WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant extract administration

  1. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPlant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set provides an...

  2. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  3. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  4. Gastroprotective effects of flavonoids in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Ghegotsky, M R

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. In addition, we assessed whether these compounds are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically (i.g.). The following plant-originated flavonoid substances were considered; Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper). The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study where used 100% ethanol was applied i.g. to induce gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment with L-NNA. We conclude that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation.

  5. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  7. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeremet, Oana Cristina; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ionică, Floriana Elvira; Margină, Denisa Marilena; GuŢu, Claudia Maria; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Gonciar, Veaceslav; Negreş, Simona; ChiriŢă, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No. 423 was used. For the determination of repeated dose oral toxicity, Senecionis vernalis herba and Symphyti radix extracts (250 mg÷kg) were administrated, by gavage, for 28 days, and their effects on animal weight, liver and biliary functions, hepatic tissue and oxidative stress were investigated. After the acute toxicity testing, the dry extracts were placed in the GHS Category V (LD50>5000 mg÷kg, p.o.). For the subacute toxicity testing, no death or any signs of toxicity were observed. Also, no significant differences in biochemical parameters were observed between control and treated groups. The observed histopathological lesions were non-specific and were not consistent with the data reported in the literature for PAs exposure. In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs.

  9. effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of cassia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    seeds extract's relation with acid – base balance of the body. Serum concentrations ... Oral administration of aqueous extract of C. occidentalis ... irrespective of duration of administration (weeks). .... Student 't' test was used to analyse the data.

  10. PLANT RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTS AS COMPONENTS OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND FORMULATIONS FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION: THE PRODUCT RANGE, THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary pharmaceutical practice extracts are used as a separate cosmetic product and as an intermediate for external medicinal forms (ointments, gels, liniments and cosmetic forms. Their range is highly diverse.The aim is an overview of the scientific and technical information concerning plant  raw materials extracts using in the external drug and cosmetic products.Methods. To describe the range of extracts proposed for external use the analysis of the proposals of Russian and foreign producers submitted their official websites and online trading platforms was used. The specificity of extraction of biologically active substances of plant extracting agents: water, ethyl alcohol, glycols, vegetable oils, carbon dioxide used to obtain extracts was described on the basis of available scientific literature (eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, Google Books. Results. Examples of external drugs and cosmetic products based on plant raw materials extracts from a range of pharmaceutical organizations are given. It was found that from the extracting solvent used the range is presented by hydrophilic, such as glycol (propylene glycol, glycerin, water, alcoholic extracts; lipophilic (oil, CO2-extracts, and two-phase (caprylic/caprate triglyceride/water extracts. The main features of the extracting solvent used for this category of extracts: the specifics of the use in cosmetics (the skin specific effect, in particular selectivity to groups of biologically active plant substances, microbiological purity, are noted. Results of research data on the study of the prospects for the use of cosmetic ingredients – silicones, caprylic/ capric triglyceride, isopropyl myristate both solvents. The extraction techniques: classical (maceration, percolation and intensified (electro-plasma dynamic extraction, vacuum extraction circulation, CO2 supercritical extraction used in industry to produce cosmetic extracts are described

  11. Effect of Apium graveolens Extract Administration on the Pharmacokinetics of Captopril in the Plasma of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Siska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Apium graveolens (celery is an edible and traditionally medicinal plant that is used worldwide, among others for the treatment of hypertension. Combining celery with antihypertensive drugs can affect the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the latter drugs. The aim of the study is to assess the effects of administrating the celery extract on captopril pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley strain rats were divided into two groups (n = 6. Group I was given captopril (10 mg/kg Body Weight (BW orally, while Group II was pretreated with celery extract orally (40 mg/kg BW an hour before administration of captopril. The blood samples were withdrawn at various intervals after drug administration. The captopril concentration was determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and from the blood data, the values of Ke, Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, and area under the curve (AUC were calculated. The results showed that oral administration of the celery extract increased Cmax (38.67%, T1/2 (37.84%, and AUC (58.10% and decreased Ke (27.45% of captopril in Group II (celery + captopril compared with Group I (captopril. In conclusion, celery extract can alter the pharmacokinetic of captopril when given in combination. The combination might be beneficial for the treatment of hypertension, as celery causes an increase in the plasma level of captopril, which can enhance its efficacy.

  12. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

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    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  13. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  14. Influence of Periodic Administration of Garlic Extract on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Periodic Administration of Garlic Extract on Blood Parameters of Grazing Lambs. ... Treatment 1 (T1) served as control with no garlic extract, Treatment (T2) were given 5ml garlic extract weekly and Treatment T3 received 5ml garlic extract every 2 weeks. Results of haematological analysis showed that PCV ...

  15. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  16. Antioxidant Potential of Selected Korean Edible Plant Extracts

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    Yaejin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various plant extracts. A total of 94 kinds of edible plant extracts obtained from the Korea Plant Extract Bank were screened for cytotoxicity, following which the total phenolic content of 24 shortlisted extracts was determined. Of these, extracts from three plants, namely, Castanea crenata (CC leaf, Camellia japonica (CJ fruit, and Viburnum dilatatum (VD leaf, were examined for antioxidant capabilities by measuring radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. In addition, cellular antioxidant activities of the three extracts were assessed by a cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay and antioxidant response element (ARE reporter activity assay. The results demonstrated that all three extracts concentration-dependently scavenged free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation, reduced the cellular level of reactive oxygen species, and increased ARE-luciferase activity, indicating antioxidant enzyme-inducing potential. In particular, CJ extract showed significantly greater antioxidative activity and antimigratory effect in a breast cancer cell line compared to CC and VD extracts. Hence, CJ extract deserves further study for its in vivo functionality or biologically active constituents.

  17. Administration in an operating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, K.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of strict administrative procedures in the daily work is being demonstrated by commenting on events that occured in the operation of German nuclear power plants. The procedure for working in an area of the plant (pressurized medium, high-radioactive level, explosive of flammable mediums), where special measures for safe working have to be taken, is discussed in detail. The administrative problems during refuelling time are further on mentioned, especially the problems connected with administering more than 1,000 people with respect to health protection and sabotage protection. Some general comments on the influences from external causes (authorities, courts, etc.) are given. (orig./ORU) [de

  18. Effects of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) in animal models of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Fernandes, Marcelo S; Rial, Daniel; Wopereis, Sandro; Pereira, Vitor S; Bosse, Tamara S; Da Silva, Camila B; Carradore, Renata S; Machado, Marina S; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Costa-Campos, Luciane

    2008-12-08

    Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire (Aquifoliaceae) is a plant widely cultivated in South America that is used to prepare a tea-like beverage with a reputation to improve cognitive function, a response that has been attributed to the constituents of the leaves, especially caffeine. Our previous study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis presents an antiparkinsonian profile in reserpine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP)-treated rodents. In the present study, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis on the short- and long-term learning and memory of rats were assessed with the social recognition, Morris water maze, and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. A preliminary HPLC fingerprint of the plant extract confirmed the presence of caffeine (the major compound), rutin and kaemperol, and revealed the absence of detectable concentrations of caffeic acid, quercetin and ursolic acid. Acute pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral administration of the extract of Ilex paraguariensis improved the short-term social memory in a specific manner as well as facilitated the step-down inhibitory avoidance short-term memory evaluated 1.5h after training. Moreover, a synergistic response was observed following the co-administration of 'non-effective' doses of caffeine and Ilex paraguariensis in the social memory. In contrast, pre-training administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis did not alter the step-down inhibitory avoidance long-term memory evaluated 24h after training, while the highest dose tested (250 mg/kg, i.p.) disrupted the animals' performance in a cued version of the Morris water maze. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of mate tea for improvement of cognition indicating that acute administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis differentially modulates short- and long-term learning and memory in rats probably through its

  19. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  20. Benefficial effect of plant extracts in rabbit husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Szabóová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of plant extracts of oregano and commercial XtraktTM administrations on microbial, biochemical, immunological and nutritional indicators and on Eimeria sp. oocyst occurrence in rabbits. Rabbits (5 weeks old, Hy-plus hybrid, n = 66 were divided into experimental group 1 (E1 with oregano extract application, experimental group 2 (E2 with XtractTM application and control group. Natural substances were administered for the first 21 days. The experiment lasted for 42 days. The antibacterial effect was determined by the decrease of coagulase-positive staphylococci in E1 compared to control at day 42. Staphylococcus aureus cells were detected in lower counts in E2 compared to control at day 21. The counts of Clostridium-like bacteria were lower in both experimental groups at day 21 compared to day 7 (difference 1.2 and 1.3 log cycles, respectively and to control (difference 0.5 and 0.3 log cycles, respectively. At day 7, the counts of coliforms in E1 were significantly lower than in E2 (P Eimeria sp. oocysts and higher value of phagocytic activity (21.6 ± 0.51 % were found compared to XtractTM, and prolonged immuno-stimulatory effect was noted. In the animals of both experimental groups higher final weight, feed conversion ratio and lower mortality were achieved compared to control. The administration of oregano showed antibacterial, anticoccidial, and immunomodulatory effects. The results showed that oregano administration may be used as an alternative prophylactic measure in rabbits.

  1. Carrier system for a plant extract or bioactive compound from a plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound.......This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound....

  2. Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1996-06-01

    The herb Scoparia dulcis L. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat bronchitis, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, insect bites and skin wounds, and in oriental medicine to treat hypertension. A previous study has shown that extracts of S. dulcis have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; in this work the sympathomimetic activity of an ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis L. has been investigated in rodent preparations in-vivo and in-vitro. Administration of the extract (0.5-2 mg kg-1, i.v.) to anaesthetized rats produced dose-related hypertension blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg kg-1). Partition of the extract in chloroform-water yielded an aqueous phase 20 times more potent than the extract; this produced hypertension in either reserpine-treated or pithed rats. In untreated and reserpine-treated rats the same fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the vas deferens musculature parallel to those obtained with noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M). Prazosin (10(-7)M) reduced the maximum contractile effect of the aqueous fraction, and shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline to the right. The aqueous fraction (25 and 50 micrograms mL-1) increased the inotropism of electrically driven left atria of rats, the effect being blocked by propranolol (0.4 microgram mL-1). In preparations of guinea-pig tracheal rings the aqueous fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) relaxed the muscle contraction induced by histamine (10(-4) M) in proportion to the concentration. The effect was antagonized competitively by propranolol (1.5 microM). High-performance liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aqueous fraction revealed the presence of both noradrenaline and adrenaline in the plant extract. The results indicated that both catecholamines may account for the hypertensive and inotropic effects obtained after parenteral administration of S. dulcis extracts. This sympathomimetic activity is

  3. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  4. Long-term continuous administration of a hydro-ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term continuous administration of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella ... Ghana, P.O Box LG 43, Legon, Accra, Ghana 2Department of Animal Experimentation, Noguchi Memorial. Institute for ..... short-or long-term administration.

  5. Effect of flavonoid-containing extracts on the growth of transplanted sarcoma 45, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition after oral and intramuscular administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Navolokin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective — Discovery of the apoptosis-inducing effects of flavonoid vagonin allowed to make an assumption of existence of similar effect in others flavonoids. This study of the effects of extracts from Gratīola officinālis, Helichrýsum arenárium and diploid forms of Zea mays on bone marrow and blood leucocytes at intramuscular and oral administration was carried out on rats bearing sarcoma 45. Earlier, the apoptosis-inducing effects were detected for these extracts but the toxic effects of extracts on blood and bone marrow have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these extracts on white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology. Material and Methods — The experiments were carried out on 48 male Wistar albino rats according to University's Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol № 13, 2011, Saratov, Russia and the relevant national agency regulating experiments on animals. We evaluated white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology in animals after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts. A growth rate of tumor was also ranked. Results — Oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis causes normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats and increase of lymphocyte percent in white blood cell count of blood and myelogram. Conclusion — Absence of toxic effects and normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis allows to recommend further study of the antitumor effect of these extracts.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Botanical Drugs and Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez More, Gina Paola; Cardenas, Paola Andrea; Costa, Geison M; Simoes, Claudia M O; Aragon, Diana Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Botanical drugs contain plant extracts, which are complex mixtures of compounds. As with conventional drugs, it is necessary to validate their efficacy and safety through preclinical and clinical studies. However, pharmacokinetic studies for active constituents or characteristic markers in botanical drugs are rare. The objective of this review was to investigate the global state of the art in pharmacokinetic studies of active ingredients present in plant extracts and botanical drugs. A review of pharmacokinetics studies of chemical constituents of plant extracts and botanical drugs was performed, with a total of 135 studies published between January 2004 and February 2015 available in recognized scientific databases. Botanical preparations were mainly found in the form of aqueous extracts of roots and rhizomes. The most widely studied species was Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the compound most frequently used as a pharmacokinetic marker was berberine. Most studies were performed using the Sprague Dawley rat model, and the preparations were mainly administered orally in a single dose. Quantification of plasma concentrations of pharmacokinetic markers was performed mainly by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector. In conclusion, in recent years there has been an increasing interest among researchers worldwide in the study of pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs and plant extracts, especially those from the Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Plant extracts in the control of Phytophthora cryptogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit extract at dose 40 micrograms/cm3 inhibited Phytophtora cryptogea linear growth about 50% and almost completely suppressed zoosporangia formation. Drenching of gerbera plants with the extract at dose 165 micrograms/cm3 reduced population density of the pathogen about 70% and this high efficacy was noted at least one month after application. Treatment of gerberas with grapefruit extract resulted in protection of about 50% of plants against the pathogen. Biological activity of purple coneflower extract was lower than extract from grapefruit. Significant decrease of population density of the pathogen during the first 5 days and increase of gerbera healthy stand was observed, however, in peat treated with that extract.

  8. Effect of scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Scoparia dulcis plant extract is tried for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by streptozotocin injection. A single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) produced decrease in insulin, hyperglycemia, increased lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and decreased antioxidant levels (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, ceruloplasmin). Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant (200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks to diabetic rats significantly increased the plasma insulin and plasma antioxidants and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. The effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than that of glibenclamide, a reference drug.

  9. Antifungal Activities of Extracts from Selected Lebanese Wild Plants against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abou-Jawdah

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine plant species growing wild in Lebanon were tested for their efficacy against seven plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaerotheca cucurbitae. Extracts of three of the plants, Origanum syriacum, Micromeria nervosa and Plumbago maritima, showed the highest levels of in vitro activity against spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungi tested. Inula viscosa showed high activity against spore germination but only moderate activity against mycelial growth. The other five plant species tested Calamintha origanifolia, Micromeria juliana, Ruta sp., Sideritis pullulans and Urginea maritima showed only moderate to low activity against these fungi. Preventive sprays with extracts of O. syriacum, M. nervosa, P. maritima and I. viscosa, applied at concentrations ranging between 4 and 8% to squash and cucumber seedlings, gave efficient protection against gray mold caused by B. cinerea and powdery mildew caused by S. cucurbitae. However, these extracts did not control green mold of citrus fruits caused by Penicillium sp. Thin layer chromatography revealed three inhibitory bands in extracts of O. syriacum, two in I. viscosa and only one in each of the other plants tested: M. nervosa, P. maritima, C. origanifolia and Ruta sp.

  10. Effects of Greek legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Chrysoula I; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Aligiannis, Nectarios; Angelis, Apostolos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Anastasiadi, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Legumes are considered to have beneficial health implications, which have been attributed to their phytochemical content. Polyphenols are considered the most important phytochemical compounds extensively studied for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of potent antioxidant legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. XO exerts a dual role, as it is the major contributor of free radicals during exercise while it generates uric acid, the most potent antioxidant molecule in plasma. CAT and SOD are two of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defence of tissues. We demonstrate that the majority of the extracts inhibited XO activity, but they had no effect on CAT inhibition and SOD induction when used at low concentrations. These results imply that the tested extracts may be considered as possible source of novel XO inhibitors. However, we have shown that allopurinol administration, a known XO inhibitor, before exercise reduces performance and induces oxidative stress in rats. Considering the fact that the extracts examined had an inhibitory effect on XO activity, possibly posing a restriction in their characterization as antioxidants, phytochemical antioxidant administration before exercise should probably be reconsidered.

  11. Oral administration of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract has no untoward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanolic extract of leaf and root of Rauwolfia vomitoria on kidney and liver functions in rats was investigated. Rats were given daily oral administration of ethanolic extracts of either root or leaf of R. vomitoria at two different concentrations (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg body weight) for a period of 14 days. Some biochemical ...

  12. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  13. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  14. Strategies for the extraction and analysis of non-extractable polyphenols from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, Gloria; Marina, María Luisa; Plaza, Merichel

    2017-09-08

    The majority of studies based on phenolic compounds from plants are focused on the extractable fraction derived from an aqueous or aqueous-organic extraction. However, an important fraction of polyphenols is ignored due to the fact that they remain retained in the residue of extraction. They are the so-called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs) which are high molecular weight polymeric polyphenols or individual low molecular weight phenolics associated to macromolecules. The scarce information available about NEPs shows that these compounds possess interesting biological activities. That is why the interest about the study of these compounds has been increasing in the last years. Furthermore, the extraction and characterization of NEPs are considered a challenge because the developed analytical methodologies present some limitations. Thus, the present literature review summarizes current knowledge of NEPs and the different methodologies for the extraction of these compounds, with a particular focus on hydrolysis treatments. Besides, this review provides information on the most recent developments in the purification, separation, identification and quantification of NEPs from plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, S.M.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  18. Solvent extraction for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Jinichi

    1986-01-01

    The purex process provides a solvent extraction method widely used for separating uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution containing spent fuel. The Tokai Works has adopted the purex process with TPB-n dodecane as the extraction agent and a mixer settler as the solvent extraction device. The present article outlines the solvent extraction process and discuss the features of various extraction devices. The chemical principle of the process is described and a procedure for calculating the number of steps for countercurrent equilibrium extraction is proposed. Discussion is also made on extraction processes for separating and purifying uranium and plutonium from fission products and on procedures for managing these processes. A small-sized high-performance high-reliability device is required for carrying out solvent extraction in reprocessing plants. Currently, mixer settler, pulse column and centrifugal contactor are mainly used in these plants. Here, mixer settler is comparted with pulse column with respect to their past achievements, design, radiation damage to solvent, operation halt, controllability and maintenance. Processes for co-extraction, partition, purification and solvent recycling are described. (Nogami, K.)

