply, etc. In the present article, using practical method, we test some ecological yarns used to make sock, like cotton, organic cotton, bambooviscose, Tencel, according to 6 different fabric geometry: single jersey, plated single jersey, ribb 4:2, plated ribb 4:2, purl, plated purl. Was enregistered and discussed the values of yarn tension.

  6. Carbon nanotube yarns as strong flexible conductive capacitive electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Gebben, B.; Otto, M.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, consisting of 23 µm diameter CNT filaments, can be used as capacitive electrodes that are long, flexible, conductive and strong, for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment. We measure the charge storage capacity as function of salt concentration, and u

  7. Sucrose Treated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Yarns and Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated carbon nanotube or graphene yarns and woven sheets are consolidated through the formation of a carbon binder formed from the dehydration of sucrose. The resulting materials, on a macro-scale are lightweight and of a high specific modulus and/or strength. Sucrose is relatively inexpensive and readily available, and the process is therefore cost-effective.

  8. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-10-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we immobilized the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}M{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, in a sol-gel matrix and showed that the luminescence is stable after 54 hours at 200 C, but the quenching ratios were low and the films delaminated after thermal cycling due to densification of the matrix. Three new approaches to solve decreased quenching over time and delamination of films off fiber tips were investigated. In the first approach K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were incorporated into a TEOS based sol-gel. These gave enhanced quenching (6x), but delaminated. Our second approach was to use a commercial cyanoacrylate glue to immobilize the particles onto the tip of an optical fiber. This gave better adhesion and good quenching initially, but eventually the glue degraded upon heating. Our third approach was to use a 55% OtMOS/ TEOS sol-gel binder. Films based on this new sol-gel binder show high quenching ({approx}6x) and superior mechanical stability even after thermal cycling. Sensor measurements on an optical fiber containing K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were obtained from 100 to 25 C. The signal intensity in nitrogen was stable at 2.8 {+-} 0.2 nW, and the quenching ratio (ratio of signal in N{sub 2} vs. 21 % O{sub 2}) varied from 4.4 to 6.9X. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  9. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  10. Influence of Nitrogen Sources and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation on Growth, Crude Fiber and Nutrient Uptake in Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alice I. TCHIAZE; Victor D. TAFFOUO; Henri FANKEM; Kenne, Martin; Régis BAZIRAMAKENGA; Ekodeck, Georges E.; Antoun, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, B) have immense potential application in sustainable agriculture as ecofriendly biofertilizers and biopesticides. In this study, the effects of three nitrogen (N) sources (NO3-, NH4+ and NO3NH4) and PGPR on growth, crude fiber and nutrient uptake were investigated in squash plants. Some growth parameters [root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), total plant dry weight (PDW), number of leaves (NL), shoot length (SL), stem diameter (SD) and numb...

  11. Development of Hemp Spun Silk Colored Spun Yarn%汉麻绢丝色纺纱的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿才新; 周红涛; 宋秋霞

    2013-01-01

    To develop hemp spun silk colored spun yarn on cotton spinning equipment successfully,according to fiber properties, dyed hemp fiber and spun silk were pretreated respectively to increase spinnability. Ratio of raw material blending, waste percentages in picking and opening process were controlled rationally to ensure blending ratio. In drawing and roving process,drafting processing was selected rationally,necessary moisture-keeping measures were adopted to ensure semi-product quality. In spinning process, draft in back zone should be selected rationally to increased yarn quality. Through the series of technology measures,finally quality of hemp/spun silk 50/50 18.2 tex colored spun yarn can reach use demand.%为了在棉纺设备上顺利开发汉麻绢丝色纺纱,针对混纺纤维的性能特点,对染色后的汉麻纤维和绢丝分别进行预处理以提高纤维的可纺性;合理控制投料比及清梳工序中的落棉以保证混纺比;并粗工序合理配置牵伸工艺及采取必要的保湿措施以保证半制品质量;细纱工序合理配置后区牵伸工艺以提高成纱质量.通过一系列技术措施,最终成功纺制出满足质量要求的汉麻/绢丝50/5018.2 tex色纺纱.

  12. Continuous monitoring of plant growth using fiber-optic interferrometric sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Julius; Grossman, Barry G.

    2011-06-01

    Dendrometers, dendrographs and dry weight measurements have been successfully used for measurements of plant growth. These sensors have been used with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) based data logging systems for continuous monitoring. In this paper the preliminary results for a prototype technique is presented as a proof of concept for the continuous monitoring of plant growth using an approach based on fiber-optic interferrometric sensing. The advantage of this sensing technique over the others is the ability to measure and analyze with very high sensitivities such as micron changes in dimensions allowing measurements over short time spans. The sensor was mounted on a Dracaena Sanderiana (Lucky Bamboo) shoot and the change in shoot length dimensions resulted in changes in the output signal display which is in the form of interferrometric fringes. The data acquisition is performed over a long duration using labVIEW based data logging. Filtered output of the data has been presented where an attempt has been made to relate the fringes to length changes. The sensing system is nondestructive and noninvasive and has been targeted to respond to changes in stem length due to changes in plant growth parameters. The objective is to provide a measurement system to do research in optimizing plant growth in greatly reduced time spans. This form of sensing application is also applicable for monitoring the growth of plants growing at much slower rates.

  13. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 54 hours at 200 C. Quenching of a factor of 1.5X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed from in-situ measurements of films heated directly at 200 C. An automated system for characterizing fiber optic oxygen sensors up to 220 C with a temporal resolution better than 10 s is under construction. We estimate a signal of 6 x 10{sup 8} photons/s after complete quenching in 21% oxygen. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  14. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffolo, Marina Dello; Martino, Miriam; Bevilacqua, Alicia; Montero, Mirta; Rodríguez, María Susana; Albertengo, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0). The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2) and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min) interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work. PMID:21845102

  15. Online Test and Fault Diagnosis of Yarn Quality Using Wavelet Analysis And FFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xi-jun; QiU Hao-bo; LI Yu-ming; LI Cong-xin

    2002-01-01

    A new online system of monitoring yarn quality and fault diagnosis is presented. This system integrates the technologies of sensor, signal process, commuunication,network, computer, control, instrument structure and mass knowledge of expert. Comparing with conventional off. Line yarn test, the new systemcan find the quality defects of yarn online in time and compensate for the lack of expert knowledge in manual analysis. It can save a lot of yarn wasted in off- line test and improve product quality. By using laser sensor to sample the diameter signal of yarn and doing wavelet analysis and FFT to extract fault characteristics, a set of reasoning mechanism is established to aralyze yarn quality and locate the fault origination. The experimental results show that new system can do well in monitoring yarn quality online comparing with conventional off-line yarn test. It can test the quality of yarn in real-time with high efficiency and analyze the fault reason accurately. It is very useful to apply this new system to upgrade yarn quality in cotton textile industry at present.

  16. Asymmetric carbon nanotube-MnO₂ two-ply yarn supercapacitors for wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Miao, Menghe

    2014-04-04

    Strong and flexible two-ply carbon nanotube yarn supercapacitors are electrical double layer capacitors that possess relatively low energy storage capacity. Pseudocapacitance metal oxides such as MnO₂ are well known for their high electrochemical performance and can be coated on carbon nanotube yarns to significantly improve the performance of two-ply carbon nanotube yarn supercapacitors. We produced a high performance asymmetric two-ply yarn supercapacitor from as-spun CNT yarn and CNT@Mn₂2 composite yarn in aqueous electrolyte. The as-spun CNT yarn serves as negative electrode and the CNT@MnO₂ composite yarn as positive electrode. This asymmetric architecture allows the operating potential window to be extended from 1.0 to 2.0 V and results in much higher energy and power densities than the reference symmetric two-ply yarn supercapacitors, reaching 42.0 Wh kg(-1) at a lower power density of 483.7 W kg(-1), and 28.02 Wh kg(-1) at a higher power density of 19,250 W kg(-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor can sustain cyclic charge-discharge and repeated folding/unfolding actions without suffering significant deterioration of specific capacitance. The combination of high strength, flexibility and electrochemical performance makes the asymmetric two-ply yarn supercapacitor a suitable power source for flexible electronic devices for applications that require high durability and wearer comfort.

  17. High-performance two-ply yarn supercapacitors based on carbon nanotube yarns dotted with Co3 O4 and NiO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Lv, Xiaoming; Miao, Menghe

    2015-02-18

    Yarn supercapacitors are promising power sources for flexible electronic applications that require conventional fabric-like durability and wearer comfort. Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn is an attractive choice for constructing yarn supercapacitors used in wearable textiles because of its high strength and flexibility. However, low capacitance and energy density limits the use of pure CNT yarn in wearable high-energy density devices. Here, transitional metal oxide pseudocapacitive materials NiO and Co3 O4 are deposited on as-spun CNT yarn surface using a simple electrodeposition process. The Co3 O4 deposited on the CNT yarn surface forms a uniform hybridized CNT@Co3 O4 layer. The two-ply supercapacitors formed from the CNT@Co3 O4 composite yarns display excellent electrochemical properties with very high capacitance of 52.6 mF cm(-2) and energy density of 1.10 μWh cm(-2) . The high performance two-ply CNT@Co3 O4 yarn supercapacitors are mechanically and electrochemically robust to meet the high performance requirements of power sources for wearable electronics.

  18. Narciclasine, a plant growth modulator, activates Rho and stress fibers in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, Florence; Sauvage, Sébastien; Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Mégalizzi, Véronique; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Debeir, Olivier; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Berger, Walter; Mathieu, Véronique; Decaestecker, Christine; Kiss, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Cell motility and resistance to apoptosis characterize glioblastoma multiforme growth and malignancy. Narciclasine, a plant growth modulator, could represent a powerful new weapon targeting the Achilles' heel of glioblastoma multiforme and may offer the potential to better combat these devastating malignancies. The in vitro effects of narciclasine on cell proliferation, morphology, actin cytoskeleton organization, and the Rho/Rho kinase/LIM kinase/cofilin pathway and its antitumor activity in vivo have been determined in models of human glioblastoma multiforme. Narciclasine impairs glioblastoma multiforme growth by markedly decreasing mitotic rates without inducing apoptosis. The compound also modulates the Rho/Rho kinase/LIM kinase/cofilin signaling pathway, greatly increasing GTPase RhoA activity as well as inducing actin stress fiber formation in a RhoA-dependent manner. Lastly, the treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme orthotopic xenograft- bearing mice with nontoxic doses of narciclasine significantly increased their survival. Narciclasine antitumor effects were of the same magnitude as those of temozolomide, the drug associated with the highest therapeutic benefits in treating glioblastoma multiforme patients. Our results show for the first time that narciclasine, a plant growth modulator, activates Rho and stress fibers in glioblastoma multiforme cells and significantly increases the survival of human glioblastoma multiforme preclinical models. This statement is made despite the recognition that to date, irrespective of treatment, no single glioblastoma multiforme patient has been cured.

  19. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR. Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5% produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9% was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%. The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis. The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  20. Measuring Export Competitiveness of Yarn Commodities and Textile Industry of Central Java in World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertiana Ikasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarn commodities and textile industries are the main export commodities of Central Java. Nevertheless, there are still some problems to face. The purpose of this research is to analyze the market share and competitive advantages position of the yarn commodities and the textile industries of Central Java in the world market. The Acceleration Ratio (AR and Trade Specialization Index (TSI are used to analyze the export competitiveness of the yarn commodities and the textile industries. The results obtained indicates that AR of the export of yarn commodities and textile industries of Central Java is greater than 1 (AR> 1. TSI of yarn commodities and textile industries in Central Java is 0.45 and has positive value. These results indicates that Central Java has a strong market share and tends to be a regional exporter of yarn and textile commodities in the world market.

  1. Research of Real-time Grabbing Yarn Tube System Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shigang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current yarn tube manipulator just finishes yarn tube grabbing work according to the fixed coordinates. In the actual production process, equipment problems or human factors which make the spindles not on fixed coordinates cause the damage of the manipulator. Real-time grabbing yarn tube system with visual sensing has been designed and a extraction algorithm of spindles coordinates based on a mixed image morphology and Hough transform algorithm has been proposed. Through the combination of the yarn tube image characteristics which are extracted by the algorithm and the visual measurement model which is established by pinhole imaging principle, the mapping relation of yarn tube image coordinates and world coordinates has been gained to get the location information of yarn tube in real time. Results show that the proposed method could make the robot complete the grabbing job precisely and efficiently, under which the system meet the requirement of spinning and dyeing production line.

  2. Self-assembly of single walled carbon nanotubes onto cotton to make conductive yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Yee Yuan Tan; Chengwei Wu; S. Ravi P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    A simple,economical and scalable technique is demonstrated to make conductive yarn.Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are non-covalently functionalized with dye (Acid Red 91) and dispersed in water; while cotton yarn is treated with poly (ethylene imine).When the resulting yarn is immersed in the SWCNT dispersion,SWCNTs self-assemble onto the yarn due to electrostatic forces between the functionalized nanotubes and yarn.Scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate the assembly of carbon nanotubes.The SWCNT functionalized yarn exhibits reasonable electrical conduction behaviour and are then used to make chemiresistors.The electrical resistance of the chemiresistors used as sensors increases on exposure to ammonia gas,which can be explained in terms of electron transfer between gas molecules and SWCNTs.

  3. High temporal resolution measurements of dopamine with carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Nguyen, Michael D; Zestos, Alexander G; Venton, B Jill

    2014-06-17

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can detect small changes in dopamine concentration; however, measurements are typically limited to scan repetition frequencies of 10 Hz. Dopamine oxidation at carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) is dependent on dopamine adsorption, and increasing the frequency of FSCV scan repetitions decreases the oxidation current, because the time for adsorption is decreased. Using a commercially available carbon nanotube yarn, we characterized carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs) for high-speed measurements with FSCV. For dopamine, CNTYMEs have a significantly lower ΔEp than CFMEs, a limit of detection of 10 ± 0.8 nM, and a linear response to 25 μM. Unlike CFMEs, the oxidation current of dopamine at CNTYMEs is independent of scan repetition frequency. At a scan rate of 2000 V/s, dopamine can be detected, without any loss in sensitivity, with scan frequencies up to 500 Hz, resulting in a temporal response that is four times faster than CFMEs. While the oxidation current is adsorption-controlled at both CFMEs and CNTYMEs, the adsorption and desorption kinetics differ. The desorption coefficient of dopamine-o-quinone (DOQ), the oxidation product of dopamine, is an order of magnitude larger than that of dopamine at CFMEs; thus, DOQ desorbs from the electrode and can diffuse away. At CNTYMEs, the rates of desorption for dopamine and dopamine-o-quinone are about equal, resulting in current that is independent of scan repetition frequency. Thus, there is no compromise with CNTYMEs: high sensitivity, high sampling frequency, and high temporal resolution can be achieved simultaneously. Therefore, CNTYMEs are attractive for high-speed applications.

  4. Issues arising with the application of optical fiber transmission in class 1E systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Antonescu, C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1993-12-31

    The application of fiber optic links and networks in safety-critical systems in the next generation of nuclear power plants, as well as in some digital upgrades in present-day plants, will mean that these links must be highly reliable and able to withstand the effect of environmental stressors present at the installation location. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related mechanisms of fiber optic transmission components and identifies environmental stressors that could adversely affect their reliability over the long term. Some of the standards that could be used in their qualification for safety-critical applications are also discussed briefly.

  5. Field Emission from Lateral Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarn Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field emission from a lateral emitter made by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT yarn was investigated. The lateral emitter showed an excellent field emission performance with a low turn-on electric field of 1.13 V/um at an emission current of 1 uA, high emission current of 0.2 mA at an applied voltage of 700 V, and long-time emission stability for over 20 h without any significant current decay under an initial emission current of about 0.10 mA. The lateral emitter also demonstrated a uniform line emission pattern. It is suggested that the field emission occurs from the outmost MWCNTs which are protruding out from the yarn surface.

  6. Field Emission from Lateral Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarn Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohai; Song, Yenan

    2016-10-01

    A field emission from a lateral emitter made by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) yarn was investigated. The lateral emitter showed an excellent field emission performance with a low turn-on electric field of 1.13 V/um at an emission current of 1 uA, high emission current of 0.2 mA at an applied voltage of 700 V, and long-time emission stability for over 20 h without any significant current decay under an initial emission current of about 0.10 mA. The lateral emitter also demonstrated a uniform line emission pattern. It is suggested that the field emission occurs from the outmost MWCNTs which are protruding out from the yarn surface.

  7. Process, Structure, and Properties of Electrospun Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Nanocomposite Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir M. Uddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are dispersed into polyacrylonitrile polymer solution and then assembled into continuous nanocomposite yarns through the drum-tape co-electrospinning process to facilitate the translation of CNT properties to higher order structures. We explore the dispersion of CNTs in a polymer matrix, the process of obtaining continuous yarn through electrospinning, and the surface morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite yarn.

  8. Import & Export of Cottton Yarn Increased in April

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest Customs data,China imported cotton yarn89,300 tons in April,up 4.33%from pervious month,and up 11.93% fromthe same period last year;export was 51,300 tons,up 16.72% from previousmonth,but down 23.37% on a yearly basis.The data also says from Sep.2008 to Apr.2009,the acumulated import

  9. The effect of yarn folding on some comfort properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Snežana; Popović, Dušan; Poparić, Goran

    2013-01-01

    The compressive nature of textile fabrics is known to be a significant factor influencing tactile comfort. In addition, the transport of the heat through the fabric is considered to be the major factor in thermal comfort. Since the thermal behavior of textile fabrics is highly correlated with thickness and porosity, the changes in bulk density of the fabric caused by the compression force would change the heat flux through the fabric. The operation of yarn folding modifies the existing single...

  10. A predictive model of the tensile strength of twisted carbon nanotube yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Jang, Jinhyeok; Koo, Bon-Woong; Kim, Young-Woon; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2017-01-01

    Due to the outstanding mechanical properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale, CNT yarns are expected to demonstrate high strength at the macroscale. In this study, a predictable model was developed to predict the tensile strength of twisted CNT yarns. First, the failure mechanism of twisted CNT yarns was investigated using in situ tensile tests and ex situ observations. It was revealed that CNT bundles, which are groups of CNTs that are tightly bound together, formed during tensile loading, leaving some voids around the bundles. Failure of the CNT yarns occurred as the CNT bundles were pulled out of the yarns. Two stresses that determined the tensile strength of the CNT yarns were identified: interfacial shear and frictional stresses originating from van der Waals interactions, and the lateral pressure generated by the twisted yarn structure. Molecular dynamics and yarn mechanics were used to calculate these two stresses. Finally, the tensile strength of CNT yarns was predicted and compared with experimental data, showing reasonable agreement.

  11. Effect of Blending Ratio on the Properties of Ramie/Polyester Blended Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wen

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the blending ratio on the properties of Ramie/Polyester blended yarns are discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the elongation of the yarn with the polyester content more than 40% is better than that of others. There is a lowest tenacity of the yarn corresponding to the blending ratio of 50/50 or so. The other properties of the yarn, such as the evenness and hairiness, will be improved with the increasing of the polyester content.

  12. Effect of Nozzle Design and Processing Parameter on Characteristics of Glass/Polypropylene Hybrid Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Hireni Mankodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various methods commingling process is comparatively better alternative to produce hybrid yarns. The required properties of hybrid yarns can be obtained by controlling main processing parameters such as air pressure, overfeed and take-up speed along with proper selection of nozzle (jet design. The commingling machine has been fabricated to study the commingling parameters. The nozzle is the most important element of the commingling machine. The design specification of commingling jet along with the processing parameters decides the final characteristics of yarn. In the present study two different types of jets have been selected to investigate commingling characteristics of glass/polypropylene hybrid yarn.

  13. Microfluidics made of yarns and knots: from fundamental properties to simple networks and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavieh, Roozbeh; Zhou, Gina Z; Juncker, David

    2011-08-07

    We present and characterize cotton yarn and knots as building blocks for making microfluidic circuits from the bottom up. The yarn used is made up of 200-300 fibres, each with a lumen. Liquid applied at the extremity of the yarn spontaneously wets the yarn, and the wetted length increases linearly over time in untreated yarn, but progresses according to a square root relationship as described by Washburn's equation upon plasma activation of the yarn. Knots are proposed for combining, mixing and splitting streams of fluids. Interestingly, the topology of the knot controls the mixing ratio of two inlet streams into two outlet yarns, and thus the ratio can be adjusted by choosing a specific knot. The flow resistance of a knot is shown to depend on the force used to tighten it and the flow resistance rapidly increases for single-stranded knots, but remains low for double-stranded knots. Finally, a serial dilutor is made with a web made of yarns and double-stranded overhand knots. These results suggest that yarn and knots may be used to build low cost microfluidic circuits.

  14. Cotton-yarn/TiO {2} dispersed resin photonic crystals with straight and wavy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kirihara, S.; Miyamoto, Y.; Sakoda, K.

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals made using textile technology was investigated. Three different textures consisting of the cotton-yarn and TiO2 dispersed resin; a crossed linear-yarn laminated fabric, a multi layered woven fabric, and a 3-D woven fabric, were fabricated. The microwave attenuation of the transmission amplitude through these photonic crystals was measured. The straight cotton-yarn as well as the wavy cotton-yarn/TiO2 dispersed resin photonic crystals exhibited band gaps in the 6 to 15 GHz range. Thus, we could fabricate successfully 3-D photonic crystals using textile technology.

  15. Strength Distribution Analysis of Typical Staple Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The strength of staple fiber is an important property for yarns and fabrics. Usually there are variations in individual fiber strength, and this will affect the final strength of yarns and fabrics. In this study, Weibull distribution function is used to analyze the strength distribution of various staplefibers. The strengths of wool, silk, cotton, flax, acrylic, polyester, glass, aramid and carbon fiber are tested. It isfound that the strengths of cotton, polyester, glass, aramid and carbon fiber fit well with the two-factor Weibulldistribution, while those of wool and silk with the threefactir Weibull distribution. However, the strength distributionof flax cannot be expressed by either two- or three-factor Weibull distribution convincingly.

  16. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications has been developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. We report on a fiber optic technique for detection of gas phase oxygen up to 100 C based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the luminescence from molybdenum chloride clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}. The inorganic sensing film is a composite of sol-gel particles embedded in a thin, oxygen permeable sol-gel binder. The particles are comprised of thermally stable, luminescent K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} clusters dispersed in a fully equilibrated sol-gel matrix. From 40 to 100 C, the fiber sensor switches {approx}6x in intensity in response to alternating pulses of <0.001% O2 and 21% O{sub 2} between two well defined levels with a response time of 10 s. The sensor signal is a few nW for an input pump power of 250 {micro}W. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, sensitivity at 100 C is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These parameters are well suited for in-situ, real-time monitoring of oxygen for industrial process control applications.

  17. SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bizet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

  18. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar® KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Hariharan, A.; Pandurangan, B.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Wang, Y.; Miao, Y.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, modeling of the high-performance ballistic fabric has gradually shifted from the continuum and yarn length scales to the sub-yarn length scale which enabled establishment of the relationships between the fabric penetration resistance and various fiber-level phenomena such as fiber-fiber friction, fiber twist, transverse properties of the fibers, and the stochastic nature of fiber strength. In general, these sub-yarn modeling schemes involve special numerical techniques (e.g., digital-element method) and customized computational codes. This status of the sub-yarn fabric-modeling methods and tools makes them not readily available to wider academic and industrial research communities. In the present work, an attempt is made to use conventional finite-element methods and tools in order to carry out sub-yarn numerical analysis of the penetration resistance of Kevlar® KM2 ballistic fabric. The goal was to demonstrate that results could be obtained which are comparable to their digital-element method = based counterparts. Specifically, a series of transient nonlinear dynamics finite-element analyses was carried out in order to investigate the role of the following two important sub-yarn phenomena on the penetration resistance of Kevlar® KM2 fabric: (a) fiber transverse properties including nonlinear elastic and plastic response and (b) fiber-fiber friction within the context of stochastically distributed fiber axial strength. It is generally found that the results obtained are consistent with their digital-element method-based counterparts.

  19. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. The luminescence of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix was measured as a function of heater temperature up to 200 C, in an inert environment. While the luminescence decreased with temperature, the integrated intensity at 200 C should be sufficient to enable detection of the luminescence in a fiber geometry. Previously we found that aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} at temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that the alkali metal salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have higher thermal stabilities and remain luminescent after aging at 280 C.

  20. Safer DNA extraction from plant tissues using sucrose buffer and glass fiber filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Nishio, Takayuki

    2012-11-01

    For some plant species, DNA extraction and downstream experiments are inhibited by various chemicals such as polysaccharides and polyphenols. This short communication proposed an organic-solvent free (except for ethanol) extraction method. This method consists of an initial washing step with STE buffer (0.25 M sucrose, 0.03 M Tris, 0.05 M EDTA), followed by DNA extraction using a piece of glass fiber filter. The advantages of this method are its safety and low cost. The purity of the DNA solution obtained using this method is not necessarily as high as that obtained using the STE/CTAB method, but it is sufficient for PCR experiments. These points were demonstrated empirically with two species, Japanese speedwell and common dandelion, for which DNA has proven difficult to amplify via PCR in past studies.

  1. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  2. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; McKenzie, R J; Watson, M E; Harris, P J

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is lower in Polynesian populations of the South Pacific than in European populations. This difference in incidence of the disease may be, at least partly, related to diet. Dietary fiber is believed to protect against colorectal cancer, and one of the ways it may act is by adsorbing mutagens that are carcinogenic. Very little is known about the chemical composition or the ability to adsorb mutagens of these dietary fibers from South Pacific food plants. In contrast to European food plants, which are mostly dicotyledons, South Pacific food plants are mainly monocotyledons. We isolated cell walls (dietary fiber) from the three edible parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta), which is a monocotyledon and a major South Pacific food plant. The ability of these three unlignified cell-wall preparations to adsorb the hydrophobic environmental mutagen 1,8-dinitropyrene was studied. The greatest adsorption occurred with walls from leaf blade, followed by petiole and corm walls, although the differences were not major. The amount of adsorption was intermediate between the low adsorption previously found with unlignified dicotyledon walls (from the flesh of potato tubers and immature cabbage leaves) and the much higher adsorption found with unlignified walls from monocotyledons of the grass and cereal family (Poaceae) (from leaves of seedling Italian ryegrass). These data are consistent with the monosaccharide compositions of the taro wall preparations, which were more similar to those of unlignified walls of dicotyledons than to unlignified walls of the Poaceae. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of the dietary fiber determines its adsorptive properties and that there may be important differences between the major dietary fibers of South Pacific and European food plants.

  3. Living nanofiber yarn-based woven biotextiles for tendon tissue engineering using cell tri-culture and mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; Wang, Ying; Streubel, Philipp N; Duan, Bin

    2017-10-15

    Non-woven nanofibrous scaffolds have been developed for tendon graft application by using electrospinning strategies. However, electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds face some obstacles and limitations, including suboptimal scaffold structure, weak tensile and suture-retention strengths, and compact structure for cell infiltration. In this work, a novel nanofibrous, woven biotextile, fabricated based on electrospun nanofiber yarns, was implemented as a tissue engineered tendon scaffold. Based on our modified electrospinning setup, polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber yarns were fabricated with reproducible quality, and were further processed into plain-weaving fabrics interlaced with polylactic acid (PLA) multifilaments. Nonwoven nanofibrous PCL meshes with random or aligned fiber structures were generated using typical electrospinning as comparative counterparts. The woven fabrics contained 3D aligned microstructures with significantly larger pore size and obviously enhanced tensile mechanical properties than their nonwoven counterparts. The biological results revealed that cell proliferation and infiltration, along with the expression of tendon-specific genes by human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (HADMSC) and human tenocytes (HT), were significantly enhanced on the woven fabrics compared with those on randomly-oriented or aligned nanofiber meshes. Co-cultures of HADMSC with HT or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on woven fabrics significantly upregulated the functional expression of most tenogenic markers. HADMSC/HT/HUVEC tri-culture on woven fabrics showed the highest upregulation of most tendon-associated markers than all the other mono- and co-culture groups. Furthermore, we conditioned the tri-cultured constructs with dynamic conditioning and demonstrated that dynamic stretch promoted total collagen secretion and tenogenic differentiation. Our nanofiber yarn-based biotextiles have significant potential to be used as engineered scaffolds to

  4. 天丝/棉100S色纺纱的生产实践%Production of Tencel/Cotton 100S Colored Spun Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆凤燕

    2013-01-01

      探讨天丝/棉100S色纺纱的生产工艺。通过对客户来样进行配色分析、打样后,选定各组份原料比例;采用人工混棉、喂棉,确保各组份纤维混合均匀,成纱颜色的一致性;根据原料特性,合理配置各工序工艺参数,最终顺利生产出客户满意的天丝/棉70/30100S色纺纱。%This paper explores the Tencel/cotton 100S color yarn production pro-cess. In the production process, after color analysis and proofing of customer sample, the selected proportion of each component materials is determined;artificial blending, feed-ing of cotton is employed to ensure even mixture of the component fibers and consistency of yarn colors;the process parameters of every step is rationally determined according to the material properties. Thus required Tencel/cotton 70/30 100S color yarn is produced successfully.

  5. Maneuvering the Internal Porosity and Surface Morphology of Electrospun Polystyrene Yarns by Controlling the Solvent and Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a simple and reliable method for generating polystyrene (PS) yarns composed of bundles of nanofibrils by using a proper combination of solvent and relative humidity. We elucidated the mechanism responsible for the formation of this new morphology by systematically investigating the molecular interactions among the polymer, solvent(s), and water vapor. We demonstrated that vapor-induced phase separation played a pivotal role in generating the yarns with a unique structure. Furthermore, we discovered that the low vapor pressure of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was critical to the evolution of pores in the interiors. On the contrary, the relatively high vapor pressure of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hindered the formation of interior pores but excelled in creating a rough surface. In all cases, our results clearly indicate that the formation of either internal porosity or surface roughness required the presence of water vapor, a nonsolvent of the polymer, at a proper level of relative humidity. The exact morphology or pore structure was dependent on the speed of evaporation for the solvent(s) (DMF, THF, and their mixtures), as well as the inter-diffusion and penetration of the nonsolvent (water) and solvent(s). Our findings can serve as guidelines for the preparation of fibers with desired porosity both internally and externally through electrospinning. PMID:23530752

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Sources and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation on Growth, Crude Fiber and Nutrient Uptake in Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice I. TCHIAZE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, B have immense potential application in sustainable agriculture as ecofriendly biofertilizers and biopesticides. In this study, the effects of three nitrogen (N sources (NO3-, NH4+ and NO3NH4 and PGPR on growth, crude fiber and nutrient uptake were investigated in squash plants. Some growth parameters [root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total plant dry weight (PDW, number of leaves (NL, shoot length (SL, stem diameter (SD and number of ramifications (NR], crude fiber (cellulose content and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were determined. Application of NO3-,NH4+ or NO3NH4 singly or in combination with PGPR inoculation led to a significant increase in RDW, SDW, PDW, NL, SL, SD and NR. Na, Cu and Zn contents, on the contrary, decreased in inoculated treated plants while no significant differences were recorded in cellulose contents (CE of leaves except in plants fed with NO3-. The leaf CE content ranged from 12.58 to 13.67%. The plants supplied with NO3+B, NH4+B and NO3NH4+B showed significantly higher plant biomass and accumulation of N, P, K and Mn concentrations in leaves compared to all other treatments. These results suggest that specific combinations of PGPR with NO3-, NH4+ or NO3NH4 fertilizers can be considered as efficient alternative biofertilizers to improve significantly the squash growth and nutrient uptake.

  7. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  8. Facile fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zelin; Jiang, Changcheng; Cheng, Huhu; Zhao, Yang; Shi, Gaoquan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2012-04-10

    Macroscopic graphene fibers with strength comparable to carbon nanotube yarns have been fabricated with a facile dimensionally-confined hydrothermal strategy from low-cost, aqueous graphite oxide suspensions, which is shapable, weavable, and has a density of less than 1/7 conventional carbon fibers. In combination with the easy in situ and post-synthesis functionalization, the highly flexible graphene fibers can be woven into smart textiles.

  9. Application of an automatic yarn dismantler to track changes in cotton fibre properties during processing on a miniature spinning line

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fassihi, A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of a newly developed automatic yarn dismantler for dismantling short staple ring-spun yarns, to track changes in cotton fibre properties from lint to yarn, during processing on a miniature spinning line...

  10. The Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties of Cotton Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石风俊; 崔世忠

    2003-01-01

    The effect of strain rate on tensile properties of cotton yarns is analyzed using the standard linear solid model. The tensile curve, breaking strength and work of rupture of the yarns under different strain rate are calculated. A good correlation exists between the experiment results and theoretical anticipations.

  11. High performance electrochemical and electrothermal artificial muscles from twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ah; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-04-01

    High performance torsional and tensile artificial muscles are described, which utilize thermally- or electrochemically-induced volume changes of twist-spun, guest-filled, carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. These yarns were prepared by incorporating twist in carbon nanotube sheets drawn from spinnable CNT forests. Inserting high twist into the CNT yarn results in yarn coiling, which can dramatically amplify tensile stroke and work capabilities compared with that for the non-coiled twisted yarn. When electrochemically driven in a liquid electrolyte, these artificial muscles can generate a torsional rotation per muscle length that is over 1000 times higher than for previously reported torsional muscles. All-solid-state torsional electrochemical yarn muscles have provided a large torsional muscle stroke (53° per mm of yarn length) and a tensile stroke of up to 1.3% when lifting loads that are ~25 times heavier than can be lifted by the same diameter human skeletal muscle. Over a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles have been demonstrated for thermally powered CNT hybrid yarns muscles filled with paraffin wax, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. At lower actuation rates, these thermally powered muscles provide tensile strokes of over 10%.

  12. A novel optimal sensitivity design scheme for yarn tension sensor using surface acoustic wave device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bingbing; Lu, Wenke; Zhu, Changchun; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Haoxin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel optimal sensitivity design scheme for the yarn tension sensor using surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. In order to obtain the best sensitivity, the regression model between the size of the SAW yarn tension sensor substrate and the sensitivity of the SAW yarn tension sensor was established using the least square method. The model was validated too. Through analyzing the correspondence between the regression function monotonicity and its partial derivative sign, the effect of the SAW yarn tension sensor substrate size on the sensitivity of the SAW yarn tension sensor was investigated. Based on the regression model, a linear programming model was established to gain the optimal sensitivity of the SAW yarn tension sensor. The linear programming result shows that the maximum sensitivity will be achieved when the SAW yarn tension sensor substrate length is equal to 15 mm and its width is equal to 3mm within a fixed interval of the substrate size. An experiment of SAW yarn tension sensor about 15 mm long and 3mm wide was presented. Experimental results show that the maximum sensitivity 1982.39 Hz/g was accomplished, which confirms that the optimal sensitivity design scheme is useful and effective. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Relationships between Different Preparations of Cotton Hollow Yarn and Water Soluble PVA Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hui-ying; XIA Zhao-peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper cotton hollow yarns were obtained from the core spun yarns which were produced on a little modified conventional experiment ring frame with water soluble staple PVA yarn as the core. For comparison, yarns with same linear densities, same twists of the sheath, different linear densities, different twist directions of the core were prepared. The results show that the tensile strengths of the hollow yarns decrease first, then increase and decrease again, at last the tensile strength trends to reach a steady state with the soluble PVA core extraction proceeding. And when the sheath linear densities of the core spun yarns are constant, their twist and twist direction are same as that of the core it will be easier to remove the core of the yarn with a higher core size. When the linear densities of the sheath and the core are all constant, the twists of them are same,it will be easier to remove the core of the yarn with a different twist direction of core to the sheath.

  14. Effect of conducting polypyrrole on the transport properties of carbon nanotube yarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Javad, E-mail: foroughi@uow.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia); Information and communication Technology Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia); Kimiaghalam, Bahram [Information and communication Technology Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia); Ghorbani, Shaban Reza [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, P.O. Box 397, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safaei, Farzad [Information and communication Technology Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia); Abolhasan, Mehran [Faculty of Engineering and IT University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW Australia (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the electrical conductivity in three types of pristine and carbon nanotube-polypyrrole (CNT-PPy) composite yarns and its dependence on over a wide temperature range. The experimental results fit well with the analytical models developed. The effective energy separation between localized states of the pristine CNT yarn is larger than that for both the electrochemically and chemically prepared CNT-PPy yarns. It was found that all samples are in the critical regime in the insulator-metal transition, or close to the metallic regime at low temperature. The electrical conductivity results are in good agreement with a Three Dimensional Variable Range Hopping model at low temperatures, which provides a strong indication that electron hopping is the main means of current transfer in CNT yarns at T < 100 K. We found that the two shell model accurately describes the electronic properties of CNT and CNT-PPy composite yarns in the temperature range of 5-350 K. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed hybrid carbon nanotube conducting polypyrrole composite yarns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main current transfer scheme in yarn is via three dimensional electrons hopping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two shell model describes well electronic properties of yarns in range of 5-350 K.

  15. Moisture Management Behaviour of Knitted Fabric from Structurally Modified Ring and Vortex Spun Yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navendu; Kumar, Pawan; Bhatia, Dinesh; Sinha, Sujit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The acceptability of a new product is decided by its performance, level of improvement in quality and economy of production. The basic aim of generating micro pores in a textile structure is to provide better thermo-physiological comfort by enhancing the breathability and hence improving moisture management behaviour. In the present study, an attempt has been made to create a relatively more open structure through removal of a component. A comparative assessment with a homogeneous and parent yarn was also made. Yarns of two linear densities, each from ring and vortex spinning systems were produced using 100 % polyester and 80:20 polyester/cotton blend. The modified yarn was produced by removing a component, viz; cotton, by treatment with sulphuric acid from the blended yarn. The knitted fabric from modified yarn was found to show significant improvement in air permeability, water vapour permeability and total absorbency while the wicking characteristic was found to decline.

  16. Method and System for Measuring Spinning YarnTension Using Image Measuring Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅顺齐; 宋志峰; 张智明

    2004-01-01

    A non-contact method and system for measuring spinning yarn tension is developed using an image processing technique and based on the theory of yarn balloon dynamics. The theoretical basis of the measurement is the relationship among yarn tension, balloon shape, and spinning parameters. The yarn tension is determined according to the geometric parameters of the balloon, which are measured from an image of the balloon. The digital image is captured with a CCD sensor, and processed in a computer using a wavelet transform technique. A measuring system is developed, and experiments are carried out. The results show that the proposed non-contact method is effective in the on-line measurement of spinning yarn tension for improving the degree of automation of the spinning machine.

  17. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  18. Investigation of Shielding Properties of Yarns, Twisted with Metal Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra VARNAITĖ-ŽURAVLIOVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development level of the modern techniques and information technologies creates diverse nature electromagnetic fields and electric field accumulations in the human environment. Electrically conductive textiles that protect against electromagnetic waves and electric charge accumulations can be usable as protective covers for work in computer equipment rooms, measuring stands, air and gas filters and so on. One of the methods used in increase of electrical conductivity in textiles is the development of their specific structures (including the development of threads with the metal component. In this paper, unlike the currently used in the world conductive material production method, where different metal fibres are used as an additives to the main fibre composition in order to create a variety of fibres and yarns, a spun yarn with metal wire was prototyped as samples for this research and the parameters of protective properties of these samples were investigated (such as surface resistivity, vertical resistance, etc.. The protective and shielding properties of woven network with prototyped twisted electro conductive thread with a wire (metal wire diameter of 15 microns were investigated. During the investigation the influence of the following factors, such as conductive fibre composition, electrically conductive thread distribution frequency of the longitudinal and transverse direction, on the protective shielding properties of conductive network were analyzed. The research enabled the assessment of influence of electrically conductive fibre yarn composition and its distribution in the woven mesh on protective shielding properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2492

  19. Investigation of Shielding Properties of Yarns, Twisted with Metal Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra VARNAITĖ-ŽURAVLIOVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development level of the modern techniques and information technologies creates diverse nature electromagnetic fields and electric field accumulations in the human environment. Electrically conductive textiles that protect against electromagnetic waves and electric charge accumulations can be usable as protective covers for work in computer equipment rooms, measuring stands, air and gas filters and so on. One of the methods used in increase of electrical conductivity in textiles is the development of their specific structures (including the development of threads with the metal component. In this paper, unlike the currently used in the world conductive material production method, where different metal fibres are used as an additives to the main fibre composition in order to create a variety of fibres and yarns, a spun yarn with metal wire was prototyped as samples for this research and the parameters of protective properties of these samples were investigated (such as surface resistivity, vertical resistance, etc.. The protective and shielding properties of woven network with prototyped twisted electro conductive thread with a wire (metal wire diameter of 15 microns were investigated. During the investigation the influence of the following factors, such as conductive fibre composition, electrically conductive thread distribution frequency of the longitudinal and transverse direction, on the protective shielding properties of conductive network were analyzed. The research enabled the assessment of influence of electrically conductive fibre yarn composition and its distribution in the woven mesh on protective shielding properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2492

  20. 短纤维纺纱技术的发展概述及关键特征解析%Review of staple yarn spinning technology and analysis of its key features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏治刚; 徐卫林; 叶汶祥

    2013-01-01

    基于现代短纤维纺纱技术原理,概述了环锭纺、转杯纺、涡流纺等短纤维纺纱技术的发展历程,总结推动短纤维纺纱技术发展的因素和途径,并深入分析制约短纤维纺纱技术的关键问题.研究认为:高效、节能、高品质成纱是短纤维纺纱技术发展的最主要动因,工艺优化、装备改进、多技术组合是短纤维纺纱技术发展的最常用方式;短纤维成纱过程中,采用气流、分束、集聚、助捻等机械外力强化纤维控制的方式已得到充分运用,面对短纤维纺纱技术发展中呈现的新问题、新瓶颈,需协同短纤维原料成纱性能的在线改善、纺纱原料的多功能复合等技术进行深入研究和应用,以推动短纤维纺纱技术的进一步发展和完善.%Based on modern staple yarn spinning principles,development processes were overviewed of the methods including ring spinning,rotor spinning and vortex spinning; the factors and means promoting the staple yarn spinning development were summarized; and key issues restricting staple yarn spinning further development were also studied extensively.Results indicated that such factors as high efficiency,energy saving and high quality yarn production were main motivations,and process optimization and equipment improvement as well as multi-technical combination were the most common methods for staple yarn spinning development.Since reinforcing fiber control via external mechanical forces such as pneumatic jet or suction,separation,condensing and false twisting has been sufficiently applied during spinning,it is necessary to make further study and trial application of online improvement of staple fiber yarn-forming property and the multi-functional composite technologies of materials in synergic mode when confronted with technical problems and bottlenecks in the staple yarn spinning so to push this technology to roll on and attain perfection.

  1. Cause Analyses of Yarn Defect%纱线疵点产生原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王充; 赵帆

    2016-01-01

    The grading and cause of yarn defect in the process of electronic yarn cleaner were discussed.The definition and classification of yarn defects were introduced.Yarns with thick place and thin places were identified according to different shapes of yarn with defects and refering the basic diameters of yarn aimed at the cleaning technology in winding.Combined the yarn defect classifing area,the frequency distribution chart of yarn defect was analyzed,the possible causes of defects in each areas were pointed out.It is considered that the problems in each processing can be effectively analyzed through the yarn cleaning data from winding electronic yarn cleaner. The quality problems can be quickly positioned and solved,the quality managing efficiency can be improved.%探讨电子清纱器工作过程中纱线疵点的分级和产生原因。介绍了纱线疵点的定义和分类,针对络筒清纱工艺,根据疵点纱的不同形状并参考细纱的基础直径,识别粗节纱和细节纱。结合纱线疵点分级区域,分析了纱线疵点频率分布图,指出了各个区域疵点可能产生的原因。认为:通过络筒电子清纱器的清纱数据,可以有效分析各个工艺环节出现的问题,帮助快速定位和解决质量问题,提高质量管理的效率。

  2. 柔丝纤维混纺纱及其针织物的性能测试%The property test of blended rose yarn and its knited fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟金凤; 孟家光; 张琳玫; 曹婧

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of healthcare function knitting in the market ,the basic performance of rose fiber and its blended yarn (rose/pearl fiber/tencel 30/40/30) were tested and analyzed .Besides ,six kinds of knitted fabrics by using 14.8tex blended rose yarn (three folded yarn) are developed ,and their basic perform‐ance ,dyeing performance and wearing properties ,as well as its functional properties are analyzed .The results show that pure rose fiber has lower strength ,higher elongation at break ,and the cross section is similar to vis‐cose fiber;Blended rose yarn has good strength and large elongation at break ,better evenness ,high moisure re‐gain and excellent resistance to humid and dry heat ;the rose knitted fabrics have good dyeing properties ,excel‐lent wearing properties ,especially the air‐permeability ,moisture‐permeability and good healthcare function .%为了迎合市场对保健功能针织产品的需求,对柔丝纤维及柔丝纤维/珍珠纤维/天丝(40/30/30)混纺纱的基本性能进行测试,并利用14.8 tex 柔丝混纺纱线开发6种组织的针织面料,分析了它们的基本性能、染色性能和服用性能.结果表明,柔丝纤维单纤强力较低,断裂伸长率较高,具有黏胶纤维相似的结构;柔丝混纺纱具有较好的强度和断裂伸长以及条干均匀度,回潮率高,耐湿热和耐干热性能好.柔丝混纺针织物染色性能良好,各项服用性能优良,特别是保健功能性好,适合针织服饰的开发.

  3. DYEING OF WOOL YARNS WITH LAURUS NOBILIS L. BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN Gökhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural dyes have been attracted by many researchers and firms due to demands on sustainable and nontoxic products. In this study the mature berries of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. were collected from trees located Kuşadası Turkey. The berries dried at 25oC and % 20-25 relative humidity. Dried berries milled and extracted with ethanol. Extracted dye was used. Three mordanting procedure (pre, meta and post mordanting and two concentrations were applied to wool yarns. Cupric sulfate, ferric sulfate, potassium dichromate and alum was used as mordant Color strength and colorimetric values were measured by Konica-Minolta 3600D spectrophotometer. Fastness to washing, perspiration and light were applied according to ISO 105C06 (A1S, ISO 105E04 and ISO 105B02 (method 2 respectively. The highest color strength (K/S value was 16.6405 and was obtained in the case of premordanting with cupric sulfate at 2 gr/L concentration. If the a* and b* values were examined, the conditions at highest color strength, the yarns had yellow color with a reddish hue. Generally, the fastness properties were moderate and good results were obtained in the case of premordanting procedure. The results show us ethanol extract of bay laurel berries can be used for dyeing of woolen products.

  4. Application of β-cyclodextrin-modified, carbon nanotube-reinforced hollow fiber to solid-phase microextraction of plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Ha, Wei; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2014-12-29

    A new, efficient, and environmental friendly solid-phase microextraction (SPME) medium based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a hollow fiber (HF) was prepared. Functionalized β-CD was covalently linked to the surface of the carboxylic CNTs and then the obtained nanocomposite was immobilized into the wall pores of HFs under ultrasonic-assisted effect. The scanning electron microscope was used to inspect surface characteristics of fibers, demonstrating the presence of nanocomposites in their wall pores. The reinforced HF was employed in SPME, and its extraction performance was evaluated by analyzing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA) in vegetables. Without any tedious clean-up procedure, analytes were extracted from the sample to the adsorbent and organic solvent immobilized in HFs and then desorbed in acetonitrile prior to chromatographic analysis. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method provided 275- and 283-fold enrichment factors of NAA and 2-NOA, low limits of detection and quantification (at an ngg(-1) level), satisfactory spiked recoveries, good inter-fiber repeatability, and batch-to-batch reproducibility. The selectivity of the developed fiber was investigated to three structurally similar compounds and two reference compounds with recognition coefficients up to 3.18. The obtained results indicate that the newly developed fiber is a feasible, selective, green, and cost-effective microextraction medium and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of naphthalene-derived plant hormones in complex matrices.

  5. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  6. Electromechanical properties of CNT-coated cotton yarn for electronic textile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae June; Choi, Ajeong; Kim, Dai-Hong; Jin, Kyoungcheol; Seo, Dong Kyun; Jeong, Dae Hong; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Park, Yung Woo; Hyup Kim, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Smart fabrics have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications. The essential features of smart fabrics include wearability, weaveability, and stretchability, as well as their sensing/response capability, which is frequently based on electrical measurement. Thus, the electromechanical behavior of these fabrics is considered the most important material property. Here, we report the negative piezoresistance of single-walled carbon nanotube coated cotton yarn (SWNT-CY). The gauge factor (the ratio of the normalized change in piezoresistance to the change in strain) of SWNT-CY is measured to be - 24. It is noteworthy that the factor is negative and an order of magnitude higher than that for conventional metal strain gauges. The negative piezoresistance is due to mechanical contact between fabric fibers, which leads to better electrical paths of SWNT networks. The conduction behavior can be modeled as fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) through the contact barriers between conducting regions. The effective barrier strength of strained SWNT-CY is measured to be ~ 30% lower than that of unstrained SWNT-CY. This characteristic may offer new design opportunities for wearable electronics and has significant implications for sensor applications.

  7. Wettability and sizing property improvement of raw cotton yarns treated with He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Shiyuan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, China, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles and Clothing Engineering, Dezhou University, Shandong 253023 (China); Sun Jie; Yao Lan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, China, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, China, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Raw cotton fiber is water repellent due to the existence of the water repellent cuticle layer. This study is designed to systematically investigate how He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatments influence the wettability and the sizing property of cotton yarns. Water absorption time and adhesion of the sizing agent to the cotton roving are used to evaluate the improvement of wettability and sizing property of the yarn respectively. The water absorption time decreases with the increase of the treatment time and the oxygen flow rate, and the decrease of the jet to substrate distance (JTSD). An optimal water absorption time of 0.8 s is obtained with a treatment time of 20 s, JTSD of 1 mm and O{sub 2} flow rate of 0.2 L/min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the etching effect increases with the decrease of the JTSD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) presents increased oxygen contents after the plasma treatments. An increase of O-C=O bonds while a decrease of C-OH/C-O-C bonds are observed when the JTSD is set at 2 mm. However, a remarkable increase of both C-OH/C-O-C and O-C=O bonds are achieved when the JTSD is 1 mm. The roving impregnation test results show a nearly doubled adhesion of sizing and a slightly improved breaking elongation, indicating that the plasma treatment does effectively enhance the bonding strength between the fiber and the sizing.

  8. Field emission behavior of carbon nanotube yarn for micro-resolution X-ray tube cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Won; Mo, Chan Bin; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Seongwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and high aspect ratio for X-ray tube cathode. However, CNT field emission cathode has been shown unstable field emission and short life time due to field evaporation by high current density and detachment by electrostatic force. An alternative approach in this direction is the introduction of CNT yarn, which is a one dimensional assembly of individual carbon nanotubes bonded by the Van der Waals force. Because CNT yarn is composed with many CNTs, CNT yarns are expected to increase current density and life time for X-ray tube applications. In this research, CNT yarn was fabricated by spinning of a super-aligned CNT forest and was characterized for application to an X-ray tube cathode. CNT yarn showed a high field emission current density and a long lifetime of over 450 hours. Applying the CNT yarn field emitter to the X-ray tube cathode, it was possible to obtain micro-scale resolution images. The relationship between the field emission properties and the microstructure evolution was investigated and the unraveling effect of the CNT yarn was discussed.

  9. Investigation into the UV-Protection of Woven Fabrics Composed of Metallic Weft Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghane Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The destructive effects of sun UV radiation on human skins are now very clear to everyone. Most of the present studies were focused on the fabrics’ structural parameters such as density, warp and weft yarns finenesses, fabric pattern and printing or finishing treatments applied to the fabrics. The aim of this work is achieving a technique through which the produced fabrics possess a higher UV-protection ability. For this purpose, two different metals including aluminium and copper yarns were employed in fabrics production process and their effects on UV-protection ability of the produced fabrics were investigated. Six different fabric samples comprised of either cotton/polyester, nylon yarns as the warp yarns as well as either aluminium or copper yarns as the weft yarns were produced. Using the spectrophotometer technique, which is known as one of the UPF measuring method, the absorbency and reflectivity of fabrics within the specified range of electromagnetic waves (specially the UV radiation were determined. The results illustrated that the higher UV absorbency was related to the fabric possessing the copper yarns in their structures. It was concluded that the absorption ability of nylon fabrics is higher than that of the cotton/polyester samples.

  10. Study of Rotor Spun Basofil/Cotton Blended Yarn Quality Characteristics during Optimisation of Processing Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mwasiagi J.I.; WANG Xin-hou; Tuigong D.R.; Wang J.

    2005-01-01

    Yarn quality characteristics are affected by processing parameters. A 36 tex rotor spun yarn of 50/50 Basofil/cotton (B/C) blended yarn was spun, and the spinning process optimised for rotor speed, opening roller speed and twist factor. Selected yarn characteristics were studied during the optimization process. During the optimizations process yarn elongation and hairiness reduced with increase in rotor speed. Tenacity increased with increase of rotor speed. The increase in TF caused tenacity and CV of count to increase up to a peak and then started to decrease with further increase of TF. While TF caused an increase in yarn hairiness, elongation decreased to a minimum level and then started to increase with further increase of TF. CV of count and hairiness increased with increase in opening roller speed, but tenacity and elongation decreased with increase in opening roller speed. The optimization process yielded the optimum levels for rotor speed, opening roller speed and twist factor (TF) as 45,000 rpm, 6,500 rpm and 450respectively. As per uster Standards the optimum yarn showed good results for CV of count, CV of tenacity and thin places/km.

  11. A Computer-Based System for Evaluation of Slub Yarn Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abd El-khalek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to build a computer-based system for measuring slub yarn characteristics and evaluating the results using statistical methods. The measuring system was based on the electrical condenser of the Uster evenness tester as a measuring sensor. A digital storage oscilloscope was used to convert the analogue output signals into digital data to be recorded on a computer. A designed computer program was constructed using MatLab language for signal analysis based on a proposed method. Final results from this system contained graphical plots for the three measured slub yarn geometrical parameters slub length, slub distance, and slub thickness and a final report for all the measured slub yarn characteristics. The results of tested slub yarn samples showed that actual slub geometrical parameters differ from nominal values and the difference had two level: prevailing difference and outlier values. Outliers which are considered slub yarn defects were detected and counted in a final report using the box plot statistical method which could be an effective industrial tool for evaluation of both yarn quality and machine performance. The prevailing difference was assessed using histogram comparison which could help in adjusting the setting of slub yarn device to obtain the required appearance.

  12. Effect of jute yarn on the mechanical behavior of concrete composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohammad; Ahmed, Mashud; Hoque, Md Mozammel; Hannan, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of introducing jute yarn on the mechanical properties of concrete. Jute fibre is produced abundantly in Bangladesh and hence, very cheap. The investigation on the enhancement of mechanical properties of concrete with jute yarn as reinforcement, if enhanced, will not only explore a way to improve the properties of concrete, it will also explore the use of jute and restrict the utilization of polymer which is environmentally detrimental. To accomplish the objective, an experimental investigation of the compressive, flexural and tensile strengths of Jute Yarn Reinforced Concrete composites (JYRCC) has been conducted. Cylinders, prisms and cubes of standard dimensions have been made to introducing jute yarn varying the mix ratio of the ingredients in concrete, water cement ratio, length and volume of yarn to know the effect of parameters as mentioned. Compressive, flexural and tensile strength tests had been conducted on the prepared samples by appropriate testing apparatus following Standards of tests. Mechanical properties of JYRCC were observed to be enhanced for a particular range of lengths of cut (10, 15, 20 and 25 mm) and volume content of jute yarn (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 %). The maximum increment of compressive, flexural and tensile strengths observed in the investigation are 33, 23 and 38 %, respectively with respect to concrete without jute yarn.

  13. Influence of sand to coarse aggregate ratio on the interfacial bond strength of steel fibers in concrete for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Jin, E-mail: jjinslow@nate.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SeJong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SeJong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Su Tae, E-mail: stkang@daegu.ac.kr [Department of Civil Engineering, Daegu University, 201 Daegudae-ro, Jillyang, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa, E-mail: jhlee@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 2311 Daewha-Dong, Ilsan-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 411-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final goal is to develop a fiber reinforced concrete for containment buildings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of S/a on the bond strength of steel fibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deformed steel fibers produced much higher interfacial bond strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As S/a increased, twisted fiber showed a significant enhancement in bond strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth and hooked fiber showed no clear difference as S/a increased. - Abstract: The interfacial bond strength of three high strength steel fibers (smooth, hooked, and twisted fiber) in concrete of nuclear power plants was investigated to develop fiber reinforced concrete for containment building. Sand to aggregate ratio (S/a) was adjusted to compensate reduction in the workability due to adding fibers; the influence of S/a ratio on the interfacial bond strength was investigated. As the S/a ratio increased from 0.444 to 0.615, the bond strength of twisted steel fiber was significantly improved while smooth and hooked steel fiber showed no clear difference. The different sensitivity according to the S/a ratio results from the different pullout mechanism: twisted steel fiber generates more mechanical interaction during fiber pullout at the interface between fiber and matrix than smooth and hooked fibers. The microscopic observation by scanning electron microscope back-scattered electrons images discovered lower porosity at the interfacial transition zone between fiber and concrete with higher S/a ratio.

  14. Comparative Investigation of Mechanical–Physical Characteristics of Biodegradable and Non-Degradable Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krikštanavičienė Kira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from investigations of tensile tests, absorbency test and degradation test of biodegradable and non- or partly biodegradable yarns produced from pure poly hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV, poly (lactide acid (PLA, isotactic polypropylene (iPP polymers and their blends. The results indicate that mechanical-physical properties of PHBV are improved by adding PLA and iPP to PHBV. The main results indicate that the PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP (70/30 blends had better mechanical properties than pure PHBV, as well as improved immiscibility and the same or lower degradation in sodium chloride solution, respectively. The PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP blends showed a tendency for lower crystallinity and stiffness of the yarns, rendering them less stiff and fragile. The absorption tests showed that absorption dynamic process depends on the structure and raw materials of the yarns. The disinfectant in all samples is absorbed faster than blood. Research results showed that pure PHBV yarns have good hydrophobic properties, compared with pure PLA and iPP yarns. The use of additional PLA and iPP polymers changed the wetting behaviour of yarns. Absorption time of blended yarns in disinfectant liquid decreases and absorption time in the case of blood significantly increases in comparison with PLA and iPP yarns and decreases compared with PHBV yarns. The degradation tests (within 90 days in a solution of sodium chloride showed that pure PHBV and PHBV/PLA blends degraded at different rates but with the loss of the same weight, while pure PHBV and PHBV/iPP blends degraded at the same rate, but PHBV/iPP blends had worse destruction results. Such improvements are expected to be important for the practical application of PHBV in some fields

  15. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of the Cashmere component of South African indigenous goat hair.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available /cotton blend yarns improved with increasing linear yarn density (singles and two-ply, respectively), and also with plying. Spinning of the cashmere/cotton blends did not create any undue problems, except for the 20 tex single yarn which was difficult... of cashmere and its influence on textile materials produced from cashmere and blends with superfine wool, PhD. , Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales. Phan, K.H. and Wortmann, F.J., 1996. Identification and classification of cashmere...

  16. Study on the Rotor Spinning Processing of Spun Silk/CashmereBlended Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nibikora Ildephonse; WANG Jun; XI Qiong; LIANG Jin-ru

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies roto spinning blended yarn producedof spun silk and cashmere. Nine samples were spun, from threedifferent opening rollers and different navels.According to theUster test results of yarn quality prioerties, optimum selection isdane by using analysis method of combining fuzzy decision-makingand fuzzy pattern classification.Expermental plan is designedbased on universal rotated experitmental design, and the method ofconfined optimization is used to optimize the speed of openingtaller, the speed of rotor and twist factor, according to the resultsof yarn quality test by Uster.

  17. Exploring the properties and process of blended super imitation cotton yarn%超仿棉混纺纱性能与工艺探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祎俊; 郭建生; 邓秀萍

    2015-01-01

    为了顺利纺出超仿棉纯纺和超仿棉与精梳棉混纺纱,根据超仿棉短纤维的性能特点与成纱质量要求,对各道工序进行合理的工艺配置,如清梳联采用一抓一混一梳的短流程,强调开松处理,不要有过多的打击;并条适当加大罗拉隔距和皮辊加压,运转速度偏低掌握;粗纱捻系数偏大掌握;适当加大细纱后牵伸、加大罗拉隔距,预防出“硬头”;严格控制各工序的温湿度,提高成纱质量。同时,对不同混纺比的超仿棉与精梳棉混纺纱的性能进行了比较。%In order to ensure a smooth spinning of super imitation cotton pure yarn and the spinning of super imitation cotton and combed cotton blended yarn,the reasonable allocation of the process on each procedure is achieved according to the performance char-acteristics of short fiber of super imitation cotton and the requirement of yarn quality. The catch-mix-comb process is used in blowing carding process,the opening process is strengthened,too much blow is avoided,the roller gauge and roller pressure is increased in drawing,the speed is set to be lower,roving twist is set to be larger,the spinning back drafting speed is increased properly,and the roller gauge is increased to prevent hard heads,the temperature and humidity is strictly controlled in various processes to improve the quality of yarn. Different blending ratio of cotton and combed cotton blended yarn were compared for their properties.

  18. 植物纤维预处理与降解方法研究%Discussion on the means of Pretreatment and Degradation of Plant Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌华; 孙可伟

    2012-01-01

    Plant fiber contains large amounts of cellulose, which is the largest rerLewable resources in the world,however,most of the plant fiber are treated as waste at present, which is a waste of the resources. This paper summarizes the characteristics of the plant fiber structure and the means of pretreatment and deg- radation plant fiber,and points out that the reasonable choice of the pretreatment and degradation means of plant fiber is crucial to effectively utilize the plant fiber.%指出了植物纤维含有大量纤维素,是世界上最大的可再生资源,但目前大部分作为废弃物处理造成了资源浪费。探讨了植物纤维结构特点、植物纤维的预处理方法和降解的主要手段等,提出了预处理方法和降解方法的合理选择是有效地资源化利用植物纤维的关键。

  19. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed between Pima and Upland Cotton Fibers%比马棉和陆地棉纤维差异表达基因的分离、鉴定及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-dao WU; Khairy M. SOLIMAN; Allan ZIPF; Sukumar SAHA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The demand for high strength fiber in raw cotton has increased because of the widespread use of high speed spinning technology in the yarn and textile industry. Improvement of cotton fiber quality through conventional breeding is limited due to the complexity of fiber quality genetics. Therefore, the primary goal of this project was to identify and characterize genes related to cotton fiber quality.

  20. Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

  1. Reinforcement of polypropylene by annual plant fibers: optimisation of the coupling agent efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.H.B.; Bos, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Annual growth agrofibers like flax and jute can compete with glass fibers, considering their intrinsic mechanical properties. This paper discusses reinforcement of polypropylene (PP) homopolymer with flax bast fibers. Maleic Anhydride modified PP (MAPP) grades are screened on coupling efficiency. Th

  2. Lean six sigma implementation in a yarn textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayra Rodrigues Nogueira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to fierce competition from companies in achieving larger market share, there is an increasing interest regarding cost reduction, efficiency in business and processes, increase in quality and continuous improvement. Given these situations, companies are adopting some practices which seek to improve their strategies, increase understanding of the needs of their customers and promote business growth, the Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma programs were adopted in order to enable businesses to succeed in achieving continuous improvement in their business. This paper presents a case study of a textile yarn industry which, in order to increase the sales of the business and the elimination of waste, used the methodology of Lean Six Sigma Program based on DMAIC method to assist in achieving these goals.

  3. Yarn Properties Prediction Based on Machine Learning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-guo; L(U) Zhi-jun; LI Bei-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Although many works have been done to constructprediction models on yarn processing quality, the relationbetween spinning variables and yam properties has not beenestablished conclusively so far. Support vector machines(SVMs), based on statistical learning theory, are gainingapplications in the areas of machine learning and patternrecognition because of the high accuracy and goodgeneralization capability. This study briefly introduces theSVM regression algorithms, and presents the SVM basedsystem architecture for predicting yam properties. Model.selection which amounts to search in hyper-parameter spaceis performed for study of suitable parameters with grid-research method. Experimental results have been comparedwith those of artificial neural network(ANN) models. Theinvestigation indicates that in the small data sets and real-life production, SVM models are capable of remaining thestability of predictive accuracy, and more suitable for noisyand dynamic spinning process.