  19. The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in liquid/liquid extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bradshaw, L.; Tolchard, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic instruments can be used to determine many of the parameters of interest in a liquid/liquid extraction plant, eg liquid levels, the position of interfaces between immiscible liquids and the concentration of solutions. The determinations can often be made non-invasively. A number of instruments developed for a liquid/liquid extraction plant used for nuclear fuel reprocessing is described. These instruments have a wider application in liquid/liquid extraction plant in general. (author)

  20. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  1. Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of some plant extracts on Curvularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUDITH

    growth of C. lunata (P ≤ 0.05). At all concentrations, P. amarus is most efficacious of all the plants extracts; this was followed by extract of T. diversifolia and M. lucida. Extract of G. sepium was the least effective of all the plant extracts against C. lunata. P. amarus is most efficient in the control of leaf spot of maize caused by ...

  2. Inorganic constituents determination in medicinal plants and their extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisconi, Lucilaine Silva

    2014-01-01

    Different types of therapies have been introduced as an alternative treatment to combat different types of human disorders. Among them, the use of herbal teas has been highlighted by the cost/benefit, easiness of acquisition and administration. The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic constituents, and evaluate the element concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg. Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis; and Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, by atomic emission spectrometry, with inductively coupled plasma source and Hg, by atomic absorption spectrometry, with cold vapor generation in medicinal plants and their extracts, whose marketing was recently regulated by National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The relevance of these analyses is justified by the need of contributing to the recommendation of such plants as sources of minerals in the diet and, also, to verify if their concentrations cam pose some harm to the organism. The techniques showed adequate sensitivity in determining the concentration for most of the elements. Toxic elements were found in concentration not harmful to the human body. The results, also, allowed possible to correlate the elemental concentration in the analyzed species, by the determination the correlation coefficients and applications of cluster analysis. From these results it was confirmers in the groups of elements, regarding the variation of the concentrations observed in some plants and their extracts. The elements that play important roles in the human metabolism were determined in concentrations that can help both, to avoid the lack of these elements in the organisms, from the diet, and in treatment of disease. (author)

  3. In vitro screening of methanol plant extracts for their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.; Sattar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation. (author)

  4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  5. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  6. SCREENING OF PLANT EXTRACTS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was antimicrobial action of the methanolic extracts of Equisetum arvense L. and Urtica dioica L. against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 were determined by the disc diffusion method and the microbroth dilution method according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most antimicrobial activity showed methanolic plant extract of E. arvense against S. epidermis with disc diffusion method and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and plant extract Urtica dioica with disc diffusion method against P. aeruginosa and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and E. coli.

  7. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.

  8. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  9. administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and. Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Masoumian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, it is necessary to discover new and efficient antifungal or antimicrobial drugs because of increasing drug resistance organisms. Using medicinal plants for natural treatment of diseases caused by bacterial origin has mainly been considered. Objectives: In this study, the impacts of antimicrobial medicinal plants extract were compared based on four bacteria in vitro. Methods: In this experimental study, disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method were used to investigate the antibacterial effects of selected plant extract elicited by two different solvent on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteric. Data were analyzed with a statistical software program (SPSS 16. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle and water extract of Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon were the most active extracts screened for antimicrobial activities against different four bacteria as tested organisms. The diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 23 to 28 mm. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of plant extracts and commercial drug revealed that the size of inhibition zone of penicillin against Staphylococcus aureus bacterium was larger than the plant extracts. However, myrtle extract at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 30 mg/mL showed more powerful antibacterial activity compared to the other extracts and even penicillin. Petroselinum crispum (parsley, Nerium oleander (Oleander and Glycyrihiza glabra (licorice were found to have the least effect on the tested bacteria. Conclusions: In the present study, plant extracts with different compounds showed antibacterial activity (especially myrtle and cinnamon. Hence, they can be used as new source for antibacterial substances.

  11. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  12. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from native plants in the Mexican desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Paz, Jorge E; Muñiz Márquez, Diana B; Martínez Ávila, Guillermo C G; Belmares Cerda, Ruth E; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Several plants that are rich in polyphenolic compounds and exhibit biological properties are grown in the desert region of Mexico under extreme climate conditions. These compounds have been recovered by classic methodologies in these plants using organic solvents. However, little information is available regarding the use of alternative extraction technologies, such as ultrasound. In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters, such as the liquid:solid ratio, solvent concentration and extraction time, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) for the extraction of polyphenols from desert plants including Jatrophadioica,Flourensiacernua, Turneradiffusa and Eucalyptuscamaldulensis. Key process variables (i.e., liquid:solid ratio and ethanol concentration) exert the greatest influence on the extraction of all of the phenolic compounds (TPC) in the studied plants. The best conditions for the extraction of TPC involved an extraction time of 40min, an ethanol concentration of 35% and a liquid:solid ratio ranging from 8 to 12mlg(-1) depending on the plant. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained in the E. camaldulensis extracts. The results indicated the ability of UAE to obtain polyphenolic antioxidant preparations from desert plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum . The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  16. A perspective on plant origin radiolabeled compounds, their biological affinities and interaction between plant extracts with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumrut Biber Muftuler, F.; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Perihan Unak

    2015-01-01

    Plant origin products having anticancer properties come into prominence due to widespread of cancer. There is significant increase on the usage of plant origin products and their purification to investigate the potential use at the treatment and diagnosis. Plant origin radiolabeled compounds have been attracting more scientific attention since the achievement of earlier researches. Furthermore, plant extracts are consumed quite a lot with unknown side effects of their contents. Researchers focus on investigation of their interactions with radiopharmaceuticals. Current review is carried out to evaluate the contribution of plant extracts for the development of new plant origin radiolabeled ( 125 / 131 I, 99m Tc) compounds for imaging and/or therapy and to investigate the interaction of plant extracts with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  17. Administrative and managerial controls for the operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for the administrative and managerial controls necessary for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Topics covered include: administrative organization; review and audit; facility administrative policies and procedures; and tests and inspections. Recognizing that administrative practices vary among organizations operating nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, the standard incorporates flexibility that provides for compliance by any organization

  18. Apoptotic induction of skin cancer cell death by plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuncharoen, Walairat; Chulasiri, Malin; Nilwarangkoon, Sirinun; Nakamura, Yukio; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plant extracts on cancer apoptotic induction. Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA), was maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 degrees C, 5% carbon dioxide (CO2). Plant extract solutions were obtained from S & J international enterprises public company limited. These plant extracts include 50% hydroglycol extracts from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Smith (torch ginger; EE), Rosa damascene (damask rose; DR) and Rafflesia kerrii Meijer (bua phut; RM). The cell viability, time and dose dependency were determined by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. A431 cells were treated with the plant extracts and stained with Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining dye. Cell viability was demonstrated by the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The anti-proliferative effects were shown to be dependent on time and dose. Typical characteristics of apoptosis which are cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation were clearly observed. The plant extracts was shown to be effective for anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis cell death in skin cancer cells. Therefore, mechanisms underlying the cell death and its potential use for treatment of skin cancer will be further studied.

  19. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plant Flavors and Fragrances

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    Massimo E. Maffei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena.

  1. IIn vitro antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts against early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 27 plant extracts were tested against Alternaria solani (E. & M.) Jones and Grout using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities, the results revealed that Circium arvense, Humulus lupulus, Lauris nobilis and Salvia officinalis showed significant ...

  2. EFFECT OF NATURAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PORCINE OVARIAN FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report provides information about the impact of chosen natural plant extracts on basic ovarian functions. This article summarizes our results concerning the effect of selected plant extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion – release of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and leptin (L on porcine granulosa cells (GC, We analyzed effects of ginkgo (GB, rooibos (RB, flaxseed (FL, green tea polyphenols (GTPP, green tea - epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol (RSV and curcumin (CURC (0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.ml-1 on markers of proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of porcine ovarian granulosa cells by using immunocytochemistry and EIA. It was demonstrated, that all these natural plants and plant molecules inhibited the accumulation of proliferation-related peptide (PCNA and apoptosis-associated peptide (Bax in cultured. Furthermore, it was observed that natural plant extracts altered progesterone, testosterone and leptin release in porcine ovarian cells. It is concluded, that GB, RB, FL, RSV, CURC, GTPP and EGCG can directly affect ovarian cells and therefore they could potentially influence ovarian functions.

  3. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  4. Two mini-preparation protocols to DNA extraction from plants with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were standardized two previously reported standard plant DNA extraction methods, but improved them on mini preparations to use the samples for population genetic analysis. The combination of CTAB lysis procedure-solvent extraction and DNA column purification (DNeasy plant mini kit modification) enables a faster and ...

  5. A 5-month toxicity study of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum in Sprague Dawley rats after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, M A; Oribayo, O O; Ukpo, G E; Mbaka, G O; Akindehin, O E

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae) is used in Nigerian traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis with treatment lasting for 3 months; however, information on its toxicity is scarce. This study investigated the safety of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum after a 5 month oral administration. The leaves of H. indicum were dried; extracted in 70% ethanol and concentrated to dryness. Swiss mice were administered orally with single doses of the extract (0.5 to 12.0 g/kg b.wt /day); mortality was examined for up to 14 days. In another study, the plant material (0.5 to 2.0 g/kg b.wt /day) were administered daily by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley rats. Body weight was monitored weekly, hematological, biochemical and organ parameters were determined at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 5th months of extract administration. The oral administration of the ethanol extract of H. indicum caused dose-dependent mortality. The LD50 was 9.78 g/kg b.wt for the Swiss mice; no harmful effect was observed on the liver and kidney except the testes which exhibited considerable inflammatory changes at the highest dose of 2.0 g/kg b.wt./day after the 5th month treatment. No significant difference (P>0.05) was shown in the enzyme study, marginal increase occurred in some haematological parameters. The increase in body weight of the treated rats after its initial reduction was consistent and significantly different (P<0.05) from their initial body weight. Prolonged administration of the crude leaf extract of H. indicum is considered to be safe and nontoxic at the doses studied. However, there is a probability of a negative effect on the testes at a higher dose of the extract.

  6. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

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    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  7. Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2009-09-03

    Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  8. Microbial Growth and Quorum Sensing Antagonist Activities of Herbal Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Al-Hussaini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg. As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  9. Anticancer Activity of Extracts from some Endemic Tanzanian Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 52 extracts from 26 plants of different families tested, 5 demonstrated potential activity on the cells. Extract X13 had an exceptionally high activity on both cell lines while extract X29 was highly active on HeLa cells. Fractionation and isolation of constituents from the extracts that have shown anticancer activity in these ...

  10. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  11. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  12. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  13. Extraction and characterization of anthocyanin colorants from plant sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dyankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Natural pigments (and especially those of anthocyanins are a valuable source of bioactive compounds and may be used in the production of new functional food ingredients. Furthermore, their applications in the treatment and prevention of chronic disorders are becoming more and more widespread. In the last few years consumers have focused their attention on the natural biologically active compounds as functional food ingredients, and therefore, it may be assumed that natural colorants are an alternative source of synthetic additives. The aim of the study was to determine the quantitative content of monomeric anthocyanin pigments in extracts obtained from eight plants. The total content of monomeric anthocyanin pigments was measured by a pH-differential method. The TLC analysis of the pigment extracts from the different plants showed intensive rose, red and violet stripes corresponding to the anthocyanin content. The extracts from chicory and lavender petals were unstable and their color decreased in intensity in 1 month. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the yield of pigment substances depends on a few factors: the type of plant, the preliminary treatment of the plant and the solvent that is used. The largest quantity of extracted substances in the studied plants were isolated from chokeberry (2 195.9 cyd eq mg/l, followed by blackberry (1 466.2 and one variety of the grapes (1 199.3 . In the case of chokeberry, the pigment content included a large number of anthocyanins and the combination of these components was the reason for the deep red/violet color of the extract. Fresh or frozen materials are the most suitable for extraction of anthocyanin pigments. On the whole, fruit pulp yielded a larger quantity of pigments than juice. Anthocyanins are water-soluble compounds and for that reason their isolation requires water and other polar solvents. Better stabilization of color is obtained by a slight acidification of the

  14. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QFB ALE

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Plant extracts are an important part in agroecology, as they benefit environment in combating ... to public health and a major concern for infection control ..... extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Allium sativum against food.

  15. Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. However, despite the known properties of plant extracts, few studies reported the development of formulations with them. More work in this field can be accomplished to meet consumer demand.

  16. Antifungal effect of some plant extracts against factors wheat root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sevim; Şimşek, Şeyda; Denek, Yunus Emre

    2017-04-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and Achillea millefolium L. were evaluated for antifungal activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Smith) Sacc. The final concentrations of the methanol extracts obtained from the plants were added to the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% doses. Mycelial disks of pathogens (6 mm in diameter) removed from the margins of a 7 days old culture were transferred to PDA media containing the plant extracts at tested concentrations. Four replicates were used per treatment. For each plant extract and concentration, inhibition of radial growth compared with the untreated control was calculated after 7 days of incubation at 24±1°C, in the dark. Extracts H. lupulus and A. millefolium inhibited the mycelial growth of F. culmorum of mycelial growth of 8% dose of the pathogens by 92.77% and 69.83%, respectively. It has been observed that the antifungal effect of the extracts increases with dose increase. As a result, at least micelle growth and the highest percent inhibition rate were obtained at 8% dose of the extract H. lupulus. H. lupulus extract can be used as a biological preparation.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Plant Extracts and Their Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the screening of some selected aromatic plants very popular in Greece, with respect to their total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, reducing activity, and oxidative stability. All plants were extracted with the conventional method, reflux with methanol. The essential oils of the plants were also analyzed for their antioxidant properties. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as the standard, while the phenolic substances were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC coupled with a multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis detector. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was measured by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as (a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and, (b ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6- sulfonate. The Folin-Ciocalteu method proved the existence of antioxidants in the aromatic plant extracts. Taking into account the results of the DPPH and ABTS methods, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. Eventually, all plants exhibited low but noticeable protection levels against lipid oxidation, as determined by the Rancimat test.

  18. Extractive metalurgical pilot plant. Project and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, H.C.B.; Rolim, T.L.; Santana, A.O. de; Santos, F.S.M. dos; Dantas, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    An extractive metalurgical pilot plant with a flow capacity of 200l/h of phosphoric leach, recovering 80% of the uranium content has been designed and installed. Starting from the diagrams of the chemical process in the laboratory scale, the equipment worksheet of the basic project were developed. The procedure for dimensioning and positioning of each component is described. An isometric figure and the pilot plant lay-out are included. The pilot plant occupying 41 m 2 has been tested and operates at its nominal capacity. (author) [pt

  19. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  20. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  1. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    2003-05-01

    The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.

  2. Antileishmanial potential of medicinal plant extracts from the North-West of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of selected medicinal plants from the North-West of Morocco. Plant extracts were prepared by maceration using methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane. The antileishmanial activity was evaluated against Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania infantum using MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All plant extracts showed a reducing in cell promastigotes viability with variability depending on tested strains and type of extracts. The n-hexane extract showed the highest antileishmanial activity and L. infantum was the most sensitive parasite. The best growth inhibition was observed with Cistus crispus n-hexane extract against L. major (IC50 = 47.29 ± 2.25 μg/mL, Arbutus unedo n-hexane extract against L. infantum (IC50 = 64.05 ± 1.44 μg/mL and Arbutus unedo n-hexane extract against L. tropica (IC50 = 79.57 ± 2.66 μg/mL. Considering these results, medicinal plants from the North-West of Morocco could constitute a promoter source for antileishmanial compounds.

  3. Prospective bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors from Indian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, B K; Ghosh, R; Moktan, S; Ranjan, V K; Dey, P; Choudhury, D; Dutta, S; Deb, D; Das, A P; Chakraborty, R

    2017-07-01

    As virulence of many pathogenic bacteria is regulated by the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), the present study aimed to find the QS-inhibiting (QS-I) property (if any) in 61 Indian medicinal plants. The presence of QS-I compound in the leaf extract was evaluated by its ability to inhibit production of pigment in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656 (violacein) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 (pyocyanin) or swarming of P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. Extracts of three plants, Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis, have shown a dose-dependent inhibition of violacein production with no negative effect on bacterial growth. Inhibition of pyocyanin pigment production and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was also shown. Based on the results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), it was concluded that triterpenes and flavonoid compounds found in the three plant extracts could have QS-I activity. A novel alternative prospect to prevent bacterial infections without inhibiting the growth is to apply chemicals that inhibit quorum sensing mechanism of the pathogens. Antiquorum property of 61 medicinal plants was evaluated by the ability of their leaf extract(s) to inhibit production of pigment (violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656, pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297) or swarming in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. The most prospective plants (for the development of quorum sensing inhibitor), showing inhibition of violacein production without affecting bacterial growth, were Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  5. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus...

  6. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

    2004-12-01

    The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested.

  7. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  8. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  9. Development and design of plants for high-pressure extraction of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R; Tschiersch, R [Thyssen Industrie A.G., Witten (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    Criteria underlying the design of plant for recovery of carrier material or extract are reviewed, particularly in relation to the extraction of natural products with supercritical CO/sub 2/. The parameters to be determined in the planning of a large-scale plant are outlined and as an example of a typical process, the extraction of spices is discussed in detail. The plant components and equipment are presented together with their particular process and construction characteristics. Finally, the thermodynamic aspects are analyzed and methods of optimizing a large-scale plant and of reducing the power consumption are outlined. Particular attention is paid to the question of optimization with regard to the most economic method of operation of such a plant to be applied in the future.

  10. Effects of oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histological findings indicated that the treated sections of the kidneys showed hypertrophy of blood vessels, mild-severe infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells and varying degrees of tubular necrosis when compared to the control sections. The findings indicated that the administration of Phyllanthus amarus extract has ...