  4. Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on Tribological Properties of Hemp Fiber-Reinforced Plant-Derived Polyamide 1010 Biomass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-05

    We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment by sodium hydroxide solution and (b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents. Three types of silane coupling agents, namely aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used. These HF/PA1010 biomass composites were extruded using a twin extruder, and injection-molded. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by the ring-on-plate type sliding wear test. It was found that tribological properties of HF/PA1010 biomass composites improved with the surface treatment by the silane coupling agent. This may be attributed to the change in the mode of friction and wear mechanism by the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix polymer according to the type of silane coupling agent used. In particular, the ureidosilane coupling agent showed the best improvement effect for the tribological properties of these biomass composites in this study.

  5. Estudo comparativo da resistência do fio de algodão obtido em fiação piloto e em fiação industrial Correlation between laboratory and industrial cotton yarn strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Lazzarini

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de 81 pares de valores de resistência do fio de algodão 22/1 produzido em fiação piloto (X e em fiação industrial (Y mostrou que entre os dois processos existe uma correlação r= 0,563**. A equação de regressão é da forma Y= 611,631 + 0,486 X. Ficou demonstrado que equações calculadas para nove linhagens em cada localidade fornecem estimativas mais precisas da resistência do fio do que a equação geral. O coeficiente de correlação mais alto (r=0,924** foi encontrado para a localidade de Campinas.A yarn strength correlation analysis for the 22/1 yarn spun through a Miniature Spinning Plant (X and the yarn of same count spun through an industrial equipment (Y was carried out for 81 pairs of observations. The correlation coeficient between the two processes showed to be r = 0.563 **. The regression equation is of the form: Y = 611.631 + 0.486X. It was showed that the equations to predicted yarn strength, calculated for 9 pairs of values in each location, give better estimations than the general equation calculated for 81 pairs in 9 locations. The highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.944 ** was found for the locality of Campinas.

  6. Machine-Washable PEDOT:PSS Dyed Silk Yarns for Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason D; Mengistie, Desalegn Alemu; Gabrielsson, Roger; Lund, Anja; Müller, Christian

    2017-03-15

    Durable, electrically conducting yarns are a critical component of electronic textiles (e-textiles). Here, such yarns with exceptional wear and wash resistance are realized through dyeing silk from the silkworm Bombyx mori with the conjugated polymer:polyelectrolyte complex PEDOT:PSS. A high Young's modulus of approximately 2 GPa combined with a robust and scalable dyeing process results in up to 40 m long yarns that maintain their bulk electrical conductivity of approximately 14 S cm(-1) when experiencing repeated bending stress as well as mechanical wear during sewing. Moreover, a high degree of ambient stability is paired with the ability to withstand both machine washing and dry cleaning. For the potential use for e-textile applications to be illustrated, an in-plane thermoelectric module that comprises 26 p-type legs is demonstrated by embroidery of dyed silk yarns onto a piece of felted wool fabric.

  7. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  8. Processing and characterization of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites using micro-braiding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ogihara, Shinji

    In the present study, we investigate fatigue properties of green composites. A hemp fiber yarn reinforced poly(lactic acid) composite was selected as a green composite. Unidirectional (UD) and textile (Textile) composites were fabricated using micro-braiding technique. Fatigue tests results indicated that fatigue damages in UD composites was splitting which occurred just before the final fracture, while matrix crack and debonding between matrix and fiber yarn occurred and accumulated stably in Textile composites. These results were consistent with modulus reduction and acoustic emission measurement during fatigue tests.

  9. Continuous nanofiber yarns twisted through three-dimensional high-speed swirling airflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to fabricate continuous twisted nanofiber yarns. Nanofibers are bunched by a double conjugate electrospinning, and then twisted through a three-dimensional high-speed swirling airflow. Its principle and process are analyzed theoretically, and the airflow field inside the nozzle chamber is studied numerically, and mechanical properties of nanofiber yarns at different spinning conditions are systematically discussed.

  10. 醋酸酯淀粉在粘胶纱低温上浆中的应用%Application of Acetate Starch in Sizing Viscose Warp Yarns Under Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志军; 陈连光; 朱忠华

    2011-01-01

    文章探讨醋酸酯淀粉在热敏感型粘胶经纱低温上浆中应用的可行性,研究了温度对浆液黏度特性以及对粘胶纤维黏附性能的影响,对上浆温度与粘胶经纱的浆纱性能之间的内在联系进行了评价。%The applicability of acetate starch used for sizing heat-sensitive viscose warp yarns under low temperature was evaluated.The influences of temperature on the viscosity characteristics of the starch paste as well as on the adhesion to viscose fibers were studied.The relationship between the properties of sized yarns and sizing temperature was revealed.

  11. Foulant analysis of hollow fine fiber (HFF) membranes in Red Sea SWRO plants using membrane punch autopsy (MPA)

    KAUST Repository

    Green, Troy N.

    2017-06-12

    Membrane punch autopsy (MPA) is a procedure for quantitative foulant analysis of hollow fine fiber (HFF) permeators. In the past, quantitative autopsies of membranes were restricted to spiral wound. This procedure was developed at SWCC laboratories and tested on permeators of two commercial Red Sea reverse osmosis plants. For membrane autopsies, stainless steel hollow bore picks were penetrated to membrane cores and fibers extracted for foulant analysis. Quantitative analysis of extracted materials contained inorganic and organic foulants including bacteria. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of organic fouling functional groups and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the presence of diatoms and silica most likely not from particulate sand. API analysis revealed the presence of Shewanella and two Vibrio microbial species confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence library. It was observed that fouling content of HFF cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were more than 800 times than polyamide spiral wound membranes.

  12. The thermal conductivity of high modulus Zylon fibers between 400 mK and 4 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikus, Patrick; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectalí; Hertel, Scott A.; Leman, Steven W.; McCarthy, Kevin A.; Rutherford, John M.

    2008-11-01

    Zylon is a synthetic polyurethane polymer fiber featuring very high mechanical strength. Measurements of the thermal conductivity λZ(T) of high modulus Zylon fibers at temperatures between 400 mK and 4 K were performed to assess if they can be successfully employed in the design of high performance suspension systems for cold stages of adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators. The linear mass density of the yarn used in these measurements amounts to 3270 dtex, which is also a measure for the yarn's cross section. The experimental data for the thermal conductivity was fitted to a function of the form λZ=(1010±30)·TpWmmdtexK. This result was normalized to the breaking strength of the fibers and compared with Kevlar. It shows that Kevlar outperforms Zylon in the investigated temperature range. At 1.5 K, the thermal conductivity integral of Zylon yarn is twice as high as the thermal conductivity integral of Kevlar yarn with the same breaking strength. A linear mass density of 1 tex is equivalent to a yarn mass of 1 g/km. High modulus Zylon has a density of 1.56 g/cm 3.

  13. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  14. Analysis of wound filter performance from DREF yarn spun at different suction pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnya S. Kanade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wound filters are quite popular in the domestic water purification systems. The performance of these filters is based on the distinctive yarn and winding variables. Yarn used for filtration application is normally produced on DREF spinning system. Several researchers have reported the influence of DREF spinning variables on yarn properties. However none of them are in context of filtration application. Since elucidation of influence of winding parameters on the filter performance has already been reported; it thus becomes intriguing to explore the influence of spinning suction pressure on filtration behavior. Yarn spun at different suction pressures was used to produce wound filter cartridges, keeping winding variables unchanged. Filters wound using yarn spun at higher spinning suction pressure resulted in greater pressure drop but showed better micron rating. However the pressure drop encountered also affects the retention capacity of the wound filter. The outcome of this study helps in establishing the relation between spinning suction pressure and performance parameters of wound filters. Design expert® software was used to develop regression equations to predict performance of wound filter for the given spinning suction pressure which is of practical significance for yarn and filter manufacturers, without performing filter test.

  15. From industrially weavable and knittable highly conductive yarns to large wearable energy storage textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Hu, Hong; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Minshen; Meng, Wenjun; Liu, Chang; Pei, Zengxia; Hao, Chonglei; Wang, Zuankai; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-05-26

    Wearable electronic textiles that store capacitive energy are a next frontier in personalized electronics. However, the lack of industrially weavable and knittable conductive yarns in conjunction with high capacitance, limits the wide-scale application of such textiles. Here pristine soft conductive yarns are continuously produced by a scalable method with the use of twist-bundle-drawing technique, and are mechanically robust enough to be knitted to a cloth by a commercial cloth knitting machine. Subsequently, the reduced-graphene-oxide-modified conductive yarns covered with a hierarchical structure of MnO2 nanosheets and a polypyrrole thin film were used to fabricate weavable, knittable and wearable yarn supercapacitors. The resultant modified yarns exhibit specific capacitances as high as 36.6 mF cm(-1) and 486 mF cm(-2) in aqueous electrolyte (three-electrode cell) or 31 mF cm(-1) and 411 mF cm(-2) in all solid-state two-electrode cell. The symmetric solid-state supercapacitor has high energy densities of 0.0092 mWh cm(-2) and 1.1 mWh cm(-3) (both normalized to the whole device) with a long cycle life. Large energy storage textiles are fabricated by weaving our flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor yarns to a 15 cm × 10 cm cloth on a loom and knitting in a woollen wrist band to form a pattern, enabling dual functionalities of energy storage capability and wearability.

  16. Antibacterial continuous nanofibrous hybrid yarn through in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-10-01

    Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) with the antibacterial activity were prepared that contains 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 wt.% of silver nanoparticles according to the PVA polymer content. This was performed by electrospinning using distilled water and 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethanol as a solvent for PVA and PLLA respectively, and sodium borohydride was used as a reducing agent. The scanning electron microscope observation confirmed the formation of AgNPs into the PVA nanofiber structure, and they were uniform, bead free, cylindrical and smooth. The diameter of hybrid yarns and their nanofiber component was decreased as the silver nitrate concentration in electrospinning solutions was increased. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the silver nanoparticles can form interactions with polymer chains and decrease the melting enthalpy. The mechanical analysis showed a lower stress and strain at break of the AgNP-loaded nanofibrous hybrid yarns than the unloaded hybrid yarn. However, there wasn't a statistically significant difference between the strain at break of electrospun nanofibrous hybrid yarns. Moreover, the bactericidal efficiency of all loaded samples was over 99.99%. - Highlights: • Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of PVA/PLLA with antibacterial activity were prepared. • The diameter of nanofibers was decreased as the AgNP concentration was increased. • AgNPs make interactions with amorphous phase of polymer and increase the Tg. • All loaded samples presented a good bactericidal and bacteriostatic efficiency.

  17. Multi Objective Optimization of Yarn Quality and Fibre Quality Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anindya; Das, Subhasis; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2013-03-01

    The quality and cost of resulting yarn play a significant role to determine its end application. The challenging task of any spinner lies in producing a good quality yarn with added cost benefit. The present work does a multi-objective optimization on two objectives, viz. maximization of cotton yarn strength and minimization of raw material quality. The first objective function has been formulated based on the artificial neural network input-output relation between cotton fibre properties and yarn strength. The second objective function is formulated with the well known regression equation of spinning consistency index. It is obvious that these two objectives are conflicting in nature i.e. not a single combination of cotton fibre parameters does exist which produce maximum yarn strength and minimum cotton fibre quality simultaneously. Therefore, it has several optimal solutions from which a trade-off is needed depending upon the requirement of user. In this work, the optimal solutions are obtained with an elitist multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). These optimum solutions may lead to the efficient exploitation of raw materials to produce better quality yarns at low costs.

  18. Evaluation of Combined Effect of Mercerized and Dyed Yarns on Physical Properties of Plain Single Jersey Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Elrys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined effect of mercerized and dyed yarns on physical properties of plain single jersey knitted fabrics has been studied. Plied cotton yarn was produced and mercerized at different NaOH concentrations and temperatures. Then, this yarn was bleached and dyed with two types of dyes, vat dyeing and reactive dyeing. Each of mechanical and color properties were measured to these treated yarns. Plain single jersey knitted fabrics were produced from these treated yarns. The total evaluation of the properties for plain single jersey fabrics was measured by using radar chart method. It was found that the highest area of radar chart, which represents the total physical properties, is achieved at 32°Be′, in case of vat dyeing. Besides, analysis of variance (AVOVA and MANOVA were applied to illustrate which of the properties would be affected by NaOH con. and types of dyeing for yarns and fabrics.

  19. 汉麻混纺/交织色织机织面料开发%The Development of China-hemp Blended/Interwoven Yarn-dyed Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钊辉; 刘锁银

    2013-01-01

      利用汉麻的特性,作者成功开发了多款汉麻混纺/交织色织机织面料,较为详尽的阐述了产品开发的整个流程,并对产品的性能进行了检测和分析。%By making use of the excellent performance of China-hemp fiber, the authors successfully developed several yarn-dyed fabrics woven with China-hemp and other fibers either blended or interlaced, and described in detail the entire development process. The relative performance of products was tested and analyzed.

  20. Structural mass irregularities and fiber volume influence on morphology and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resin in matrix composi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative results of a current study on unsaturated polyester resin (UPR matrix composites processed by filament winding method, with cotton spun yarn of different mass irregularities and two different volume fractions. Physical and mechanical properties were measured, namely ultimate stress, stiffness, elongation%. The mechanical properties of the composites increased significantly with the increase in the fiber volume fraction in agreement with the Counto model. Mass irregularities in the yarn structure were quantitatively measured and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Mass irregularities cause marked decrease in relative strength about 25% and 33% which increases with fiber volume fraction. Ultimate stress and stiffness increases with fiber volume fraction and is always higher for yarn with less mass irregularities.

  1. Effect of Ply Twist Factor on Hairiness and Unevenness of Two Plied Cotton Yarns Made of Different Spinning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Sudershan; Chowdhury, Amal; Chattopadhyay, Rabisankar

    2016-06-01

    Hairiness and unevenness of cotton plied yarns made of singles spun on Murata Vortex Spinning (MVS) and other spinning systems viz. ring, compact and rotor in relation to ply twist factor have been evaluated. It has been observed that both the type of singles and ply twist has remarkable influence on these parameters. Plied yarn hairiness for ring and compact yarns is less than their respective single counterparts. However, for vortex and rotor yarns, it is found to be higher and decreases with ply twist to be at the same level or even less that of their parent single yarns at high ply twist factor. There is always an increase of short hairs (1, 2 mm) after plying as compared to their respective singles at low ply twist factors, the effect being more prominent for vortex and rotor yarns. The improvement in yarn evenness after plying has also been found to be higher for these yarns but insensitive to ply twist. Further, the percentage decrease in imperfections after plying is observed to be the highest for MVS yarns in majority of the cases.

  2. 镀银纤维抗菌织物设计方案探讨%Discussion of Silver-plated Fiber Antibacterial Fabric Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖利民; 郑元生

    2011-01-01

    Silver-plated fiber antibacterial fabric rational design plan was discussed. From effect of silver-planted fiber appearance characteristic and antibacterial characteristic on fabric design, the technology characteristic of blending,cross twist and interweave were analyzed, the technology plan of silver-plated fiber antibacterial fabric were optimized. It is considered that core-spun processing could be adopted when fabric appearance is not effect by silver-plated fiber, the yarn was woven in fabric as weft at intervals. Sirofil processing could be adopted when fabric appearance is appeared on silver-plated fabric, the yarn was woven in fabric as weft at intervals.%探讨镀银纤维抗菌织物的合理加工技术方案.从镀银纤维外观特征和抗菌特征对抗菌织物设计影响的讨论出发,综合分析了混纺、交捻、交织等技术方案的技术特点.对镀银纤维抗菌织物加工的技术方案进行了讨论.认为:如果要防止镀银纤维固有的颜色影响织物的外观,可采取包芯纱工艺,纬向间隔织入织物;如果允许镀银纤维的颜色显现在织物表面,利用镀银纤维的颜色设计织物外观效果,可采用赛络菲尔纱工艺,纬向间隔织入织物.

  3. Motion Analysis of Fiber Band in Compact Field of Compact Spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The technological process of compact spinning and the compact procedure of fiber band in compact field are briefly illustrated. The motions of fiber band in compact field are discussed theoretically from which tilting angle of suction slot in profile tube, additional twists created by fiber band's rotating around its own axis and ultimate twists in compact yarn are deduced accordingly. The existence of additional twists is also verified through experiments.

  4. Influence of Synthetic Fibers Angle Orientation on Bending Properties of Composite Plywood

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Brezović; Jaroslav Kljak; Stjepan Pervan; Alan Antonović

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on carbon fiber angle orientation and quantity of carbon fi bers in yarn on bending properties of plywood. For that purpose the specimens have been defined as multilayer composites made from carbon fibers and veneer. Carbon fibers were inserted in the second and third glue line of the composite with angle variation of 15°. Stresses and strain were analyzed in significant layers together with displacement of the whole composite plate. The influence o...

  5. Mechanical properties of trays based on starch of native plant species and fiber of agroindustrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural fibers derived from agro-industrial waste in density, weight and mechanical properties of the termoprensadas foams made of starch native species, such as sweet potatoes, oca and arracacha. The thermoforming process was carried out at a temperature of 145 ° C and a pressure of 60 bar. The baking time was 10-15 min depending on water content in the mixture. The trays were characterized by their density, weight, impact test, deflection tests, colorimetry, hardness, and fracturability values. The trays prepared by thermopressure based on sweet potato starch-bagasse fiber from sugar cane at 15%, and arracacha starch -peladilla asparagus fiber at 30% had higher values in flexural strength versus those made with other types of starches and fibers, including blank tests. Generally, the hardness of the trays is favored with increasing fiber, however fracturability decreases or does not improve the integrity of the polymeric matrix. The results shown in this study allow the preparation of biodegradable trays for various industrial applications.

  6. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  7. Effects of substrate, ant and fungal species on plant fiber degradation in a fungus-gardening ant symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMilto, Alexandria M; Rouquette, Monte; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kellner, Katrin; Seal, Jon N

    2017-04-01

    Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste. While leaf-cutting ants are important consumers of primary plant tissue, there have been fewer studies on physiological activity of fungi grown by closely related ant species in the genus Trachymyrmex, which generally grow related species of fungi, have smaller colonies and consume a wider variety of fungal substrates in addition to fresh leaves and flowers. In this study, we measured the cellulase activity of the fungus-gardening ants Atta texana, Trachymyrmex arizonensis and T. septentrionalis. We then quantified fiber consumption of the fungus-gardening ants Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Trachymyrmex arizonensis by comparing the amounts and percentages present in their food and in fungus garden refuse during a controlled feeding experiment over the span of several months. Finally, we compared waste composition of T. arizonensis colonies growing different fungal strains, because this species is known to cultivate multiple strains of Leucoagaricus in its native range. The leaf-cutting ant A. texana was found to have lower cellulytic activity than T. arizonensis or T. septentrionalis. Total lignocellulose and hemicellulose amounts were significantly lower in refuse piles than in the substrates fed to the Trachymyrmex colonies, thus these fibers were consumed by the fungal symbionts of these ant species. Although lignocellulose utilization was similar in two distinct

  8. Mapping of QTL for Fiber Length Using Interspecific Gossypium hirsutum × G.barbadense F2 Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PREETHA S; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton occupies a pre-eminent place among cash crops as it guides the destiny of a large section of the farming community as well as that of a flourishing textile industry.As the yarn manufacturing industry has undergone a technological revolution,more emphasis is given to quality of the raw material in order to overcome high speed spinning.Though different yarn manufacturing technologies have various requirements in terms of basic fiber properties,fiber length has a premier role in deciding the spinning efficiency.

  9. Increased Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotube Yarns and Sheets through Chemical Modification and Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Baker, James S.; Sola, Francisco; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; McCorkle, Linda S.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Gaier, James; Chen, Michelle; Meador, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent strength of individual carbon nanotubes offers considerable opportunity for the development of advanced, lightweight composite structures. Recent work in the fabrication and application of carbon nanotube (CNT) forms such as yarns and sheets has addressed early nanocomposite limitations with respect to nanotube dispersion and loading; and has pushed the technology toward structural composite applications. However, the high tensile strength of an individual CNT has not directly translated to macro-scale CNT forms where bulk material strength is limited by inter-tube electrostatic attraction and slippage. The focus of this work was to assess post processing of CNT sheet and yarn to improve the macro-scale strength of these material forms. Both small molecule functionalization and e-beam irradiation was evaluated as a means to enhance tensile strength and Youngs modulus of the bulk CNT material. Mechanical testing results revealed a tensile strength increase in CNT sheets by 57 when functionalized, while an additional 48 increase in tensile strength was observed when functionalized sheets were irradiated; compared to unfunctionalized sheets. Similarly, small molecule functionalization increased yarn tensile strength up to 25, whereas irradiation of the functionalized yarns pushed the tensile strength to 88 beyond that of the baseline yarn.

  10. Trial of Direct Dyeing Cheese Yarn%直接染色筒纱的试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 肖琴; 宋均燕; 何小东

    2011-01-01

    探讨直接染色筒纱线的生产工艺.阐述了直接染色筒纱线品种开发的意义,分析了直接染色筒纱应满足的技术条件和工艺技术要点,围绕筒子密度和边硬问题,改进生产工艺并采取技术控制措施,结果成功地实现了直接染色筒纱线的生产,减少了传统生产工艺中松纱及络筒两道工序,提高了生产效率,节省了人力和物力,降低了生产成本.%Production processing of direct dyeing cheese yarn was discussed. The meaning of developing direct dyeing cheese yarn product were introduced,technology condition and processing technology key points of direct dyeing cheese yarn were analyzed. According to the problem of cheese density and edge hardness,processing was modified and technology control measures were adopted. Finally production of direct dyeing cheese yarn could be realized successfully,loose yarn process and winding process in tradi tion process could be avoided, production efficiency could be increased,manpower and material resources could be saved and production cost could be reduced.

  11. Effect of Weaving Direction of Conductive Yarns on Electromagnetic Performance of 3D Integrated Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fujun; Yao, Lan; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yipping

    2013-10-01

    A three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antenna (3DIMA) is a microstrip antenna woven into the three-dimensional woven composite for load bearing while functioning as an antenna. In this study, the effect of weaving direction of conductive yarns on electromagnetic performance of 3DIMAs are investigated by designing, simulating and experimental testing of two microstrip antennas with different weaving directions of conductive yarns: one has the conductive yarns along the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp1) and the other has the conductive yarns perpendicular the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp2). The measured voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 3DIMA-Exp1 was 1.4 at the resonant frequencies of 1.39 GHz; while that of 3DIMA-Exp2 was 1.2 at the resonant frequencies of 1.35 GHz. In addition, the measured radiation pattern of the 3DIMA-Exp1 has smaller back lobe and higher gain value than those of the 3DIMA-Exp2. This result indicates that the waving direction of conductive yarns may have a significant impact on electromagnetic performance of textile structural antennas.

  12. High performance field emission and Nottingham effect observed from carbon nanotube yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Chul; Kang, Jun-Tae; Park, Sora; Go, Eunsol; Jeon, Hyojin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Kyung-Ho; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Vertically aligned CNTs were synthesized on a four inch wafer, followed by the preparation of a CNT yarn. The yarn emitter was found to have an extremely high field enhancement factor, which was confirmed to have originated from multi-stage effect. In addition to superb field emission characteristics, the energy exchange during field emission, called Nottingham effect, was observed from the CNT yarn emitter. A CNT yarn was attached to the thermistor whose resistance depends on temperature. Then, the change of resistance was monitored during the field emission, which enabled us to calculate the energy exchange. It was found that the observed heating originated from both Nottingham and Joule heating. Nottingham heating was dominant at low current region while Joule heating became larger contribution at high current region. Very large Nottingham region of up to 33.35 mA was obtained, which is due presumably to the high performance field emission characteristics of a CNT yarn. This is believed to be an important observation for developing reliable field emission devices with suppressed Joule heating effect.

  13. Hybrid carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscle inspired by spider dragline silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Hyeong Kim, Shi; Kyoon Shin, Min; Hoon Kwon, Cheong; Park, Jihwang; Tae Kim, Youn; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Haines, Carter S.; Baughman, Ray H.; Jeong Kim, Seon

    2014-02-01

    Torsional artificial muscles generating fast, large-angle rotation have been recently demonstrated, which exploit the helical configuration of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. These wax-infiltrated, electrothermally powered artificial muscles are torsionally underdamped, thereby experiencing dynamic oscillations that complicate positional control. Here, using the strategy spiders deploy to eliminate uncontrolled spinning at the end of dragline silk, we have developed ultrafast hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles that generated a 9,800 r.p.m. rotation without noticeable oscillation. A high-loss viscoelastic material, comprising paraffin wax and polystyrene-poly(ethylene-butylene)-polystyrene copolymer, was used as yarn guest to give an overdamped dynamic response. Using more than 10-fold decrease in mechanical stabilization time, compared with previous nanotube yarn torsional muscles, dynamic mirror positioning that is both fast and accurate is demonstrated. Scalability to provide constant volumetric torsional work capacity is demonstrated over a 10-fold change in yarn cross-sectional area, which is important for upscaled applications.

  14. STRESS - STRAIN CURVE ANALYSIS OF WOVEN FABRICS MAD E FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE WOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÎLCU Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the tensile behavior of woven fabrics made from 45%Wool + 55% PES used for garments. Analysis of fabric behavior during wearing has shown that these are submitted to simple and repeated uni-axial or bi-axial tensile strains. The level of these strains is often within the elastic limit, rarely going over yielding. Therefore the designer must be able to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such fabrics in order to control the fabric behavior in the garment. This evaluation is carried out based on the tensile testing, using certain indexes specific to the stress-strain curve. The paper considers an experimental matrix based on woven fabrics of different yarn counts, different or equal yarn count for warp and weft systems and different structures. The fabrics were tested using a testing machine and the results were then compared in order to determine the fabrics’ tensile behavior and the factors of influence that affect it.From the point of view of tensile testing, the woven materials having twill weave are preferable because this type of structure is characterized by higher durability and better yarn stability in the fabric. In practice, the woven material must exhibit an optimum behavior to repeated strains, flexions and abrasions during wearing process. The analysis of fabrics tensile properties studied by investigation of stress-strain diagrams reveals that the main factors influencing the tensile strength are: yarns fineness, technological density of those two systems of yarns and the weaving type.

  15. Study of Performance of Hybrid yarns (Hemp/ Polypropylene/ Glass Woven Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Manins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of reinforcements of 100 tex hemp yarns and hybrid yarns reinforcements with same hemp yarns and glass fibres’ (136 Tex in warp direction (25 % or 50 % interwoven with hemp yarns. The industrial loom CTБ-175 and craftsman’s loom, plain weaving technique for production of reinforcements with surface density in range of 91-246 g/m2 were used in the production. Tensile strength of hemp reinforcement on warp direction is 241.7N-279.8N and tensile modulus 218.48MPa-271.24MPa.The measurement of fabric thickness and physical-mechanical properties of reinforcements were carried out according to ISO 5084:1996 and LVS EN ISO 13934-1-2001 standards. One and two layer composites of woven reinforcements of hemp and polypropylene yarns were produced with Laboratory Press LP_S_50/SASTM. The surface density of one layer composite is 311.2 g/m2 and 608.4 g/m2 of two layers composite. The tensile strength of same composites is 303.1N and 599.5N, the tensile stress is 35.66 MPa and 40.65 MPa. The elastic modulus of one layer composites is 908.2 MPa and 1152.5MPa for two layers composite. The mechanical properties of composites were established according to ISO 527-5:2009 standard.

  16. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  17. Development of pilot plant for the production of vapor grown carbon fiber from Ohio coal. Final report, July 1997 to July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alig, Robert [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States); Burton, David [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States); Kennel, Elliot [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States); Lake, Max [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2000-11-30

    The objective of this project was to develop, build, and operate a pilot-scale plant for the production of Pyrograf-III™ carbon nanofiber from Ohio high-sulfur coal. The fiber production scale-up program was conducted in three phases. In Phase I, the design parameters were developed using a single reactor system, for a process where sulfur bearing coal replaced hydrogen sulfide as the sulfur source. Optimization trials for different reactor tube dimensions were conducted and compared to theoretical predictions for temperature and flow conditions in the reactor as a function of the reactor dimensions. The process was also refined to optimize intrinsic and surface properties of the carbon fiber. Methods of separating fiber from coal ash and de-bulking the fiber were also developed and demonstrated. Under Phase I, a considerable body of knowledge was developed that yielded valuable data bearing on the design of fiber production and handling equipment. The Phase I effort was comprised of complementary programs sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Delphi Chassis Division of General Motors Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC). In Phase II, equipment was designed based upon the body of knowledge developed under Phase I. The pilot plant equipment was designed to have a production capacity up to 100,000 pounds of fiber per year based on a process (PR-11) that generates a fiber diameter of 200 nm and a model indicating energy throughput as the rate-limiting variable. As the program progressed, it become evident that the near-term customers required a fiber with a much smaller diameter, PR-24 grade, to achieve the required performance in the end product. In order to meet the needs of the initial customer base, modifications were made to the pilot plant reactors to produce the smaller diameter fiber. This change in the intrinsic properties of the fiber caused the production capacity to be cut to a

  18. [Exposure to ceramic fibers in the work environment. II. Occupational exposure to dust in plants producing ceramic fiber; fibrogenic effect of the fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, J; Lao, I; Krajnow, A

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the exposure to dust containing ceramic fibres among workers employed in the plant producing aluminosilicate fibres, and to investigate fibrogenic properties of produced ceramic aluminosilicate fibres (L-1). The studies carried out in the work environment revealed that workers were exposed to dust containing respirable fibres from materials produced (fibres, mats). Mean concentrations of these fibres ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 f/cm3 and they were considerably lower than MAC value (1 f/cm3) proposed for respirable ceramic fibres. Mean total dust concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.9 mg/m3, and at two working posts they exceeded the proposed MAC value (2 mg/m3). In animal experiments (Wistar female rats) a single dose (25 mg) of L-1 fibres administered intratracheally induced pathological symptoms in lungs, limited to reactive changes in the form of granuloma with weakly pronounced cytolysis, and mean levels of hydroxyproline in the lungs did not differ significantly from the physiological level. The L-1 fibre was classified in the group of dusts with insignificant fibrogenic effects.

  19. [Exposure to ceramic fibers in the work environment. III. occupational exposure to ceramic fibers in plants which produce and apply insulation materials made of ceramic fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, J; Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Maciejewska, A

    1997-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the exposure to dust in the work environment of plants which produced and apply packing and insulation materials made of ceramic fibres. The study revealed that workers were exposed to dust containing respirable ceramic fibres and in some cases (production of packing cord, insulating tape and paperboard) respirable asbestos fibres. The mean concentration of respirable fibres ranged from 0.05 to 0.62 f/l cm3, and concentrations of total dust fell between 0.6 and 23.2 mg/m3. The mean concentrations of respirable fibres were usually below (0.5 f/l cm3 for respirable ceramic fibres with asbestos mixture; 1 f/cm3 for respirable ceramic fibres), and of total dust much higher (1 mg/m3 and 2 mg/m3, respectively) than MAC values proposed. The initial dermatological examinations (25 workers) allow the conclusion that contact with ceramic fibres induces in some workers acute dermatitis and dermal papilla.

  20. Design of a carbon-nanotube yarn field emitter for micro-focus X-ray generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Lee, Choong Hun

    2016-08-01

    The field-emission (F-E) characteristics of multi-walled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) yarn and its contribution to X-ray generation have been investigated in the current work. A dry spinning method was used to fabricateMWCNT yarn from superMWCNTs that had been fabricated by using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD). The F-E behavior of the MWCNT yarn followed the Fowler-Nordheim model. Compared to a MWCNT, the MWCNT yarn displayed a significant F-E capability in both the diode and the triode X-ray generation structures. The low-voltage F-E of the MWCNT yarn can be attributed to the field-enhancing effect of the yarn due to its shape and to the contribution of the high-aspect-ratio nanotubes that protrude from the sides of the yarn. The effect of filters on the development of X-ray images has also been demonstrated. The amount of exposure of the samples to X-rays was also manipulated. Results of this study indicate that the MWCNT yarn may be a good candidate for use in low-voltage F-E applications for X-ray imaging.