  11. Extraction of secondary metabolites from plant material: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Nijhuis, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    This review article intends to give an overview of the developments in the extraction technology of secondary metabolites from plant material. There are three types of conventional extraction techniques. In order of increasing technological difficulty, these involve the use of solvents, steam or

  12. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  13. Method of gentle extraction and subsequent concentration at low temperature of natural compounds in the extract from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2007-01-01

    A unit performing a simple and effective way to extract active phytochemicals from the plant specimens has been developed. The unit is mobile enabling operation near the place of collection of plant specimens reducing waste of potential valuable phytochemicals. The design is based on counter...... as solid/liquid extraction is developed on the basis similar to sugar extraction from sugar beets, albeit in a much more compact form. The equipment has been tested on extraction of ethereal oils from dried, stored oregano and extraction of natural compounds from freshly harvested Artemesia with 96% Et......OH as the solvent. Preliminary results from a continuous oregano extraction show efficiency between 55% and 85% of a more ideal laboratory batch extraction of a marker compound like carvacrol, which is most abundant in the ethereal oil. The operation can be repeated with another liquid in order to extract compounds...

  14. NEW THERAPEUTIC FORMULATIONS WITH AN ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT, BASED ON PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina Soare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effects produced by anthocyanins and other bioactive plant compounds are weaker than those generated by antibiotics. In some cases, the combination of extract-antibiotic can cause synergistic effects, also the purpose of the research was to develop and test new antibiotic - plant extract formulations. New potential antimicrobial formulations was done by soaking discs impregnated with piperacillin or tetracycline with different extract. The tested microorganisms were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli 820B, soil bacterium 23S, and Enterobacter cloacae. The combination of antibiotics with extracts determined, only for some of the microorganisms tested, better antibacterial effects than those caused by the antibiotic or the extract.

  15. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvicidal activity of extracts from Aloe turkanensis, Aloe ngongensis and Aloe fibrosa against the common malaria vector, Anopheles gambie, was determined. Ground Aloe leaves from the three plants were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone and methanol. Only the ethyl acetate ...

  16. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  18. Advances in extraction and analysis of phenolic compounds from plant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cong-Cong; WANG Bing; PU Yi-Qiong; TAO Jian-Sheng; ZHANG Tong

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds,the most abundant secondary metabolites in plants,have received more and more attention in recent years because of their distinct bioactivities.This review summarizes different types of phenolic compounds and their extraction and analytical methods used in the recent reports,involving 59 phenolic compounds from 52 kinds of plants.The extraction methods include solid-liquid extraction,ultrasound-assisted extractions,microwave-assisted extractions,supercritical fluid extraction,and other methods.The analysis methods include spectrophotometry,gas chromatography,liquid chromatography,thin-layer chromatography,capillary electrophoresis,and near-infrared spectroscopy.After illustrating the specific conditions of the analytical methods,the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also summarized,pointing out their respective suitability.This review provides valuable reference for identification and/or quantification of phenolic compounds from natural products.

  19. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  20. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, A. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)], E-mail: andres_iro2002@yahoo.com; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2009-01-15

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  1. Screening for carbohydrate-binding proteins in extracts of Uruguayan plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plá A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carbohydrate-binding proteins, namely lectins, ß-galactosidases and amylases, was determined in aqueous extracts of plants collected in Uruguay. Twenty-six extracts were prepared from 15 Uruguayan plants belonging to 12 Phanerogam families. Among them, 18 extracts caused hemagglutination (HAG that was inhibited by mono- and disaccharides in 13 cases, indicating the presence of lectins. The other 8 extracts did not cause any HAG with the four systems used to detect HAG activity (rabbit and mouse red cells, trypsin-treated rabbit and mouse red cells. For the extracts prepared from Solanum commersonii, HAG activity and HAG inhibition were similar for those prepared from tubers, leaves and fruits, with the chitocompounds being responsible for all the inhibitions. Purification of the S. commersonii tuber lectin was carried out by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-Sepharose, and SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions gave a single band of Mr of approximately 80 kDa. The monomer N-acetylglucosamine did not inhibit HAG induced by the purified lectin, but chitobiose inhibited HAG at 24 mM and chitotriose inhibited it at 1 mM. ß-Galactosidase activity was detected in leaves and stems of Cayaponia martiana, and in seeds from Datura ferox. Only traces of amylase activity were detected in some of the extracts analyzed. The present screening increases knowledge about the occurrence of carbohydrate-binding proteins present in regional plants.

  2. Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2% in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05 than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05. The methane emission was highest (p<0.05 at control, but lowest (p<0.05 at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM. Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%. Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53 than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens

  3. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed.

  4. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  5. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  6. Feeding preference of Plutella xylostella for leaves treated with plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRYS F.S. COUTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plutella xylostella L. is one of the main agents to cause damages to plants of Brassica genus, provoking negative impacts in cultures. The use of botanical extracts in plants protection has been related in literature, however, their use in the species analyzed in this study is not yet reported. We assessed the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the species: Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Pink Pepper, Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum, Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil. Benth. & Hook. (Pindaúva do campo and Trichilia silvatica C. DC. (Catiguá-branco, occuring in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and whose feeding preference of P. xylostella larvae of 3rd instar. We intend to answer the following questions: (1 Are the plant species analyzed fagodeterrentes? (2 what type of extract produces the least food preferrence? To answer these questions, we treated cabbage disks with aqueous extracts stored in a refrigerator in periods of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and the methanolic extracts were treated at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL, 2.0mg/mL. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of T. silvatica presented the lowest values of feeding preference, 0.113 and 0.06, respectively, compared to other extracts.

  7. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya Rajasekaran

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination

  8. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  9. Development and planning of plant for the high-pressure extraction of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R; Tschiersch, R [Thyssen Industrie A.G., Witten (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-11-01

    Important criteria in the designing of plant for the recovery of carrier or extract are reviewed, especially for the extraction of natural products with supercritical CO/sub 2/. The quantities to be determined in the planning of a large-scale plant are outlined and a typical process, the extraction of spices, is discussed in detail. The plant components and assemblies are presented together with their particular process engineering and construction characteristics. Finally, the thermodynamic aspects are dealt with in more detail and ways of optimizing a large-scale plant and reducing the power consumption are outlined. Particular attention is paid to the question of optimization regarding the most economic method of operation of such a plant in the future.

  10. Effects of sub acute oral administration of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the effects of sub acute oral administration (28 days) of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark on the body weight and haematological indices of rats. Treatments were administered by oral gavage once daily for a total of 28 days. The first group (control) received distilled water (5 ...

  11. Antifungal activity using medicinal plant extracts against pathogens of coffee tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the medicinal plants have antifungal substances that can be used for the plant protection against phytopathogens. The objective of this study was to know the efficiency of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants against the major etiological agents of coffee tree. The aqueous extracts used were extracted from bulbs of Allium sativum, leaves of Vernonia polysphaera, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cordia verbenacea, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ricinus communis, Azadirachta indica, Piper hispidinervum and flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum. The etiological agents considered for this study were Cercospora coffeicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma tarda, Rhizoctonia solani and Hemileia vastatrix. The screening for harmful extracts was done based on mycelial growth and conidial germination inhibition. All experiments performed were in vitro conditions. The inhibition of mycelial growth was performed mixing the extracts with the PDA. This mixture was poured in Petri dishes. On the center of the dishes was added one PDA disc with mycelium. It was incubated in a chamber set to 25ºC. The evaluation was done daily by measuring the mycelial growth. The germination assessment was also performed with Petri dishes containing agar-water medium at 2%. These were incubated at 25ºC for 24 hours. After this period the interruption of germination was performed using lactoglycerol. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. The most effective plant extracts against the micelial growth and conidial germination were V. polysphaera, S. aromaticum and A. sativum.

  12. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... Key words: Aloe, anopheles gambie, larvicidal activity. INTRODUCTION. Extracts from plants in the genus Aloe (Aloeaceae) have been widely used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Aloe species have long been known as medicinal plants (Cheney, 1970) and Aloe vera species is most widely ...

  13. In vivo assessment of plant extracts for control of plant diseases: A sesquiterpene ketolactone isolated from Curcuma zedoaria suppresses wheat leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Woo; Shim, Sang Hee; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Dang, Quang Le; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2018-02-01

    As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. When the C. zedoaria methanol extracts were partitioned with various solvents, the layers of n-hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate showed disease control values of 100, 80, and 43%, respectively, against wheat leaf rust. From the C. zedoaria rhizome extracts, an antifungal substance was isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene ketolactone based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The active compound controlled the development of rice sheath blight, wheat leaf rust, and tomato late blight. Considering the in vivo antifungal activities of the sesquiterpene ketolactone and the C. zedoaria extracts, these results suggest that C. zedoaria can be used as a potent fungicide in organic agriculture.

  14. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Ugandan medicinal plants used for oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Ann-Karin; Gustafsson, Anders; Obua, Celestino

    2014-08-08

    Medicinal plants are widely used for treatment of oral/dental diseases in Uganda. To investigate antibacterial activities of 16 commonly used medicinal plants on microorganisms associated with periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC). Pulp juice and solvent extracts (hexane, methanol and water) from the plants were tested against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia associated with PD and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus associated with DC. Tests were done using agar well-diffusion (pulp juice) and agar-dilution (Solvent extracts) assays. Pulp juice from Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Euclea latidens showed activity against all the bacteria, Zanthoxylum chalybeum being most active. Hexane extract from aerial part of Helichrysum odoratissimum was most active (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml). Methanol extract from leaves of Lantana trifolia showed activity against all bacteria (MIC: 0.25-1 mg/ml). Several of the tested plants showed antibacterial activities against bacteria associated with PD and DC, meriting further investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  17. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75. Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.. Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines.

  18. In vitro antitumor actions of extracts from endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Ivana Z; Aljančić, Ivana; Žižak, Željko; Vajs, Vlatka; Jadranin, Milka; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Juranić, Zorica D

    2013-02-18

    The aim of this research was to determine the intensity and mechanisms of the cytotoxic actions of five extracts isolated from the endemic plant species Helichrysum zivojinii Černjavski & Soška (family Asteraceae) against specific cancer cell lines. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of normal immunocompetent cells implicated in the antitumor immune response, the cytotoxicity of extracts was also tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The aerial parts of the plants were air-dried, powdered, and successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human melanoma Fem-x, human myelogenous leukemia K562, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells and PBMC were evaluated by the MTT test. The mode of HeLa cell death was investigated by morphological analysis. Changes in the cell cycle of HeLa cells treated with the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic mechanisms induced by the tested extracts were determined using specific caspase inhibitors. The investigated Helichrysum zivojinii extracts exerted selective dose-dependent cytotoxic actions against selected cancer cell lines and healthy immunocompetent PBMC stimulated to proliferate, while the cytotoxic actions exerted on unstimulated PBMC were less pronounced. The tested extracts exhibited considerably stronger cytotoxic activities towards HeLa, Fem-x and K562 cells in comparison to resting and stimulated PBMC. It is worth noting that the cytotoxicity of the extracts was weaker against unstimulated PBMC in comparison to stimulated PBMC. Furthermore, each of the five extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Extracts obtained from the endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii may represent an important source of novel potential

  19. Optimization of extraction conditions for secondary biomolecules from various plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šibul Filip S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of plant secondary metabolites is an essential step in isolation of natural products. Non-optimized extraction conditions can lead to losses, degradation and modification of the biomolecules. In this paper, the influence of different solvent mixtures, solvent amounts, temperature, extraction time, and procedures for defatting on yield and profile of various classes of secondary metabolites was investigated. Rumex alpinus was used for the extraction of anthraquinones, Glycine max for isoflavonoids, Chaerophyllum bulbosum for flavonoids and phenolic acids, Anthriscus sylvestris for lignans and coumarins, alkaloids were extracted from Lupinus albus and sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia absinthium. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by use of LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The compromise extraction solvent for all of the examined compounds is 80 % methanol, mixed in ratio 13 : 1 with plant material. Maceration should last for six hours, repeated four times with fresh solvent. Defatting of the extracts does not lead to significant losses of the compounds of interest. It is acceptable to use extraction and evaporation temperature of 60ºC, while the extracts should be stored in the dark, on -20ºC. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  20. Antifungal activity of plant extracts on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin Carine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline and death of the vine has become an obstacle to world wine production. Among the causative agents highlights the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, causal agent of Esca and Petri disease. Plant extracts may become a viable option control considering their fungistatic and/or fungicide substances. The objective of this work was to verify the potential of the aqueous extracts of plants on the control of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora comparing to other products. The following treatments were applied: sulfur, mancozeb, difeconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, chitosan, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzianum,and extracts of india flowers, cinnamon bark, dried leaves of rosemary and lemon grass. The treatments were added in PDA culture medium, previously autoclaved at 120o for 20 min. Disc of 5 mm diameter of P.chlamydosporacolony were transferred to the center of Petri dishes and kept at 20∘C in the dark. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications. It was evaluated the mycelial growth at five, eight and fourteen days after the installation of the experiment, obtaining the area under curve of the mycelial growth (AUCMG. The clove India extracts, cinnamon and rosemary, proved to be a control option considering their effect in the decrease of AUCMG compared to the control.

  1. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  2. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  3. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  4. in vivo antitrypanosomal evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    administered once daily for 7 days in an established infection of 5 x 106 parasitaemia before ... control, as development of vaccines against AAT is still in progress. ... Plant preparation and extracts: The plants part were air-dried in the laboratory at room .... in some African countries, frequently used against malaria and fever ...

  5. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  6. Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Marilene Estanqueiro; M. Beatriz Oliveira; José Manuel Sousa Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. Howev...

  7. Extraction of 14C-labeled photosynthate from aquatic plants with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbin, G.J.; Hough, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    DMSO was tested as a solvent to extract 14 C-labeled photosynthate from three species of aquatic plants in photosynthesis measurements and compared with the dry oxidation method for plant radioassay. Extraction of ca. 300 mg of fresh or rehydrated dry plant tissue samples in 10 ml of reagent-grade DMSO for 8h at 65 0 C resulted in a stable, nonviscous solution with excellent liquid scintillation counting characteristics. Extraction efficiency was in the range of 96-99% of fixed 14 C, and precision was comparable to, or better than, that obtained with dry oxidation. The method is simple and inexpensive, and for fresh tissue the same sample extracts can be used for chlorophyll analyses

  8. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-De León, Karla I; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50-100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76-56.17% against F. solani and 2.02-69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops.

  9. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  10. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  11. Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Atiya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside conventional anticancer agents in the treatment of this cancer have shown promising results. This work aims to investigate the therapeutic properties of a library of medicinal plants from Bangladesh. Methods 56 extracts of 44 unique medicinal plants were studied. The extracts were screened for cytotoxicity against the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1, using a label-free biosensor assay. The top cytotoxic extracts identified in this screen were tested on two additional pancreatic cancer cell lines (Mia-Paca2 and Capan-1 and a fibroblast cell line (Hs68 using an MTT proliferation assay. Finally, one of the most promising extracts was studied using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay to identify induction of apoptosis. Results Crude extracts of Petunia punctata, Alternanthera sessilis, and Amoora chittagonga showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 20.3 - 31.4 μg/mL, 13.08 - 34.9 μg/mL, and 42.8 - 49.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of Panc-1 cells with Petunia punctata was shown to increase caspase-3 activity, indicating that the observed cytotoxicity was mediated via apoptosis. Only Amoora chittagonga showed low cytotoxicity to fibroblast cells with an IC50 value > 100 μg/mL. Conclusion Based upon the initial screening work reported here, further studies aimed at the identification of active components of these three extracts and the elucidation of their mechanisms as cancer therapeutics are warranted.

  12. Determination of the starch-phosphorylating enzyme activity in plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritte, G.; Steup, M.; Kossmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    For quantification of alpha-glucan, water dikinase(GWD) activity in crude extracts of plant tissues a radio-labeling assay was established that uses soluble starch and P-33-labeled ATP as phosphate acceptor and donor, respectively. A constant rate of starch labeling was observed only if the ATP...... incorporation of phosphate whereas extracts from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber expressing a GWD antisense construct exhibited less activity than the wild-type control. To our knowledge this is the first time that a quantification of the starch-phosphorylating activity has been achieved in plant crude...

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  14. Oral administration of Allium sativum extract protects against infectious bursal disease in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufen ZHAO,Yuanyuan JIA,Weiwei ZHANG,Lili WANG,Yunfei MA,Kedao TENG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum, Liliaceae has been safely used for more than 5000 years, and research on garlic extract is rapidly increasing because of its multiple biological functions. The in vivo effects of oral administration of garlic mixture (GM, water-soluble extract on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV-infected specific pathogen free male white leghorn chicken were examined through histopathological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results confirmed the protective effects of oral administration of 5 mg·kg-1 BW GM (Group GM1 on bursal lesions after IBDV infection. In particular, protein expression of IBDV in the bursa decreased in Group GM1, indicating that GM administration decreased IBDV replication in the bursa. Furthermore, immunoglobulin M- and A-bearing B lymphocytes significantly increased 7 days post infection in bursae in Group GM1 (P<0.01, suggesting that the oral administration of 5 mg·kg-1 GM offers moderate protection against B cell destruction after IBDV infection. During infection, the concentration of bursal interferon gamma (IFN-g increased and peaked in Group GM1 earlier than in Group T (IBDV-exposed, demonstrating that GM administration prompted the production of IFN-g to protect against IBDV infection.

  15. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  16. Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Microbial Spoilage of Cajanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanolic extracts of seven plant sources on the microbial spoilage of Cajanus cajan extract was investigated. The results showed that the extracts obtained from Aloe vera, bitter leaf, Gultiferae (garcinia or bitter kola), Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) and Zingiber officialae (ginger) were effective against ...

  17. Investigation of the use of various plant extracts activity in ruminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüca, Songül; Gül, Mehmet; Ćaǧlayan, Alper

    2016-04-01

    The prohibition of the use of antibiotics and as a result of the adverse effect on health of synthetic products, research has focused on natural feed additives. In recent years, the diet of farm animals many feed additives have been used for various purposes or continues. These include as used in ruminant rations as plant extract thyme, anise, pepper, mint, garlic, rosemary, cinnamon, parsley, bay leaf, coconut, like used herbal extracts and their effects on the performance of ruminants was investigated. Antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflamaotry is known to have effects of plant extract. By stimulating the digestive system of ruminants, they increase the activity of digestive enzymes, to prevent environmental pollution caused by manure, regulations rumen fermentation, inhibition of methane formation and protein degradability in the rumen as well as the animal is known to have many benefits. The structure of essential oils and plant extracts in this collection, examining the use of ruminant livestock events and the importance of the use in animal nutrition into practice will be discussed.

  18. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  19. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extract: Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Teimuri-mofrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examine the greenest nanoparticles of zero-valent metals, metal oxides and metal salts, with emphasis on recent developments routes. Products from nature or those derived from natural products, such as extracts of several plants or parts of plants, tea, coffee, banana, simple amino acids, as well as wine, table sugar and glucose, have been used as reductants and as capping agents during the present synthesis method. Polyphenols found in plant material often play a key role in the processes mentioned here. The techniques involved are generally one-pot processes, environmentally friendly and simple. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using several extracts and spices extracts was conducted, in which aqueous extracts HAuCl4.3H2O reduce to Au° has establishing themselves in specific crystal phase. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by the color change of auric chloride which is yellow. The growth of nanoparticles was monitored by the behavior of surface Plasmon using UV-Vis spectroscopy; also the pH was determined meanwhile. Moreover, this approach is not only of a green rapid synthesis kind and considered as a better alternative to chemical synthesis, but also found to be effective for large scale synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  20. A systematic review of the effects of Iranian pharmaceutical plant extracts on Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a systematic review regarding anti-Giardia effect of different Iranian plant extracts used in vivo and in vitro on cysts and trophozoites. Many reports indicated that most of plant extracts used as anti-Giardia were obtained from Liliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae. These extracts included different fractions such as aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts as well as Soxhlet extraction of juice or essence. The findings of this review showed that hydroalcoholic extract of asafoetida, Chenopodium botrys, and chloroformic extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium have the maximum effect (100% efficacy on in vitro application against Giardia. However, the highest in vivo effect of 100% therapeutic significance was recorded for the extract of Allium sativum at 80 mg/mL concentration. Given the plant species richness of Iran in terms of herbal medicines with fewer side effects, it can be a good alternative to chemical drugs used to treat giardiasis.

  1. GARDEN CRESS GERMINABILITY AND SEEDLING VIGOUR AFTER TREATMENT WITH PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lisjak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of biologically active and environmentally friendly compounds has increasingly important role in the primary food production. This study was conducted in order to examine the impact of five commercial plant extracts on the seed vigour of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.. The applied plant extracts significantly increased the germination. The highest fresh weight of seedlings, and also the lowest dry matter accumulation were observed in the treatment KE-plantasalva® without the sea salt addition. Equisetum extract inhibited the root elongation and resulted in the highest percentage of dry matter accumulated in seedlings, but also the lowest fresh weight.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  3. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpron Leesombun

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination. We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL. Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice. Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  4. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  5. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Leon IC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1. Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays

  6. In vitro antitumor actions of extracts from endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii

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    Matić Ivana Z

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this research was to determine the intensity and mechanisms of the cytotoxic actions of five extracts isolated from the endemic plant species Helichrysum zivojinii Černjavski & Soška (family Asteraceae against specific cancer cell lines. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of normal immunocompetent cells implicated in the antitumor immune response, the cytotoxicity of extracts was also tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods The aerial parts of the plants were air-dried, powdered, and successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human melanoma Fem-x, human myelogenous leukemia K562, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells and PBMC were evaluated by the MTT test. The mode of HeLa cell death was investigated by morphological analysis. Changes in the cell cycle of HeLa cells treated with the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic mechanisms induced by the tested extracts were determined using specific caspase inhibitors. Results The investigated Helichrysum zivojinii extracts exerted selective dose-dependent cytotoxic actions against selected cancer cell lines and healthy immunocompetent PBMC stimulated to proliferate, while the cytotoxic actions exerted on unstimulated PBMC were less pronounced. The tested extracts exhibited considerably stronger cytotoxic activities towards HeLa, Fem-x and K562 cells in comparison to resting and stimulated PBMC. It is worth noting that the cytotoxicity of the extracts was weaker against unstimulated PBMC in comparison to stimulated PBMC. Furthermore, each of the five extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Conclusion Extracts obtained from the endemic plant Helichrysum

  7. Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal properties of poisonous plant extracts from oleanders (Nerium oleander L.) were determined when used as a wood preservative. The extract was prepared from oleanders leaves and flowers in 96% ethyl alcohol. The wood blocks of Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris ...

  8. Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is creating a new Administration Controlled Substances Code Number for "Marihuana Extract." This code number will allow DEA and DEA-registered entities to track quantities of this material separately from quantities of marihuana. This, in turn, will aid in complying with relevant treaty provisions. Under international drug control treaties administered by the United Nations, some differences exist between the regulatory controls pertaining to marihuana extract versus those for marihuana and tetrahydrocannabinols. The DEA has previously established separate code numbers for marihuana and for tetrahydrocannabinols, but not for marihuana extract. To better track these materials and comply with treaty provisions, DEA is creating a separate code number for marihuana extract with the following definition: "Meaning an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant." Extracts of marihuana will continue to be treated as Schedule I controlled substances.

  9. by fermented plant extracts of neem leaf and wild garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombiti

    1Department of Soil Science, Plant Production and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Science and Agriculture,. University of ... Additionally, due to frequent use of .... Average number of whitefly adults as affected by fermented plant extracts of garlic, neem and garlic + neem (CarNeem) at five sampling intervals. Application.

  10. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts - "guaco" (Mikania glomerata, guava (Psidium guajava, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, garlic (Allium sativum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera, and mint (Mentha piperita - against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA, and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Some Plant Extracts Towards Xanthine Oxidase, Lipoxygenase and Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have the potential to be developed into new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to screen the antioxidant activities of some common edible fruits, garden plants and medicinal plants indigenous to Taiwan. This was performed by assessing the activities of lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase following incubation with extracts from these plants. A further aim was to use HPLC-DAD and tyrosinase to chromatographically identify the antioxidative constituents obtained from an extract exhibiting strong antioxidative properties. The acetone extracts of 27 cultivated plant species from Taiwan were tested for antioxidant activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase and lipoxygenase using spectrophotometric assays. Koelreuteria henryi, Prunus campanulata, and Rhodiola rosea showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Camellia sinensis, Rhodiola rosea, and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. As Koelreuteria henryi had notable significant inhibitory activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase, and lipoxygenase, it was further tested with tyrosinase and HPLC-DAD. The results from this part of the study revealed that the more powerful the antioxidant capability of the extracted component, the greater the decrease in peak height obtained after reacting with tyrosinase. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the examined extracts.

  12. Insecticidal Activities of Tunisian Halophytic Plant Extracts against Larvae and Adults of Tribolium confusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mighri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh plants were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sixteen aerial part extracts of Frankenia laevis, Statice echioides, Suaeda fructicosa and Tamarix boveana were obtained using organic solvents of increasing polarity and tested for their insect growth, antifeedant and toxicity effects. Responses varied with plant material, extract type, insect stage and exposition time. Larval growth inhibition was significantly induced by chloroformic, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis. On the other hand, all extracts of S. fructicosa and the methanolic ones of the four plants tested didn't show any significant activity. In addition, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis presented antifeedant property. S. fructicosa seemed to be, however, slightly attractive to the flour beetle. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. By using ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis, mortality reached respectively 97, 87, 97 and 80%, when applied at a dose of 1%, mixed with the insect diet.

  13. Aqueous extract of yellow maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves sperm count in experimental animals but response depends on hypocotyl size, pH and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salazar, L; Gonzales, G F

    2018-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Administrative procedures for regulating construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochaud, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This article first explains that nuclear power plants in France are governed by a complex system of regulations within the framework of different laws concerning, in particular, protection of the environment, public health and workers. It then examines the administrative procedures and the licensing regime for nuclear power plants. (NEA) [fr

  16. An improved method of DNA extraction from plants for pathogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based applications in plant molecular biology and molecular diagnostics for plant pathogens require good quality DNA for reliable and reproducible results. Leaf tissue is often the choice for DNA extraction, but the use of other sources such as tubers, stems, or seeds, is not uncommon.

  17. A new extraction method of bioflavanoids from poisonous plant (Gratiola Officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Polukonova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The way of vegetable raw materials extraction which allows to receive nontoxical composition of biological active agents from poisonous plants such as Gratiola officinalis L. was described. The alkaloids exit changes with the increase of ethyl alcohol percentage (from 15% to 96%. The extract was obtained using 96% ethanol and did not give positive high quality reaction to the content of alkaloids. The chemical composition with new nontoxical biological active composition of Gratiola officinalis L. extract was investigated. The extract contains a previously unknown plant – bioflavonoid quercetin. The average value of quercetin in this extract using the calibration curve of the standard sample quercetin (98% Sigma is 0.66%. In the dry rest of extractive substances (Gratiola officinalis L. the quantity of quercetin was 350 mkg (obtained from 10 g of a dry grass as was established by the method of a liquid chromatography.

  18. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  19. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability ...

  20. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  1. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Feiz Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and multi-drug resistant (K1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. Results: According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25.  Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively.  The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. Conclusion: This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of             C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.

  2. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some Vietnamese medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Dung, Pham Phuong; Nhi, Nguyen Vang Thi Yen; Hoang, Nguyen van Minh; Hieu, Tran Trung

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 - 0.97 (2.5 - 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 - 1.94 (7.5 - 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME WILD MEDICAL PLANTS EXTRACT TO ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are probably the most successful family of drugs so far developed for improving human health. Because of increasing resistance to antibiotics of many bacteria, plant extracts and plant compounds are of new interest as antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine. In this study, we researched antimicrobial effects of extracts of some medical plants (Tussilagofarfara, Equisetum arvense, Sambucusnigra, Aesculushippocastanumand Taraxacumofficinale from Slovakia to antibiotic resistant and antibiotic sensitive bacteria isolated from milk of cows and mare, which were breeded in different conditions. Microorganisms which were used in this experiment we isolated from milk from conventional breeding of cows (tenE. coli strains and from ecological breeding of Lipicanmare (tenE. coli strains by sterile cotton swabs. For antibiotic susceptibility testing was used disc diffusion method according by EUCAST. After dried at room temperature we weighed 50 g of crushed medical plants (parts and it were to extract in 400 ml methanol for two weeks at room temperature. For antimicrobial susceptibility testing of medical plants extract blank discs with 6 mm diameter disc diffusion method was used. We determined that all Escherichia coli strains isolated from milk of conventional breeding of cows were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. We determined that all tested ampicillin and chloramphenicol resistant E. coli strains isolated from conventional breeding of cow showed susceptibility to all used medical plants extracts. In difference, we determined that antibiotic susceptible E. coli strains isolated from ecological breeding of Lipicanmare were susceptible to Tussilagofarfara extract only. From these results we could be conclude some observations, which could be important step in treatment of bacterial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria and it could be important knowledge for treatment of livestock in conventional breeding

  4. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi ... remedies of diseases in various forms. Similarly, before the discovery of the synthetic ... and divided into the classes Anthocerotae (horn- worts), Hepaticae (liverworts) and Musci ...

  5. Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic and Flavonoids Content of Wild Tragopogon porrifolius Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Al-Rimawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity (AA. Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC, while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner.

  6. Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in Sekhukhune district municipality of Limpopo province, South Africa. ... Sources of medicine were mostly herbs followed by shrubs, trees, creepers and aloe collected from the communal land. The leaves, bark, roots and bulbs were prepared into decoctions ...

  7. [Antimutagenic activity of Armoracia rusticana, Zea mays and Ficus carica plant extracts and their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E

    2005-01-01

    Antimutagenic action of plant extracts of Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica, Zea mays and their mixture on environmental xenobiotics has been investigated. The plant extracts and their mixture decreased the level of mutations induced by N-metil-N'-nitro-N-nitrozoguanidin (MNNG) in Vicia faba cells, chlorophyll mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana and NaF induced mutability in rat marrow cells. The studied plant extracts and their mixture demonstrate the ability to decrease the genotoxicity of environmental mutagens.

  8. Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Salim; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Easmin, Mst Sabina; Bt Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Bin Yunus, Kamaruzzaman

    2015-05-01

    Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Research Concerning Antimicrobial Activities of Some Essential Oils Extracted from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA DALILA CRISTE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal components of some essential oils extracted from plants have been found to have microbial activity. Depending on the concentration, the members of this class are known to be bactericide or bacteriostatic. Their action mechanism is unclear, but some studies suggest that the compounds penetrate the cell, where they interfere with cellular metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5 essential oils extracted from plants on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and to determinate how different amount of the used oils can influence the results of inhibition tests. These results showed that mainly all the natural extracts presented an antimicrobial effect. Thereby, some extracts were more efficient than another and the order is: Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus, Mentha piperita (mint, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile, Calendula officinalis (calendula.

  10. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  11. Antibacterial activity of combined medicinal plants extract against multiple drug resistant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the combined antibacterial efficacy of Aegle marmelos, Aphanamixis polystachya, Cuscuta reflexa and Aesclynomene indica against bacterial pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial potency of combined plant extracts has been tested against Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Xanthomonas campestris IAM 1671, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 10031, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 321 and Pseudomonas denitrificans KACC 32026 by disc diffusion assay. Commercially available standard antibiotic discs were also used to find out antibiotic resistance pattern of test organisms. Results: Among the test organisms, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus denitrificans showed resistance against multiple commercially available antibiotics. On the other hand, these multiple drug resistant organisms showed susceptibility against combined plant extracts. Conclusions: These combined plants extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity and could lead to new antibacterial drug designing.

  12. Anticonvulsant activity of extracts from six Cameroonian plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilepsy remains one of the leading public health problems that affects about 50 million people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new anticonvulsant drug. This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity against Penty lenetetrazole induced–convulsion in mice. Plants were extracted by maceration with ...

  13. Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of Subtropical Plant Extracts Against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. AI Lawati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of eight plants local to Oman, namely Qarat (Acacia nilotica, Mustafal (Annona squamosa, Shereesh (Azadirachta indica, Luban (Boswellia sacra, Kheshkhash (Crotolaria juncea, Zebrot (Jatropha dhofarica Yas, (Myrtus communis and Suwwad (Suaeda aegyptiaca were prepared by steeping shaded dried leaf/ seed powder of each plant in water and solvent (methanol or ethanol. The extracts were tested for their insecticidal and repellent properties against the pulse beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. The extracts from the seeds of A. squamosa recorded l00% mortality of beetles within twenty and four hours of their exposure to methanol and ethanol extracts, respectively. The other extracts that caused high mortality were from A. nilotica, C. juncea, M. communis and S. aegzptiaca in methanol and B. sacra, J. dhofarica, S. aegptiaca and commercial neem in ethanol. Extracts of M. communis in methanol were highly repellent to the beetles compared to other extracts. Legume seeds treated with extracts of A. squamosa were not repellent, rather the beetles were attracted to them.

  14. Assay for the antioxidant and radioprotectant activity of extracts form endemic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Woo, Hyun Jung; Plewa, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Since radiation damage and oxygen poisoning occur through the formation of reactive oxygen species, it is a challenging task to develop agents with high antioxidant and radioprotectant activities from plant species. In this study, several species of Korean endemic plants were chosen as experimental candidates. Water-and ethanol extracts were made from the candidates and tested for their antioxidant and radioprotectant activities. In vitro antioxidant assay of the aqueous-organic extracts was carried out using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging method. Radioprotective effects were tested by means of experimental on irradiated cell cultures and animals. Among others, the water-extract of Ixeris dentata leaves showed a marked effect on the viability of B16 melanoma cells and provided a radioprotective effect on the number of the leukocytes in the irradiated rodents. DNA damage in the lymphocytes after γ-irradiation decreased in the extract administered animals. Many of the extracts tested in this study showed a slightly lower activity in free radical scavenging than the well-known chemical antiozidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytuluene, and glutathione. However, some extracts showed an antioxidant activity similar to that of α-tocopherol acetate and caffeine. These results support the optimistic view for developing radioprotective agents from the Korean endemic plants that showed a strong antioxidant activity

  15. Assay for the antioxidant and radioprotectant activity of extracts form endemic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Woo, Hyun Jung [KAERI, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Plewa, Michael J. [University of Illinois, Illinosi (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since radiation damage and oxygen poisoning occur through the formation of reactive oxygen species, it is a challenging task to develop agents with high antioxidant and radioprotectant activities from plant species. In this study, several species of Korean endemic plants were chosen as experimental candidates. Water-and ethanol extracts were made from the candidates and tested for their antioxidant and radioprotectant activities. In vitro antioxidant assay of the aqueous-organic extracts was carried out using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging method. Radioprotective effects were tested by means of experimental on irradiated cell cultures and animals. Among others, the water-extract of Ixeris dentata leaves showed a marked effect on the viability of B16 melanoma cells and provided a radioprotective effect on the number of the leukocytes in the irradiated rodents. DNA damage in the lymphocytes after {gamma}-irradiation decreased in the extract administered animals. Many of the extracts tested in this study showed a slightly lower activity in free radical scavenging than the well-known chemical antiozidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytuluene, and glutathione. However, some extracts showed an antioxidant activity similar to that of {alpha}-tocopherol acetate and caffeine. These results support the optimistic view for developing radioprotective agents from the Korean endemic plants that showed a strong antioxidant activity.

  16. Determination of natural colorants in plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENETA GEVRENOVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the colouring compounds apigenin (1, lawsone (2, juglone (3 and indigotin (4 in plant extracts using HPLC–UV/Vis methods is reported. The methods were applied to the analysis of 1–4 in ethanolic and propylene glycolic extracts originating, respectively, from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L] Rauschert, Asteraceae, henna (Lawsonia inermis L., Lythraceae, walnut (Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae and natural indigo (Indigofera sp., Fabaceae. In the case of the indigo extracts, an optimized acid hydrolysis was applied. HPLC separations were performed on a Hypersil ODS RP18 column using linear gradient elution programs. The detection limits for 1–4 were 0.11, 0.6, 0.10, 0.089 μg mL-1, respectively. The procedure did not involve any sample “clean-up” methods. The amounts of the colouring compounds ranged from 0.006 (3 to 0.13 mg mL-1 (4 in the ethanolic extracts and from 0.22 (2 to 1.44 mg mL-1 (4 in propylene glycolic extracts. The proposed HPLC methods are advantageous in terms of sample preparation and the selective separation of the compounds. The plant dye extracts are commonly used in hair colouring formulations. The results indicate that the methods developed may serve for the quantitative control of dying plants and cosmetic products.