  1. Electrically controllable twisted-coiled artificial muscle actuators using surface-modified polyester fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwoo; Yoo, Ji Wang; Seo, Hee Won; Lee, Youngkwan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Ja Choon; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Hunt, Robert; Kim, Kwang Jin; Kim, Soo Hyun; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-03-01

    As a new class of thermally activated actuators based on polymeric fibers, we investigated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) yarns for the development of a twisted-coiled polymer fiber actuator (TCA). The PET yarn TCA exhibited the maximum linear actuation up to 8.9% by external heating at above the glass transition temperature, 160 °C-180 °C. The payload of the actuator was successfully correlated with the preload and training-load conditions by an empirical equation. Furthermore, the PET-based TCA was electrically driven by Joule heating after the PET surface was metallization with silver. For the fast and precise control of PET yarn TCA, electroless silver plating was conducted to form electrical conductive layers on the PET fiber surface. The silver plated PET-based TCA was tested by Joule heating and the tensile actuation was increased up to 12.1% (6 V) due to the enhanced surface hardness and slippage of PET fibers. Overall, silver plating of the polymeric yarn provided a fast actuation speed and enhanced actuation performance of the TCA actuator by Joule heating, providing a great potential for being used in artificial muscle for biomimetic machines including robots, industrial actuators and powered exoskeletons.

  2. Temperature-Responsive Tensile Actuator Based on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunsoo Kim; Jae Ah Lee; Hyeon Jun Sim; Ma rcio D Lima; Ray H Baughman; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Many temperature indicators or sensors show color changes for materials used in food and medical fields. However, they are not helpful for a color-blind person or children who lack judgment. In this paper, we introduce simply fabricated and more useful low-temperature indicator (*30 ?C) for devices that actuates using paraffin-infiltrated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coiled yarn. The density difference of MWCNT yarn provides large strain (*330%) when heat causes the melted polymer to move. Furthermore, the MWCNT yarn decreases the melting point of paraffin. These properties allow control of the actuating temperature. In addition, mechanical strength was enhanced by MWCNT than previously reported temperature-responsive actuators based on shape memory polymers. This simply fabricated temperature indicator can be applied in latching devices for medical and biological fields.

  3. Micro-Scale Mechanical Testing of Non-Woven Carbon Nanotube Sheets and Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magargee, J.; Morestin, F.; Cao, J.; Jones, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Non-woven carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets and yarns were tested using a novel micro-scale mechanical testing system. CNT sheets were observed to delaminate during uniaxial testing using an adbesive gripping method, resulting from a higher proportion of load bearing in the outer sheets versus internal sheets and an apparently low interlaminar shear strength. In response to this, a new spool-grip method was used to alleviate non-uniform through-thickness stresses, circumvent premature delamination, and allow the sheet material to sustain a 72% increase in measured tensile strength. Furthermore, tension tests of CNT yarns showed that the yarn-structure was approximaiely 7 times stronger than the sheet structure, owing to a higher degree of CNT alignment in the test direction.

  4. Yarn-Dyed Fabric Defect Detection Based On Autocorrelation Function And GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dandan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new detection algorithm for yarn-dyed fabric defect based on autocorrelation function and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is put forward. First, autocorrelation function is used to determine the pattern period of yarn-dyed fabric and according to this, the size of detection window can be obtained. Second, GLCMs are calculated with the specified parameters to characterise the original image. Third, Euclidean distances of GLCMs between being detected images and template image, which is selected from the defect-free fabric, are computed and then the threshold value is given to realise the defect detection. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this study can achieve accurate detection of common defects of yarn-dyed fabric, such as the wrong weft, weft crackiness, stretched warp, oil stain and holes.

  5. Moisture properties of raised 3-thread fleece fabric knitted with different face and fleecy yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Arafa Badr

    2016-09-01

    So, in this study, nine three-thread fleece fabrics of different composition materials have been studied, where these knitted fabrics are produced in a special circular knitted machine. The developed fabrics are taken to measure, water vapor permeability “WVP”, gain%, air permeability, drying time, color difference, immersion time and bursting strength. The test results were discussed statistically with single factor ANOVA. From the experimental results, it has been observed that the difference between face and fleecy yarns material was highly significant for the whole fabric in the water vapor permeability, gain%, color difference and immersion time. Three-thread Fleece fabric knitted with Egyptian cotton for the face and fleecy yarns has the maximum bursting strength compared to other samples having Bamboo and Tencel yarns.

  6. Electrospun nanofibre bundles and yarns for tissue engineering applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2016-11-01

    Nanofibre membranes produced through the electrospinning process have been studied extensively over the past decade for a number of high demand applications including use as tissue engineered scaffolds. Despite possessing desirable properties including high surface area to volume ratios and enhanced mechanical properties, they ultimately suffer from a lack of cellular infiltration. Variations on the process include the production of highly aligned filaments of electrospun fibres referred to as bundles and yarns. Nanofibre bundle and yarn-based scaffolds have been shown to demonstrate superior cell infiltration rates compared to traditional electrospun nonwovens while also offering the capability to be incorporated into a wider array of post-processing technologies. In this review, fibre collection techniques currently employed within the literature for the fabrication of electrospun bundles and yarns along with their applications in the field of tissue engineering will be discussed.

  7. High-power biofuel cell textiles from woven biscrolled carbon nanotube yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Choi, Young-Bong; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G; Lima, Márcio D; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2014-06-02

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from glucose in blood are promising for powering implantable biomedical devices. Immobilizing interconnected enzyme and redox mediator in a highly conducting, porous electrode maximizes their interaction with the electrolyte and minimizes diffusion distances for fuel and oxidant, thereby enhancing power density. Here we report that our separator-free carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cells provide an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, and a maximum areal power density of 2.18 mW cm(-2) that is three times higher than for previous carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cells. Biofuel cell operation in human serum provides high areal power output, as well as markedly increased lifetime (83% remained after 24 h), compared with previous unprotected biofuel cells. Our biscrolled yarn biofuel cells are woven into textiles having the mechanical robustness needed for implantation for glucose energy harvesting.

  8. Influence of Warp Yarn Tension on Cotton Greige and Dyed Woven Fabric Prosperities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabric properties such as pilling and abrasion resistance and tensile strength vary when greige fabric is processed further. The quality of dyed fabric depends on the quality of greige fabric. Cotton Plain and Twill weave fabrics were woven at three different warp yarn tension and then dyed using monochlorotriazine, Drimerene Red Cl-5B dye gives difference in fabric properties. The ASTM, American International Standards were used to determine the greige and dyed fabric properties. It has been observed fabric woven at proper loom setting or warp yarn tension have high strength, less pilling and abrasion tendency as compared to fabric woven at variant warp yarn tension. Moreover, fabric tenacity is decreased after dyeing whereas, slight difference in pilling and abrasion values is observed after dyeing than that of greige fabric.

  9. Prediction of Compression of Knitted Orthopaedic Supports by Inlay-Yarn Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana ALIŠAUSKIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the possibility to predict the compression properties of orthopaedic knits by inlay-yarn properties. For this purpose, six groups of elastic double covered threads with different raw material were investigated. It was established that in area of low elongation, the covering threads practically don't have significant influence on tensile force values. Also results demonstrate that by increasing the number of tested threads, the elongation value has a higher impact on tensile force. The influence of linear density of elastic PU core on tensile force increases by increasing elongation value of threads. When influence of inlay-yarn linear density and number of threads on tensile force is determined it is possible to predict influence of inlay-yarn properties on compression properties of knitted orthopaedic supports. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4048

  10. Anodized aluminum wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber for rapid determination of volatile constituents in medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi

    2011-09-02

    Headspace solid phase microextraction using anodized aluminum fiber in combination with capillary GC-MS was utilized as monitoring technique for the collection and detection of the volatile compounds of Echinophora platyloba DC. Experimental parameters, including the sample weight, extraction temperature, extraction time and humidity effect, desorption time and desorption temperature were examined and optimized. Using HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 53 compounds were separated and identified in E. platyloba DC, which mainly included E-β ocimene (47.63%), R-D-decalactone (13.28%), α-pinene (7.43%) and nonane (6.71%). Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), HS-SPME, provides the advantages of a small amount of sample, timesaving, simplicity and cheapness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using anodized aluminum fiber in solid-phase microextraction coupled to headspace for the investigation of volatile fraction of medicinal plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of South African indigenous goat hair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and strength of the cashmere/cotton blend yarns improved with increasing linear yarn density (single and two-ply, respectively), and also with plying. Spinning of the cashmere/cotton blends did not create any undue problems, except for the 20 tex single... fibre diameter of wool using an optical fibre diameter analyser (OFDA). International Wool Textile Organisation, Ilkley, Yorkshire, UK. McGregor, B.A. (2001) The Quality of cashmere and its influence on textile materials produced from cashmere...

  12. New-type planar field emission display with superaligned carbon nanotube yarn emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wei, Yang; Liu, Kai; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-05-09

    With the superaligned carbon nanotube yarn as emitter, we have fabricated a 16 × 16 pixel field emission display prototype by adopting screen printing and laser cutting technologies. A planar diode field emission structure has been adopted. A very sharp carbon nanotube yarn tip emitter can be formed by laser cutting. Low voltage phosphor was coated on the anode electrodes also by screen printing. With a specially designed circuit, we have demonstrated the dynamic character display with the field emission display prototype. The emitter material and fabrication technologies in this paper are both easy to scale up to large areas.

  13. Influence of Kind of Weft Yarn on Properties of the Seersucker Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seersucker woven fabrics create a unique 3D woven structure. Such 3D structure is usually received on loom by an application of two warps of different tension. However, a kind of the weft yarn also significantly influences the structure and properties of the seersucker woven fabric. The paper presents an investigation of the seersucker fabrics made of the same set of warps and different weft yarns. The mechanical properties of the investigated fabrics were measured by means of the standardized testing methods. The structure of the fabric was assessed using the 3D laser scanning.

  14. Deposition of carbon nanotubes onto aramid fibers using as-received and chemically modified fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Uicab, O. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chi, P.I; Canché-Escamilla, G.; Duarte-Aranda, S. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Yazdani-Pedram, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, S. Livingstone 1007, Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Toro, P. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Gamboa, F. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Mérida, Depto. de Física Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Mazo, M.A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The surface of aramid fibers was functionalized by two acid treatments. • The treatment based on HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reduced the mechanical properties of the fibers. • CNTs were deposited on the aramid fibers, reaching electrical conductivity. • Homogeneous CNT distribution was achieved by using pristine fibers or chlorosulfonic acid. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by an acid treatment were deposited on the surface of as-received commercial aramid fibers containing a surface coating (“sizing”), and fibers modified by either a chlorosulfonic treatment or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. The surface of the aramid fiber activated by the chemical treatments presents increasing density of CO, COOH and OH functional groups. However, these chemical treatments reduced the tensile mechanical properties of the fibers, especially when the nitric and sulfuric acid mixture was used. Characterization of the MWCNTs deposited on the fiber surface was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These characterizations showed higher areal concentration and more homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs over the aramid fibers for as-received fibers and for those modified with chlorosulfonic acid, suggesting the existence of interaction between the oxidized MWCNTs and the fiber coating. The electrical resistance of the MWCNT-modified aramid yarns comprising ∼1000 individual fibers was in the order of MΩ/cm, which renders multifunctional properties.

  15. Characterization of cassava starch based foam blended with plant proteins, kraft fiber, and palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisangsri, Nattapon; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-09-22

    Cassava starch foam (CSF) trays blended with zein, gluten, soy protein, kraft fiber, and palm oil at various concentrations: 0, 5, 10 and 15% by weight of starch, were characterized. The addition of zein and gluten into CSF resulted in consolidated and homogeneous structural foams compared to its controls. Moreover, the flexural and compressive strength increased with increasing kraft, zein and gluten. CSF containing 15% kraft gave the highest flexural and compressive strength. However, the addition of palm oil into CSF gave the lowest flexural strength and compressive strength. The observed water absorption and water solubility index of CSFs blended with 15% zein and 15% gluten protein was lowest. Although kraft, zein and gluten could improve mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility were greater than the expanded polystyrene foam (EPS). The CSF trays in this study might be an alternative for packing low water content foods.

  16. Feasibility Study of Advanced NOM-Reduction by Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration at a Swedish Surface Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Lidén

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology, i.e., ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, is growing in popularity, as it is a space efficient alternative for surface water treatment. Two types of hollow fiber membranes were tested in a fully equipped and automated pilot at a Swedish water treatment plant. Raw water was treated by a nanofilter and by coagulation before an ultrafilter. Operation parameters recorded during these trials have been the basis for cost estimations and assessments of environmental impact, comparing the two membrane modules to the existing conventional treatment. The membranes required lower chemical consumption, but led to increased costs from membrane modules and a higher energy demand. Compared to the existing treatment (0.33 €/m3, the operational costs were estimated to increase 6% for ultrafiltration and 30% for nanofiltration. Considering the low emissions from Nordic energy production, the membrane processes would lower the environmental impact, including factors such as climate and ecosystem health. Greenhouse gas emissions would decrease from 161 g CO2-eq/m3 of the existing process, to 127 g CO2-eq/m3 or 83 g CO2-eq/m3 for ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, respectively. Lower chemical consumption and less pollution from the sludge leaving the water treatment plant lead to lower impacts on the environment.

  17. Enhancement of chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells by oriented nanofiber yarn-collagen type I/hyaluronate hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xianyou; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shen [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wu, Jinglei [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Biological Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Fengfeng [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Cao, Lei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Xu-dong [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Mo, Xiumei, E-mail: xmm@dhu.edu.cn [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Biological Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fan, Cunyi, E-mail: fancunyish@126.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage defects cause joint pain and loss of mobility. It is crucial to induce the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by both biological and structural signals in cartilage tissue engineering. Sponge-like scaffolds fabricated using native cartilage extracellular matrix components can induce the BMSC differentiation by biological signals and limited structural signals. In this study, an oriented poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) P(LLA-CL)/collagen type I (Col-I) nanofiber yarn mesh, fabricated by dynamic liquid electrospinning served as a skeleton for a freeze-dried Col-I/hyaluronate (HA) chondral phase (SPONGE) containing both structural and biological signals to guide BMSC chondrogenic differentiation. In vitro results show that the Yarn Col-I/HA hybrid scaffold (Yarn-CH) promotes orientation, adhesion and proliferation of BMSCs better than SPONGE. Furthermore, BMSCs seeded on the Yarn-CH scaffold demonstrated a large increase in the glycosaminoglycan content and expression of collagen type II following a 21-day culture. - Highlights: • An oriented yarn was used as the skeleton of the sponge-like scaffold. • Both structural and biological signals were given for BMSC chondrogenic differentiation. • Yarn-CH promotes orientation and chondrogenesis differentiation of BMSCs. • Yarn-CH reproduces the superficial zone of the cartilage.

  18. EU’s safeguard duties on high tenacity yarn of polyesters set an alarming trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The EU has imposed a provisional anti-dumping duty on high tenacity yarn of polyesters from China on Jun. 2. Overseas crisis-fighting measures such as anti-dumping action, are up sharply in recent years. Chinese suppliers have to live with a challenging production environment through

  19. A new experimental setup to characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of ballistic yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, C.; Kerisit, C.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Faderl, N.; Klavzar, A.

    2016-10-01

    Fabrics have been widely used as part of ballistic protections since the 1970s and the development of new ballistic solutions made from fabrics need numerical simulations, in order to predict the performance of the ballistic protection. The performances and the induced mechanisms in ballistic fabrics during an impact depend on the weaving parameters and also on the inner parameters of the yarns used inside these structures. Thus, knowing the dynamic behaviour of yarn is essential to determine the ballistic behaviour of fabrics during an impact. Two major experimental devices exist and are used to test ballistic yarns in a dynamic uniaxial tension. The first one corresponds to the Split Hopkinson Tensile Bars device, which is commonly used to characterize the mechanical properties of materials in uniaxial tension and under high loading. The second one is the transversal impact device. The real conditions of ballistic impact can be realized with this device. Then, this paper deals with a new experimental setup developed in our laboratory and called the ‘tensile impact test for yarn’ (TITY) device. With this device, specific absorbed energy measurements of para-aramid yarns (336 Tex, Twaron™, 1000 filaments) have been carried out and revealed that static and dynamic properties of para-aramid are different.

  20. CHIC, InterTextile, Yarn Expo & Home Textile Spring Four Trade Fairs to Unveil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Intertextile Beijing Apparel Fabrics takes place during the region’shottest fashion seasons and runsconcurrently with China International Clothing and Accessories Fair(CHIC) from 28–31 March 2011as well as Yarn Expo Spring from 31March–2 April 2011. Free shuttlebus services will be provided for allthree events.

  1. The reclamation and reprocessing of cotton wastes produced during yarn preparation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bathie, LA

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is an undesirable but inevitable by-product in any manufacturing process and is frequently undervalued. The production of waste yarns by the waste spinner was traditionally carried out by condenser spinning in which the material was processed...

  2. Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose in phosphoric acid for preparing cellulose yarns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstoel, H.

    2006-01-01

    The presen thesis describes a new process for manufacturing high tenacity and high modulus cellulose yarns. A new direct solvent for cellulose has been discovered, leading to liquid crystalline solutions. This new solvent, superphosphoric acid, rapidly dissolves cellulose. These liquid crystalline s

  3. Quantification of dislocations in hemp fibers using acid hydrolysis and fiber segment length distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2008-01-01

    Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable...... determination of relevant parameters. One quality parameter of the fibers is the amount of structural distortions known as dislocations or kink bands. Here, a method developed for the quantification of dislocations in pulp fibers was adapted and tested successfully for hemp yarn segments. The method is based...... on acid hydrolysis and subsequent determination of the fiber segment length distribution. The premise of the method is that acid hydrolysis causes fibers to break in the dislocations rather than in other places. By use of polarized light microscopy and image analysis it was found that the premise...

  4. Physicochemical Properties of Pineapple Plant Waste Fibers from the Leaves and Stems of Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhri Zainuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple agro-waste, the residue produced during harvesting or processing activities, is widely available around the world. After harvesting, most pineapple residue is disposed of and serves as fertilizer, or is burnt in an open field. However, these methods are not only ineffective, but also contribute to air pollution. The main objective of this study is to determine the physicochemical properties (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, proximate composition, dry matter, and nitrogen content, of leaves and stems in different varieties (MD2, Moris, and Josapine of the pineapple plant waste. The data obtained were analyzed using thermogravimetry analysis and proximate analysis. The results showed that the stems and leaves of different varieties exhibit different percentages in lignocellulosic content (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Proximate analysis showed that nutrient contents were available in the leaves and stems of pineapple plant of different varieties.

  5. Some Mechanical Properties of Kevlar and Other Heat Resistant, Nonflammable Fibers, Yarns and Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    situations must be nonflammable, dimensionally stable, and effective thermal barriers . Past work on such fabrics has centered on defining their...as thermal barriers by determination of their heat trans- fer characteristics. An equally important facet of their protective capacity is their

  6. Stretchable Triboelectric Fiber for Self-powered Kinematic Sensing Textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hyeon Jun; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Kang Min; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Stretchable fiber and yarn triboelectric nanogenerator are sought for such applications as wearable sensing system such as cloth communication devices, electronic textiles, and robotic sensory skin. Unfortunately, previously reported triboelectric fiber and yarn are difficult to have stretchable property. We introduce here a new type of stretchable and weavable triboelectric fibers with microdiameter dimensions. The stretchable triboelectric fibers can be reversibly stretched up to 50% in tensile direction while generating voltage output proportional to the applied tensile strain. The reversible distance change induced by the Poisson’s ratio difference between the core fiber (silver-coated nylon/polyurethane) and the shell (wrinkled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene/carbon nanotube layer) during tensile deformation is the key working principle for electrical generation. Owing to exceptional structural stability, the stretchable triboelectric fibers show high performance retention after 10,000 times repeated stretching/releasing cycle. Furthermore, the stretchable triboelectric fibers are mechanically strong to be woven into a commercial textile for textile based sensors, which can detect magnitude as well as direction of the motion.

  7. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yijun; Xie, Qixue; Lao, Jihong; Wang, Lu

    2016-04-22

    Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times) were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration.

  8. Improving the tensile strength of carbon nanotube yarn via one-step double [2+1] cycloadditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, HeeJin [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaegeun; Park, Byungrak; Sa, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Alum; Kim, Teawon; Park, Junbeom; Hwang, Woonbong; Lee, Kun Hong [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The tensile strength of a CNT yarn was improved through simple one-step double [2+1] cycloaddition reactions that crosslinked the constituent CNTs using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-diazide crosslinker. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed that the azide groups in the PEG-diazide were converted into aziridine rings, indicating that the cycloaddition reaction was successful. The generation of crosslinked CNTs was also supported by the observation of N1s peak in the XPS spectrum and the increased thermal stability of the material, as observed by TGA. The tensile strength of the CNT yarn was increased from 0.2GPa to 1.4GPa after the crosslinking reaction when twisted at 4000 twists/ meter. The appropriate selection of the crosslinker may further optimize the CNT yarn crosslinking reaction. The simplicity of this one-step crosslinking reaction provides an economical approach to the mass production of high-strength CNT yarns.

  9. Conversion of finished leather waste incorporated with plant fibers into value added consumer products - An effort to minimize solid waste in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklay, A; Gebeyehu, G; Getachew, T; Yaynshet, T; Sastry, T P

    2017-07-29

    Presently, the leftovers from leather product industries are discarded as waste in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was therefore, to prepare composite sheets by incorporating various plant fibers like enset (Ensete ventricosum), hibiscus (Hibiscus cannabinus), jute (Corchorus trilocularis L.), palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and sisal (Agave sisal) in various proportions into the leather waste. Resin binder (RB) and natural rubber latex (NRL) were used as binding agents for the preparation of the composite sheets. The composite sheets prepared were characterized for their physicochemical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, stitch tear strength, water absorption, water desorption and flexing strength). Composite sheets prepared using RB having 10% hibiscus, 20% palm and 40% sisal fibers showed better mechanical properties than their respective controls. In composite sheets prepared using NRL having 30% jute fiber exhibited better mechanical properties than its control. Most of the plant fibers used in this study played a role in increasing the performance of the sheets. However, as seen from the results, the contribution of these plant fibers on performance of the composite sheets prepared is dependent on the ratio used and the nature of binder. The SEM studies have exhibited the composite nature of the sheets and FTIR studies have shown the functional groups of collagen protein, cellulose and binders. The prepared sheets were used as raw materials for preparation of items like stiff hand bags, ladies' purse, keychain, chappal upper, wallet, wall cover, mouse pad and other interior decorating products. By preparing such value added products, we can reduce solid waste; minimize environmental pollution and thereby securing environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Measurement and Computational Simulation of the Strains on a Single Yarn in a Kevlar Fabric During Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    displacement and strain time histories matched reasonably well with the experimental data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Photogrammetry strain measurements optical...and textile composites. For instance, Lomov et al. (1, 2) studied the in-plane deformation of yarns in a fabric that underwent shearing using two...sensitivity of the friction coefficient between yarns under a static stretching condition. 2. Experimental Method We used a 5x5 plain- weave Kevlar

  11. Accelerator Support in YARN Cluster%基于 YARN 集群的计算加速部件扩展支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钦; 朱延超; 刘轶; 钱德沛

    2016-01-01

    以 GPU 和 Intel MIC 为代表的计算加速部件已在科学计算、图形图像处理等领域得到了广泛的应用,其在基于云平台的高性能计算及大数据处理等方向也具有广泛的应用前景.YARN 是新一代Hadoop 分布式计算框架,其对计算资源的分配调度主要针对 CPU ,缺少对计算加速部件的支持.在YARN 中添加计算加速部件需要解决多个难点,分别是计算加速部件资源如何调度以及异构节点间如何共享问题、多个任务同时调用计算加速部件而引起的资源争用问题和集群中对计算加速部件的状态监控与管理问题.为了解决这些问题,提出了动态节点捆绑策略、流水线式的计算加速部件任务调度等,实现了 YARN 对计算加速部件的支持,并通过实验验证了其有效性.%Accelerators ,such as GPU and Intel MIC ,are widely used in scientific computing and image processing ,and have strong potentials in big data processing and HPC based on cloud platform . YARN is a new generation of Hadoop distributed computing framework .Its adoption of computing resources is only limited to CPU ,lacking of support for accelerators .This paper adds the support to nodes with accelerators to YARN to solve the problem .By analyzing the problem of supporting heterogeneous node ,there are three identified difficulties which should be solved to introduce hybrid/heterogeneous to YARN .The first one is how to manage and schedule the added accelerator resources in the cluster ; the second one is how to collect the status of accelerators to the master node for management ;the third one is how to address the contention issue among multiple accelerator tasks concurrently running on the same node .In order to solve the above problems ,the following design tasks have been carried out .Resource encapsulation which bundles neighbor nodes into one resource encapsulation is designed to solve the first problem .Management

  12. Novel multifunctional composites based on carbon nanotube sheets and yarns: Synthesis, fabrication, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepro Chavez, Xavier N.

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) aligned sheets directly drawn from forests and derived yarns have recently attracted wide attention because of their exhibited mechanical, electronic, photonic and optical properties. Unfortunately, the supply of drawable forests is currently limited since the set of experimental conditions required to obtain adequate forest morphology is rather narrow, thus restricting the advance towards large scale applications. This work starts by addressing this issue by showing that the correct preparation of alternative substrates, such as thin metallic sheets, can produce the forest morphology required for solid-state drawability and increase the attainable surface for forest harvesting without further enlargement of the currently used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor chamber. Also, it explores suitable ways to quantify the alignment of MWNTs in forests and by comparing them with spinnable ones, provides a range of alignment distribution where forest drawability can be reasonably expected. Next, this work presents procedures that can add functionality to the MWNT free-standing sheets without strongly affecting their mechanical integrity, nanotube alignment or individual morphology. Proved examples, such as free-standing sheets of catalytic-active, highly capacity (39 F/g), aligned nitrogen-doped MWNTs and silicon-based ceramic conformationally coated MWNTs that can be easily twisted into yarns, are examined in different chapters. Moreover, we show that MWNT sheets can be used for templating materials other than carbon into nanostructured arrays by preparing sheets of aligned silicon oxide nanotubes. Similar to MWNT sheets, these nanotube based materials can be used as host to confine functional unspinnable materials (up to 95 wt.%) by twisting them together into biscrolled yarns, suitable for applications as superconductors, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells catalysts and photocatalysis. Such biscrolled yarns have a twist

  13. Development of high-modulus low-shrinkage polyester industrial yarn%高模量低收缩涤纶工业丝的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季永忠

    2013-01-01

    A high-modulus low-shrinkage polyester industrial yarn was prepared from bright polyester chip with the intrinsic viscosity of 0.67 dL/g by high-speed spinning process subsequently to solid-state polycondensation. The effects of spinning conditions on the fiber properties were discussed. The results showed that the improvement of the modulus and dimension stability (DS value) of polyester industrial yarn would be beneficial from controlling the intrinsic viscosity of oil-free filament not less than 0.95 dL/g, spinning speed 3 400 m/min and spinneret draft ratio about 300 and rationally decreasing the post-heating temperature or insulation zone length. The obtained 1 677 dtex polyester industrial yarn had the breaking strength of 7.6 cN/dtex, elongation at break 10.8% , dry hot shrinkage 3.1%, constant load elongation 5.3% and DS value 8.4%.%采用特性黏数0.67 dL/g的大有光涤纶切片,通过固相缩聚后高速纺丝,生产高模量低收缩涤纶工业丝,讨论了纺丝工艺条件对纤维性能的影响.结果表明:控制涤纶无油丝特性黏数大于等于0.95 dL/g,纺丝速度3 400 m/min,喷丝头拉伸倍数约300,适当降低后加热器温度或缩短隔热区长度,有利于提高涤纶工业丝的模量和尺寸稳定性(DS值);生产的167dtex涤纶工业丝断裂强度7.6 cN/dtex,断裂伸长率10.8%,干热收缩率3.1%,定负荷伸长5.3%,DS值8.4%.

  14. [Assessment of exposure to ceramic fibers during insulation operations in a thermoelectric power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A; Cavariani, F; Carai, A; Cacchioli, G; Papandrea, F; Cacchioli, E

    2001-01-01

    Refractory ceramic fibre concentrations were measured during renewal of the insulation lining of a turbine located in a large power plant. Personal and stationary samples were collected during operations, which involved installing and ripping out standard and pre-coated and pre-shaped ceramic fibre blankets. Operation-length average (OLA) and TWA exposure levels were about 500 F/l and about 100 F/l, respectively, for installing and ripping out operations where non-coated blankets were handled. In these cases specific task-associated personal exposure levels up to 1000 F/l were measured. Personal exposure levels up to as much as 10 times lower were observed in operations involving pre-coated and pre-shaped blankets. The average concentration levels from area samples were always lower than those from personal samples, and showed a downward gradient with the distance from the source. Given the current carcinogenic classification of refractory ceramic fibres (class 2, European), the necessity is stressed of introducing adequate working practices and control measures (adoption of pre-coated and pre-shaped fibrous materials whenever possible, confinement of working area, use of local air extractions ventilation with HEPA filter unit, use of garments for personal protection and respirators, use of wetting or binding liquids prior to removal, quick cleaning of debris from working area), in order to keep the exposure levels and the number of potentially exposed workers to the minimum.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS STUDY OF UNCONVENTIONAL TEXTILE FIBERS RECOVERED FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS - PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan-Pavel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are manufactured different from those obtained by the classic spinning weaving and knitting. They are obtained by mechanical or chemical consolidation of a textile backing up of fibrous layers or combinations of layers of fiber and yarn, fabrics and yarns, fabrics or knitted fabrics and fibers. The non-conventional textiles can be obtained by mechanical or chemical consolidation of a system or several systems of wires. The increasing trend of chemical fiber production compared to natural fibers found also in the unconventional fabrics. In addition emphasis is laid increasingly on the use of recyclable materials recovered fibers and preforms or debris resulting from a regular textile processing. Processing unconventional fibers that are recovered from such materials are best suited for the production of unconventional textile. The production of unconventional textile fiber made from layers have the largest share. The fiber layers may have fibers oriented in a single direction, in two or more directions. The fiber layers can enhance mechanical, chemical and mixed. This produces textile auxiliaries for clothing, replacement canvas for buckram wadding, sanitary ware carpet filters, support for synthetic leather, cloth, wallpapers.

  16. Influence of Synthetic Fibers Angle Orientation on Bending Properties of Composite Plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brezović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on carbon fiber angle orientation and quantity of carbon fi bers in yarn on bending properties of plywood. For that purpose the specimens have been defined as multilayer composites made from carbon fibers and veneer. Carbon fibers were inserted in the second and third glue line of the composite with angle variation of 15°. Stresses and strain were analyzed in significant layers together with displacement of the whole composite plate. The influence of carbon fiber angle orientation on properties of the composite (amount of stresses and related strains was significant. The best results have been achieved with carbon fiber angle of 0°, and bidirectional carbon fiber type (BCF with the orientation angle of 90°. The lowest values have been achieved with carbon fiber angle of 65° (unidirectional carbon fibers-UCF, and bidirectional carbon fiber type (BCF with the orientation angle of 45°. Greater quantity of carbon fibers per one yarn has positive influence on decrease of stresses and strains in veneer layers and provides better stiffness of plywood.

  17. Water Transport Models of Moisture Absorption and Sweat Discharge Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fa-ming; ZHOU Xiao-hong; WANG Shan-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An important property of moisture absorption and sweat discharge yams is their water transport property. In the paper, two water transport models of moisture absorption and sweat discharge yams were developed to investigate the influence factors on their wicking rate. In parallel Column Pores Model, wicking rate is determined by the equivalent capillary radius R and length of the capillary tube L. In Pellets Accumulation Model, wicking rate is decided by the capillary radius r and length of the fiber unit assemble L0.

  18. Zirconium Oxychloride as a Novel Mordant for Natural Dyeing of Wool Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forouharshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium oxychloride, a well-known flame retardant, is introduced as a novel mordant for wool dyeing. This has been indicated by mordanting of wool yarns with zirconium oxychloride in different conditions and then dyeing with madder as a famous natural dye. The tenacity, color coordinates, washing, and light fastnesses of the dyed wool confirmed the positive influence of zirconium oxychloride as a useful mordant for wool dyeing with a low impact on the color coordinates. Further, an appropriate washing and light fastness were obtained for the zirconium-oxychloride-mordanted wool yarns. The central composite design (CCD was used to design the experiments with four variables on the results of tensile strength. Statistical analysis confirmed the optimum conditions obtained through the experimental results.