  17. The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Harrison, T.E.; Spagnolo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant for removal of tritium from heavy water is described. Tritium is present in the heavy water from research reactors in the form of DTO at a concentration in the range of 1-35 Ci/kg. It is removed by a combination of catalytic exchange to transfer the tritium from DTO to DT, followed by cryogenic distillation to separate and concentrate the tritium to T 2 . The tritium product is reacted with titanium and packaged for transportation and storage as titanium tritide. The plant processes heavy water at a rate of 25 kg/h and removes 80% of the tritium and 90% of the protium per pass. Catalytic exchange is carried out in the liquid phase using a proprietary wetproofed catalyst. The plant serves two roles in the Canadian fusion program: it produces pure tritium for use in fusion research and development, and it demonstrates on an industrial scale many of the tritium technologies that are common to the tritium systems in fusion reactors (author)

  18. The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtslander, W J; Harrison, T E; Spagnolo, D A

    1990-07-01

    The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant for removal of tritium from heavy water is described. Tritium is present in the heavy water from research reactors in the form of DTO at a concentration in the range of 1-35 Ci/kg. It is removed by a combination of catalytic exchange to transfer the tritium from DTO to DT, followed by cryogenic distillation to separate and concentrate the tritium to T{sub 2}. The tritium product is reacted with titanium and packaged for transportation and storage as titanium tritide. The plant processes heavy water at a rate of 25 kg/h and removes 80% of the tritium and 90% of the protium per pass. Catalytic exchange is carried out in the liquid phase using a proprietary wetproofed catalyst. The plant serves two roles in the Canadian fusion program: it produces pure tritium for use in fusion research and development, and it demonstrates on an industrial scale many of the tritium technologies that are common to the tritium systems in fusion reactors (author)

  19. Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Isoflavonoids from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blicharski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe and compare selected traditional and modern extraction methods employed in the isolation of isoflavonoids from plants. Conventional methods such as maceration, percolation, or Soxhlet extraction are still frequently used in phytochemical analysis. Despite their flexibility, traditional extraction techniques have significant drawbacks, including the need for a significant investment of time, energy, and starting material, and a requirement for large amounts of potentially toxic solvents. Moreover, these techniques are difficult to automate, produce considerable amount of waste and pose a risk of degradation of thermolabile compounds. Modern extraction methods, such as: ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and negative pressure cavitation extraction, can be regarded as remedies for the aforementioned problems. This manuscript discusses the use of the most relevant extraction techniques in the process of isolation of isoflavonoids, secondary metabolites that have been found to have a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities.

  20. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed.

  1. Effect of seven Indian plant extracts on Fenton reaction-mediated damage to DNA constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indrani; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2017-11-01

    The influences of substoichiometric amounts of seven plant extracts in the Fenton reaction-mediated damage to deoxynucleosides, deoxynucleoside monophosphates, deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and supercoiled plasmid DNA were studied to rationalize anticancer properties reported in some of these extracts. Extracts from Acacia catechu, Emblica officinalis, Spondias dulcis, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, as well as gallic acid, epicatechin, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid enhance the extent of damage in Fenton reactions with all monomeric substrates but protect supercoiled plasmid DNA, compared to standard Fenton reactions. The damage to pyrimidine nucleosides/nucleotides is enhanced by these extracts and compounds to a greater extent than for purine ones in a concentration dependent manner. Dolichos biflorus and Hemidesmus indicus extracts generally do not show this enhancement for the monomeric substrates though they protect plasmid DNA. Compared to standard Fenton reactions for deoxynucleosides with ethanol, the presence of these five plant extracts render ethanol scavenging less effective as the radical is generated in the vicinity of the target. Since substoichiometric amounts of these extracts and the four compounds produce this effect, a catalytic mechanism involving the presence of a ternary complex of the nucleoside/nucleotide substrate, a plant compound and the hydroxyl radical is proposed. Such a mechanism cannot operate for plasmid DNA as the planar rings in the extract compounds cannot stack with the duplex DNA bases. These plant extracts, by enhancing Fenton reaction-mediated damage to deoxynucleoside triphosphates, slow down DNA replication in rapidly dividing cancer cells, thus contributing to their anticancer properties.

  2. Use of anthocyanin extracted from natural plant materials to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the optimal conditions for anthocyanin extraction from natural plant materials in order to develop a pH test kit. The plant materials used were butterfly pea flower (BPF), roselle red flower (RRF) and dragon fruit peel (DFP). The solvents used in this study were distilled water, 1% HCl/95% ...

  3. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical analysis of the plant extract and the Epa-Ijebu showed the presence of bioactive compounds: tannin, flavonoid, alkaloids, phylobatanin, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, saponin and anthraquinone. Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. ascalonicum, ...

  4. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The...

  5. Alternative control of early blight of tomato using plant extracts from Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima and Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A.M. BAKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo antifungal potential of extracts of three wild medicinal plants, (Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk. Sch.Bip. and Calotropis procera (Aiton W. T. Aiton was examined against Alternaria solani, the causal agent of the early blight of tomato. Aqueous or ethanol extracts of all tested plants reduced the mycelial growth and conidium germination of A. solani in vitro. Ethanol extracts were more effective against the pathogen than the aqueous extracts. Extract of C. procera exhibited more antifungal potential against the pathogen than other plant extracts. Observations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of A. solani when treated with the ethanol extract of C. procera at a concentration of 20%. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of many bioactive constituents in the extracts which were in greater amounts in C. procera than the other two plants. In a plot experiment, both types of extracts from C. procera reduced disease severity. Tomato fruit yield was increased after the treatment with the plant extracts.

  6. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Wright, Colin W; Willcox, Merlin L; Gilbert, Ben

    2011-03-15

    In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Narrative review. There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

  7. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Colin W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds. The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

  8. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats and on small muscle intestinal transit. At orally administrated doses of 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg of body weight, the two plant extracts significantly (p<0.05) prolonged ...

  9. A method for the solvent extraction of low-boiling-point plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Gruber, Margaret; Westcott, Neil; Soroka, Julie; Parkin, Isobel; Hegedus, Dwayne

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of volatiles from plant materials and tested on seedling tissue and mature leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, pine needles and commercial mixtures of plant volatiles. Volatiles were extracted with n-pentane and then subjected to quick distillation at a moderate temperature. Under these conditions, compounds such as pigments, waxes and non-volatile compounds remained undistilled, while short-chain volatile compounds were distilled into a receiving flask using a high-efficiency condenser. Removal of the n-pentane and concentration of the volatiles in the receiving flask was carried out using a Vigreux column condenser prior to GC-MS. The method is ideal for the rapid extraction of low-boiling-point volatiles from small amounts of plant material, such as is required when conducting metabolic profiling or defining biological properties of volatile components from large numbers of mutant lines.

  10. Experiences in running solvent extraction plant for thorium compounds [Paper No. : V-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalkrishnan, C.R.; Bhatt, J.P.; Kelkar, G.K.

    1979-01-01

    Indian Rare Earths Ltd. operates a Plant using thorium concentrates as raw material, employing hydrocarbonate route, for the manufacture of thorium compounds. A small demonstration solvent extraction plant designed by the Chemical Engineering Division, B.A.R.C. is also being operated for the same purpose using a partly purified thorium hydrocarbonate as raw material. In the solvent extraction process, separation of pure thorium is done in mixer settlers using 40% mixture of tri-butyl phosphate in kerosene. Though a comparatively purer raw material of hydrocarbonate than thorium concentrate is used, heavy muck formation is encountered in the extraction stage. Production of nuclear grade thorium oxide has been successful so far as quality is concerned. The quality of thorium nitrate suffers in the yellow colouration and high phosphate content, the former being only partly controlled through the use of pretreated kerosene. When a larger solvent extraction plant is to be designed to use thorium concentrates as raw material, some of the problems encountered will be considered. (author)

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of hexane root extract of Alchornea laxiflora in sodium arsenate toxicity in wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Esosa Samuel Uhunmwangho; Nurudeen Olajide Rasaq; Iyanuoluwa Olubukola Osikoya

    2018-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are have been used in the treatment of myriad disease conditions, Alchornea laxiflora is one of such medicinal plant. Aim: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hexane root extract of Alchornea laxiflora against sodium arsenate induced liver damage in wistar male rats. Setting and Design: Extraction and administration of bioactive extract. Materials and Methods: Extraction of air-dried ground root of Alchornea laxiflora was done by extracting 500 g with 50...

  12. In vitro activity of certain drugs in combination with plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... organisms (Hugo et al., 1993; Levinson and Jawetz,. 2002). Drug synergism between known antimicrobial agents and bioactive plant extracts is .... Ibezim EC, Esimone CO, Nnamani PO, Onyishi IV, Brown SA, Obodo. CE (2006). In vitro study of the interaction between some fluoroquinolones and extracts of ...

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  15. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized comparison of pre and postoperative administration of ketorolac and tramadol for dental extraction pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Results: Ketorolac and tramadol were significantly better than placebo in relieving molar tooth extraction pain. Postoperative administration of tramadol was found to be more efficacious than preoperative administration in relieving the pain, whereas the preoperative administration of ketorolac was better than its postoperative administration. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tramadol is equally effective to ketorolac in relieving pain in the first 6 h after molar extraction and therefore can be tried in patients who are intolerant to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  16. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  17. Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christybapita, D; Divyagnaneswari, M; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2007-10-01

    Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. The results indicated that E. alba aqueous extract administered as feed supplement significantly enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with aqueous extract for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. No significant modulation was noticed in all the cellular responses tested after 3 weeks of feeding, while reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase content showed significant enhancement after 1 week of feeding with aqueous extract. When challenged with A. hydrophila after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of feeding, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in the treated fish. The highest dose of 1% gave better protection than the other doses with the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of 64, 75 and 32 after feeding for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. alba aqueous leaf extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of O. mossambicus against A. hydrophila.

  18. Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; de Castro, Vinicius Carlos; das Graças Figueiredo Vilela, Polyana; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2013-08-15

    With the emergence of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, it is important to carry studies using alternative methods to control these microorganisms causing important infections, such as the use of products of plant origin that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity besides biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Equisetum arvense L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Punica granatum L. and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, and to analyze the cytotoxicity of these extracts in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was evaluated by microdilution method based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), M7-A6 and M27-A2 standards. The cytotoxicity of concentrations that eliminated the microorganisms was evaluated by MTT colorimetric method and by quantification of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) using ELISA. In determining the minimum microbicidal concentration, E. arvense L., P. granatum L., and S. barbatimam Mart. extracts at a concentration of 50 mg/mL and G. glabra L. extract at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, were effective against all microorganisms tested. Regarding cell viability, values were 48% for E. arvense L., 76% for P. granatum L, 86% for S. barbatimam Mart. and 79% for G. glabra L. at the same concentrations. About cytokine production after stimulation with the most effective concentrations of the extracts, there was a significant increase of IL-1β in macrophage cultures treated with S. barbatimam Mart. (3.98 pg/mL) and P. granatum L. (7.72 pg/mL) compared to control (2.20 pg/mL) and a significant decrease of TNF-α was observed in cultures treated with G. glabra L. (4.92 pg/mL), S. barbatimam Mart. (0.85 pg/mL), E. arvense L. (0.83 pg/mL), and P. granatum L. (0.00 pg

  19. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  20. effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on the black cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileem, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    the present study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma radiation and plant extracts separately or combined on certain biological and histological aspects of the black cut worm agrotis ipsilon (Hufn). , throughout two successive generations. this work comprised the study of effects of two low doses 75 and 150 Gy) of gamma irradiation as well as two species of plant extracts(M.azedarach and S. terebinthifolius). special stress was given to study the reproductive biology and the histological changes in the gonads of the parental adult males . parental adult females and their f1 generation. - effect of gamma irradiation on p1 and f1 generation: 1. when full grown male pupae were irradiated with the doses of 75 or 150, the number of deposited eggs per mated female was not significantly affected among p1 generations at the two tested radiation doses while it was significantly affected among f1 generation. 2. the eg hatchability percentage among p1 and f1 generations was significantly reduced by increasing the radiation dose applied to p1 male. 3. the two tested doses of gamma irradiation (75 and 150 Gy) did not clearly affect the percentage of mated females among p1 and f1 generations. 4. the average number of spermatophores per mated female was not evidently different from the control.-effect of plant extracts on p1 and f1 generations:1)effect of petroleum ether (p.t) extract treatment on certain biological aspects. 2) effect of acetone extracts treatment on certain biological aspects.3)effect o plant extracts on reproductive biology through p1 generation.4)effect of plant extracts on the reproductive biology through f1 generation.3. the combined effects of irradiation and plant extracts.4.histological effects of different treatments on on gonads of adult and females

  1. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Buchu Plant Extracts and Their Analgesic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Chiguvare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We herein report for the first time the synthesis and analgesic properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs using buchu plant extract. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs at different temperatures were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission transform microscopy (TEM to confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of glycosides, proteins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. The absorption spectra showed that the synthesis is temperature and time dependent. The TEM analysis showed that the as-synthesised Ag-NPs are polydispersed and spherical in shape with average particle diameter of 19.95 ± 7.76 nm while the FTIR results confirmed the reduction and capping of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs by the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic extract. The analgesic study indicated that the combined effect of the plant extract and Ag-NPs is more effective in pain management than both the aspirin drug and the extract alone.

  2. Heat extraction from turbines of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two design are described of SKODA extraction turbines for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors. 220 MW steam turbines were originally designed as pure condensation turbines with uncontrolled steam extraction. Optimal ways are now being sought for their use for heating hot water for district heating. For district heating of the town of Trnava, the nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice will provide a two-step heating of water from 70 to 120 degC with a heat supply of 60 MW th from one turbine unit. The ratio of obtained heat power to lost electric power is 5.08. Investigations showed the possibility of extracting 85 MW th of heat from uncontrolled steam extraction, this at three-step water heating from 60 to 145 degC, the ratio of gained and lost power being 7.14. Information is presented on the SKODA 220 MW turbine with steam extraction for heat supply purposes and on the 1000 MW turbine with 893 MW th heat extraction. The specifications of both types are given. (Pu)

  3. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants. Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Alfonso Magos-Guerrero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L. Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev. Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose induced hypertension. The blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Results: After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the heart rate, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the blood pressure after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension. Conclusions: The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 274-279

  4. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 234: 10-12 Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Wellington, KW Leboho, T Sakong, BM Adenubi, OT Eloff, JN...

  5. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  6. Effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, M. S.; Yuliani, S.; Sari, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Nutmeg is dried kernel of broadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has been mentioned in ethnomedical literature as aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, and nervous stimulant. In order to establish the safety of nutmeg, the effect of the repeated administration of nutmeg is needed. The study was aimed to determine the toxic effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat. A total of 28 male adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I as control was given by 0.5% CMC-suspension, group II, III, and IV were given by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively, of nutmeg ethanolic extract. The treatments were administered daily for 31 days. On day 31 bloods were taken from orbital sinus. The hematological parameter consisted of the numbers of erythrocyte and leukocyte as well as hemoglobin and total protein levels were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one way Anova followed by LSD test. All of observed hematological parameters in rats showed that there were no significant difference between the nutmeg ethanolic extract treated groups and control group. The result indicated that the subchronic administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw of nutmeg ethanolic extract did not cause the change of hematological parameters in rat.

  7. Effect of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and plant ash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp attacked by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with water extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and plant ash separately. The extract was found to exhibit an insecticidal effect. It has an antifeedant and growth regulating effects on the pulse beetle.

  8. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  9. Antibacterial activity of honey and medicinal plant extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity extracts of six South African honeys and medicinal plants against six enteric microorganisms viz- Enterobacter cloacae, Escheriachia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii isolated from geophagia samples and Aeromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas ...

  10. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  11. The Antioxidant and Antihaemolytic Activities and the Polyphenolic Contents of Some Plants Seeds Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrooz, O.; Harb, M.; Al-Qato, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the this study which were carried out on yhe ethanol and acetone extracts of Prunus armeniaca, Cerasus vulgare, Nespole, Opuntia ficus-indica, Cucumis melo, and Vitis vinifera proved that theses extracts contain bioctive substances such as polyohenols and flavonids. The UV-VIS spectropgotometric assays showed that the extracted materials posses strong band in the range between 250-300 nm which confirm the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. The concentration of these materials were different depending on the type pf plant seeds and the solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant and antihaemolytic activities of the extracts were determined by 1, 1-dipheny1-2picry1-hydeazy1 (DPPH) method, and red blood cells (RBCs) haemolysis test. Results of these extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities depending on the origin of plant extracts. (Author's) 23 refs., 4 Tabs., 1fig

  12. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100–3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia. PMID:26504473

  13. Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loise M. Njoki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits from Solanum aculeastrum, bark from Syzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis, and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were suspended in 2 ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in both strains: UONV017 (mean = 18.50±0.71 mm and UONV003 (mean = 11.92±0.94 mm at 600 mg/ml. Aqueous extracts had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration at 25 mg/ml against A. flavus UONV017. All the plant extracts in combination with light reduced the viability of fungal conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further development can control toxigenic fungal spread.

  14. Modulatory effects of Thai medicinal plant extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindau (1 and 100 μg/ml), significantly inhibited the IFN-y/TNF-a- induced HaCaT apoptosis, while members of the Zingiberaceae family, Curcuma longa L. and Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd, significantly enhanced apoptosis when a concentration of 100 μg/ml was used. Furthermore, the ethanolic plant extracts were found to ...