  19. Structure Properties of Knits from Natural Yarns and their Combination with Elastane and Polyamide Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita ABRAMAVIČIŪTĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on structure of knits for socks manufactured using the yarns of new kind of fibres as soybean and bamboo. Structure properties of plain pure knits and plated knits with textured polyamide and elastane wrapped with textured polyamide threads are investigated. Pure knits have looser structure, higher porosity, low thickness and area density. Textured polyamide or elastane threads change the structure of plated knits, as constructions of such knits are thicker, heavier and tighter. Higher course and wale density have knits plated with elastane thread. Verification of correlation between tightness factor of samples from pure yarns, their combination with elastane and textured polyamide threads and area density, loop length and thickness was performed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.247

  20. Vision-based in-line fabric defect detection using yarn-specific shape features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dorian; Aach, Til

    2012-01-01

    We develop a methodology for automatic in-line flaw detection in industrial woven fabrics. Where state of the art detection algorithms apply texture analysis methods to operate on low-resolved ({200 ppi) image data, we describe here a process flow to segment single yarns in high-resolved ({1000 ppi) textile images. Four yarn shape features are extracted, allowing a precise detection and measurement of defects. The degree of precision reached allows a classification of detected defects according to their nature, providing an innovation in the field of automatic fabric flaw detection. The design has been carried out to meet real time requirements and face adverse conditions caused by loom vibrations and dirt. The entire process flow is discussed followed by an evaluation using a database with real-life industrial fabric images. This work pertains to the construction of an on-loom defect detection system to be used in manufacturing practice.

  1. Influence of Warp Yarn Tension on Cotton Greige and Dyed Woven Fabric Prosperities

    OpenAIRE

    Uzma Syed; Rafique Ahmed Jhatial

    2013-01-01

    Fabric properties such as pilling and abrasion resistance and tensile strength vary when greige fabric is processed further. The quality of dyed fabric depends on the quality of greige fabric. Cotton Plain and Twill weave fabrics were woven at three different warp yarn tension and then dyed using monochlorotriazine, Drimerene Red Cl-5B dye gives difference in fabric properties. The ASTM, American International Standards were used to determine the greige and dyed fabric properties. It has been...

  2. Jacquard-woven photonic bandgap fiber displays

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Imran; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of photonic textile displays woven on a Jacquard loom, using newly discovered polymer photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color and appearance when illuminated with ambient or transmitted light. The photonic fiber can be thin (smaller than 300 microns in diameter) and highly flexible, which makes it possible to weave in the weft on a computerized Jacquard loom and develop intricate double weave structures together with a secondary weft yarn. We demonstrate how photonic crystal fibers enable a variety of color and structural patterns on the textile, and how dynamic imagery can be created by balancing the ambient and emitted radiation. Finally, a possible application in security ware for low visibility conditions is described as an example.

  3. Characterization of carbon nanotube yarn after exposure to hyperthermal atomic oxygen and thermal fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, H. E.; Mall, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-yarn was evaluated for the survivability under hazardous space environmental conditions which were thermal fatigue, atomic oxygen and additive effect of these two exposures. Its tensile strength, tenacity, stiffness, strain to failure and electrical conductivity were characterized at the two extreme space temperatures of -150 and 120 °C before and after exposure to these environmental conditions. Tensile strength, stiffness and electrical conductivity of unexposed CNT yarn increased at the cryogenic temperature relative to at the elevated temperature. There was no change in the tensile properties after exposure to the space environmental conditions when measured at the elevated and cryogenic temperatures. Electrical conductivity decreased after exposure to three hazardous environments involving thermal fatigue, but it had no or small decrease when exposed to atomic oxygen only. No additive effect of thermal fatigue followed by atomic oxygen or by atomic oxygen followed by thermal fatigue environments on the CNTs' tensile properties and electrical conductivity was observed. Considering the low density 0.59 g/cc and good resistant to the extreme hazardous space environment, CNT-yarns have potential for applications in spacecraft and satellites.

  4. Predicting GM(1,N)Model for the Coefficient of Variation of Hectometer Yarn's Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-feng

    2010-01-01

    The Coefficient of Variation(CV)of hectometer yarn's weight is one of the guidelines to evaluate its intrinsic quality.In the spinning manufacturing,the control of cotton yarn's weight unevenness is accomplished mainly in terms of a spot-check on semi-product and a succedent adjust in process parameters during spinning based on technicians'experience.However,it is theoretically believed among manufacturers that with fixed technical levels and parameters in the spinning process,the quality parameters of assorted cotton have a certain influence on the CV.In order to find out a rule of the influence that assorted cotton has on the CV,a GM(1,N)model,correlated raw cotton's quality parameter with the CV,has firstly been developed according to the modeling theory of grey system,and then been applied in the designing step to predict the CV.It has been approved by practical modeling and validation that the model could fit preferably an accrual CV value,and provide a method of quantitative predicting analysis for textile manufacturers to design cotton yarn's quality.

  5. Nylon and Chemical Fiber Industry of Shifeng Developing Synchronously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yinshi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, over 40 people of the investigation group of the 10th Chinese Caprolactam and Nylon Market Forum went to Shifeng Group for visitation and investigation. They learnt the overall general situation of Shifeng Group in details, visited the factory areas such as chemical fiber & tire industrial park and agricultural automobile industrial park, and listened to the development process of Shifeng Group, the present production and future development of such products as nylon chip, nylon yarn and flat chafer fabric under nylon and chemical fiber project, and the market growth in recent two years. The investigation group showed great cooperation intention on the caprolactam project of Shifeng Group.

  6. Synthetic fibers as microplastics in the marine environment: A review from textile perspective with a focus on domestic washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Cesa, Flavia; Turra, Alexander; Baruque-Ramos, Julia

    2017-11-15

    The ubiquity of plastic materials in the environment has been, for long, a matter of discussion. Smaller particles, named microplastics (focus of many studies, especially for their particularities regarding sources, characteristics and effects (e.g., surface-area-to-volume ratio which can increase their potential to transport toxic substances). Fibers from textile materials are a subgroup of microplastics and can be originated from domestic washings, as machine filters and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not specifically designed to retain them. Once in the environment, fibers can reach concentrations up to thousands of particles per cubic meter, being available to be ingested by a broad range of species. In this scenario, this review adds and details the textile perspective to the microplastics exploring nomenclature, characteristics and factors influencing emission, but also evidencing gaps in knowledge needed to overcome this issue. Preliminarily, general information about marine litter and plastics, followed by specific aspects regarding textile fibers as microplastics, were introduced. Then fiber sources to microplastic pollution were discussed, mainly focusing on domestic washings that pass through WWTPs. Studies that reveal domestic washing as microplastic sources are scarce and there is a considerable lack of standardization in methods as well as incorporation of textile aspects in experimental design. Knowledge gaps include laundry parameters (e.g., water temperature, use of chemicals) and textile articles characteristics (e.g., yarn type, fabric structure) orchestrated by consumers' choice. The lack of information on the coverage and efficiency of sewage treatment systems to remove textile fibers also prevent a global understanding of such sources. The search of alternatives and applicable solutions should come from an integrated, synergic and global perspective, of both environmental and textile area, which still need to be fostered. Copyright

  7. Visualization and Characterization of High-Order Chromatin Fibers under Light Microscope during Interphase and Mitotic Stages in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using genomic in situ hybridization with genomic DNA.high-order chromatin fibers were successfully exhibited under a light microscope through the cell cycle in barley,rice,maize and field bean.From the interphase to prophase and metaphase of mitosis,the fibers were basically similar.Each was estimated to be around 200 nm in diameter,but the strength of signals was not the same along the fiber length.Through the cell cycle a series of dynamic distribution changes occurred in the fibers.In the interphase,they were unraveled.At the early prophase they were arranged with parallel and mirror symmetry.During late-prophase and metaphase,the fibers were bundled and became different visible chromosomes.The parallel coiling and mirror symmetry structures were visible clearly until the metaphase.In anaphase they disappeared.During telophase,in peripheral regions of congregated chromosome group,borderlines of the chromosomes disappeared and the fibers were unraveled.This demonstrated that mitotic chromosomes are assembled and organized by parallel and adjacent coiling of the fibers and the fibers should be the highest order structure for DNA coiling.

  8. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Saxray GmbH, Maria-Reiche-Str. 1, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Krieg, Marcus [TITK, Thüringisches Institut für Textil- und Kunststoff-Forschung e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Mahltig, Boris, E-mail: Boris.Mahltig@hs-niederrhein.de [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  9. Biofilms Benefiting Plants Exposed to ZnO and CuO Nanoparticles Studied with a Root-Mimetic Hollow Fiber Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Michelle; Anderson, Kaitlyn; Valiente, Jonathan; Jacobson, Astrid; McLean, Joan E; Anderson, Anne; Britt, David W

    2017-10-02

    Plants exist with a consortium of microbes that influence plant health, including responses to biotic and abiotic stress. While nanoparticle (NP)-plant interactions are increasingly studied, the effect of NPs on the plant microbiome is less researched. Here a root-mimetic hollow fiber membrane (HFM) is presented for generating biofilms of plant-associated microbes nurtured by artificial root exudates (AREs) to correlate exudate composition with biofilm formation and response to NPs. Two microbial isolates from field-grown wheat, a bacillus endophyte and a pseudomonad root surface colonizer, were examined on HFMs fed with AREs varying in N and C composition. Bacterial morphology and biofilm architecture were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and responses to CuO and ZnO NP challenges of 300 mg/L evaluated. The bacillus isolate sparsely colonized the HFM. In contrast, the pseudomonad formed robust biofilms within 3 days. Dependent on nutrient sources, the biofilm cells produced extensive extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and large intracellular granules. Pseudomonad biofilms were minimally affected by ZnO NPs. CuO NPs, when introduced before biofilm maturation, strongly reduced biofilm formation. The findings demonstrate the utility of the HFM root-mimetic to study rhizoexudate influence on biofilms of root-colonizing microbes but without active plant metabolism. The results will allow better understanding of how microbe-rhizoexudate-NP interactions affect microbial and plant health.

  10. Study on rare denier nylon stretch yarn technology%稀土超细旦锦纶弹力丝技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高行广

    2013-01-01

      Rare denier nylon stretch yarn technology is based on rare earth compounds and compositions as additives mixed with nylon 6 materials for direct melting. This signifi-cantly reduces the melting point and crystallinity of the nylon. Then the nylon fibers can be more easily stretched, which make the fine denier nylon fiber possible.%  本项目稀土超细旦锦纶弹力丝技术研究是将稀土类化合物及组合物为助剂与尼龙6原料混合后,进行直接熔融,加入后明显降低尼龙的熔点及结晶度,使尼龙纤维更易于拉伸,纺制POY细旦长丝,进一步制造出了DTY细旦长丝,从而使锦纶纤维细旦化成为可能。

  11. Deposition of carbon nanotubes onto aramid fibers using as-received and chemically modified fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Uicab, O.; Avilés, F.; Gonzalez-Chi, P. I.; Canché-Escamilla, G.; Duarte-Aranda, S.; Yazdani-Pedram, M.; Toro, P.; Gamboa, F.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, J.

    2016-11-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by an acid treatment were deposited on the surface of as-received commercial aramid fibers containing a surface coating ("sizing"), and fibers modified by either a chlorosulfonic treatment or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. The surface of the aramid fiber activated by the chemical treatments presents increasing density of CO, COOH and OH functional groups. However, these chemical treatments reduced the tensile mechanical properties of the fibers, especially when the nitric and sulfuric acid mixture was used. Characterization of the MWCNTs deposited on the fiber surface was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These characterizations showed higher areal concentration and more homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs over the aramid fibers for as-received fibers and for those modified with chlorosulfonic acid, suggesting the existence of interaction between the oxidized MWCNTs and the fiber coating. The electrical resistance of the MWCNT-modified aramid yarns comprising ∼1000 individual fibers was in the order of MΩ/cm, which renders multifunctional properties.

  12. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, Tday/Tnight) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, Tnight had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means Tn could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  13. Effect of addition of plants-derived polyamide 11 elastomer on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber reinforced polyamide 1010 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaida, Jun; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the effect of the addition of plant-derived polyamide 11 Elastomer (PA11E) on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber(HF) reinforced polyamide 1010 (HF/PA1010) composites was investigated. PA1010 and PA11E (except the polyether groups used as soft segment) were made from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fiber was surface-treated by two types of treatment: alkali treatment by NaOH solution and surface treatment by ureido silane coupling agent. HF/PA1010/PA11E ternary composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Their mechanical properties such as tensile, bending, Izod impact and tribological properties by ring-on-plate type sliding wear testing were evaluated. The effect of the addition of PA11E on the mechanical and tribological properties of HF/PA1010 composite differed for each property. Izod impact strength and specific wear rate improved with the addition of PA11E although tensile strength, modulus, and friction coefficient decreased with PA11E. It follows from these results that it may be possible to develop the new engineering materials with sufficient balance between mechanical and tribological properties.

  14. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  15. Chemical vapor deposited fiber coatings and chemical vapor infiltrated ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) were employed to deposit a series of interfacial coatings on SiC and carbon yarn. Molybdenum, tungsten and chromium hexacarbonyls were utilized as precursors in a low temperature (350[degrees]C) MOCVD process to coat SiC yarn with Mo, W and Cr oxycarbides. Annealing studies performed on the MoOC and WOC coated SiC yarns in N[sub 2] to 1,000[degrees]C establish that further decomposition of the oxycarbides occurred, culminating in the formation of the metals. These metals were then found to react with Si to form Mo and W disilicide coatings. In the Cr system, heating in N[sub 2] above 800[degrees]C resulted in the formation of a mixture of carbides and oxides. Convention CVD was also employed to coat SiC and carbon yarn with C, Bn and a new interface designated BC (a carbon-boron alloy). The coated tows were then infiltrated with SiC, TiO[sub 2], SiO[sub 2] and B[sub 4]C by a chemical vapor infiltration process. The B-C coatings were found to provide advantageous interfacial properties over carbon and BN coatings in several different composite systems. The effectiveness of these different coatings to act as a chemically inert barrier layer and their relationship to the degree of interfacial debonding on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The effects of thermal stability and strength of the coated fibers and composites were also determined for several difference atmospheres. In addition, a new method for determining the tensile strength of the as-received and coated yarns was also developed. The coated fibers and composites were further characterized by AES, SEM, XPS, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  16. In situ multi-dimensional actuation measurement method for tensile actuation of paraffin-infiltrated multi-wall carbon nanotube yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Dang Xuan; Truong, Thuy Kieu; Lim, Seong Chu; Suh, Dongseok

    2017-07-01

    We introduce an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of axial and radial strain variations of a hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn actuator, where a paraffin wax is melt-infiltrated inside the CNT yarn. Such a hybrid yarn system has been known as a Joule-heating-driven tensile/torsional actuator due to a large volume expansion of the infiltrated paraffin upon a solid-to-liquid phase transition. During the operation of this actuator, however, the axial strain variations along the yarn axis and the diameter change of the yarn, which is the radial strain variations perpendicular to the yarn axis, had been measured separately, which prohibits the exact understanding of the whole actuation dynamics. In the new experimental configuration, a laser scan micrometer is employed for the in situ yarn's diameter measurement and is combined with the conventional tensile actuation measurement setup for real-time data-taking during the actuation. When the hybrid CNT yarn was tested, the synchronized strain variation data in the axial and radial directions were obtained, which helps the analysis of these actuation phenomena especially in the intermediate states.

  17. Dielectric Behaviour of Some Woven Fabrics on the Basis of Natural Cellulosic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin St. C. Mustata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical permittivity of the weaves obtained from natural cellulosic yarns or mixed with synthetic fibers was established with capacitor method. The highest value of relative electrical permittivity in case of the woven fabric from natural cellulosic fibers has been observed at the weave made of pure hemp (13.55 and the lowest at the weave obtained from the pure jute—weave packing (1.87. Electrical permittivity value of the pure jute weave packing is comparable to that of the permittivity for the glass thread, when the work conditions are as follows: temperature 25°C and air humidity 35%. The relative electrical permittivity of the weave is depending on the degree of crimping yarns especially in the weft direction, technological density in direction of the warp and weft, and surface mass of the weave.

  18. Comparative Investigation of Mechanical–Physical Characteristics of Biodegradable and Non-Degradable Yarns

    OpenAIRE

    Krikštanavičienė Kira; Stanys Sigitas; Jonaitienė Vaida

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results from investigations of tensile tests, absorbency test and degradation test of biodegradable and non- or partly biodegradable yarns produced from pure poly hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV), poly (lactide acid) (PLA), isotactic polypropylene (iPP) polymers and their blends. The results indicate that mechanical-physical properties of PHBV are improved by adding PLA and iPP to PHBV. The main results indicate that the PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP (70/30) blends had bet...

  19. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...... content of the composites is shown to be well predicted by a mixtures relationship using the measured moisture contents of the constituents. The dimensional changes of the composites are well predicted by micromechanical models of the transverse and axial hygral strains....

  20. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica, E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. - Highlights: • Novel textile based on natural fibres and superabsorbent hydrogels was developed. • The swelling ratio and the durability to washings were evaluated. • The effect of the choice of the hydrogel was studied. • The effects of additional crosslinking on hydrogel and fabrics were evaluated. • The optimized parameters determined durable and improved absorption properties.

  1. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg-1), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space.

  2. Effect of Inter Yarn Fabric Porosity on Dye Uptake of Reactive Dyed cotton Woven Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Farooq

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Porosity is an important property in determining the functional properties of a fabric. It relates to the count of a yarn as well as to the type of weave. Twill and satin cotton woven fabrics in three different weft densities (warp density kept constant were used to investigate the effect of porosity on the dyeuptake within one weave. The effects of change in weave type, keeping yarn densities the same, on the porosity were also investigated. Objective determination of porosity was carried out using an image analysis technique while, colour yield was determined using K/S values. Higher the weft density in a satin fabric low will be the porosity of that fabric. Porosity values varied from 6.85-10.98% for S1 and S3 respectively. However, for the twill fabric no substantial change in porosity have been observed as the porosity values varied from 6.4-5.3% for T1 and T3 respectively. Colour strengths for S1 and T1 are lower than S3 and T3 respectively for all the primary colours at 0.25, 1.00 and 2.00% depth levels. It is observed that the change in colour strength is more prominent at 2% depth level as compared to 0.25% depth level

  3. Embedded electro-conductive yarn for shape sensing of soft robotic manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdemann, Helge A; Sareh, Sina; Shafti, Ali; Noh, Yohan; Faragasso, Angela; Chathuranga, Damith S; Hongbin Liu; Hirai, Shinichi; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-08-01

    Flexible soft and stiffness-controllable surgical manipulators enhance the manoeuvrability of surgical tools during Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), as opposed to conventional rigid laparoscopic instruments. These flexible and soft robotic systems allow bending around organs, navigating through complex anatomical pathways inside the human body and interacting inherently safe with its soft environment. Shape sensing in such systems is a challenge and one essential requirement for precise position feedback control of soft robots. This paper builds on our previous work integrating multiple optical fibres into a soft manipulator to estimate the robot's pose using light intensity modulation. Here, we present an enhanced version of our embedded bending/shape sensor based on electro-conductive yarn. The new system is miniaturised and able to measure bending behaviour as well as elongation. The integrated yarn material is helically wrapped around an elastic strap and protected inside a 1.5mm outer-diameter stretchable pipe. Three of these resulting stretch sensors are integrated in the periphery of a pneumatically actuated soft manipulator for direct measurement of the actuation chamber lengths. The capability of the sensing system in measuring the bending curvature and elongation of the arm is evaluated.

  4. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al(3+) and Ca(2+) ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of process parameters on the mechanical properties of co-wrapped PP/flax yarn%成型工艺对PP/亚麻包缠纱力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金华; 陈南梁; 许惠虹; 严涛海

    2009-01-01

    The effect of weaving and process parameters on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic preforms and composites produced from co-wrapped PP/flax yam were investigated. The results show that the co-wrapped yarns can be used to form textile preforms for manufacturing textile structural composites. The changes in weaving density have greater impact on the tensile properties of composite sheets, an integrated facilitative weaving and the tensile properties in warp and weft of composites to a co]laberative role can be set at a smaller warp density range and a moderate level of weft density. By orthogonal design and analysis of variance method, optimize the hot forming process parameters on properties of composites, with 6 MPa, 5 min and 185℃. The hot-pressing thermoplastic composites with co-wrapped yarns preforms from natural flax fibers and thermoplastic resin PP, have better combination of interface and mechanical properties, and co-wrapped yarn as a form of preforms provide an economic and effective way to preparation for the continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin composites.%研究了织造与成型工艺对热塑性PP/麻包缠纱预制件及复合材料力学性能的影响.结果表明,包缠纱可形成预制件用于纺织结构复合材料加工.织造密度的变化对复合材料性能有较大的影响,综合织造的便利性和复合材料经纬向拉伸性能共同的作用,可以设定经密在较小的范围而控制纬密在适中的水平.通过正交设计和方差分析的方法,优化热压成型工艺参数,优化结果为压力6MPa,时间5min,温度185℃.利用包缠法的天然亚麻纤维和热塑性PP制成的热压复合材料,具有较好的结合界面和较优的力学性能,同时包缠纱为纤维增强复合材料成型提供了经济可行的预制件加工方法.

  6. Development of Tencel Hemp Wool Spun Silk Blended Sirospun Knitting Yarn%Tencel汉麻羊毛绢丝混纺赛络针织纱的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克华

    2012-01-01

    为顺利开发Tencel/汉麻/羊毛/绢丝40/30/15/15 14.7 tex赛络针织纱,针对混纺组分纤维的主要特性,对原料的预处理、混纺比控制提出了解决方案,确定了各工序适宜的工艺参数配置,并制定了相关的技术措施,最终成功纺制出Tencel汉麻羊毛绢丝混纺赛络针织纱,其成纱质量满足了使用要求.%To develop Tencel/hemp/wool/spun silk 40/30/15/15 14.7 tex sirospun knitting yarn,according to the fiber main characteristics,solution methods of raw material pretreatment and blending ratio controlling were put forward. Parameter configuration in each process was defined. Related technology measures were made. Finally Tencel hemp wool spun silk blended sirospun knitting yam can be produced successfully, the yam quality can reach use demands.

  7. Mechanical Characterization and Fractography of Glass Fiber/Polyamide (PA6) Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Pillai, Saju; Charca, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the glass fiber reinforced Polyamide (PA6) composites made by prepreg tapes and commingled yarns were studied by in-plane compression, short-beam shear, and flexural tests. The composites were fabricated with different fiber volume contents (prepregs—47%, 55%, 60...... (SEM) were used. Both commingled and prepreg glass fiber/PA6 composites (with Vf ∼ 48%) give mechanical properties such as compression strength (530–570 MPa), inter-laminar shear strength (70–80 MPa), and transverse strength (80–90 MPa). By increasing small percentage in the fiber content show...... significant rise in compression strength, slight decrease in the ILSS and transverse strengths, whereas semipreg give very poor properties with the slight increase in fiber content. Overall comparison of mechanical properties indicates commingled glass fiber/PA6 composite shows much better performance...

  8. Impact of Abrasion on Mass Loss and Surface Appearance of Woven Fabrics Made with Injected Slub Yarn in Weft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nemai Chandra; Mukhopadhyay, Arunangshu; Midha, Vinay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Fancy yarn fabrics are susceptible to abrasive damage during washing and usage but the extent of damage varies with construction and type of fabric. In the present study, effect of different slub parameters viz. slub length, slub thickness and slub frequency of single base injected slub yarn on abrasive damage of woven fabrics has been studied when injected slub yarns are used in weft only. Abrasive damage has been assessed by two ways using loss in fabric mass and deterioration in fabric appearance due to abrasion. These two techniques provide entirely different effect of injected slub yarn parameters on abrasive damage of woven fabric. Fabric abrasion damage in terms of mass loss is not affected by slub thickness and damage is least when both slub length and slub frequency are at central/medium level. Under visual assessment it is observed that all the slub parameters have significant influence on abrasive damage of woven fabric. It is possible to have lower damage in surface appearance in spite of higher mass loss of fabric due to abrasion.

  9. The Integration of Technology and Management in the Competitiveness of the United States Short Staple Yarn Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvalee T. Tangboonritruthai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a balance of technology and management could be used in order to sustain a viable United States (US short staple yarn production industry. The methodology used in this study consisted of primary research comprising two phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with industry executives in order to find out what US yarn manufacturers think are the important factors in maintaining a competitive yarn industry. The second phase was an online survey with industry customers in order to find out why weavers and knitters buy from US manufacturers. Results reveal that US manufacturers have competitive advantages over other countries because of skill level of workforce, variety of products offered, customer relationships, innovation and technology, and product quality. In order to keep these competitive advantages, “technology” and “management” strategies should be implemented. Results also reveal the areas in which the US yarn manufacturers should focus their resources in order to stay competitive or indeed survive.

  10. Weavable, Conductive Yarn-Based NiCo//Zn Textile Battery with High Energy Density and Rate Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ip, Wing Shan; Lau, Yuen Ying; Sun, Jinfeng; Zeng, Jie; Yeung, Nga Sze Sea; Ng, Wing Sum; Li, Hongfei; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Wang, Yukun; Yu, Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-09-26

    With intrinsic safety and much higher energy densities than supercapacitors, rechargeable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based textile batteries are promising power sources for next generation personalized wearable electronics. However, high-performance wearable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based batteries are rarely reported because there is a lack of industrially weavable and knittable highly conductive yarns. Here, we use scalably produced highly conductive yarns uniformly covered with zinc (as anode) and nickel cobalt hydroxide nanosheets (as cathode) to fabricate rechargeable yarn batteries. They possess a battery level capacity and energy density, as well as a supercapacitor level power density. They deliver high specific capacity of 5 mAh cm(-3) and energy densities of 0.12 mWh cm(-2) and 8 mWh cm(-3) (based on the whole solid battery). They exhibit ultrahigh rate capabilities of 232 C (liquid electrolyte) and 116 C (solid electrolyte), which endows the batteries excellent power densities of 32.8 mW cm(-2) and 2.2 W cm(-3) (based on the whole solid battery). These are among the highest values reported so far. A wrist band battery is further constructed by using a large conductive cloth woven from the conductive yarns by a commercial weaving machine. It powers various electronic devices successfully, enabling dual functions of wearability and energy storage.

  11. HEAT TREATMENTS INFLUENCE ON THE BREAKING TORSION OF WOOL TYPE FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORDEIANU Demetra Lăcrămioara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to convert the textile fibers in yarns, these must be subjected to twisting operation which confers them a certain tensile strength. Twisting also results in certain effects, such as crepe effect. The importance of knowing the twisting behavior consists in the possibility to avoid fiber degradation as the result of an excessive twisting. The present work took for study three types of chemical fibers (wool-type rayon, wool-type polyester, wool-type polyacrylonitrile and two types of wool fibers S11 and S12. The main characteristics of wool type chemical fibers (fiber count, nominal length, breaking length, relative elongation, brightness and of wool fibers (diameter, almeter length, uster irregularit have been measured. Then the fibers were subjected to thermal treatments in certain conditions. From the researches performed for the both wool blends, S11 and S21, one can notice that the torsional rigidity/stiffness increases after the thermal treatment and the wool fibers changes their handle accordingly. The rayon fibers present the biggest torsional rigidity, as compared to the other types of analyzed fibers, both untreated and heat treated. After heat treatment, the rayon fibers considerable improves their handle. The variation coefficient of breaking torsion increases in the case of heat treated polyester and poly-acrylonitrile fibers while for rayon and wool fibers this coefficient decreases.

  12. A Measure to Decrease Yarn Hairness in Ring Spinning%环锭纺纱减少纱线毛羽的措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉梅

    2001-01-01

    介绍了减少纱线毛羽的意义及毛羽的形态分类,简要分析了毛羽形成的原因,探讨了减少纱线毛羽的措施,旨在为纺织厂减少纱线毛羽提供参考.%This paper introduces the significance of decreasing yarn hairness and the shape classification of yarn hairness.It analyses the formation cause of hairness,and discusses the measure of decreasing yarn hairness for reference to cotton mills.

  13. An investigation of density measurement method for yarn-dyed woven fabrics based on dual-side fusion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xin, Binjie

    2016-08-01

    Yarn density is always considered as the fundamental structural parameter used for the quality evaluation of woven fabrics. The conventional yarn density measurement method is based on one-side analysis. In this paper, a novel density measurement method is developed for yarn-dyed woven fabrics based on a dual-side fusion technique. Firstly, a lab-used dual-side imaging system is established to acquire both face-side and back-side images of woven fabric and the affine transform is used for the alignment and fusion of the dual-side images. Then, the color images of the woven fabrics are transferred from the RGB to the CIE-Lab color space, and the intensity information of the image extracted from the L component is used for texture fusion and analysis. Subsequently, three image fusion methods are developed and utilized to merge the dual-side images: the weighted average method, wavelet transform method and Laplacian pyramid blending method. The fusion efficacy of each method is evaluated by three evaluation indicators and the best of them is selected to do the reconstruction of the complete fabric texture. Finally, the yarn density of the fused image is measured based on the fast Fourier transform, and the yarn alignment image could be reconstructed using the inverse fast Fourier transform. Our experimental results show that the accuracy of density measurement by using the proposed method is close to 99.44% compared with the traditional method and the robustness of this new proposed method is better than that of conventional analysis methods.

  14. 汊麻棉精梳涡流纱的开发%Development of Hemp Cotton Combed Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必英; 戴俊; 凡启光; 王冬成

    2011-01-01

    为开发汉麻棉精梳涡流纱,对比了汉麻与苎麻、亚麻及棉纤维的性能指标、截面结构,阐述了汉麻纤维的性能特点,运用涡流纺纱技术纺制汉麻棉混纺精梳纱.通过汉麻预处理,正确选择原料混和工艺,合理配置前纺各工序及涡流纺纱机工艺参数,成功纺制出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex混纺精梳涡流纱,且成纱毛羽较环锭纱得到大幅度降低.认为汉麻棉精梳涡流纱具有较好的开发前景,应进一步改进工艺,提高成纱强力和制成率,降低生产成本,方能更好地满足产品开发的需求.%To develop hemp cotton combed vortex yarn, property index and cross section structure of hemp, flax and cotton were contrasted. Property of hemp was introduced. Vortex spinning technology was used and hemp cotton blended combed yarn was spun. Hemp was pretreated, raw material and blending processing were selected correctly, processing parameters in fore-spinning process and vortex spinning were set rationally, hemp/cotton 60/40 21.6 tex blended combed vortex yarn was spun successfully. Hairiness was reduced greatly. It is considered that the development prospects of hemp cotton blended combed yarn is better,the processing should be modified further,yarn strength and finished product rate should be increased and production cost should be reduced, demands of product development can be reached well.

  15. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  16. Cotton GhPOX1 encoding plant class III peroxidase may be responsible for the high level of reactive oxygen species production that is related to cotton fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wenqian; Qin, Yongmei; Song, Wenqiang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yuxian

    2009-03-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in plant cell development. In plant, class III peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes encoded by a large multi-gene family participated in the release or consumption of ROS. The specific function of each member of the family is still elusive. Here, we showed that ROS was significantly generated during cotton fiber initiation and elongation, whereas, application of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and peroxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the wild-type cotton ovule culture significantly suppressed fiber growth, respectively. Their inhibitory effects were caused by the reduction of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)). Ten GhPOX genes (cDNAs) encoding cotton class III peroxidases were isolated, among them eight GhPOX genes were reported for the first time. Microarray analyses indicated that GhPOX1 was the mostly predominantly expressed in fast-elongating cotton fiber cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed the transcript level of GhPOX1 was over 400-fold higher in growing fiber cells than in ovules, flowers, roots, stems and leaves. To reveal the role of GhPOX1 in plant development, its Arabidopsis orthologue atpox13 mutant was demonstrated to be defective in branch root development. Taken together, the data suggest that GhPOX1 plays an important role during fiber cell elongation possibly by mediating production of reactive oxygen species.