  15. A preliminary study of local administration of dexamethasone after tooth extraction: Better preservation of residual alveolar ridge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poštić Srđan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is important that the height of the edentulous alveolar ridge after tooth extraction remains at a reasonable acceptable level for as long as possible. The aim of this study was to report preliminary results of the clinical effect of local oral submucous administration of dexamethasone after tooth extractions in order to prepare alveolar supporting tissues for acceptance of removable dentures. Methods. In a total of 15 patients (11 partially and 4 completely edentulous the quantity of 0.25 mL to 0.5 mL of dexamethasone was injected bucally and orally in the region of the tooth socket after complicated extractions. Results. Healing of extraction wounds was uneventful in all the patients, without pain or local inflammation. Conclusion. Dexamethasone can be locally applied to oral tissues to prevent post-extraction inflammation and extensive resorption of the residual alveolar ridge. The obtained results are promising for patients undergoing classic prosthodontic rehabilitation soon after tooth extraction, demonstrating that there are no adverse effects after local oral corticosteroids administration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175021

  16. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material. Extraction and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, F A; Barrett, F C

    1967-09-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol-water-aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether-formic acid-2-methylpropan-2-ol-water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5'-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract simulating that

  17. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius), Croton bonplandianum (C. bonplandianum), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon), Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles vagus (An. vagus), Armigeres subalbatus (Ar. subalbatus) and Culex vishnui (Cx. vishnui). The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A. precatorius and leaf extracts of C. bonplandianum, flower chloroform and methanol extracts of M. paradisiaca, and flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against An. vagus with LC(50) values of 19.31, 39.96, 35.18, 79.90 and 85.90 μg/mL; leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. dactylon, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud methanol extract of S. aromaticum against Ar. subalbatus with LC(50) values of 21.67, 32.62, 48.90 and 78.28 μg/mL, and seed methanol of A. precatorius, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against Cx. vishnui with LC(50) values of 136.84, 103.36 and 149.56 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  19. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC 50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC 50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  20. Modification of bone marrow radiosensitivity by medicinal plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganasoundari, A.; Zare, S. M.; Uma Devi, P. [Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119 (India)

    1997-07-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone, and Plumbagin (Pi), a naphthoquinone, from the roots of Withania somnifera and Plumbage rosea, respectively, have been shows to possess growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects on experimental mouse tumours. An aqueous extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OE) was found to protect mice against radiation lethality. Therefore, the radiomodifying effects of the above plant products on the bone marrow of the adult Swiss mouse was studied. Single doses of WA (30 mg kg{sup -1}) or P1 (5 mg kg{sup -1}) were injected intraperitoneally tip) and OE (10 mg kg{sup -1}) was injected ip once daily for five consecutive days. Administration of extracts was followed by 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Bone marrow stem cell survival was studied by an exogenous spleen colony unit (CFU-S) assay. The effects of WA and P1 were compared with that of cyclophosphamide (CP) and radioprotection by OE was compared with that of WR-2721 (WR). Radiation reduced the CFU-S to less than 50% of normal. WA, CP and P1 significantly enhanced this effect and reduced the CFU-S to almost the same extent (to <20% of normal), although individually WA and P1 were less cytotoxic than CP. These results indicate that radiosensitization by WE and P1 is not tumour specific. OE significantly increased CFU-S compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone. OE + RT gave a higher stem cell survival (p < 0.05) than that produced by WR + RT. While WR alone had a toxic effect, OE treatment showed no such effect, suggesting that the latter may have an advantage over WR in clinical application. (author)

  1. Inhibitory activity of Iranian plant extracts on growth and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a drug resistance opportunistic bacterium. Biofilm formation is key factor for survivalof P. aeruginosa in various environments. Polysaccharides may be involved in biofilm formation. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of seven plant extracts with known alpha-glucosidaseinhibitory activities on different strains of P. aeruginosa.Methodology and results: Plants were extracted with methanol by the maceration method. Antimicrobial activities weredetermined by agar dilution and by growth yield as measured by OD560nm of the Luria Bertani broth (LB culture with orwithout extracts. In agar dilution method, extracts of Quercus infectoria inhibited the growth of all, while Myrtuscommunis extract inhibited the growth of 3 out of 8 bacterial strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1000μg/mL. All extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced growth rate of the bacteria in comparison with the control withoutextracts in LB broth at sub-MIC concentrations (500 μg/mL. All plant extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced biofilmformation compared to the controls. Glycyrrhiza glabra and Q. infectoria had the highest anti-biofilm activities. Nocorrelation between the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with growth or the intensity of biofilm formation was found.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Extracts of Q. infectoria and M. communis had the most antimicrobial,while Q. infectoria and G. glabra had the highest anti-biofilm activities. All plant extracts had anti-biofilm activities withmarginal effect on growth, suggesting that the mechanisms of these activities are unrelated to static or cidal effects.Further work to understand the relation between antimicrobial and biofilm formation is needed for development of newmeans to fight the infectious caused by this bacterium in future.

  2. Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S.R.; Kammenga, J.E.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an

  3. In vitro antioxidant assay of selected aqueous plant extracts and their polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Raju M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support the use of selected plant extracts in Ayurveda, naturopathy, the antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vincarosea (VR, Gymnemasylvestre (GS, Tinosporacordifolia (TC and Emblicaofficinalis (EO and their mixture (PHF of Indian origin was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity by using in vitro models like superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxide inhibition assay. The results were compared with standard (ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant. The various phytoconstituents identified in the above selected plants extracts were poly phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids. The terpenoids were reported to protect lipids, blood and body fluids against the attack of free radicals, some types of reactive oxygen, hydroxylic groups, peroxides and superoxide radicals. The presence of these phytoconstituents in selected plants might be responsible for antioxidant activity with that of known antioxidant ascorbic acid.

  4. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  5. First discovery of acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge as a novel antiviral agent against plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future.

  6. Antibacterial activity of oregano and sage plant extracts against decarboxylase-positive enterococci isolated from rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Chrastinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant extracts (sage, oregano against decarboxylase-positive enterococci from rabbit back limb meat  was reported in this study. Oregano plant extract inhibited the growth of all 34 tested enterococci (the inhibitory zones: 12 to 45 mm. The growth of the majority of strains  (n=23 was inhibited by oregano plant extract (the high size inhibitory zones (higher than 25 mm. The growth of 11 strains  was inhibited by oregano extract reaching medium size inhibitory zones (10 to 25mm. The most sensitive strain to oregano extract was E. faecium M7bA (45 mm. Sage extract was less active against tested enterococci (n=16  reaching lower inhibitory zones (up to 10 mm. doi:10.5219/239 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  7. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  8. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  9. EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS AND GROWTH SUBSTRATES ON CONTROLLING DAMPING-OFF IN PINUS TECUNUMANII SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Fajardo-Mejía

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off is considered one of the most limiting phytosanitary problems in conifer seedling production because it may cause massive damage or total plant death in short time periods. This pathology is caused by a complex of microorganisms, the most common of which are Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia spp. This study evaluated the effect of growth substrates and plant extracts at different concentrations on germination and incidence of disease in Pinus tecunumanii plants. The plants were inoculated with the damping-off pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and treatments were applied in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 4x2x3. This corresponded to four substrates (pine bark, rice hull, coconut husk and sandy soil (4:1; two plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla and Datura stramonium, andthree concentrations of each extract (Control concentration: 0%, Concentration 1: 50 % and Concentration 2: Undiluted. Each treatment had three repetitions, with 25 plants per repetition. The growth substrates affected germination; the most effective of these were sandy soil (4:1 and pine bark, with 90% and 92% germination at day 20, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the germination obtained with these substrates and that obtained with coconut husk after day 19. Meanwhile, all of the extracts had a significant effect on controlling the disease when they were combined with the substrates, with the exception of coconut husk. With this last substrate the incidence of disease was lower than 4% without the application of plant extracts; this indicates that coconut husk discourages the development of the disease on its own.

  10. Potential Study of Water Extraction from Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is absorbed by the roots of a plant and transported subsequently as a liquid to all parts of the plant before being released into the atmosphere as transpiration. In this study, seven(7selected plant species collected from urban, rural and forested areas were studied and characterized. The water was collected using transparent plastic bag that being tied to the tree branches. Then, the vapouris water trapped inside the plastic bag and through the condensation process, it become water droplets. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH value, DO, turbidity, colour, magnesium, calcium, nitrate and chloride were analyzed. The analysis was compared to drinking water quality standard set by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Based on the results, it shows that banana leaf has a higher rate of water extraction compared to others. Thus, the plant can be categorised as a helpful guide for emergency use of water or as an alternative source to survival.

  11. Economic evaluation of heat extraction from nuclear power plants - a criterion for deciding their building order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.

    1987-01-01

    Heat extraction from nuclear power plants is an important element in the current concept of supplying the population and industries with heat. Economic evaluation of the extraction is one of the factors of the total economic assessment of potential sites for nuclear power plant construction which can contribute to decision making on the priorities of construction. The methodological approach to the assessment of economic contribution of heat extraction from 2x1000 MW nuclear power plant is exemplified using three such sites on the Czechoslovak territory, viz., Opatovice (eastern Bohemia), Blahutovice (northern Moravia), and Kecerovce (eastern Slovakia). The so-called annual converted cost was used as a suitable quantity completely reflecting all significant economic effects of heat extraction. It is shown that the fuel component of the power plant costs is the decisive factor for the amount of the annual converted cost in respect to heat supply and thus also the economic priority of the construction sites of nuclear power plants. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 3 refs

  12. Influence of plants on the chemical extractability and biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucard, Tatiana K.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the fate and behaviour of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in planted (Lolium perenne L.) and unplanted soils over 57 days. Extractability of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was measured using calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), acetonitrile-water and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions. Biodegradability of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was assessed through measurement of 14 CO 2 production by a degrader inoculum (Burkholderia sp.). Although extractability and mineralisation of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity decreased significantly in both planted and unplanted soils, plants appeared to enhance the sequestration process. After 57 days, in unplanted soil, 27% of the remaining [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was mineralised by Burkholderia sp., and 13%, 48%, and 38% of 14 C-activity were extracted by CaCl 2 , acetonitrile-water and DCM, respectively. However, after 57 days, in planted soils, only 10% of the [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was available for mineralisation, whilst extractability was reduced to 2% by CaCl 2 , 17% by acetonitrile-water and 11% by DCM. This may be due to the effect of plants on soil moisture conditions, which leads to modification of the soil structure and trapping of the compound. However, the influence of plants on soil biological and chemical properties may also play a role in the ageing process

  13. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Produced for Commercial Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Sathisha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of some herbal plant extracts (commercial products was measured using various in vitro assays. Among the extracts from Curcuma longa, Caffea arabica, Tribulus terrestris, Bacopa monnieri and Trigonella foenum- graecum, the Curcuma longa and coffee bean extract (Caffea Arabica showed greater antioxidant activity measured as scavenging of DPPH, superoxide radicals, reducing power and inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation.

  15. An overview of herbs, spices and plant extracts used as seasonings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonings include Spices such as pepper, herbs such as the leaves of cloves and bay, vegetable bulbs such as garlic and onions, sweeteners such as sugar and monosodium glutamate, and plant extracts such as that of Ocimum grattisimum or 'scent leaf'. Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries of plants, most ...

  16. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

  17. Efficacy of plant derived oils and extracts against white-fly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) on sesame crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, A.; Irfan, M.; Aslam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a polyphagous pest and is reported on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and gera-nium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes. (author)

  18. The granule cell density of the dentate gyrus following administration of Urtica dioica extract to young diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, S A; Gharravi, A M; Ghafari, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2008-08-01

    Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle has long been known worldwide as a medicinal plant. To study the benefits of the nettle in diabetic encephalopathy, the granule cell density of the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats was studied following administration of Urtica dioica extract. A total of 24 male albino Wistar rats were allocated equally to normal, diabetic, preventive and treatment groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. The rats of the preventive group received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for the first 5 days and an injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day. After 5 weeks of study all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with cresyl violet. The area densities of the granule cells were measured and compared in the four groups. The density was lower in the diabetic rats compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The preventive group showed lower cell density than the controls (p > 0.05). The densities in the treated rats were higher than in the diabetic rats (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities (p > 0.05). It seems that U. dioica extract can help compensate for granule cell loss in the diabetic rat dentate gyrus, which can ameliorate cognitive impairment in diabetes. However, preventive use of the extract showed no significant benefit.

  19. Actant model of an extraction plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1999-05-01

    Facing a growing complexity of industrial plants, we recognise the need for qualitative modelling methods capturing functional and causal complexity in a human-centred way. The present paper presents actant modelling as a functional modelling method rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling combines actant models from linguistics with multilevel flow modelling (MFM). Thus the semantics of MFM functions is developed further and given an interpretation in terms of actant functions. The present challenge is to provide coherence between seemingly different categories of knowledge. Yet the gap between functional and causal modelling methods can be bridged. Actant modelling provides an open and provisional, but in no way exhaustive or final answer as to how teleological concepts like goals and functions relate to causal concepts. As the main focus of the paper an actant model of an extraction plant is presented. It is shown how the actant model merges functional and causal knowledge in a natural way.

  20. Actant model of an extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1999-01-01

    Facing a growing complexity of industrial plants, we recognise the need for qualitative modelling methods capturing functional and causal complexity in a human-centred way. The present paper presents actant modelling as a functional modelling method rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling combines actant models from linguistics with multilevel flow modelling (MFM). Thus the semantics of MFM functions is developed further and given an interpretation in terms of actant functions. The present challenge is to provide coherence between seemingly different categories of knowledge. Yet the gap between functional and causal modelling methods can be bridged. Actant modelling provides an open and provisional, but in no way exhaustive or final answer as to how teleological concepts like goals and functions relate to causal concepts. As the main focus of the paper an actant model of an extraction plant is presented. It is shown how the actant model merges functional and causal knowledge in a natural way

  1. Effect of dietary plant extract on meat quality and sensory parameters of meat from Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Ratti, Sabrina; Pastorelli, Grazia; Maghin, Federica; Martemucci, Giovanni; Casamassima, Donato; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Corino, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Plant extracts as Lippia spp. have been proven antioxidant properties. Recent studies have been shown that dietary supplementation with plant extracts is able to enhance meat quality parameters. Studies regarding meat quality in Equidae are limited. The effect of dietary plant extract (PE), containing verbascoside, on meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory parameters of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle in Equidae was studied. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) pH, colour indices and chemical parameters of muscle in both donkey and horse. Dietary PE improved (P meat and to affect the sensory attributes of Equidae meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrin Abdullah; Ahdin Gassa; Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin; Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conduc...

  4. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Gassa, Ahdin; Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Agus, Nurariaty; Fattah, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted...

  5. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  6. Toxic effects of coastal and marine plant extracts on mosquito larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Solimabi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Petroleum-ether and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic extracts of mangrove/plants (Derris heterophylla, Salvadora persica, Sonneratia caseolaris, Clerodendron inerme), seaweeds (Acanthophora muscoides, Microdictyon pseudohapteron), seagrass...

  7. The Effect of Clerodendrum Myricoides Aqueous Extract on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In Ethiopia, the long history of using medicinal plants for .... administrations of the extracts or distilled water were carried out using intragastric catheter. All .... These changes include: inflammations around central vein in the 100mg/kg body.

  8. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  10. Effects of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts on Hatching, Migration and Mortality of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ibrahim.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The nematicidal activity of the essential oil/pure components and plant extracts of naturally grown aromatic plant species against hatching, migration and mortality of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated. The pure components carvacrol, thymol, and linalool at 1, 2 and 4 mg liter-1 concentrations were the most toxic against M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2s followed by terpineol and menthone. Hatching was completely inhibited at low concentrations (2, 4 mg liter-1 of carvacrol, thymol, and linalool. Clove extracts (1 mg liter-1 of Allium sativum significantly reduced hatching activity to below 8%, followed by flower extracts of Foeniculum vulgare which reduced hatching to below 25%. These extracts were also toxic against J2s of M. incognita (LC50 43 followed by leaf extracts of Pinus pinea, Origanum syriacum, Mentha microcorphylla, Eucalyptus spp. and Citrus sinensis with an estimated LC50 of 44, 50, 65, 66 and 121 ppm respectively. Flower extracts of F. vulgare had the highest effect on J2 mortality in sand (86%. The highest concentration of essential oils (6% was detected in leaf extracts of Origanium syriacum. Over 30 major components were identified in all the plant extracts tested.

  11. Electrospun Nanofibres Containing Antimicrobial Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years great research interest has been directed toward nanofibrous architectures produced by electrospinning bioactive plant extracts. The resulting structures possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activity, which are attractive for biomedical applications and food industry. This review describes the diverse approaches that have been developed to produce electrospun nanofibres that are able to deliver naturally-derived chemical compounds in a controlled way and to prevent their degradation. The efficacy of those composite nanofibres as wound dressings, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and active food packaging systems will be discussed.

  12. Extraction and antioxidant activities of two species Origanum plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid ...

  13. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  14. An evaluation of the RNase H inhibitory effects of Vietnamese medicinal plant extracts and natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhut, Nguyen Duy; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Thanh Ngan, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Luyen, Bui Thi; Huong, Tran Thu; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A; Ban, Ninh Khac; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-10-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe pandemic disease especially prevalent in poor and developing countries. Thus, developing specific, potent antiviral drugs that restrain infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a major cause of AIDS, remains an urgent priority. This study evaluated 32 extracts and 23 compounds from Vietnamese medicinal plants for their inhibitory effects against HIV-1 ribonuclease H (RNase H) and their role in reversing the cytopathic effects of HIV. The plants were air-dried and extracted in different solvent systems to produce plant extracts. Natural compounds were obtained as previously published. Samples were screened for RNase H inhibition followed by a cytopathic assay. Data were analyzed using the Microsoft Excel. At 50 μg/mL, 11 plant extracts and five compounds inhibited over 90% of RNase H enzymatic activity. Methanol extracts from Phyllanthus reticulatus and Aglaia aphanamixis leaves inhibited RNase H activity by 99 and 98%, respectively, whereas four extracts showed modest protection against the cytopathic effects of HIV. The screening results demonstrated that the butanol (BuOH) extract of Celastrus orbiculata leaves, methanol (MeOH) extracts of Glycosmis stenocarpa stems, Eurya ciliata leaves, and especially P. reticulatus leaves showed potential RNase H inhibition and protection against the viral cytopathic effects of HIV-1. Further chemical investigations should be carried out to find the active components of these extracts and compounds as potential anti-HIV drug candidates.