  17. 保护棉纤维和非织造布工厂的金属探测仪%Metal detectors protect cotton fiber and nonwovens plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Konig

    2011-01-01

    现代纤维生产没有金属探测仪是不可想象的。它们在棉纤维转换成非织造材料的生产链中保护材料和机器。作为唯一不需要增加移动管就可直接集成到气动输送线的金属探测器——Metmn 05 PowerLine(德国Mesutronic公司生产),已用于德国ErkoTriitzschler公司的非织造工厂,以检测纤维中的金属颗粒。小于2m的传感器间距和极快的机构提高了除杂的可靠性。气动输送线中重型和轻型团块在气流中的速度差异几乎没有影响,将除杂损失降到最低。%Modem fiber production without metal detectors is inconceivable today. They protect material and machines in the refinement chain from the cotton fiber to the nonwovens material. The only metal detector that can be directly integrated into the pneumatic conveying line without a probe tube, the Metron 05 PowerLine from Mesutronic GmbH, Kirchberg,/Germany, examines the fibers in nonwovens plants from Erko Trtitzschler GmbH, Dtilmen/German, for metallic particles. The short distance of less than 2 m between the sensor and the extremely fast mechanism increases ejection reliabihy. The difference in the airspeeds of heavy and light parts in the pneumatic conveying line has virtually no effect. This reduces ejection losses to a minimum.

  18. Assessment of Inter-Yarn Zone Porosity of Plain Weave Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research software was designed for assessing the inter-yarn zone fabric porosity of Tencel plain weave fabrics in terms of flow of dye liquor by using Matlab. Fabric images were captured at constant light intensity and magnification using an optical microscope and image analysis software. The captured images were first converted into monochrome image and then into binary image at specific threshold value (150. The percentage of white pixels in the binary image were calculated which assessed the fabric porosity in percentage. The loosely woven fabric gives higher percentage of fabric porosity as compared to the tightly woven fabric. This software has potential to calculate the fabric porosity of plain weave fabric manufactured from any type of raw material.

  19. Optimizing Aqua Splicer Parameters for Lycra-Cotton Core Spun Yarn Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, Vinay Kumar; Hiremath, ShivKumar; Gupta, Vaibhav

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, optimization of the aqua splicer parameters viz opening time, splicing time, feed arm code (i.e. splice length) and duration of water joining was carried out for 37 tex lycra-cotton core spun yarn for better retained splice strength (RSS%), splice abrasion resistance (RYAR%) and splice appearance (RYA%) using Taguchi experimental design. It is observed that as opening time, splicing time and duration of water joining increase, the RSS% and RYAR% increases, whereas increase in feed arm code leads to decrease in both. The opening time and feed arm code do not have significant effect on RYA%. The optimum RSS% of 92.02 % was obtained at splicing parameters of 350 ms opening time, 180 ms splicing time, 65 feed arm code and 600 ms duration of water joining.

  20. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Water-Soluble Resin-Coated Natural Fiber Green Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Ken-Ichi; Hayakawa, Tomoyuki

    In this study, water-soluble biodegradable resin was introduced as a coating agent to improve the interfacial strength and then to fabricate a high-performance green composite with polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp yarn. Dip coating was carried out for hemp yarn and the green composites were fabricated by hot processing. The coated green composite achieves a high tensile strength of 117 MPa even though the fiber volume fraction is less than 30%. Interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was measured by a single fiber pull-out test, and the effect of water-soluble resin on the tensile properties of the composites was evaluated. As a result, when using coated natural bundles, the IFSS value is smaller than when using noncoated natural bundles. On the basis of observations of the fractured surface of composites and initial yarns using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of the impregnation of water-soluble resin into the natural bundles on the tensile strength is discussed in detail. It is found that water-soluble resin is effective in improving the mechanical properties of the composite, although the interfacial strength between PLA and water-soluble resin was decreased, and as a result, the tensile strength of green composites increases by almost 20%.

  1. 基于约束最小二乘法的色纺纱配色方法%Color Matching Method of Colored Spun Yarn Based on Constrained Least Square Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈加加; 陈维国; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    The common spectrum color matching models including Stearns-Noechel model, Friele model and Kubelka-Munk model were introduced. A spectrum color matching method of colored spun yarn based on con-strained least square method was put forward, i.e., spectrum of objective colored spun yarn was matched through using existing monochrome fiber spectrum in database, and then it could realize the calculation of objective colored spun yarn recipe by constrained least square method, including monochrome component and component ratio. The results show that it can obtain the recipe that the component ratio is non-negative and sum of component ratio is 1, and it is more aligned with proofing requirements; accuracy rate of color matching is the highest by constrained least square method based on Stearns-Noechel model among the three models.%介绍了色纺纱常用光谱配色模型(Stearns-Noechel模型、Friele模型、Kubelka-Munk模型),提出了一种基于约束最小二乘法的色纺纱光谱配色方法,即利用数据库中已有的单色纤维光谱,对目标色纺纱的光谱进行拟合,通过约束最小二乘法实现目标色纺纱的配方(即单色组分及组分比)计算。结果表明,运用约束最小二乘法可直接获得组分比为非负值,且组分比和为1的配方,更加符合生产打样需求;3个模型中基于Stearns-Noechel模型的约束最小二乘法光谱配色算法计算得到的配色准确性最高。

  2. Fiber diffraction without fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H-C; Schwander, P; Uddin, M; Saldin, D K

    2013-06-28

    Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

  3. Evaluation of exposure risk in the weaving process of MWCNT-coated yarn with real-time particle concentration measurements and characterization of dust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Mitsutoshi; Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Shinohara, Yasushi; Kubota, Hisayo; Tsuruoka, Shuji; Koda, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications is an efficient sheet heating element that is woven from MWCNT-coated yarn. In this research, we assessed the exposure to MWCNT and/or the probability of particle release from broken MWCNT-coated yarn during the weaving process. This was accomplished using particle concentrations, microscopic observation, and carbon analysis. In the weaving process, neither an increase in the number of particles nor a difference in particle-size distribution was observed. In the scanning electron micrographic observation, nanosize MWCNT particles were not detected, but there were micron-size particles containing MWCNT as fragments of the yarn. Carbon analysis showed the concentration of micron-size particles containing MWCNT did not exceed 0.0053 mg-C/m(3) around the loom. This value was much lower than the respirable dust mass concentration. Most of micron-size particles seemed to originate from polyester yarn without MWCNT coating. It is recommended that workers use conventional (even not specialized for nanoparticles) personal protective equipment such as respirators and gloves to prevent exposure to respirable-size MWCNT-containing particles. The probability of MWCNT fall-off from the MWCNT-coated yarn was not detected by transmission electron microscopic observation of MWCNT-coated yarn before or after the weaving process.

  4. 气流纺纱和赛络纺纱对牛仔面料风格影响的分析%INFLUENCE OF OPEN-END SPINNING YARN AND SIRO-SPINNING YARN TECHNOLOGY ON DENIM FABRIC STYLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘甘; 徐凯坪

    2014-01-01

    从配棉要求工艺特点、纱支性能和面料风格方面分别对气流纺和赛络纺两种纺纱技术在牛仔产品上的应用效果,得出两种纺纱工艺产品的适应性,从而作出两种纺纱工艺对面料风格相应的评价。%According to the application effect of open-end spinning technology and siro-spinning yarn technology which meets requirements for cotton assorting such as process characteristics, yarn property, fabric style, those two finished products also meet the corresponding requirements of denim products. Thus we have the corresponding evaluation for those two kinds of spinning technology.

  5. Study on biomass composites with plant fiber and polyactic acid%植物纤维与聚乳酸制备生物质复合材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓燕; 朱琦; 田景阳; 黄崇杏

    2012-01-01

    The process of the biomass composites prepared with plant fiber and polylactic acid was studied in this paper. The effects of various processing methods, fiber type and fiber content on tensile properties and water vapor transmission of the biomass composites were discussed. The properties of composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM). The results showed that melt extrusion technique is better than physical mix; bagasse fiber is the best filler among the tested plant fibers. When fiber content was less than 20% , the tensile strength and elongation at break of the composites was decreased with the increase of fiber.%本文研究了以植物纤维与聚乳酸为原料制备生物质复合材料的工艺,探讨不同加工方式、纤维种类和添加量对植物纤维/聚乳酸复合材料拉伸性能及透湿性的影响,并利用扫描电镜对复合材料进行表征.研究结果表明:复合材料采用熔融挤出加工方式比物理混合的性能好,而蔗渣纤维作为填料是较好的选择;同时,当植物纤维添加量低于20%时,随着添加量的增加,材料的拉伸强度和断裂伸长率随之下降.

  6. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: II. Application to quantification of endogenous gibberellins in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-11-23

    The phenomenon and benefits of osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) were theoretically discussed in part I of this study. In this work, HF-LLLME with osmosis was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-triple quadrupole MS/MS) to analyze eight gibberellins (gibberellin A(1), gibberellin A(3), gibberellin A(4), gibberellin A(7), gibberellin A(8), gibberellin A(9), gibberellin A(19) and gibberellin A(20)) in rice plant samples. According to the theory of HF-LLLME with osmosis, single factor experiments, orthogonal design experiments and mass transfer simulation of extraction process were carried out to select the optimal conditions. Cyclohexanol - n-octanol (1:3, v/v) was selected as organic membrane. Donor phase of 12 mL was adjusted to pH 2 and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added. Acceptor phase with an initial volume of 20 μL was the solution of 0.12 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3) buffer (pH 9). Temperature was chosen to be 30 °C and extraction time was selected to be 90 min. Under optimized conditions, this method provided good linearity (r, 0.99552-0.99991) and low limits of detection (0.0016-0.061 ng mL(-1)). Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of endogenous gibberellins from plant extract which was obtained with traditional solvent extraction of rice plant tissues, and the relative recoveries were from 62% to 166%.

  7. Enzymes in bast fibrous plant processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Ryszard; Batog, Jolanta; Konczewicz, Wanda; Mackiewicz-Talarczyk, Maria; Muzyczek, Malgorzata; Sedelnik, Natalia; Tanska, Bogumila

    2006-05-01

    The program COST Action 847 Textile Quality and Biotechnology (2000-2005) has given an excellent chance to review the possibilities of the research, aiming at development of the industrial application of enzymes for bast fibrous plant degumming and primary processing. The recent advancements in enzymatic processing of bast fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, ramie and alike plants) and related textiles are given. The performance of enzymes in degumming, modification of bast fibres, roving, yarn, related fabrics as well as enzymatic bonding of lignocellulosic composites is provided.

  8. Metallization of Kevlar fibers with gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brian K; Li, Yunfeng; Cammarata, V; Broughton, R; Mills, G

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical gold plating processes were examined for the metallization of Kevlar yarn. Conventional Sn(2+)/Pd(2+) surface activation coupled with electroless Ni deposition rendered the fibers conductive enough to serve as cathodes for electrochemical plating. The resulting coatings were quantified gravimetrically and characterized via adhesion tests together with XRD, SEM, TEM; the coatings effect on fiber strength was also probed. XRD data showed that metallic Pd formed during surface activation whereas amorphous phases and trace amounts of pure Ni metal were plated via the electroless process. Electrodeposition in a thiosulfate bath was the most efficient Au coating process as compared with the analogous electroless procedure, and with electroplating using a commercial cyanide method. Strongly adhering coatings resulted upon metallization with three consecutive electrodepositions, which produced conductive fibers able to sustain power outputs in the range of 1 W. On the other hand, metallization affected the tensile strength of the fiber and defects present in the metal deposits make questionable the effectiveness of the coatings as protective barriers.

  9. Research Progress in Aggregation Structure of Recycled Plant Fiber%二次纤维聚集态结构的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马邕文; 吕惠琳; 王艳; 万金泉

    2012-01-01

    为了研究二次纤维的角质化机理并提出抑制方法,实现二次纤维的高效绿色循环利用,综述了基于共结晶角质化机理的纤维素聚集态结构的研究现状和进展,介绍了纤维素聚集态结构模型和氢键链接方式,着重介绍了目前纤维素聚集态结构研究和氢键研究的进展,综述了目前纤维素聚集态研究手段的多样化:计算机分子模拟、广角X衍射衍射(XRD)、交叉极化/魔角旋转固体核磁共振13C(CP/MAS13C NMR),同步辐射XRD衍射、中子衍射和傅里叶红外(FT-IR)。研究内容从对天然纤维素的基本建模深入到分子链水平的原子链接、氢键模式的研究,研究手段经历了从使用单一仪器发展到多种仪器手段辅助表征的过程。纤维素聚集态结构的研究将是二次纤维角质化机理研究以及纤维素化学研究的重要课题。%In order to elaborate the mechanisms and reasons of hornification which affects the properties of recycled plant fibers,then to realize efficient utilization of recycled plant fibers,this article reviews: research status and progress of the cellulose aggregation structure based on the mechanism of cocrystallization;the aggregation structure model and hydrogen bond linkage,especially natural cellulose crystal structure and the research progress of hydrogen bond;diversity in the research methods of cellulose supermolecules: computer molecular simulation,wide angle X-ray diffraction(XRD),solid-state cross polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance(CP/MAS 13C NMR),synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction(XRD),neutron diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy(FT-IR).The study goes deep into the molecular chain modeling of hydrogen atoms links in content and the application of auxiliary characterization in instrument means.Research of cellulose aggregation structure is an important subject of honification in recycled plant fibers and

  10. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe T. Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core.

  11. Optical fiber sensors measurement system and special fibers improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Michal; Hrabina, Jan; Hola, Miroslava; Hucl, Vaclav; Cizek, Martin; Rerucha, Simon; Lazar, Josef; Mikel, Bretislav

    2017-06-01

    We present method for the improvement of the measurement accuracy in the optical frequency spectra measurements based on tunable optical filters. The optical filter was used during the design and realization of the measurement system for the inspection of the fiber Bragg gratings. The system incorporates a reference block for the compensation of environmental influences, an interferometric verification subsystem and a PC - based control software implemented in LabView. The preliminary experimental verification of the measurement principle and the measurement system functionality were carried out on a testing rig with a specially prepared concrete console in the UJV Řež. The presented system is the laboratory version of the special nuclear power plant containment shape deformation measurement system which was installed in the power plant Temelin during last year. On the base of this research we started with preparation other optical fiber sensors to nuclear power plants measurement. These sensors will be based on the microstructured and polarization maintaining optical fibers. We started with development of new methods and techniques of the splicing and shaping optical fibers. We are able to made optical tapers from ultra-short called adiabatic with length around 400 um up to long tapers with length up to 6 millimeters. We developed new techniques of splicing standard Single Mode (SM) and Multimode (MM) optical fibers and splicing of optical fibers with different diameters in the wavelength range from 532 to 1550 nm. Together with development these techniques we prepared other techniques to splicing and shaping special optical fibers like as Polarization-Maintaining (PM) or hollow core Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) and theirs cross splicing methods with focus to minimalize backreflection and attenuation. The splicing special optical fibers especially PCF fibers with standard telecommunication and other SM fibers can be done by our developed techniques. Adjustment

  12. 植物纤维与淀粉制备复合材料的研究%Study on the Preparation of Composite Materials by Plant Fiber and Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦富强

    2015-01-01

    植物纤维和淀粉均是植物通过光合作用合成的天然高分子物质,其合成过程中不会产生有害的物质,同时能够净化空气、制造氧气,其废弃后又可借助环境和微生物的作用而完全降解,是理想的绿色可再生的资源. 以不同量植物纤维与玉米淀粉复合,添加增塑剂、改性剂等助剂来制备复合材料,对复合材料的性能进行了实验研究.研究表明,填入35 phr的植物纤维制得的复合材料性能较好,复合材料中加入5 phr马来酸酐接枝EVA作为改性剂,在一定程度上可提高复合材料的力学强度并降低复合材料的吸水率.%Plant fiber and starch are natural polymer materials synthesized by plants through photosynthesis. There is no harmful substances produced in the process of photosynthesis, whereas photosynthesis can purify air and produce oxygen. Plant fiber and starch are the ideal green renewable resources because it is non-polluting and biodegradable properties. The composites in the article was prepared from plant fibers, starches, plasticizers and modifying agents. The properties of the composites was studied. It was shown in the experimental results that the properties was better when the content of plant fibers was 35 phr. The strength was improved and the ratio of water absorption was decreased when 5 phr of maleic anhydride grafted by EVA as a modifier was added.

  13. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of

  14. Effects of several Plant Growth Regulators on the Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ÇOPUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGR are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. production to balance vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as to increase seed cotton yield and lint quality. Field experiments were conducted with some PGRs to determine their effects on yield and yield components of cotton cultivar Stoneville 453. The study was conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Agricultural Research and Application Centre of Harran University located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. During the study, seven commercial PGRs (MC, NAP, BIGIB, KH, MCROP and BIGIBER were sprayed at recommended doses and appropriate application periods. Experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental plots consisted of six rows, each having 12 m length, row spacing was 0.70 and intra-row spacing was 0.20 m. The results showed that PGRs (except PC had statistically significant positive effects on the seed cotton yield, plant height, number of open boll, number of sympodia, boll weight, lint percentage and seed index and that they decreased the earliness index. However, fibre length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and fibre uniformity were not affected by the applications. Higher yields were obtained in MCROP, BIGIB and BIGIBER treated plots. Therefore, PGRs might be considered a component of cotton growth management, which is effective on providing higher seed cotton yields.

  15. Spinning of Cotton Metallic Fiber Blended Yarn%棉与金属纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云灿

    2010-01-01

    探讨金属纤维幸切丝与棉混纺纱的纺纱方法.针对金属牵切丝及混纺纱的特点,在纺纱工艺、试验检验及有关生产管理方面采取了必要措施.并粗细工序放大罗拉牵伸隔距并适当提高胶辊硬度,采用棉精梳条预并,细纱缩短钢丝圈调换周期,适当加大细纱捻系数,改用萨氏条干仪、黑板条干检验及光电式清纱器检测条干.细纱接头时采取保护措施,严格回花管理.采取以上措施成功地纺制出精梳棉/金属纤维84/16 18.3 tex混纺纱,满足了用户的质量要求.

  16. Fiber biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  17. Milk production, nitrogen balance, and fiber digestibility prediction of corn, whole plant grain sorghum, and forage sorghum silages in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, S; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M; Rapetti, L

    2012-08-01

    Total mixed rations containing corn (CS), whole plant grain sorghum (WPGS), or forage sorghum (FS) silages were fed to 6 primiparous Italian Friesian cows to determine the effects on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and N balance. Furthermore, the relationship between in vivo total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ttNDFD) and the ttNDFD derived by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was assessed. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 28-d periods. The experimental treatment was silage type and 3 different silages were included in the diets. The diets were formulated to be iso-NDF. Accordingly, each diet was formulated to contain 41.5% CS silage, 36.7% WPGS silage, or 28.0% FS silage, on a DM basis. Starch content was balanced by adding the appropriate amount of corn meal. Separate collection of total urine and feces was performed. Dietary forages were analyzed for in vitro NDF digestibility (6 and 24h of incubation) to predict fiber digestion rate with 2 NDF pools (digestible and indigestible). Rumen digestibility of the potentially digestible NDF pool was predicted using CNCPS version 6.1, using the in vitro forage fiber digestion rate. The ttNDFD was predicted assuming that intestinal digestibility of the NDF amount escaping rumen digestion was 20%, according to the CNCPS model. Dry matter intake was decreased by approximately 1.8 kg/d in cows fed the FS diet compared with the other diets, probably for the greater particle size of FS diet. Hence, milk yield (kg/d) was lowest for FS (23.6), intermediate for WPGS (24.6), and highest for the CS diet (25.4). Milk urea N (mg/dL) was highest for FS (12.9), intermediate for WPGS (11.9), and lowest for CS (10.7) diet. In vivo ttNDFD (%) was 51.4 (CS), 48.6 (WPGS), and 54.1 (FS); this was probably due to a higher retention time of FS diet in the rumen rather than to a better quality of the FS silage, as confirmed by in situ and

  18. Fabrication of a wearable fabric tactile sensor produced by artificial hollow fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Ogura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Sato, Kazuo

    2008-08-01

    An artificial-hollow-fiber structure as a new material for MEMS was developed and applied to a novel type of fabric tactile sensor. The artificial hollow fiber was fabricated by uniformly deposited metal and insulation layers on the surface of an elastic tube. A special rotating mechanism for uniformly depositing a metal layer on the tube surface during sputtering was developed. A rectangular-shaped fabric tactile sensor was produced by combining artificial hollow fibers and typical cotton yarns, like a cloth. The sensor can detect a contact force by measuring changes in capacitance at all intersection points of the artificial hollow fibers. Two different types of wearable-tactile-sensor glove, a patched type and a direct knit type, were also fabricated, and it was confirmed that both types can detect a normal load by measuring the capacitance change.

  19. Key Technology of Flame-retardant and Thermo-regulation Fabric Knitted with Anti-frayon R and Energy Storage Blended Yarn%安芙丽与储能纤维阻燃调温针织面料关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方国平; 刘福荣

    2015-01-01

    介绍安芙丽阻燃黏胶纤维及相变储能黏胶纤维的功能和特性,安芙丽纤维具备理想的阻燃和保温性能. 采用赛络紧密纺工艺制备18.0 dtex的安芙丽阻燃黏胶纤维、相变储能黏胶纤维、棉纤维、麻赛尔纤维(30:25:20:20)混纺纱,织造棉毛布和汗布两种针织面料. 重点分析纤维配比、混纺纱设计、面料设计要求、面料性能,阐述创新技术手段与针织关键技术突破过程. 结果表明,18.0 dtex的安芙丽、相变储能、棉、麻赛尔混纺棉毛布阻燃、吸湿发热、保温性达到理想状态,该阻燃调温、防火、吸湿发热、保暖新型针织面料的开发,为纤维素纤维系列中不同功能科学组合尤其是阻燃调温的组合提供成功范例.%Based on the function and characteristics of Anti-frayon R flame-retardant fiber and energy storage fiber, the paper points out that Anti-frayon R fiber is perfect flame-retardant and thermal insulated material. It de-velops two kinds of knitted fabrics including interlock fabric and single jersey by using 18.0 dtex Anti-frayon R fiber/ energy storage fiber/cotton/jutecell fiber blended yarns (blending ratio is 30/25/20/20) by using siro compact spinning technology. The fiber arrangement, blended yarn design, the design requirements of fabrics and technolog-ical breakthrough of knitting process are introduced. The results show that the interlock knitted fabric possesses ex-cellent thermal functions, such as flame-retardant properties, moisture absorption and heat-generating and heat re-tention properties, which can provide successful model for scientific combination of cellulosic fiber with different functions, especially flame-retardant and thermo-regulation functions.

  20. Application of a hybrid Electrocoagulation-Fenton process in yarn dye wastewater: Kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riadi, L.; Sapei, L.; Lidiawati, T.; Agustin, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Reactive dyes contain a significant portion of colorants used in yarn dying process and also in textile industry. Since the COD content is usually high in such wastewater,we conducted a hybrid electrocoagulation-fenton method to treat the wastewater. This work describes the application of the hybrid system to the removal of chemical oxygen demand and color from the wastewater in a batch reactor. Having worked with initial pH of 3,0; temperature at 30°C, molar ratio of Fe2+/H2O2 =1/10 and the mol ratio H2O2/COD = 4, we got 88.3% COD conversion and 88.5% color removal. The COD degradation process can be explained in two phases, the first phase is instantaneous reaction and the second phase is first order reaction. The kinetic constant was 0.0053 minute-1 and the rate of COD degradation was 0.0053[COD] mg/L minute.

  1. Flexible and Robust Thermoelectric Generators Based on All-Carbon Nanotube Yarn without Metal Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeyoo; Jung, Yeonsu; Yang, Seung Jae; Oh, Jun Young; Oh, Jinwoo; Jo, Kiyoung; Son, Jeong Gon; Moon, Seung Eon; Park, Chong Rae; Kim, Heesuk

    2017-08-22

    As practical interest in flexible/or wearable power-conversion devices increases, the demand for high-performance alternatives to thermoelectric (TE) generators based on brittle inorganic materials is growing. Herein, we propose a flexible and ultralight TE generator (TEG) based on carbon nanotube yarn (CNTY) with excellent TE performance. The as-prepared CNTY shows a superior electrical conductivity of 3147 S/cm due to increased longitudinal carrier mobility derived from a highly aligned structure. Our TEG is innovative in that the CNTY acts as multifunctions in the same device. The CNTY is alternatively doped into n- and p-types using polyethylenimine and FeCl3, respectively. The highly conductive CNTY between the doped regions is used as electrodes to minimize the circuit resistance, thereby forming an all-carbon TEG without additional metal deposition. A flexible TEG based on 60 pairs of n- and p-doped CNTY shows the maximum power density of 10.85 and 697 μW/g at temperature differences of 5 and 40 K, respectively, which are the highest values among reported TEGs based on flexible materials. We believe that the strategy proposed here to improve the power density of flexible TEG by introducing highly aligned CNTY and designing a device without metal electrodes shows great potential for the flexible/or wearable power-conversion devices.

  2. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H.; Elliott, James A.

    2014-10-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures.

  3. A Study of Time Series Model for Predicting Jute Yarn Demand: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Karmaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, predicting sales for upcoming periods at right quantity is very crucial for ensuring product availability as well as improving customer satisfaction. This paper develops a model to identify the most appropriate method for prediction based on the least values of forecasting errors. Necessary sales data of jute yarn were collected from a jute product manufacturer industry in Bangladesh, namely, Akij Jute Mills, Akij Group Ltd., in Noapara, Jessore. Time series plot of demand data indicates that demand fluctuates over the period of time. In this paper, eight different forecasting techniques including simple moving average, single exponential smoothing, trend analysis, Winters method, and Holt’s method were performed by statistical technique using Minitab 17 software. Performance of all methods was evaluated on the basis of forecasting accuracy and the analysis shows that Winters additive model gives the best performance in terms of lowest error determinants. This work can be a guide for Bangladeshi manufacturers as well as other researchers to identify the most suitable forecasting technique for their industry.

  4. Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Textile Heating Fabric Based on Silver Coated Polymeric Yarn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anura Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted on the thermo-mechanical properties of knitted structures, the methods of manufacture, effect of contact pressure at the structural binding points, on the degree of heating. The test results also present the level of heating produced as a function of the separation between the supply terminals. The study further investigates the rate of heating and cooling of the knitted structures. The work also presents the decay of heating properties of the yarn due to overheating. Thermal images were taken to study the heat distribution over the surface of the knitted fabric. A tensile tester having constant rate of extension was used to stretch the fabric. The behavior of temperature profile of stretched fabric was observed. A comparison of heat generation by plain, rib and interlock structures was studied. It was observed from the series of experiments that there is a minimum threshold force of contact at binding points of a knitted structure is required to pass the electricity. Once this force is achieved, stretching the fabric does not affect the amount of heat produced.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  6. Measurement of yarn linear density of the woven fabric unknown specification%未知规格的机织物纱线线密度测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉佩; 潘葵

    2013-01-01

    The yarn linear density test of the woven fabric known yarn specifications can be carried out based on standard FZ/T 01093-2008 'Textile-Woven fabric-Construction-Methods of analysis-Determination of linear density of yarn removed from fabric'. However, for the woven fabric unknown specifications, the yarn linear density of yarn could not be accurately measured according to the above standard. In this paper, the test method of yarn linear density of yarn removed from the woven fabric from unknown specification was explored, which was performed through measuring the yarn length by yarn length meter, determining the stretch tension of different specifications yams, measuring the yarn quality and yarn accurate straight length, then the linear density could be calculated according to the formula.%已知纱线规格的机织物纱线线密度测试可依据FZ/T 01093-2008《机织物结构分析方法织物中拆下纱线线密度的测定》进行.而未知纱线规格机织物的拆下纱线线密度的测试根据以上标准无法准确测出.就未知纱线规格的机织物拆下纱线线密度的测试方法进行探索,即采用在纱长测试仪上测量其长度,测定不同规格纱线的伸直张力,再测量纱线质量及准确伸直长度,然后根据公式得出其线密度值.

  7. Development of Ceramic Fibers for Reinforcement in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, L. E.; Lent, W. E.; Teague, W. T.

    1961-01-01

    eight composite materials indicated ablation rates generally equivalent to Fiberglas-Micarta No. 259-2. The composite reinforced with R-99 fibers had an average ablation rate of 0.008 inch per second and appears quite promising on the basis of these tests. Preliminary studies for processing fibers into yarn and fabric were conducted with R-99 fibers. The use of certain organic gums aided in 2 fabricating by hand several relatively strong yarns and a crude fabric swatch. This indicated the practicality of developing techniques for processing these fibers into yarn and fabric without significant damage to the fibers.

  8. Preliminary Investigation of Common Woody Fiber Plant Resources in Jiangkou County of Guizhou Province%贵州省江口县常用木本纤维植物资源初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云飞; 苟光前; 王瑶; 孙巧玲; 王灯

    2016-01-01

    Abstrac:Based on field investigation,specimen identification,and a large number of references, the status of woody fiber plant in Jiangkou county was studied in this paper.A total of 84 species of woody fiber plants from 59 genera, 34 families were classified. Among them, there were 3 species of gymnosperms belonging to 2 genera of 2 families, 6 monocots from 6 genera of 2 families, and 75 dicotyledons belonging to 51 genera of 30 families. Floristic analysis for this area found that most woody fiber plants in Jiangkou County belong to the Department of East Asian region. At the same time, the usage part of woody fiber plants and its application were listed, so as to propose some reasonable suggestions.%对江口县境内进行野外实地调查以及相关资料查阅,得出该区木本纤维植物共34科59属84种,其中裸子植物3种,隶属2科2属,单子叶植物6种,隶属2科6属,双子叶植物75种,隶属30科51属。对该区木本纤维植物进行了区系分析,发现绝大部分属东亚区系。同时列出了该区木本纤维植物的使用部位及用途,提出一些合理性建议。

  9. Discussion of Knitting Cotton Yarn Inner Quality Control Standard%针织用棉纱内控质量标准讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冶

    2013-01-01

    Relationship among knitting cotton yarn quality standard,knitting fabric weave structure and raw cotton selection standard were discussed. Combining enterprises practice, quality control indexes of cotton knitting yarn were analyzed,the related key control points were put forward. According to different effect of knitting fabric weave structure on yarn quality sensitivity degree, grades of yam inner indexes standard were made rationally. Fine defects per 100 000 meters were added as one assessment indicator to ensure physical yarn quality reaching use demands. Different raw cotton selection standard was made according to knitting yarn grades to ensure yarn quality stable. It is considered that it is helpful to increase knitting yarn quality by making cotton yarn inner quality standard, the standard can provide reference standard for downstream knitting factory to purchase cotton yarn.%探讨针织用棉纱质量标准与针织物组织结构和原棉选用标准的关系.结合企业生产实践,对纯棉针织用纱的质量控制指标进行了分析,提出了几个控制要点:根据针织物不同组织结构对纱线质量的敏感程度不同,制定合理的纱线内控指标并进行分级;增加对十万米纱疵中细小纱疵数量的考核,以确保纱线实物质量满足用户要求;针对不同质量等级的针织用纱制定不同的原棉选用标准,以确保纱线质量稳定.认为,针织用棉纱质量内控标准的制定有利于提高针织纱质量,同时可为下游针织厂对针织用棉纱的采购提供一个参考标准.

  10. Technical analysis of industrial production report Jgxt/c65/35 18.4tex strong color pilling yarn%Jgxt/c65/35 18.4tex强上色抗起球纱技术产业化生产分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞童; 唐孝美; 丁静虹; 吉顺明

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了采用阳离子升级版改性涤纶纤维与精梳棉进行混纺,创新“粗纱机慢速防跳管控制电路”,解决了粗纱机在刚开车时易产生粗纱管跳管的现象,创新“罗卡斯紧密纺右斜位纺纱方法”,进一步控制罗卡斯紧密纺的成纱毛羽,使该产品的3mm毛羽降低70%左右,并且成纱条干、棉结、强力均有很大的改善,抗起毛起球性能更是达到3—4级。%This article describes the use of cationic upgraded version of modified polyester fiber were blended and combed, invented the "roving slow anti-jump tube control circuit" to solve the phenomenon is easy to produce roving roving tube in just getting the car jump, invention the "right-oblique Roccas spinning spinning method" to further control Roccas compact spinning yarn hairiness, so that the product is 3mm hairiness reduced by about 70%, and yarn evenness, neps, are strong greatly improved anti-pilling performance is reached 3-4.

  11. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products.