  15. Extraction of deuterium from D-rich process condensate of ammonia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldar, T K; Kumar, Manoj; Ramamurty, C B [Heavy Water Board, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water plants based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange process receives feed synthesis gas from the adjacent fertilizer plants. The production capacity of such heavy water plants is directly proportional to the deuterium-content in feed synthesis gas. The chemical process involved in gas generation section of the fertilizer plant includes catalytic steam-reforming of natural gas/naphtha/fuel oil followed by shift conversion, alternatively coal classification followed by shift conversion. Effective extraction of deuterium from the deuterium-rich process condensate can boost the production capacity of heavy water plants considerably. This paper discusses various possible methods to achieve this objective. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of 34 Indian Medicinal Plants against some Staphylococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-four Indian medicinal plants belonging to 28 different families were screened for potential antibacterial activity against 3 Staphylococcus species, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus subflava. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was performed by agar disc diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. The alcoholic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts for all the plants studied. The most susceptible bacterium ...

  17. Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of 34 Indian Medicinal Plants against some Staphylococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-four Indian medicinal plants belonging to 28 different families were screened for potential antibacterial activity against 3 Staphylococcus species, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus subflava. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was performed by agar disc diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. The alcoholic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts for all the plants studied. The most susceptible bacterium ...

  18. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content of wild Alhagi maurorum root plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad AL-RIMAWI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alhagi maurorum, belonging to family Leguminosae, is a highly branched spiny shrub. Roots may reach up to the depth of 15 meters. Alhagi maurorum is used in folk medicine, as a purgative, diaphoretic, expectorant and diuretic used to treat piles, migraine, warts and rheumatism. Samples of the root of Alhagi maurorum plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents; water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity (AA. Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC, while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was highest in the following order: 80% ethanol >100% ethanol >water

  19. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafique, M; Khan, S J [Pakistan Councile of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2011-09-15

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  20. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Khan, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  1. In-vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from locally available medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ara, G.; Shawar, D.; Akbar, A.; Kanwal, F.; Imran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of essential oils from locally available species of four plants, Nigella sativa, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum tenuis and Curcuma aromatica was carried out using steam distillation followed by ether extraction. Dried and purified extracted oils were screened for their antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains namely, Bacillus lichaniformis (Gram +ve), Micrococcus leutus (Gram +ve) and Salmonella Typhimurium (Gram -ve) using Mc. Cartney's method. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) values of these oils were also determined. It was observed that the oils extracted from Nigella sativa and Cinnamomum tenuis were found to be more potent as compared to other two species. With the exception of Nigella sativa, all the other oils showed bacterial inhibition at 50 mmol concentration. These results support that these plant oils can be used to cure bacterial infections and may also have role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. (author)

  2. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Leaves Extract of Barnoof Plant on Larval Development of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufngel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiating parental male full grown pupae agrotis ipsilon with the two sub sterile doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) followed by treated F1 4 th instar larvae with three concentrations of the barnoof plant leaves extract (0,15000 and 30000 ppm) or each of them alone were studied. the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and the barnoof plant extract to F1 larvae had a deleterious effects on average larval duration, average weight of last larval instar, total morality, pupation, adult emergence and survival when compared with the effect of gamma irradiation or plant leaves extract which of them alone. gamma irradiation increased the susceptibility of F 1 Larvae descendant from irradiated parental male pupae with 100 and 150 Gy to the barnoof plant leaves extract. A gradual increase in susceptibility was noticed as the dose of radiation increase. the efficiency of gamma irradiation and/or plant leaves extract to inhibit the 4 th instar larvae of A-. ipsilon was evaluated. the results showed highly toxic effect to the 4 th instar larvae at the two concentrations (15000 and 30000 ppm). on the other hand the dose 150 Gy combined with 30000 ppm of plant extract treatment (Acetone or petroleum ether solvents) had highly effect on the 4 th instar larvae as compared with the other treatments

  3. [Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

    2001-01-01

    Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

  4. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Lee, Jee Bum; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Li, Zhengri; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P model mice.

  5. Amazonian plant crude extract screening for activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A F; Segovia, J F O; Gonçalves, M C A; de Oliveira, V L; Silveira, D; Carvalho, J C T; Kanzaki, L I B

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a subject of great concern in public health and also in the designing of strategies for current therapeutic protocols all over the world. New drugs, including those necessary for a reserve armamentarium and exhibiting less side effects deserve special attention. In rural areas, particularly in Brazil, a huge number of natural products, in different artisanal preparations, mainly from plants, have been used by traditional populations to cure diseases. Despite some of these plants have been studied, many of them are awaiting to have their compounds chemically characterized and investigated their pharmacodynamics properties. Further, as well known, the environment plays a crucial role in the metabolism of these plants, yielding different and varied molecular complexes depending on the period of collection, climate conditions, kind of soil and also the plant speciation. In this report, ethanol crude extract of 10 different botanical specimens from the Amazon region of Brazil, in the Amapa State, were screened for antibacterial activity of 7 clinical resistant microorganisms utilizing as control ATCC bacterial species by the Kirby-Bauer method. Plant extracts of Geissospermum argenteum, Uncaria guianensis, Brosimum acutifolium, Copaifera reticulate, Licania macrophylla, Ptycopetalum olacoides and Dalbergia subcymosa yielded activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both multidrug resistant, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strain.

  6. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bezerra dos Santos

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%. During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage ofRhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armatashowed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus andSenna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida was effective at a 5% concentration.

  7. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  8. Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Balakrishnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the lemongrass plant Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus leaves extracted serially by the solvents (chloroform, methanol and water. Methods: The plant leaves extracts were used for antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia sp., Serratia sp., and Enterobacter aeruginosa microorganisms by the Kirby Bauer agar disc diffusion method. This study was carried out on lemongrass plant leaf extracts in different concentration of all solvents. The leaf extracts from different solvents were tested for their scavenging activity against the stable free radical DPPH in quantization using a spectrophotometric assay. Oxidative damage was induced in vitro by treating blood DNA and analyzing the effects of the leaf extracts. Results: The results showed that C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zones of inhibition in chloroform, methanol and water extracts. It was Observed that the C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Analyzed data in the present work suggested that antibacterial activity of C. citratus plant leaf extracts showed good results for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. DPPH scavenging activity was highly elicited by the extract of C. citratus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of C. citratus leaves effectively decreased the extent of DNA damage. Conclusions: The present study suggested that the lemongrass plant extracts could offer various health benefits.

  9. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  10. Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activity of an Extract from a Saudi Traditional Medicinal Plant Equisetum Arvense

    KAUST Repository

    Aldaas, Salsabil

    2011-05-01

    Background:Many ancient civilizations have used plants for medicinal purposes and indeed research has suggested that plant-derived compounds can be useful for treating many ailments, including cancer and infectious diseases. One such plant, Equisetum arvense, commonly known as horsetail, is a herbal plant that grows in Saudi Arabia and is traditionally used as a diuretic. Objective (s): We sought to determine whether horsetail extract exhibits 1) cytotoxic activity on cell lines and 2) antibacterial activity on the bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: Using dried aerial part of the horsetail plant, a methanolic extract was prepared for screening. This extract was examined for its cytotoxic effect on the following cell lines: cervical adenocarcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma as a cancer cell model; lung fibroblast as a normal cell model; and human embryonic kidney. After 72 hours of treatment, the cells were assayed to determine the relative percentages of dead and live cells. Microscopical examination was used to give approximate percentages and a general overview of the effect on cell morphology. The LIVE⁄DEAD® Viability⁄Cytotoxicity kit was used to determine viability of cells in the population by using two dyes: the green-fluorescent calcein-AM which stains living cells, and the red-fluorescent ethidium homodimer-1 which stains dead cells. The alamarBlue® assay, based on a fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator that detects metabolic activity, was used to establish a relative percentage of the living cells in a population treated with the plant extract compared to untreated cells (control). To determine antibacterial activity, the disc diffusion method was used. Results: Preliminary screening suggests that the horsetail extract induces death on the four tested cell lines with the greatest effect on human embryonic kidney cells followed by breast adenocarcinoma. The extract also displayed antibacterial activity at the highest

  11. Evaluation of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Yue; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-12-18

    In the present work, vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) was to perform microwave-assisted extraction in vacuum. Two well-known antioxidants, vitamin C from guava and green pepper, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) from soybean and tea leaves, which were easy to be oxidized, were chosen as representative target compounds for the evaluation of VMAE. The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE and those in MAE performed in atmosphere (air-MAE) were compared and the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and sample matrix were studied. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen and subpressure invacuo were also discussed via performed MAE in N(2) atmosphere (N(2)-MAE). The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE were higher than that in air-MAE, 35% increments of vitamin C from green pepper, 22% increments of alpha-tocopherol and 47% increments of gamma-tocopherol from tea leaves were obtained, respectively. The comparable increased extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in N(2)-MAE to that in air-MAE confirmed that oxygen in system was the crucial factor for the oxidation of vitamin C and vitamin E, VMAE was beneficial for the extraction of these oxygen-sensitive compounds. In addition, the subpressure invacuo in the VMAE system also showed positive affect on the extraction yields. On the basis of preventing oxidation and improving extraction efficiency of target compounds because of less oxygen and subpressure invacuo in the extraction system, VMAE has good potential for the extraction of oxygen-sensitive and thermosensitive compounds from plant samples.

  12. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.S.; De Paula, J.E.; Dégallier, Nicolas; Molez, Jean-François; Espindola, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extracts from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 mu g/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (> 65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these, Duguetia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 mu g/ml, respectively. Annon...

  13. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa

  14. Anti-diarrhoeal effects of three Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of these plant extracts on E. coli - induced diarrhoea in albino rats. Fresh tender roots and ... two years of life and declines as a child grows older. ... weighed using an electric weighing balance by Kern .... carried out all laboratory works.

  15. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. TOXICITY OF SOME PLANTS IMPLICATED AS POISONS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different parts of eight plants implicated in Akwa Ibom ethnomedicinal literature as toxic were examined for toxicity in rats after oral and intraperitoneal administration. Only the ethanolic extract of S. indica leaves was toxic by both oral and intraperitoneal routes. The extract of C. edulis roots, E. kamerunica leaves, ...

  17. Study of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of certain Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2012-02-01

    Methods: The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extracts of tested plants were evaluated using hot-plate and carrageenan-induced edema methods respectively. The plant extracts were studied by i.p administration at three doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg. Results: In the hot-plate test, the extracts of T. foeunm-graecum (100 mg/kg and Z. majdae (200 and 400m g/kg significantly increased the tolerance to pain in female albino mice in comparison to control. The administration of T. foenum-graecum at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg and V. tricolor (400mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema in male rat which measured in all the times of observation after carrageenan administration in comparison to control and reference (Ibuprofen, 400mg/kg. Conclusions: The present work comparatively demonstrated considerable antinociceptive and anti inflammatory effect of all of the tested plants especially T. foeunm-graecum. The results here confirm traditional uses of T. foeunm-graecum both as analgesic or anti inflammatory agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 19-24

  18. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interactions of medicinal plant extracts and drugs with lipid bilayer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopec, Wojciech; Telenius, Jelena; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Several small drugs and medicinal plant extracts, such as the Indian spice extract curcumin, have a wide range of useful pharmacological properties that cannot be ascribed to binding to a single protein target alone. The lipid bilayer membrane is thought to mediate the effects of many such molecu......Several small drugs and medicinal plant extracts, such as the Indian spice extract curcumin, have a wide range of useful pharmacological properties that cannot be ascribed to binding to a single protein target alone. The lipid bilayer membrane is thought to mediate the effects of many...

  20. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  1. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  2. 75 MW heat extraction from Beznau nuclear power plant (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    The district heat extraction system installed and commissioned at the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant 1983 and 1984 is working successfully since the beginning. Together with a six kilometres extension in 1994, the system now consists of a 35 kilometres main network and 85 kilometres of local distribution pipelines. The eight founding communities as well as three networks joined later have been connected. Today around 2160 consumers of the Refuna district heating, small and large private buildings, industrial and agricultural enterprises are supplied with heat from the Beznau plant (1997: 141'000 MWh). The regional district heat supply system has become an integrated part of the regional infrastructure for around 20'000 inhabitants of the lower Aare valley. Nearly 15 years of operational experience are confirming the success of the strict approval conditions for the housing connections. Remarkably deep return flow temperatures in the district heating network were leading to considerable reserves in the transport capacity of the main pipeline system. The impacts of the heat extraction from the Beznau nuclear power plant, in particular its contribution to the protection of the environment by substituting fossil fuels and preventing CO2-production, have been positive. (author)

  3. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additive...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additional objective was to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Fine texture powder or paste form of leaves was soaked in sterile distilled water and 100% ethyl alcohol, which were kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 24 h. Then filtrates were prepared and kept in a hot air oven to get a black shining crystal powder/paste form. Stock solutions of plant extracts were inoculated on petri plates containing species of Candida albicans and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 72 h. Results: Alcoholic curry leaves showed the maximum zone of inhibition on Candida albicans followed by aqueous tea leaves. The other plant extracts like alcoholic onion leaves, alcoholic tea leaves, alcoholic onion bulb, alcoholic aloe vera, and alcoholic mint leaves also inhibited the growth of Candida albicans but lesser extent. Conclusion: The present study renders few medicinal plants as an alternative medicines to the field of dentistry which can be used adjunct to conventional therapy of oral candidasis.

  5. The extraction behavior of some noticeable nuclides in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, T.; Sasao, N.; Ozawa, M.; Yamana, H.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction behavior of some TRU nuclides and Ru-106 were investigated on the basis of the process analytical data obtained during this decade of the hot operation in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Some characteristics of their extraction behavior under Tokai-flowsheet became clear. They were explainable by the chemical features of these nuclides in conjunction with the chemical conditions of the process. Some extraction-simulation calculations were performed to supplement the understanding of their characteristic behaviors

  6. Influence of a Modified Plant Extract on Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and Concentration of Pigments in Gamma-Irradiated Plants of Maize and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizov Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a medicinal plant extract, immobilised by ligands, on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigment concentration of wheat and maize was studied. The object of study was seed of drought-resistant firm durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and maize (Zea mays L.. Seeds were subjected to general uniform γ-radiation from a 60Co source on a Rkhund installation at average dose power of MD = 0.306 Gy/sec. Before radiation seeds were treated in modified extract from medicinal plants. The treatment of seeds with 0.1 and 0.01% solution of modified extract from Hypericum, Dandelion, and Calendula caused significant reduction in processes initiated by radiation and in formation of free radicals. On the basis of the obtained results it was concluded that the used modified plant extract collection had a protective effect, reducing the amount of free radicals produced by γ-irradiation.

  7. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-03-01

    To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

  8. Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested previously published protocols for DNA isolation from plants with high contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides for several taxa of carnivorous plants. However, we did not get satisfying results with fresh or silica dried leaf tissue obtained from field collected or greenhouse grown plants, nor from herbarium specimens. Therefore, we have developed a simple modified protocol of the commercially available Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit for rapid, effective and reproducible isolation of high quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR reactions. DNA extraction can be conducted from both fresh and dried leaf tissue of various carnivorous plant taxa, irrespective of high contents of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds and other secondary plant metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation and amplification.

    Probamos algunos protocolos publicados previamente para el aislamiento del ADN de plantas con alto contenido de polifenoles y polisacáridos para varios táxones de plantas carnívoras. Sin embargo, no conseguimos muy buenos resultados ni con tejidos de hojas frescas, ni con tejidos de hojas secadas en gel de sílice obtenidas de plantas colectadas en el campo o cultivadas en los invernaderos, ni de especímenes de herbario. Por lo tanto, hemos desarrollado un protocolo sencillo, modificado del Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit disponible en el mercado para el aislamiento rápido, eficaz y reproducible de ADN genómico de alta calidad conveniente para la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La extracción del ADN se puede realizar en tejidos de hojas frescas o secas de varios táxones de plantas carnívoras, sin importar el grado de contenido de polisacáridos, compuestos fenólicos u otros metabolitos secundarios que interfieren con el aislamiento y la amplificación del ADN.

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) extract and andrographolide with etoricoxib after oral administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balap, Aishwarya; Atre, Bhagyashri; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2016-05-13

    Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) is commonly used medicinal plant in the traditional. Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It has broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antivenom, antifertility, inhibition of replication of the HIV virus, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties. Andrographolide (AN) is one of the active constituent of the A. paniculata Nees extract (APE). They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (anti-arthritic) herb-drug interactions of A. paniculata Nees extract (APE) and pure andrographolide (AN) with etoricoxib (ETO) after oral co-administration in wistar rats. After oral co-administration of APE (200mg/Kg) and AN (60mg/kg) with ETO (10mg/kg) in rats, drug concentrations in plasma were determined using HPLC method. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, tmax, t1/2, MRT, Vd, CL, and AUC were calculated by non-compartment model. Change in paw volume, mechanical nociceptive threshold, mechanical hyperalgesia, histopathology and hematological parameters were evaluated to study antiarthritic activity. Co-administration of ETO with APE and pure AN decreased systemic exposure level of each compound in vivo. The Cmax, AUC, t1/2 of ETO was decreased whereas Vd and CL of ETO was increased significantly after co-administration of ETO with pure AN and APE. In pharmacodynamic study, ETO alone and ETO+APE (10+200mg/kg) groups exhibited significant synergistic anti-arthritic activity as compared to groups ETO+AN, APE and AN alone. The results obtained from this study suggested that ETO, APE and pure AN existed pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in rat which is correlated with anti-arthritic study. Physicians and patients using A. paniculata should have the knowledge about its possible

  10. Amelioration effects against N-nitrosodiethylamine and CCl(4)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Swiss albino rats by whole plant extract of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartik, R; Rao, Ch V; Trivedi, S P; Pushpangadan, P; Reddy, G D

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them a promising therapeutic drug for free-radical-induced pathologies. In this study, we assessed the antioxidant potential and suppressive effects of Achyranthes aspera by evaluating the hepatic diagnostic markers on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The in vivo model of hepatocarcinogenesis was studied in Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats were divided into five groups: control, positive control (NDEA and CCl(4)), A. aspera treated (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w.). At 20 weeks after the administration of NDEA and CCl(4), treated rats received A. aspera extract (AAE) at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg once daily route. At the end of 24 weeks, the liver and relative liver weight and body weight were estimated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed. The hepatic diagnostic markers namely serum glutamic oxaloacetic transminase (AST), serum glutamic pyruvate transminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BL) were also assayed, and the histopathological studies were investigated in control, positive control, and experimental groups. The extract did not show acute toxicity and the per se effect of the extract showed decrease in LPO, demonstrating antioxidant potential and furthermore no change in the hepatic diagnosis markers was observed. Administration of AAE suppressed hepatic diagnostic and oxidative stress markers as revealed by decrease in NDEA and CCl(4) -induced elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP, GGT, bilirubin, and LPO. There was also a significant elevation in the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH as observed after AAE treatment. The liver and relative liver weight were

  11. Synthesis in plants and plant extracts of silver nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial properties: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Tariq; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Nadhman, Akhtar

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants and plant extracts (green synthesis) has been developed into an important innovative biotechnology, especially in the application of such particles in the control of pathogenic bacteria. This is a safer technology, biologically and environmentally, than synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical or physical methods. Plants are preferable to microbes as agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles because plants do not need to be maintained in cell culture. The antibacterial activity of bionanoparticles has been extensively explored during the past decade. This review examines studies published in the last decade that deal with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in plants and their antibacterial activity.