  12. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  13. Highly conductive and ultrastretchable electric circuits from covered yarns and silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2015-04-28

    Stretchable electronics, as a promising research frontier, has achieved progress in a variety of sophisticated applications. The realization of stretchable electronics frequently involves the demand for a stretchable conductor as an electrical circuit. However, it still remains a challenge to fabricate high-performance (working strain exceeding 200%) stretchable conductors. Here, we present for the first time a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method for manufacturing ultrastretchable composite fibers with a "twining spring" configuration: cotton fibers twining spirally around a polyurethane fiber. The composite fiber possesses a high conductivity up to 4018 S/cm, which remains as high as 688 S/cm at 500% tensile strain. In addition, the conductivity of the composite fiber (initial conductivity of 4018 S/cm) remains perfectly stable after 1000 bending events and levels off at 183 S/cm after 1000 cyclic stretching events of 200% strain. Stretchable LED arrays are integrated efficiently utilizing the composite fibers as a stretchable electric wiring system, demonstrating the potential applications in large-area stretchable electronics. The biocompatibility of the composite fiber is verified, opening up its prospects in the field of implantable devices. Our fabrication strategy is also versatile for the preparation of other specially functionalized composite fibers with superb stretchability.

  14. Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tehrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD, in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.

  15. ASSESMENT OF SELF HEALING PROPERTY IN HYBRID FIBER POLYMERIC COMPOSITE

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Natural fiber reinforced composites is an emerging area in polymer technology. Fibers resulting from plants are considered a budding substitute for non-renewable synthetic fibers like glass and carbon fibers. The objective of this study is to merge the benefits of natural and synthetic fibers by developing ahybrid composite of jute and glass fibers along with self healing property to eliminate delamination without compromising the benefits of hybridization. This concept offer...

  16. 吸湿排汗纤维及织物的应用研究%Application of Moisture Absorption and Sweat Transferring Fiber and Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕; 刘丽妍

    2015-01-01

    吸湿排汗纺织品利用其吸湿及导湿作用能满足人们对夏季服装及运动服装舒适性的要求. 本文基于织物吸湿排汗的基本原理,列举了多种最新研究并已广泛应用的吸湿排汗纤维,包括涤纶类吸湿排汗纤维和非涤纶类吸湿排汗纤维,以及吸湿排汗纱线,包括短纤纱、长丝纱和复合纱等. 同时阐述吸湿排汗型针织面料、梭织面料和非织造产品的设计思路,指出目前吸湿排汗产品普遍存在的问题,如产品功能单一,性能不稳定,面料档次不高以及产品同质化严重等.%Moisture absorption and sweat transferring fabrics can satisfy people's comfort requirement to summer clothing and sport garments by taking advantage of the moisture absorption and transmitting property. Based on the basic principle of moisture absorption and sweat transferring fabric, the paper presents a variety of moisture absorp-tion and sweat transferring fibers, which are studied recently and used widely, including polyester and non-polyester fibers. It also introduces the moisture absorption and sweat transferring yarns, such as staple fiber yarn, filament yarn, composite yarn and so on. Simultaneously, it describes the design idea of moisture absorption and sweat transferring knitted fabrics, woven fabrics and non-woven products, and points out the common problems of current products, such as single product function, less stable performance, low fabric quality and seriously homo-geneous products.

  17. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including t...

  18. Multi Scale Modeling of Continuous Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Ballistic Protection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-16

    discussed within the context of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) polymeric filaments such as Kevlar ®, Twaron®, etc. Molecular level: A pictorial...Grujicic, M., Bell, W. C., Glomski, P. S., Pandurangan, B., Yen, C.-F. & Cheeseman, B. A. “Multi-length Scale Computational Derivation of Kevlar ® Yarn...Pandurangan, B., Yen, C-.F., Cheeseman, B. A., Wang, Y., Miao, Y. & Zheng, J. Q. “Fiber-level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar ® KM2 Ballistic

  19. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  20. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  1. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a nutritional concept based not on physiological functions but on defined chemical and physical properties. Recent definitions of dietary fiber differentiate inherent plant cell wall-associated fiber from isolated or synthetic fiber. For the latter to be defined as fiber, beneficial physiological effects should be demonstrated, such as laxative effects, fermentability, attenuation of blood cholesterol levels, or postprandial glucose response. Grain fibers are a major natural source of dietary fiber worldwide, while inulin, a soluble indigestible fructose polymer isolated from chicory, and polydextrose, a synthetic indigestible glucose polymer, have more simple structures. Inulin and polydextrose show many of the same functionalities of grain fiber in the large intestine, in that they are fermentable, bifidogenic, and laxative. The reported effects on postprandial blood glucose and fasting cholesterol levels have been modest, but grain fibers also show variable effects. New biomarkers are needed to link the physiological functions of specific fibers with long-term health benefits.

  2. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Enzymatic Treatment of Cellulosic Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Jiang, S. Q.

    Fiber modifications by environmentally friendly processing are essential in order to simplify the preparation and finishing processes, in addition to minimizing the chemical waste and associated disposal problem. In this regard, enzymes have been used extensively because it can remove the small fiber ends from yarn surface to create a smooth fabric surface appearance and introduce a degree of softness without using traditional chemical treatment. However, a significant strength reduction and slow reaction rate of the enzymatic reaction limit its industrial application. In this paper, the potential of using low-temperature plasma (LTP) as a surface pre-treatment prior to enzyme treatment on flax fiber has been studied. By means of the LTP pre-treatment, the effectiveness of enzyme treatment can be enhanced.

  3. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-01-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R2 = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R2 = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL∗a∗b∗ and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated. PMID:27222752

  4. O2 Plasma Etching and Antistatic Gun Surface Modifications for CNT Yarn Microelectrode Improve Sensitivity and Antifouling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Venton, B Jill

    2017-05-16

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based microelectrodes exhibit rapid and selective detection of neurotransmitters. While different fabrication strategies and geometries of CNT microelectrodes have been characterized, relatively little research has investigated ways to selectively enhance their electrochemical properties. In this work, we introduce two simple, reproducible, low-cost, and efficient surface modification methods for carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs): O2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment. O2 plasma etching was performed by a microwave plasma system with oxygen gas flow and the optimized time for treatment was 1 min. The antistatic gun treatment flows ions by the electrode surface; two triggers of the antistatic gun was the optimized number on the CNTYME surface. Current for dopamine at CNTYMEs increased 3-fold after O2 plasma etching and 4-fold after antistatic gun treatment. When the two treatments were combined, the current increased 12-fold, showing the two effects are due to independent mechanisms that tune the surface properties. O2 plasma etching increased the sensitivity due to increased surface oxygen content but did not affect surface roughness while the antistatic gun treatment increased surface roughness but not oxygen content. The effect of tissue fouling on CNT yarns was studied for the first time, and the relatively hydrophilic surface after O2 plasma etching provided better resistance to fouling than unmodified or antistatic gun treated CNTYMEs. Overall, O2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by different mechanisms, providing the possibility to tune the CNTYME surface and enhance sensitivity.

  5. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-Ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R (2) = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R (2) = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL(∗) a (∗) b (∗) and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated.

  6. 基于模糊理论的植物纤维浆料的流变特性%Rheological properties of plant fiber pulp based on fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余妙春; 谢拥群

    2011-01-01

    采用模糊关系方程法研究了植物纤维浆料流变特性,分析了浆料纤维长径比、浆料浓度、浆料温度和浆料气液比对浆料流变性的影响,建立了估计模型y=(0.72∧x1)V([0,0.5]∧)V(0.32∧x3)V([0,1]∧x4).结果表明,利用此模型估计植物纤维浆料流变特性效果较好.植物纤维浆料的流变特性受到以下因素影响的程度大小排列如下:浆料纤维长径比(即纤维种类)>浆料浓度>浆料温度>浆料气液比.%The rheological properties of plant fiber pulp was studied using the method of fuzzy relation equation, and the effects of pulp factors including fiber length-diameter ratio, concentration, temperature and gas-liquid ratio on theological properties were analyzed, and a estimating mold, y = (0.72 Λx1)V( [0,0.5] AΛx2) V (0.32 Λx3) V ( [0,1] Λx4) , was set. The results showed that the estimating consequent by the mold was perfect, moreover, the rheological properties of plant fiber pulp were influenced by following factors (from greatly to little) : pulp fiber length-diameter ratio > pulp concentration > pulp temperature > pulp gas-liquid ratio.

  7. 磷酸-氨基甲酸酯化变性淀粉对粘胶纱低温上浆性能的影响%Effects of phosphate-carbamate starch on the sizing properties of viscose yarns at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志军

    2013-01-01

    测试了磷酸-氨基甲酸酯化变性淀粉的透明度、粘度、粘度热稳定性以及对粘胶纱的粘附性能,研究了该淀粉在热敏感型粘胶纱低温上浆中应用的可行性.结果表明:淀粉经复合酯化变性后能改善淀粉糊的透明度,提高淀粉浆液的抗凝胶性能,浆液在60~80℃时仍具有良好的粘度稳定性;能显著提高对粘胶纱的粘附性能,浆液温度的降低对粘附力没有明显影响,能够用于粘胶经纱低温上浆.%The transparency, viscosity, viscosity thermal stability of the phosphate-carbamate starch and the adhesion to viscose fiber were measured. The feasibility of application of starch in sizing heat-sensitive viscose yarns at low temperature was discussed. The results showed that the modification was favorable to improve the transparency and anti-gelling behavior of the starch paste. Phosphate-carbamate starch paste could also keep good viscosity stability at 60~80 ℃. The adhesion of phosphate-carbamate starch for viscose fiber could be significantly improved and the reduction of the temperature of size liquid had little effect on the adhesion. The modified starch could meet the requirements for sizing viscose yarns under lower temperature.

  8. Spinning of Regenerated Bamboo Fiber Tencel Fiber Blended Yarn%再生竹纤维Tencel纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储咏梅; 王国和; 焦圣平

    2005-01-01

    利用新型原料再生竹纤维与Tencel纤维开发了竹/Tencel 50/50 14.7 tex混纺纱,产品具备了两种原料的特点,服用性能好.介绍了再生竹纤维与Tencel纤维的性能特点、纺纱工艺流程及各工序采取的工艺措施.

  9. 短纤纺技术用于处理碳纤维的可能性%Potentials of carbon fiber processing in staple fiber spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Hehl; S. Baz; U. Heitmann; G. T. Gresser; 仰林(译); 颜雪(校)

    2015-01-01

    Staple fiber technology offers a multitude of opportunities to process stretch broken or recycled carbon fibers. Especially the high flexibility in the production with regards to the yarn fineness and the yarn construction in combination with the possible lower costs for the raw materials emphasize the potential of the staple fiber technology in the large batch production of CFRP. The material parameters can be optimized to the application. New processes in staple fiber spinning, such as the tape production can bring forth more advantages beyond conventional methods, e. g. through a process shortening in spinning or an increase of productivity in further processing. Besides the economic advantages of staple fiber products, many opportunities for the optimization of the material properties in view of the fields of application arise.%短纤维技术为处理拉伸断裂的或再利用的碳纤维提供了多种可能,尤其是与可能的低成本原料混合生产时,在纱线细度和纱线结构方面能体现出高度灵活性,着重体现了短纤维技术在碳纤维复合材料大批量生产中的潜能。材料参数可根据应用优化。新的短纤加工技术(如扁丝生产)比传统技术具有更多优势,如通过一项处理可缩短纺纱时间,或在后续加工中提高生产效率。除短纤维产品的经济优势外,应用领域中许多优化材料性能的机会也逐渐显现。

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  11. Research of Regularity of Yarn Tension of Domestic Computerized Flat Knitting Machine%国产电脑横机纱线张力波动规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 朱文俊; 臧衍乐

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comparison among three common yarn tension sensors, the paper designs a new kind of yarn tension measuring system by using ceramic sensor. Using the plain-knitted fabric as a base, it tests the yarn tension at different speeds of computerized flat knitting machine, and analyzes the yarn tension fluctuation rules, as well as the effects of machine speed on yarn tension. In addition, the factors resulting in loose side phe-nomenon of fabrics on the domestic computerized flat knitting machine are discussed from the way of yarn feeding , and a new electronic yarn feeding system with constant tension is given. The results show that the new system can not only improve the fabric quality, but also solve a series problems caused by yarn tension fluctuation, which is a new research direction of improving yarn feeding system.%介绍常用纱线张力传感器,并提出设计新型陶瓷传感器纱线张力测量系统。在电脑横机上编织纬平针织物,测量不同速度下的纱线张力,从而分析电脑横机纱线张力波动规律及机器速度对纱线张力和波动性的影响。从给纱方式上讨论国产电脑横机编织的织物产生松边的原因,并提出一种新型恒张力电子送纱系统,该系统可有效解决张力波动问题,提高织物质量,是电脑横机给纱系统改进的研究方向。

  12. Crimping performance and morpho structure of PET/PTT conjugated yarn%PET/PTT复合纤维的卷曲性能与形态结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 郑楠; 张欣; 李晓萌

    2011-01-01

    以POY-DT和FDY工艺获得的不同规格、本色和有色PET/PTT复合纤维为研究对象,考察了纤维规格、工艺路线和色母粒对PET/PTT复合纤维的卷缩性能的影响,表征了复合纤维的轴向形态结构与断面结构,研究了纤维力学性能.结果表明,PET/PTT复合纤维的卷曲性能随着线密度的增加而升高,在130 dtex附近达到峰值;本色复合纤维的卷曲收缩率、卷曲模量和弹性恢复率均高于有色复合纤维,而卷曲稳定度和紧缩伸长率则有色纤维较高,POY-DT工艺得到的复合纤维的卷曲收缩率、卷曲模量、紧缩伸长率、卷曲稳定度、断裂强度高于FDY工艺得到的纤维,但其弹性恢复率低于FDY纤维;经过湿热处理后的复合纤维的卷缩半径明显减小,卷缩性能得到提升;通过复合纤维断面SEM照片观察到,PET与PTT两相间界面黏合良好.%PET/PTT conjugated yarn with different specifications and different colors was obtained by POY-DT and FDY process route. The influence of specification, process route and master batch on crimp contraction property of PET/PTT conjugated yarn was investigated and the axial morphostructure, cross section and the mechanical property of the yarn were characterized. As a result, the crimp contraction of PET/PTT conjugated yarn is rised with the increasing linear density and reach its maximum at 130 dtex. The crimp contraction ratio, crimp module and elastic recovery of primary white PET/PTT conjugated yarn was higher than that of blue. The crimp stability and crimp elongation ratio of the blue PET/PTT conjugated yarn was higher than that of the primary white one. The crimp contraction ratio, crimp module, crimp elongation ratio, crimp stability and breaking strength of PET/PTT conjugated yarn obtained from POY-DY process route was higher than that obtained from FDY process route. But the elastic recovery of PET/PTT conjugated yarn obtained from POY-DY process route was lower than that

  13. The research of radix isatidis indigo pigment on dyeing of denim yarns%板兰根靛蓝色素对牛仔布纱线的染色探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林

    2016-01-01

    用天然靛蓝染料对牛仔布纱线进行染色试验,探讨了碱用量(石灰)、染色温度、染色时间对染色深度的影响,得到了最适宜的染色工艺,并对比测试了该染料和化学靛蓝染色的染色深度和各项染色牢度。试验表明,天然靛蓝具有良好的染色深度和染色牢度,可代替化学靛蓝用于牛仔布的染色,特别是用于贴身穿着的衬衣和牛仔裤的中浅色染色,对人体无毒无害。%The plant indigo pigment was used to dye denim yarns in this paper. The influence of dyeing depth was evaluated by analyzing sodium hydroxide dosage, dyeing temperature and time. The optimum condition of the dyestuff was obtained. The dyeing depth and color fastness of this dyestuff and chemical dyestuff were compared. The experiment showed that the dyeing depth and color fastness of plant indigo were better, which could substitute for chemical dyestuff dyeing denim fabrics, especially dyeing skin touch shirt and middle light color of jeans. Furthermore, it was non toxic and harmless.

  14. The effect of seed cotton moisture during harvesting on - part 2- yarn and fabric quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part 1 of this study found that there were significant differences in terms of fiber quality and processing performance of seed cotton harvested from one field using a John Deere 7760 spindle harvester at two moisture levels, 12%, and storing the harvested modules for 12 weeks prior to gin...

  15. 聚乳酸纤维抗菌织物%The Development of Polylactic Acid Fiber Antibacterial Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金龙; 沈兰萍; 徐玲

    2013-01-01

    选用14.6 tex的聚乳酸纱线作为原料,用ASS3000单纱机对纱线进行上浆,SV111型剑杆自动织样机织造聚乳酸纤维平纹织物,采用Na2CO3碱液退浆法对织物进行退浆,H2O2对织物进行漂白,经热定形处理后,使用SCJ-939固着剂和CYK-302无机载银抗菌剂对织物进行抗菌整理,开发出聚乳酸纤维抗菌织物.对抗菌整理前后的聚乳酸织物的服用性能和抗菌性能进行了测试分析,研究证明:开发的聚乳酸纤维抗菌织物具有良好的服用性能和抗菌性能.%The polylactic acid yarns of 14.6 tex were used as raw materials.ASS3000 single yarn machine was used to sizing the yarn.Polylactic acid fiber plain cloth was weaved on the SV111 type rapier loom.The fabrics desized by the method of alkali desizing and H2O2 bleaching was carried out on the fabric.After heat setting treatment,the fabrics were dealed with SCJ-939 fixation agent and CYK-939 airborne silver antibacterial agent to develope the polylactic acid fiber antibacterial fabric.The wearability performance and antibacterial properties of polylactic acid fabrics were analysed to prove that the polylactic acid fiber antibacterial fabrics have good wearability and antibacterial properties.

  16. Diode Pumped Fiber Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION .............. 5 A. FIBER GROWTH .......................... 5 B. FIBER PROCESSING 7...1.32 pm FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION A. FIBER GROWTH The single crystal fibers used in this work were grown at Stanford University

  17. Analysis on mechanical property of natural plant fiber cement matrix composites%天然植物纤维水泥基复合材料力学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀跃; 李昀阳; 张忠强; 崔兵

    2015-01-01

    指出植物纤维具有环保节能、保温防火、轻体防雷等优点,将其掺入混凝土中可以改善其脆性,延缓开裂,改变水泥基稻草纤维复合材料的水灰比和纤灰比并加入 CaCl2作为外加剂来制作试件,通过测量试件的静曲强度和观察试件断面的显微图像来确定最优配合比,并分析了 CaCl2对稻草纤维水泥基复合板材的微观影响,得出了一些结论。%Point out plant fibers have lots of advantage such as:fire prevention,environmental protection,energy conservation,heat preserva-tion,light and lightning protection. Incorporated in the concrete can improve its brittleness and delay cracking. Change water cement ratio of ce-ment matrix straw fiber composites and fiber cement ratio to make the specimen. In addition,joining CaCl2 as admixture,measured in the cross section of the specimen static music intensity,observed the microscopic image of specimen to determine the optimal mixture ratio and analysis the micro impact of CaCl2 for straw fiber cement matrix composite,obtains some conclusions.

  18. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  19. 筒纱常见疵点成因及预防%Prevention and Reasons of Cheese Yarn Frequent Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈航; 杨绪美

    2012-01-01

    总结络筒过程中乱纱、夹回丝、小辫子纱、双纱纱疵的产生原因及解决措施.分析了细纱管纱脱圈、大吸嘴与筒纱距离、张力盒作用不良、结头动作频繁、筒纱与槽筒接触不良对筒纱乱纱纱疵的影响,并介绍了预防筒纱夹回丝、小辫子纱、双纱纱疵的技术要点.认为做好细纱管纱成形工作和张力盒、捻接器等部件的检修工作可以有效降低乱纱纱疵的发生;合理设置络筒工艺和做好各部清洁工作才能更好的减少筒纱各类纱疵的发生.%Measures and reasons of several frequent defects in winding process were summarized. Cheese yam raveling factors were analyzed, such as bobbin yarn slough-off,gauge between large nozzle and cheese yam,tension box work worse,splicing frequently, poor contact between cheese yam and groove drum. Technology key points of preventing cheese yam thread waste, itink, winder doubling were introduced, It is considered that tavelings can he reduced by dealing bobbin yarn forming,examining & repairing tension box and splicer. Winding processing should be adapted rationally, cleaning should be done well to reduce all types of cheese yam defects.

  20. BENDING BEHAVIOR OF RAYON AND WOOL TYPE POLYESTER FIBERS THERMAL TREATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORDEIANU Demetra L ă cr ă mioara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that bending rigidity influences to a great extent the product handle and considering that the market demands products with a soft, pleasant handle, one must pay a special attention to these characteristics and especially to the treatments that modify the bending rigidity. It was found that any mechanical or thermal treatment brings modifications of the bending rigidity, in terms of the fibers nature and treatment conditions. In most of the methods meant to determine the bending rigidity one must measure the amount of deflection of the fibers end in constant cross-section either under t he action of the weight. The textile products are subjected to flexion, to repeated and frequent bending due to knotting and kinking during both the processing and exploitation. All these result in the appearance of stresses of various natures depending on the fibers type. The strains and fiber destruction as the result of these stresses depend on a series of factors related to the fibers composition and in termolecular and intra-molecular structure, their yarn count, elastic modulus, fiber flexibility, finishing procedures or products texture, etc. Following the performed measurements, we calculated the bending rigidity for the witness samples and for thermally cured fibers; then we divided them in classes and we graphically represented their distribution in terms of the bending rigidity.

  1. Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Sockalingam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact.

  2. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  3. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  4. Tribology of natural fiber polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Chand, N

    2008-01-01

    Environmental concerns are driving demand for bio-degradable materials such as plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. These composites are fast replacing conventional materials in many applications, especially in automobiles, where tribology (friction, lubrication and wear) is important. This book covers the availability and processing of natural fiber polymer composites and their structural, thermal, mechanical and, in particular, tribological properties.Chapter 1 discusses sources of natural fibers, their extraction and surface modification. It also reviews the ther

  5. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  6. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of “Green” Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG and castor oil cake (COC, the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted coating of silk yarn with sphere-like Mn3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Somayeh; Morsali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The growth of sphere-like trimanganese tetraoxide (Mn(3)O(4)) nanoparticles on silk fiber was achieved by sequential dipping in an alternating bath of potassium hydroxide and manganese(II) nitrate under ultrasound irradiation. Some parameters such as the effect of pH, numerous sequential dipping and ultrasonic irradiation on growth of the nanoparticles have been studied. The samples were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Irradiation Aging Testing of Fiber Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Hu; BAI; Bing; LIU; Xin-peng; YU; Bin-tao; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2013-01-01

    Fiber cloth is a kind of insulation material which is widely used in nuclear power plants.In the NPP reactors,due to the effect of high temperature,neutron irradiation and other factors,the strength of material will reduce significantly.It results in pollution in NPP by the loss of fiber cloth.In order to

  9. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarek, M.; Orzech, L.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  10. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarek, M; Orzech, L, E-mail: mtalarek@komag.eu [KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Pszczynska 37, 44-101 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-06-23

    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  11. 彩格彩条牛仔织物的涂料染纱%Pigment dyeing of yarn for colored check and strip denim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆静

    2011-01-01

    Cotton yarn is grafted with self-made quaternary ammonium salt CF-2, and then dyed with pigment.The fabric woven with the dyed yarn is then desizing and washing ( or enzyme washing) .Processes including the scouring, grafting treatment, dyeing, sizing, desizing and washing ( enzyme washing) and technology consideration are introduced.%采用自制的季铵盐接枝剂CF-2处理棉纱,再用涂料进行染色,经退浆、水洗(或酵素洗),可获得具有仿旧、雪花风格的色织布.通过分析煮练、接枝处理、染色、上浆、退浆和水洗(酵素洗)等各工艺要点,指出操作注意事项.

  12. The Production of Rotor-spun Pure Cotton Low-twist Knitting Yarn%转杯纺纯棉低捻针织纱的生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占全

    2013-01-01

    The selection and assortment of cotton is the first step for producing high-quality, high-grade pure cotton low-twist knitting yarn. During cotton assorting, it is important to pay close attention to the internal quotas of the cotton. The article discussed the process and technology for each step of the yarn production from blowing, carding to drawing and rotor-spinning.%  生产优质、高档全棉低捻针织转杯纺纱,棉花的选配是第一关,选配棉花时要重点关注棉花的内在指标。文章还对清棉工序、梳棉工序、并条工序、转杯纺工序的工艺技术进行了探讨。

  13. Highly Sensitive, Stretchable, and Wash-Durable Strain Sensor Based on Ultrathin Conductive Layer@Polyurethane Yarn for Tiny Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2016-04-20

    Strain sensors play an important role in the next generation of artificially intelligent products. However, it is difficult to achieve a good balance between the desirable performance and the easy-to-produce requirement of strain sensors. In this work, we proposed a simple, cost-efficient, and large-area compliant strategy for fabricating highly sensitive strain sensor by coating a polyurethane (PU) yarn with an ultrathin, elastic, and robust conductive polymer composite (CPC) layer consisting of carbon black and natural rubber. This CPC@PU yarn strain sensor exhibited high sensitivity with a gauge factor of 39 and detection limit of 0.1% strain. The elasticity and robustness of the CPC layer endowed the sensor with good reproducibility over 10,000 cycles and excellent wash- and corrosion-resistance. We confirmed the applicability of our strain sensor in monitoring tiny human motions. The results indicated that tiny normal physiological activities (including pronunciation, pulse, expression, swallowing, coughing, etc.) could be monitored using this CPC@PU sensor in real time. In particular, the pronunciation could be well parsed from the recorded delicate speech patterns, and the emotions of laughing and crying could be detected and distinguished using this sensor. Moreover, this CPC@PU strain-sensitive yarn could be woven into textiles to produce functional electronic fabrics. The high sensitivity and washing durability of this CPC@PU yarn strain sensor, together with its low-cost, simplicity, and environmental friendliness in fabrication, open up new opportunities for cost-efficient fabrication of high performance strain sensing devices.

  14. Application of Uniform Design with Mixture in Wool Yarn Sizing%混料均匀设计在毛纱上浆中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟锋; 张斌; 王璐; 赵国英; 杨自治; 胡晓峰

    2012-01-01

    With the trend towards light weight worsted wool fabrics, yarn linear density becomes smaller and smaller and single yarns would have replaced traditional ply yarns in processing of wool fabrics. It is necessary to solve the difficulties of weaving by single yarn, and sizing is one of the most effective measures. Oxidized starch, PVA and polyacrylamide size are used to form a formula of mixed sizing, and 15 groups are designed via uniform design. Two main properties of abrasion resistance and hairiness have been selected to do regression analysis. The results show that the best proportion of mixing sizing is 43% of oxidized starch, 29% of PVA and 28% of polyacrylamide size.%随着毛纺产品的日益轻薄化,纱线线密度越来越小,在生产加工中单纱将取代传统的股线,因此必须解决单纱织造难题,而毛纱上浆是有效方法之一.采用氧化淀粉、聚乙烯醇(PVA)和聚丙烯酰胺组成的复配浆料,利用均匀设计方法设计了15种配方,选取耐磨性和毛羽作为主要质量指标,进行回归分析,得出各组分的影响,进而得出适合试样毛纱上浆的浆料最佳配比为氧化淀粉质量分数为43%、PVA质量分数为29%和聚丙烯酰胺质量分数为28%.

  15. Conductive, tough, hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene hybrid fibers for wearable supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Ma, Wujun; Xiang, Hengxue; Cheng, Yanhua; Yang, Shengyuan; Weng, Wei; Zhu, Meifang

    2016-07-01

    Graphene fibers based flexible supercapacitors have great potential as wearable power sources for textile electronics. However, their electrochemical performance is limited by the serious stacking of graphene sheets and their hydrophobicity in aqueous electrolytes. Meanwhile, their brittleness is unfavorable for practical application. Incorporation of nanofillers into graphene fibers has been proved effective for enhancing their capacitance, whereas often leading to deteriorated mechanical strength. Herein we demonstrate that the strength, toughness and capacitive performance of graphene-based fibers can be significantly enhanced simultaneously, simply by incorporating hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) into a non-liquid-crystalline graphene oxide (GO) dispersion before wet spinning and chemical reduction. The structure and properties of the resulted PVA/graphene hybrid fibers are systematically investigated, and the mechanism behind these enhancements is discussed in detail. The hybrid fiber with a PVA/GO weight ratio of 10/90 possesses a strength of 186 MPa, a toughness of 11.3 J cm-3, and a capacitance of 241 F cm-3 in 1 M H2SO4. A solid-state yarn supercapacitor assembled from these fibers exhibits a device energy of 5.97 mW h cm-3, and features excellent flexibility and bending stability. This device is robust enough to be integrated into textile and thus promising as wearable power supply for smart textiles.

  16. Carbon nanotube fibers and ribbons produced by a novel wet-spinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Ryan Cody

    Carbon nanotubes have exciting potential to provide high performance materials of the future. One of the main challenges is assembling the billions of miles of individual nanotubes in each pound of product nanotube fiber or sheet in such a way that the properties of the individual nanotubes are most effectively utilized. In this study a novel wet fiber spinning method was developed in which carbon nanotubes dispersed in a surfactant are injected into a rotating acid bath which coagulates the dispersion to form a macroscopic fiber. This flocculation method produces highly conducting carbon nanotube fibers and sheets without the need for a polymer binder. The mechanical strength is sufficient for several applications and can be improved by either heat treatment or by incorporation of a polymer in the yarn, and subsequent draw. Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA)-treated fibers yield outstanding mechanical properties and a toughness that is comparable to spider silk. Other polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) also enhance mechanical properties. Inorganic additives, such as platinum, can be incorporated into the fiber matrix to provide multifunctionality.

  17. Knitted Strain Sensor Textiles of Highly Conductive All-Polymeric Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedin, Shayan; Razal, Joselito M; Innis, Peter C; Jeiranikhameneh, Ali; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-09-30

    A scaled-up fiber wet-spinning production of electrically conductive and highly stretchable PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers is demonstrated for the first time. The PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers possess the mechanical properties appropriate for knitting various textile structures. The knitted textiles exhibit strain sensing properties that were dependent upon the number of PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers used in knitting. The knitted textiles show sensitivity (as measured by the gauge factor) that increases with the number of PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers deployed. A highly stable sensor response was observed when four PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers were co-knitted with a commercial Spandex yarn. The knitted textile sensor can distinguish different magnitudes of applied strain with cyclically repeatable sensor responses at applied strains of up to 160%. When used in conjunction with a commercial wireless transmitter, the knitted textile responded well to the magnitude of bending deformations, demonstrating potential for remote strain sensing applications. The feasibility of an all-polymeric knitted textile wearable strain sensor was demonstrated in a knee sleeve prototype with application in personal training and rehabilitation following injury.

  18. Resultados experimentais com a cultura da Crotalaria juncea L. L., como planta produtora de celulose para papel Results from field trials with Crotalaria juncea L. as fiber plant for paper pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de vários experimentos de campo realizados na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, do Instituto Agronômico, com a Crotalaria juncea L. como planta produtora de celulose para papel. Êsses resultados permitem fazer recomendações úteis sôbre o melhoramento técnico da cultura e da produção, no concernente às questões de variedades, espaçamento, densidade de semeação, época de semeação e época de colheita dos caules.This paper reports the results obtained in sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. field trials carried out at the Tatui Experiment Station, São Paulo State. The trials were designed to study the effect of varieties, spacing x rate of seeding, time of sowing and time of harvesting on sunn hemp fiber production as a raw material for paper pulp. From the results achieved in these trials, the following recommendations can be made for growing sunn hemp as a fiber plant for paper pulp in the State of São Paulo. VARIETY: to use the common variety that is normally sowed for green manuring. TIME OF SOWING: to sow the seeds during october. RATE OF SEED SOWING AND SPACING: to sow the seeds at the rate of 100 lbs/ acre in rows spaced 8 inches apart. TIME OF HARVESTING: to harvest the stalks for mechanical fiber extraction when the seed pods are in the mature stage.

  19. Alkali modification and softening finish of hemp yarn%大麻纱线的碱改性柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠金星; 王宝权; 吕站逵; 季英超

    2012-01-01

    针对大麻纱在针织机上生产时存在编织成圈困难的问题,提出了对大麻纱线进行柔软处理以提高其可编织性的方法.用氢氧化钠对大麻纱线进行改性,结合柔软剂进行柔软处理的方法降低大麻纱线的刚性,并采用正交试验的方法,确定了碱改性的最佳工艺:碱液质量浓度l00g/L,温度20℃,浸渍时间15min,浴比1:20.结合柔软剂整理可明显降低大麻纱线刚性,提高纯大麻纱线的上机编织效果.%The soft hemp yarn processing was studies to enhance their weave performance. Alkali modification together with treatment of caustic soda and softener was used for reducing the stiffness of hemp yarn. The result indicates that the best technological conditions were: alkali concentration 100 g/L, temperature 20 ℃ , soaking time is 15 min, liquor ratio 1 : 20. The treatment with softening agent can obviously reduce the stiffness of hemp yarn and improve its knitting performance.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Yarn Feature Parameters in C/Epoxy Plain-Weave Composite Using Micro CT with High-Resolution Lens-Coupled Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Zhong-wei

    2016-08-01

    C/Epoxy plain-weave composite is difficult to clear imaging in Micro CT with flat panel detector due to the similar atomic numbers of component materials. To solve this problem, a new Micro CT equipment with high-resolution lens-coupled detector is used to reconstruct 3D images of C/Epoxy. Slice data correction with ellipse projection is used to acquire real yarn normal cross-section information. A reference period method suitable for plain-weave composite is then detailed to evaluate statistical properties of yarn feature parameters. In the process of determination of real extreme slices, dislocation phenomenon existed in the laminated composite is discovered. Several possible reasons caused this phenomenon are discussed. Systematic trends, standard deviations and correlation lengths of stochastic deviations with original and corrected data are evaluated respectively by the application of reference period method. The statistical results show that mean out-of-plane yarn waviness, semi-axes, cross-section area and aspect ratio exhibit periodic characteristics, and the maximum effect of slice data correction on all statistical properties of feature parameters is twist angle.

  1. 《植物纤维化学成分分析实验》问题剖析及解决对策%Problem Analysis and Solution about Experiments of Plant Fiber Chemical Composition Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利萍; 高慧; 周亮

    2013-01-01

    Experiments of analyzing plant fiber chemical composition consists of content determinations about ash, extracts, lignin, cellulose, a-cellulose, holo-cellulose and pentosan. Solutions and measures were put forward after analysis of problems on each experimental item.%植物纤维化学成分分析实验主要包括纤维原料的灰分、抽提物、木质素、综纤维素、纤维素、a纤维素和聚戊糖含量的测定.分别剖析各部分实验中容易出现的问题,并提出了解决办法和对策.

  2. Influences of Synergistic Pretreatment with Microwave and Calcium Oxide on Water Loss Rate and Accessibility of Plant Fibers%微波协同氧化钙处理对植物纤维失水率与可及度的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潇川; 刘敏毅; 肖荔人; 陈荣国; 陈庆华

    2012-01-01

    Two plant fibers, I. E. Hell-tong fiber and water hyacinth fiber, were sequentially pretreated by high-speed kneading with calcium oxide and microwave radiating to help them to be applicable to wood plastic composites (WPC). The influences of synergistic pretreatment condition of microwave and calcium oxide on the water loss rate and the accessibility of plant fibers were studied by investigating and analyzing the water loss rate, the water retention value and IR spectra of plant fibers. The variational rule of the change of accessibility along with the change of microwave irradiation time was mainly discussed for the two plant fibers. Moreover, a possible dehydration mechanism was proposed to the plant fibers that were synergistically pretreated with calcium oxide and microwave. The results show that synergistic pretreatment with microwave and calcium oxide can notablely postpone the dehydration of plant fibers and decrease their water loss rate as their accessibility is improved after the pretreatment.%采用氧化钙高速捏合处理,再辅以微波辐射协同处理桐壳纤维和水葫芦纤维,以期使它们适用于制备木塑复合材料.通过失水率、保水值和红外光谱测试,研究了处理条件对这两种植物纤维的失水率和可及度的影响,重点讨论了保水值、分子间氢链百分含量和红外结晶指数等可及度参数的变化规律,并简要探讨了植物纤维的脱水机理.结果表明:微波协同氧化钙处理可延缓植物纤维的失水性和降低植物纤维的失水率,归因于经处理后植物纤维的可及度被提高.

  3. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  4. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  5. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  6. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora Vladimir; Berenji Janoš; Latković Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined vari...

  7. 芳砜纶/间位芳纶混纺纱的染色%Dyeing of PSA/MPIA blended yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淑玲; 崔俊巧

    2013-01-01

    芳砜纶/间位芳纶混纺纱采用阳离子染料、酸性染料、分散染料、活性染料和涂料分别进行染色,比较染色后织物的色光、K/S值和染色牢度.研究表明,芳砜纶/间位芳纶混纺纤维宜选用阳离子染料高温高压载体染色,以苯乙酮作为载体染色效果较好;同一类染料在两种纤维上有较好的同色性.%Polysulphonamide/poly-m-phenyleneisophthalamide (PSA/MPIA) blended yarn is dyed with cationic dyes,acid dyes,disperse dyes,reactive dyes and pigments respectively,and the hue,K/S value and color fastness of the dyeings are compared.It is shown that carrier dyeing at high temperature and high pressure with cationic dyes and acetophenone as a carrier is suitable for PSA/MPIA blends,and the blended dyeings feature the same tone.

  8. Suitability of Nettle Fiber for Textile Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nettle plants widely exist in China, but up to now there is no research regarding Chinese nettle fiber properties,especially about its spinnability. This paper has studied the properties of Chinese nettle fiber and its spinnability. The research results show that the average length of nettle fiber is about 34 mm, the nettle fiber fineness ranging from 0.589 to 0. 769 tex. Nettle fiber has high breaking strength, low breaking extension and high initial modulus. Both the biochemical method and chemical method can meet the requirement of nettle degumming, with the residual being less than 4%. Nettle fiber can be utilised as textile material and can be spun in rotor-spinning machines after well degummed.

  9. 可生物降解聚乳酸并捻长丝纱的制备及性能研究%Study on Preparation and Properties of Biodegradable Polylactic Acid Doubling and Twisting Filament Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴改红; 刘淑强; 荆云娟; 许巧丽

    2013-01-01

    以可生物降解的聚乳酸长丝为原料,经并捻、热定形加工制备了聚乳酸并捻长丝纱,优化并捻工艺和热定形工艺,并对纱线的结构和性能进行了测试分析.结果表明:并捻工序的最优捻度为300捻/m,聚乳酸并捻长丝纱比原丝断裂强度降低,断裂伸长率增大,且随捻度的增大,纱线的断裂强度逐渐降低,断裂伸长率升高;热定形工序的最佳热定形温度为80℃,热定形时间为1h;聚乳酸并捻长丝纱表面光洁,光泽好,纱为股线结构,比原丝束断裂强度下降9.7%,断裂伸长率提高7.6%.聚乳酸并捻长丝纱提高了长丝纱的集束性、耐磨性,利于以后的织造工艺.%This paper prepares polylactic acid doubling and twisting filament yarn through doubling and twisting and heat setting with biodegradable polylactic acid filament as raw material, optimizes doubling and twisting process and heat setting process and tests and analyzes the structure and property of yarn. The result shows that the optimal degree of twist of doubling and twisting process is 300 twists/m; compared to protofilament, polylactic acid doubling and twisting filament yarn has a reduced breaking strength and increased elongation at break; with the increase of degree of twist, the breaking strength of yarn gradually decreases and the elongation at break increases; the optimal heat setting temperature of heat setting process is 80 ℃ and heat setting time is 1 h; polylactic acid doubling and twisting filament yarn has a bright, clear and glossy surface; the yarn has a compound yarn structure and its breaking strength reduces by 9. 7% and elongation at break increases by 7. 6% compared to protofilament tows. Polylactic acid doubling and twisting filament yarn improves the bundling and abrasive resistance of filament yarn and is conducive to future weaving process.

  10. Novel bamboo leaf shaped CuO nanorod@hollow carbon fibers derived from plant biomass for efficient and nonenzymatic glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Zhao, Zheng; Liu, Xiaotian; Xiong, Yueping; Han, Ce; Zhang, Yufan; Bo, Xiangjie; Guo, Liping

    2015-09-21

    The present paper reports on the preparation of novel bamboo leaf shaped CuO nanorod dispersed hollow carbon fibers (denoted as CuO NR@PCFs). Specially, the new-type hollow carbon fibers (containing abundant micro/meso/macropores and a large specific surface area) were prepared only by simple and fast pyrolysis of the natural product catkins without using any template or surfactant. Meanwhile, a facile method was used to prepare the bamboo leaf shaped CuO nanorod covered PCFs. Thanks to the abundant micro/meso/macropores, large specific surface area, and excellent electrical conduction efficiency of the PCF matrix, the as-prepared CuO NR@PCFs could also afford more catalytic sites, show more excellent reactant transport efficiency, and display more excellent electron transport rates compared with those for the pure CuO balls. Above all, these advantages will result in the excellent oxidation and detection efficiency of the CuO NR@PCF sample to glucose. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the CuO NR@PCF modified electrode can directly catalyze glucose oxidation and display an enhanced current response compared with the pure CuO balls (such as a response time within 4 s, wide linear ranges of 5 × 10(-3)-0.8 mM and 0.8-8.5 mM, good reproducibility, considerable stability, and excellent anti-interference to electroactive molecules and Cl(-)). The superior catalytic activity and selectivity make the CuO NR@PCF catalyst very promising for application in direct detection of glucose.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Short Flax Fibers on the Permeability Behavior of a New Unidirectional Flax/Paper Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Habibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of reinforcement for unidirectional natural fiber composites has been developed, where a paper layer is assembled with a layer of unidirectional flax yarns. The paper layer chemically and mechanically bonds to the loose yarns to maintain their alignment and enables better manipulability of the reinforcement during stacking in the mold. Unfortunately, the paper layer adversely affects the permeability of the whole reinforcement to liquid resin and thus limits the impregnation quality of the final part. In this paper, a technique is adopted to increase the impregnation performance by modifying the architecture of the fibrous network in the paper layer. In particular, a method has been developed to replace a proportion of the Kraft fibers by short flax fibers in the paper layer, in an attempt to open the structure and increase the paper permeability. Permeability measurements show a major improvement in global reinforcement permeability. Basic mechanical properties of resulting composites were also analysed. Results show a slight decrease in modulus and strength when the paper layer is present. This is compensated by an important reduction in variability. Furthermore, increasing the flax proportion in the paper layer limits the loss of mechanical properties, while reducing variability even further.

  12. APPLICATION OF THE COLLAGENOUS FIBER FROM THE SOLID WASTES OF LEATHER FOR PAPERMAKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijie Wang; Jian Wang; Zhang Chuanbo; Hou Xiaodong

    2004-01-01

    The capability of pulping for the solid waste of leather was investigated. The properties of paper that made up of collagenous fiber and plant fiber were also analyzed. The result showed that by proper treatment, solid waste of leather could be made into collagen fiber for papermaking. The physical strength of paper can be enhanced by appending collagenous fiber in a proper propriety.

  13. Electro-bending characterization of adaptive 3D fiber reinforced plastics based on shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashir, Moniruddoza; Hahn, Lars; Kluge, Axel; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-03-01

    The industrial importance of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) is growing steadily in recent years, which are mostly used in different niche products, has been growing steadily in recent years. The integration of sensors and actuators in FRP is potentially valuable for creating innovative applications and therefore the market acceptance of adaptive FRP is increasing. In particular, in the field of highly stressed FRP, structural integrated systems for continuous component parts monitoring play an important role. This presented work focuses on the electro-mechanical characterization of adaptive three-dimensional (3D)FRP with integrated textile-based actuators. Here, the friction spun hybrid yarn, consisting of shape memory alloy (SMA) in wire form as core, serves as an actuator. Because of the shape memory effect, the SMA-hybrid yarn returns to its original shape upon heating that also causes the deformation of adaptive 3D FRP. In order to investigate the influences of the deformation behavior of the adaptive 3D FRP, investigations in this research are varied according to the structural parameters such as radius of curvature of the adaptive 3D FRP, fabric types and number of layers of the fabric in the composite. Results show that reproducible deformations can be realized with adaptive 3D FRP and that structural parameters have a significant impact on the deformation capability.

  14. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  15. 植物纤维增强聚乳酸可降解复合材料的研究%Study on the Biodegradable Plant Fiber Reinforcing Poly(lactic acid) Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亚男; 陈绍状; 侯丽华; 宾月珍

    2011-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) has won the polymer industrial's high favor due to its merits of excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, high strength, workability and plasticity in recent years. But it also has the defects of brittleness, poor heat resistance and unstable degradation rate, for this reason its application is restricted and needs to be modified. Plant fiber developed rapidly in recent years because of the benefits of its low density, low cost, high specific strength and biodegradability. As the reinforcement, it can not only improve the properties of the materials, but also endows the composite with fully-biodegradability. The plant fiber reinforcing poly(lactic acid)(PLA) composite could be named "green composite", it represents an opportunity to partially ameliorate the environmental impacts and energy crisis. The recent researches of plant fiber reinforcing PLA composites were reviewed in this paper. Several pivotal questions were discussed in detail: improving of the interface, impact strength, heat resistance and processing method of the composites. The microfibrillited cellulose (MFC) reinforcing PLA nano-composites were also discussed.%聚乳酸因具有优良的生物相容性、易降解、强度高,可塑性强,易加工成型等优点,近年来倍受高分子材料行业的青睐。但是由于存在脆性高、热性能较差、降解速度不易控制等缺陷,限制了使用效果,因此需进行改性研究。植物纤维质轻、价廉、比强度高并可降解,近年来作为增强材料发展迅速,用来增强聚乳酸,不但可以提高材料的性能,而且赋予复合材料完全降解性能。植物纤维增强聚乳酸复合材料可称为“绿色复合材料”,可以有效地缓解环境问题及能源危机的冲击。本文就现阶段植物纤维增强聚乳酸的研究状况,围绕复合材料的界面改善、冲击性能、热性能的提高和复合工艺的改进等几个关

  16. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture: A Scale-Up Study from Laboratory to Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanon E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane contactors have been proposed for decades as a way to achieve intensified mass transfer processes. Post-combustion CO2 capture by absorption into a chemical solvent is one of the currently most intensively investigated topics in this area. Numerous studies have already been reported, unfortunately almost systematically on small, laboratory scale, modules. Given the level of flue gas flow rates which have to be treated for carbon capture applications, a consistent scale-up methodology is obviously needed for a rigorous engineering design. In this study, the possibilities and limitations of scale-up strategies for membrane contactors have been explored and will be discussed. Experiments (CO2 absorption from a gas mixture in a 30%wt MEA aqueous solution have been performed both on mini-modules and at pilot scale (10 m2 membrane contactor module based on PTFE hollow fibers. The results have been modelled utilizing a resistance in series approach. The only adjustable parameter is in fitting the simulations to experimental data is the membrane mass transfer coefficient (km, which logically plays a key role. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with scaleup computations from lab scale to pilot scale modules, with a particular emphasis on the km value, are presented and critically discussed.

  17. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  18. Carbon Fibers for Electrically Heated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    evaluated by several techniques. Samples of the yarn and fabric were enclosed in clean polyethylene bags which were subsequently heat-seaied and tumbled in...a home clothes dryer without heat. The result- of this test on PVA-sized polyacrylonitrile and rayon precursor yarn and PAN and rayon based fabrics...fabrics which were treated with PVA showed little or no accumulation of carbon/graphite dust within the sealed bag after an hour of tumbling , Fabrics

  19. Research on Rousi Fabric Health Function Based on Yarn Fineness%基于纱线细度的柔丝织物保健功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岳; 唐虹

    2013-01-01

    To research health function of Rousi fabric, three kinds of Rousi fabric with different weft fineness were woven. The fabric health functions of UV transmittance, negative ions number, far-infrared emissivity were tested. Effect of yarn fineness on Rousi fabric health function was analyzed. The research shows there are anti-UV, emission of negative ions and far-infrared emission health functions for Rousi fabric. As yarn fineness increase, the trend of UV transmittance is reducing, the trend of negative ions number and far-infrared emissivity are increasing. The order of yarn fineness effect degree from larger to small are negative ions number, far-infrared emissivity and UV transmittance.%为了研究柔丝织物保健功能,织造三类不同纬纱细度的柔丝织物,通过对织物紫外线透过率、负离子发生数、远红外发射率等保健功能指标进行测试,分析了纱线细度对柔丝织物保健功能的影响.研究发现,柔丝织物具有防紫外线、负离子释放和远红外发射保健功能;随着纱线细度增加,试样紫外线透过率呈下降趋势,负离子发生数和远红外发射率呈升高趋势;纱线细度对柔丝织物保健功能影响程度由大到小依次为负离子发生数、远红外发射率、紫外线透过率.

  20. Some measures of improving yarn quality of domestic drawing frame%提高国产并条机成纱质量的几项措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋育红

    2012-01-01

    从自调匀整的研究、圈条机构的设计、专家离线系统的应用及单眼并条机的研究4个方面,概述了国内并条机在保障成纱质量上所采取的一些举措。%A number of measures were discussed to protect yarn quality of the domestic drawing frame in four aspects as follows : self-leveling device research, the coiler institutions design, the application of expert off-line system and monocular drawing frame research.

  1. Comparative assessment of a biofilter, a biotrickling filter and a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor for odor treatment in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; Gondim, Ana Celina; Pérez, Rebeca; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2014-02-01

    A low abatement efficiency for the hydrophobic fraction of odorous emissions and a high footprint are often pointed out as the major drawbacks of conventional biotechnologies for odor treatment. In this work, two conventional biotechnologies (a compost-based biofilter, BF, and a biotrickling filter, BTF), and a hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (HF-MBR) were comparatively evaluated in terms of odor abatement potential and pressure drop (ΔP) at empty bed residence times (EBRTs) ranging from 4 to 84 s, during the treatment of methyl-mercaptan, toluene, alpha-pinene and hexane at trace level concentrations (0.75-4.9 mg m(-3)). High removal efficiencies (RE > 90% regardless of the air pollutant) were recorded in the BF at EBRTs ≥ 8 s, although the high ΔP across the packed bed limited its cost-effective operation to EBRTs > 19 s. A complete methyl-mercaptan, toluene and alpha-pinene removal was recorded in the BTF at EBRTs ≥ 4 s and ΔP lower than 33 mmH2O (∼611 Pa mbed(-1)), whereas slightly lower REs were observed for hexane (∼88%). The HF-MBR completely removed methyl-mercaptan and toluene at all EBRTs tested, but exhibited an unstable alpha-pinene removal performance as a result of biomass accumulation and a low hexane abatement efficiency. Thus, a periodical membrane-cleaning procedure was required to ensure a steady abatement performance. Finally, a high bacterial diversity was observed in the three bioreactors in spite of the low carbon source spectrum present in the air emission.

  2. Discussion on error analysis of translating system of yarn evenness tester and its metrological verification%电容式纱线条干仪信号转换的误差及计量检定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施楣梧; 姚穆

    2001-01-01

    The error sources from initial signal translating system of the yarn evenness tester are analysed in this paper.The relation between yarn linear dewsity and response voltage is measurad.The verificating method and evaluating index are probed.%分析了电容式纱线条干均匀度仪在一次信号转换中造成误差的原因,实测了纱线线密度与检测器输出电压的关系,探讨了仪器计量检定方法和考核指标.

  3. 纱线活性染料染灰色日晒牢度探讨%A Study on the Color Fastness to Light of Yarn in Grey Dyeing with Reactive Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉梅; 顾晓忠; 王强; 顾春华; 蒋静娟

    2011-01-01

    According to the character of low color fastness to light of yarn in grey dyeing with reactive dyes, the optimum three primary colors for guaranteeing the quality were suggested based on the amount and cost of dyes. The color fastness to light of yarn in grey was improved.%针对纱线活性染料染灰色日晒牢度差问题,结合拼色用量及染色成本,给出合理染料组合,使日晒牢度得以提高,质量得到保证。

  4. Characterizing Cellulosic Fibers from Ulex europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Celis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information on the morphological and physical properties of biofibers is necessary to support the mechanical understanding of the biological design of plants, as well as for the development of new technology that adds value to non-traditional bioresources, such as those based on Ulex europaeus fibers. Ulex europaeus fibers were extracted through a chemical pulping process at 170 °C and with 40 g/L NaOH. The dimensions of the fibers produced were 0.97 ± 0.1 mm in length and 13 ± 2 μm in diameter. Pressed fiber paper sheets were made to evaluate their mechanical properties. Burst and tear indices of 1.2 mN/kg and 8.6 Nm2/kg, respectively, were recorded. The values obtained did not compare well to fiber paper sheets from Pinus radiata, presumably due to the significant amount of non-structural elements of wood present in the samples and the lower length of Ulex europaeus fibers, which resulted in lower tensile strength. Additionally, nanoindentation tests were conducted to assess the hardness and elastic modulus of the fibers, obtaining average values of 0.84 GPa and 9.23 GPa for the stem, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of industrial biofiber, perhaps due to the lower morphogenic maturity of Ulex europaeus fibers compared to other traditional sources of fiber.

  5. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  6. Application of Combined Process of Vortex Clarifier and Fiber Bundle Filter in Reclaimed Water Treatment Plant%涡流澄清池/纤维束滤池组合工艺在中水处理厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宁; 李如祥; 彭长刚

    2012-01-01

    徐州某污水厂采用涡流澄清池/纤维束滤池组合工艺对污水厂二级出水进行深度处理,当进水COD为60 mg/L、浊度为15 NTU时,出水COD和浊度分别约为30 mg/L和2 NTU,出水水质达到设计要求.实践表明,该组合工艺具有混凝效率高、过滤效果好、出水水质优、适应能力强等优点,具有一定的推广价值.%The combined process of vortex clarifier and fiber bundle filter was used to treat the secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in Xuzhou City. When the influent COD and turbidity were 60 mg/L and 15 NTU, the corresponding effluent values were 30 mg/L and 2 NTU, meeting the design standard. The practice showed that the combined process had advantages of high coagulation efficiency , fine filtration effect, good effluent quality and strong adaptability, and it had some promotion value.

  7. Ecologically clean and raw-resources-saving technology using photonic purification of fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyshev, Boris E.; Protasova, Valentina A.; Shepelev, Andrey V.; Kalinin, Yuri A.

    1995-04-01

    The elaborated technology of laseral optical pumping is successfully used for the purification of fibers from impurities. This is the novel and effective application of pulsed power. The higher powerful and technological advantages for purification of wool from vegetable impurities are presented in this paper. The aim of using light irradiation is almost complete cleaning of light wool from dark vegetable admixtures, dust and brand at the early steps (carding worsted blends) of technological process of producing fine yarns. Stabilizing all mechanical and chemical-technological processes following light radiation purification and increasing technical-economic parameters of production is achieved in this case as well. The physical essence of light irradiation wool cleaning is based upon different optical and thermal properties of light fibers on the one hand, and of dark admixtures-fractions of vegetable matter and burrs, dust and brand-on the other hand. The difference of coefficients of light irradiation by fibers and impurities is of great importance. The 500-1100 nm spectral range has a selective impact on the fibers and impurities.

  8. Study of Aramid Fiber/Polychloroprene Recycling Process by Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dabkiewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aramid fiber is an important polymer applied as reinforcement in high-performance composites, which, due its exceptional properties, becomes an excellent impact absorption material. It has been broadly utilized in aeronautic industry and ballistic protection. In aircrafts, it is mainly used in secondary structures, such as fairings, floor panels, and bullet proof structures in helicopters, whereas, in ballistic protection industry, it is applied in automotive armor and bullet proof vest. Under environmental perspective, it is worrying the development and application of composites, which generate proportional discards of these materials, whether originated from manufacturing process, spare parts or end of life cycle. High-performance composite materials like those using aramid fiber are generally difficult to recycle due to their properties and the difficulty for the separation of the components, making their recycling economically unviable. From the characteristics of composite materials and environmental viewpoint, this paper presents a new aramid fiber recycling process. The main objective of this research was to study different recycling methods in aramid fibers/Neoprene® composites. To promote the Neoprene® degradation, it was used a pyrolysis oven with controlled atmosphere and CO 2 injection. For the degraded separation, it was designed a mechanical washing machine in which the most degraded separation occurred. To complete the materials separation, it was employed a manual cleaning process, and, at least to prove the efficacy of the process, it was applied a tensile test in the yarns.

  9. Improvement of Fiber Quality by Distant Hybridization in the Green Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ke-yun

    2008-01-01

    @@ In order to improve fiber quality of green cotton,a wide hybrid was used between a green fiber cotton and Sea Island cotton.The results show that the hybrid F1 plants were stable,but F2 plants had large variation.By self-pollinating for advancing generations,we found that the lint percent and fiber length of green fiber cotton were both improved,but micronaire value and fiber color were difficult to increase.The fiber pigment and micronaire value are controlled by linked genes.

  10. 针织用汉麻纱线的开发与应用%Development and application of the knitting used hemp fiber yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆小瑾; 黄小云; 胡静

    2009-01-01

    介绍了汉麻纤维的物理结构、化学成分及主要性能,如抑菌性能、抗紫外线性能等.采用汉麻纤维与其他纤维混纺.测试各混纺纱线的性能,并使用混纺纱试织各种针织物,对织物进行服用性能测试.结果表明:采用其他柔软性纤维与汉麻进行混纺,可克服汉麻本身的刚度和脆性,纱线适合作为针织用纱.

  11. Study on sizing performance of several gum powders to polyester cotton yarn%几种胶粉用于涤棉纱浆纱性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤一辰; 沈艳琴; 武海良

    2012-01-01

    为了对聚酯浆料有一个综合性了解和评价,将醋酸酯淀粉分别与聚酯、PVA、聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)配伍,形成3种胶粉浆料.通过实验,对这3种胶粉浆料的浆液性能、浆膜性能等进行了测试分析,并对涤棉纱线进行上浆实验,对比分析了上浆后纱线的毛羽降低率、增强率、减伸率等性能指标,所得数据可作为纺织企业对聚酯胶粉浆料使用时的参考.%In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding and evaluation about polyester size, it is discussed that acetic ester starch respectively mixed in proportion with polyester, PVA, polyacrylamide (PAM) and formed in three kinds of gum powder size. By many experiments, size performance and film properties of these size were tested and analyzed. The sizing experiment was carried on polyester cotton yarns. It was compared and analyzed that the sized yarn hairiness reducing rate, increasing rate, reducing rate and other performance indicators. The data can be used as the reference when textile enterprise uses polyester gum powder size.

  12. Application of Tapered Teeth Clothing to Fine Denier Fiber Production%锥齿针布在生产细旦纤维中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱国; 赵福增; 雒书华

    2015-01-01

    探讨光山白鲨针布厂家生产的大白鲨锥齿系列针布在生产细旦莫代尔品种上的应用情况。生产实践对比显示,大白鲨锥齿系列针布与graf针布相比,质量指标基本相当,但要好于国内其它品牌针布的成纱质量。大白鲨锥齿针布优化的齿型设计和特殊表面处理工艺,是其能提高梳理质量、减少纤维损伤、提高成纱质量的根本原因。%The application of White Shark series tapered teeth clothing to production of fine denier fiber was studied.It was found that the performance of White Shark clothing is basically as good as the Graf clothing, but is better than other domestic clothing in yarn quality.The tooth shape, surface treatment process of White Shark clothing is helpful to improve carding quality, reduce fiber damage and increase yarn quality.

  13. Fabrication of Composite Material Using Gettou Fiber by Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuda, Roy; Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    This study investigated the mechanical properties of composite using gettou (shell ginger) fiber as reinforcement fabricated from injection molding. Gettou fiber is a natural fiber made from gettou, a subtropical plant that is largely abundant in Okinawa, Japan. We used the stem part of gettou plant and made the gettou fiber by crushing the stem. The composite using gettou fiber contributed to low shrinkage ratio, high bending strength and high flexural modulus. The mechanical strength of composite using long gettou fiber showed higher value than composite using short gettou fiber. Next, because gettou is particularly known for its anti-mold characteristic, we investigated the characteristic in gettou plastic composite. The composite was tested against two molds: aspergillius niger and penicillium funiculosum. The 60% gettou fiber plastic composite was found to satisfy the JISZ2801 criterion. Finally, in order to predict the flexural modulus of composite using gettou fiber by Halpin-Tsai equation, the tensile elastic modulus of single gettou fiber was measured. The tendency of the experimental results of composite using gettou fiber was in good agreement with Halpin-Tsai equation.

  14. Evaluation of Properties of Unidirectional Hemp/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Fiber Content and Fiber/Matrix Interface Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Lilholt, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites.......Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites....

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Fiber Development and Protein Extraction Method Comparison in Late Stage Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mujahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinct stages of cotton fiber development and maturation serve as a single-celled model for studying the molecular mechanisms of plant cell elongation, cell wall development and cellulose biosynthesis. However, this model system of plant cell development is compromised for proteomic studies due to a lack of an efficient protein extraction method during the later stages of fiber development, because of a recalcitrant cell wall and the presence of abundant phenolic compounds. Here, we compared the quality and quantities of proteins extracted from 25 dpa (days post anthesis fiber with multiple protein extraction methods and present a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study of fiber development from 10 dpa to 25 dpa. Comparative analysis using a label-free quantification method revealed 287 differentially-expressed proteins in the 10 dpa to 25 dpa fiber developmental period. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism and regulation, cytoskeleton development and carbohydrate metabolism among other functional categories in four fiber developmental stages were identified. Our studies provide protocols for protein extraction from maturing fiber tissues for mass spectrometry analysis and expand knowledge of the proteomic profile of cotton fiber development.

  16. 纯棉细号高密紧密纱织物无PVA上浆体会%Experience of Sizing Pure Cotton Fine Count High Density Compact Yarn Fabric without PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祥

    2012-01-01

    Sizing processing of pure cotton fine count high density compact yarn fabric without PVA was discussed. Compact yarn sizing key points were analyzed. Sizing and size film properties were contrasted in condition of adopting PVA and no PVA. Sizing test was done on compact yarn. Test test shows that sizing of pure cotton fine count high density compact yarn fabric without PVA can be realized through setting sizing processing rationally, ensuring sizing hairiness, strength and elongation in better state.%探讨纯棉细号高密紧密纱织物无PVA上浆工艺.分析了紧密纱上浆的要点,对比了含PVA浆料配方与无PVA浆料配方的浆液与浆膜性能,对紧密纱进行了上浆试验.试验证明,通过合理设置上浆工艺,保证浆纱毛羽、强力及伸长处于较佳状态,可以实现纯棉细号高密紧密纱织物的无PVA上浆.

  17. 湿纺与干纺对亚麻/毛混纺纱性能的影响%Study on Quality Influence to Flax/wool Blended Yarn between Two Kinds of Spinning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张微

    2016-01-01

    采用亚麻湿法纺纱工艺纺制了27.3 Nm 70/30亚麻/毛及26 Nm 50/50亚麻/毛混纺纱。另外采用传统的方法,在毛纺设备上纺制了18 Nm 70/30亚麻/毛及24.5 Nm 50/50亚麻/毛混纺纱。对两种纺纱方法下的纱进行性能对比,得出湿纺混纺亚麻/毛纱的质量明显优于干纺混纺亚麻/毛纱。%In this paper,the 27.3 Nm 70 /30 flax/wool and 26 Nm 50 /50 flax/wool blended yarn were spun in flax wet spinning process. And the yarns of 18 Nm 70 /30 Flax/Wool and 24.5 Nm 50 /50 Flax /Wool were spun in traditional wool spinning system. The results showed that the quality of wet-spun flax/wool blended yarns were better than those of dry-spun flax/wool blended yarns when the two spinning methods were compared..

  18. Measurement on the uncertainty of linear density of yarn removed from woven fabrics%机织物拆下纱线线密度测量不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉佩

    2014-01-01

    按照FZ/T 01093-2008《机织物结构分析方法织物中拆下纱线线密度的测定》测量机织物拆下纱线线密度。详细分析了测量过程中影响结果的各个分量,并对各分量进行评定。对结果的标准不确定度进行合成评定、扩展评定,结果表明:机织物拆下纱线线密度的不确定度主要来自于纱长测定仪确定伸直张力,其次是样品称量和重复性测量。%The linear density of yarn removed from woven fabric was measured according to FZ/T 01093-2008“Woven fabrics- Construction- Methods of analysis- Determination of linear density of yarn removed from fabric”. The factors affecting the results during the measurement were detailed analyzed and the factors were assessed. The combined and expanded uncertainty of measurement result was assessed. The results showed that the uncertainty of linear density of yarn removed from woven fabrics mainly derived from the measuring the expansion tension by using yarn length tester, and sample weighing and repeated measure-ment were in the second place.

  19. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  20. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    During this ph.d. work, attention has been focused on understanding and analyzing the modal behavior of micro-structured fibers. Micro-structured fibers are fibers with a complex dielectric toplogy, and offer a number of novel possibilities, compared to standard silica based optical fibers. The t...