  12. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  13. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to p...

  14. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractive solvent in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlet, B.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a reprocessing plant using the Purex process is recalled and analytical controls for optimum performance are specified. The aim of this thesis is the development of analytical methods using gas chromatography required to follow the evolution of the extraction solvent during spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent at different concentrations, is analysed along the reprocessing lines in organic or aqueous phases. Solvent degradation interferes with extraction and decomposition products are analysed. The solvent becomes less and less efficient, also it is distilled and quality is checked. Traces of solvent should also be checked in waste water. Analysis are made as simple as possible to facilitate handling of radioactive samples [fr

  15. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan; Yuan, Ya

    2010-12-15

    An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method has been developed for the effective extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants including Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail. (S. chinensis) and Flos Sophorae. A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were investigated. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of rutin and among the investigated ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) aqueous solution was the best. In addition, the ILMAE procedures for the two kinds of medicinal herbs were also optimized by means of a series of single factor experiments and an L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design. Compared with the optimal ionic liquid-based heating extraction (ILHE), marinated extraction (ILME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE), the optimized approach of ILMAE gained higher extraction efficiency which is 4.879 mg/g in S. chinensis with RSD 1.33% and 171.82 mg/g in Flos Sophorae with RSD 1.47% within the shortest extraction time. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of rutin in Chinese medicinal plants. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of rutin from S. chinensis and Flos Sophorae were 101.23% and 99.62% with RSD lower than 3%, respectively. The developed approach is linear at concentrations from 42 to 252 mg L(-1) of rutin solution, with the regression coefficient (r) at 0.99917. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILMAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the two researched samples before and after extraction were also investigated. With the help of LC-MS, it was future demonstrated that the two researched herbs do contain active ingredient of rutin and ionic liquids would not influence the structure of rutin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. The column separated 9 [th] fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is identified and validated, it may be synthesized and formulated as a product.

  17. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

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    Tomás Herraiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine oxidase (MAO catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL. Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L, being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine. L. meyenii root (maca extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2.

  18. Acute diuretic activity of aqueous Erica multiflora flowers and Cynodon dactylon rhizomes extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadki, Chrifa; Hacht, Brahim; Souliman, Amrani; Atmani, Fouad

    2010-03-24

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diuretic potential and effect on urinary electrolytes of aqueous Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) flowers and Cynodon dactylon L. (Poaceae) rhizomes extracts in rats. Different concentrations of these plants extract (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 g/kg of body weight) or the reference drug furosemide (0.015 g/kg) were administrated orally to hydrated male Wistar rats and their urine output was measured at several interval of time after a single dose administration. Furthermore, a toxicological effect of both plants was undertaken as well. The results showed that furosemide induced significant diuresis and electrolytes excretion during the first hours. Plant extracts increased significantly urinary output and electrolytes excretion at the dose of 0.250 g/kg for Erica multiflora and 0.500 g/kg for Cynodon dactylon. This diuretic effect seems to be not related to K(+) plant content. Urinary pH remained mostly unchanged during the course of the study for both plant extracts. No lethality was observed among animals when using Erica multiflora even at the dose of 10 g/kg while Cynodon dactylon, instead, caused 50% of rat death (LD50) at 4.5 g/kg. We concluded that both aqueous herb extracts administered, particularly, at the dose of 0.500 g/kg induce significant effect on urinary output of water and electrolytes and justify their use as diuretic remedy in traditional medicine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  20. Antimicrobial thin films based on ayurvedic plants extracts embedded in a bioactive glass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floroian, L.; Ristoscu, C.; Candiani, G.; Pastori, N.; Moscatelli, M.; Mihailescu, N.; Negut, I.; Badea, M.; Gilca, M.; Chiesa, R.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Ayurvedic medicine is one of the oldest medical systems. It is an example of a coherent traditional system which has a time-tested and precise algorithm for medicinal plant selection, based on several ethnopharmacophore descriptors which knowledge endows the user to adequately choose the optimal plant for the treatment of certain pathology. This work aims for linking traditional knowledge with biomedical science by using traditional ayurvedic plants extracts with antimicrobial effect in form of thin films for implant protection. We report on the transfer of novel composites from bioactive glass mixed with antimicrobial plants extracts and polymer by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation into uniform thin layers onto stainless steel implant-like surfaces. The comprehensive characterization of the deposited films was performed by complementary analyses: Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and antimicrobial tests. The results emphasize upon the multifunctionality of these coatings which allow to halt the leakage of metal and metal oxides into the biological fluids and eventually to inner organs (by polymer use), to speed up the osseointegration (due to the bioactive glass use), to exert antimicrobial effects (by ayurvedic plants extracts use) and to decrease the implant price (by cheaper stainless steel use).

  1. Recovery Effects of Oral Administration of Glucosylceramide and Beet Extract on Skin Barrier Destruction by UVB in Hairless Mice

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    Yoshihiro Tokudome

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the beet GlcCer group, epidermal thickening and the decrease in stratum corneum (SC ceramide content caused by UVB irradiation were reduced. In the group that was orally administered beet extract containing glucosylceramide, effects similar to those in the beet GlcCer group were observed. Oral administration of beet GlcCer had no obvious effects against an increase in TEWL or decrease in SC water content after UVB irradiation, but there was improvement in the beet extract group. Oral administration of beet GlcCer is effective in improving skin barrier function in UVB-irradiated mice. Beet extract contains constituents other than GlcCer that are also effective in improving skin barrier function.

  2. Comparative Study of the Analgesic Activity of Two Iraqi Medicinal Plants, Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla Extracts

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    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of different fractions of the extracts of Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted with 70% ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of each plant were evaporated to dryness and analyzed by HPLC. The analgesic activity of these extracts was evaluated using writhing reflex test and compared with that produced by a standard drug (Diclofenac sodium. Results: Flavonoids were found in all fractions of both plants (i.e ethyl acetate and n-butanol, while trace of alkaloids in were found in the ethyl acetate fraction of Ruta. The prepared extracts showed better analgesic activity than the standard drug; when compared with each other, Matricaria extracts showed better analgesic activity compared to Ruta extracts. Conclusion: There is similar efficacy of chamomile and common rue as analgesic agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 79-83

  3. Comparison of mild extraction procedures for determination of plant-available arsenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakova, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Pavlikova, Daniela; Balik, Jiri [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague (Czech Republic); Goessler, Walter; Schlagenhaufen, Claudia [Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    In this work three mild extraction agents for determination of plant-available fractions of elements in soil were evaluated for arsenic speciation in soil samples. Pepper (Capsicum annum, L.) var. California Wonder was cultivated in pots, and aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, at a concentration of 15 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, were added at the beginning of the experiment. Control pots (untreated) were also included. Deionized water, 0.01 mol L{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used to extract the plant-available fraction of the arsenic compounds in soil samples collected during the vegetation period of the plants. Whereas in control samples the extractable arsenic fraction did not exceed 1% of total arsenic content, soil amendment by arsenic compounds resulted in extraction of larger amounts, which varied between 1.4 and 8.1% of total arsenic content, depending on soil treatment and on the extracting agent applied. Among arsenic compounds determined by HPLC-ICPMS arsenate was predominant, followed by small amounts of arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, depending on the individual soil treatment. In all the experiments in which methylarsonic acid was added to the soil methylarsonous acid was detected in the extracts, suggesting that the soil bacteria are capable of reducing methylarsonic acid before a further methylation occurs. No significant differences were observed between analytical data obtained by using different extraction procedures. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  5. CO2 Plant Extracts Reduce Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish Patties during Cooking and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Marko; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-12-28

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in foods may pose risks for human health. Suitable antioxidants can reduce the formation of COPs in industrial products. Consumer awareness of food additives has brought a need for more natural alternatives. This is the first study on the effects of supercritical CO 2 extracts of rosemary, oregano, and an antimicrobial blend of seven herbs, tested at two levels (1 and 3 g/kg fish), against cholesterol oxidation in patties made of a widely consumed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), during baking and storage. Cholesterol oxidation was reduced by the extracts as indicated by lowered levels of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol, which were quantified by GC-MS. The total amount of COPs was smaller in all of the cooked samples containing the plant extracts (<1 μg/g extracted fat) than in the cooked control (14 μg/g). Furthermore, the plant extracts exhibited protective effects also during cold storage for up to 14 days.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICALS ANALYSIS AND TLC FINGERPRINTING OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta Jayashree

    2013-01-01

    The present work is done on three medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans, Lecuas aspera and Dillinia indica) in order to investigate the presence of the various types of Phytoconstituents. The leaves of all three plants were extracted using methanol as solvents. For the purpose of phytochemical investigation, Preliminary qualitative chemical test and TLC were mainly used. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been carried out on all the three plants in two different solvent systems, which showed d...

  7. Investigation of Extracts from Tunisian Ethnomedicinal Plants as Antioxidants, Cytotoxins, and Antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guesmi Fatma; Ben Hadj Ahmed Sami; Landoulsi Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the medicinal potential of various plants and their parts extracted with different solvents. Methods The total phenolic content of acetonitrile/water (60%-40%) (ACN/W) and aqueous (W) extract fractions was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and terpenic compounds were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and β-carotene bleaching method. Cell viability was investigated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2-yl 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. The mechanisms involved in cytotoxic activity were investigated in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and cancer lines. Results Our findings show that 11 plant species exhibited biological activity. In addition, moderate antibacterial activity was reported against one or more of the tested bacterial strains at two concentrations: 300μg and 3 mg/disc. Furthermore, our data reveal that among all plants investigated, some extract and hydrophobic fractions were potent scavengers of the DPPH radical (6.78 μg/mL 400, 47.20, and 116.74 μg/mL, respectively. The current work demonstrates that RAW 264.7 cell proliferation was inhibited by samples in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Our findings, validated through free radical scavenging activity, agar diffusion assay, and cytotoxicity of essential oils towards cancer cells, show that ethnomedicinal plants used in this work have a novel application as a tumor suppressor.

  8. Study on the extraction, purification and quantification of jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng Juan; Jin, You Ju; Xu, Xing You; Lu, Rong Chun; Chen, Hua Jun

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are important plant hormones. Plant hormones are difficult to analyse because they occur in small concentrations and other substances in the plant interfere with their detection. To develop a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid extraction and purification of IAA, ABA and JA from various plant species. Samples were prepared by extraction of plant tissues with methanol and ethyl acetate. Then the extracts were further purified and enriched with C(18) cartridges. The final extracts were derivatised with diazomethane and then measured by GC-MS. The results of the new methodology were compared with those of the Creelman and Mullet procedure. Sequential elution of the assimilates from the C(18 )cartridges revealed that IAA and ABA eluted in 40% methanol, while JA subsequently eluted in 60% methanol. The new plant hormone extraction and purification procedure produced results that were comparable to those obtained with the Creelman and Mullet's procedure. This new procedure requires only 0.5 g leaf samples to quantify these compounds with high reliability and can simultaneously determine the concentrations of the three plant hormones. A simple, inexpensive method was developed for determining endogenous IAA, ABA and JA concentrations in plant tissue.

  9. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Avicennia alba against some important pathogens

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    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this present study antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Avicennia alba were evaluated against the resistant pathogens belong to aquatic, human and plant origin. Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was used to get the corresponding extracts of hexane, chloroform and methanol. The antimicrobial activities of the organic solvent extracts on the various test microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi investigated using agar well diffusion technique. The length of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters from the edge of the well to the edge of the inhibition zone. Methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited promising antimicrobial activity than hexane extracts. Results: The zone of inhibition of chloroform varies from (9 to 17 mm where as with methanol (11 to 28 mm at 100 mg/ml concentration. Among all microorganisms studied Erwinia caratovara and Pseudomonas syringae showed the considerable growth inhibition with chloroform and methanolic extracts. Conclusions: A. alba can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Further studies are being carried out in order to separate the individual components that are present in plant extracts of A. alba using column chromatography.

  11. Fibroblast and keratinocyte gene expression following exposure to the extracts of holy basil plant (Ocimum tenuiflorum, malabar nut plant (Justicia adhatoda, and emblic myrobalan plant (Phyllanthus emblica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Someya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of holy basil plant (Ocimum tenuiflorum, sri lankan local name “maduruthala”, 0.1% and 0.01% extracts of malabar nut plant (Justicia adhatoda, sri lankan local name “adayhoda” and 0.003% and 0.001% extracts of emblic myrobalan plant (Phyllanthus emblica, sri lankan local name “nelli”, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1, hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2, versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1, collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1, collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, and aquaporin 3 (AQP3. For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1α, cox2, TGF-β, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1, integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6, ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4, filaggrin (FLG, transglutaminase 1 (TGM1, and keratin 1 (KRT1. The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs. Keywords: Real-time PCR, Gene expression profile, Fibroblast, Keratinocyte, Holy basil extract, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Maduruthala, Malabar nut plant extract, Justicia adhatoda, Adayhoda, Emblic myrobalan extract, Phyllanthus emblica, Nelli

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Chovanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  13. Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)extracts against B. cereus in TSB were determined using a checkerboard assay. A combination of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B

  14. Ficus septica plant extracts for treating Dengue virus in vitro

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    Nan-Chieh Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1-4 (DENV-1-4 are positive-strand RNA viruses with an envelope that belongs to the Flaviviridae. DENV infection threatens human health worldwide. However, other than supportive treatments, no specific therapy is available for the infection. In order to discover novel medicine against DENV, we tested 59 crude extracts, without cytotoxicity, from 23 plants in vitro; immunofluorescence assay revealed that the methanol extracts of fruit, heartwood, leaves and stem from Ficus septica Burm. f. had a promising anti-DENV-1 and DENV-2 effect. However, infection with the non-envelope picornavirus, Aichi virus, was not inhibited by treatment with F. septica extracts. F. septica may be a candidate antiviral drug against an enveloped virus such as DENV.

  15. Antifeedant activity of plant extracts to an insect Helopeltis theivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, M

    2010-09-01

    The different solvent extracts (viz Petroleum ether Ethyl acetate and Methanol) obtained from leaves and flowers of Heliotropium indicum and Spilanthes calva were screened for antifeedant activity against Helopeltis theivora. All the six different extracts showed antifeedant activity at four different concentrations. The methanolic extracts of leaves of Heliotropium indicum and Spilanthes calva exhibited significant activity at 4% concentration. The numbers of spots produced were only 18.67 and 22.67 respectively which are significantly less than the numberof spots produced in control (104.00 and 93.33 respectively). The treatment with methanolic extracts of flowers of both the plants significantly reduced the number of feeding spots to 22.33 and 23.67 respectively in comparison to the control values of 101.33. All the activities are dose dependent. The mean results with SEM (mean +/- SE) were statistically significant at 1% level (p<0.01) for three observations.

  16. Contrasting Effects of Aqueous Tissue Extracts from an Invasive Plant, Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata, on the Performance of Its Sympatric Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip., a common weed in lowland Taiwan, is listed as one of the twenty most noxious invasive plants in Taiwan. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of the invasive plant on germination and growth of seedlings (estimated by measuring the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of the same species and two other sympatric species, B. bipinnata and Ageraturem conyzoides. The objective of this study was to understand whether the aqueous tissue extracts affected the performance of the target species and whether these effects varied among tissue types and among target species. We found that the germination percentage of seeds of B. bipinnata was significantly reduced by root and leaf extracts, that of B. pilosa var. radiata was also significantly reduced by the application of root extract, while that of A. conyzoides was not affected by any of the three tissue extracts. The application of stem and leaf extracts inhibited the elongation of radicals of B. pilosa var. radiata, consequently, the growth of seedlings of this species was decreased in these two treatments. Though the elongation of hypocotyls was stimulated by leaf extract, the overall growth of seedlings of B. bipinnata was not affected by any tissue extract. In contrast, all three extracts stimulated the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of A. conyzoides, consequently, the overall growth of seedlings of this plant was promoted by all three extracts. These results revealed that aqueous extracts from tissue of B. pilosa var. radiata had differential effect on the emergence and seedling growth of the three target species. The inhibition effect of its root and leaf extracts on the germination of B. bipinnata may partially explain the overwhelming dominance of B. pilosa var. radiata over B. bipinnata when they are sympatric.

  17. Radioprotective effect of leaf extract of Indian medical plant Ocimum sanctum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Devi, P; Ganasoundari, A [Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-03-01

    Water or aqueous ethanol extract of O.sanctum was given ip, either as a single dose or multiple doses, before a whole-body exposure to 11 Gy(LD{sub 100/30}) of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in albino mice. The water extract was more effective and less toxic than the aqueous ethanol extract. An optimum ip dose of 50 mg/kg (<1/100 LD{sub 50}) of the water extract, at 10 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, gave the maximum survival. Increasing the dose per treatment or the number of treatments did not increase protection. Intraperitoneal administration gave the best protection (70% survival). Other routes (im, iv and po) were less effective and produced 37-47% survival. The optimum dose (ip) gave a dose modifying factor of 1.28. Since the extract may contain a number of chemical compounds, it is not possible to attribute the observed protection to any particular compound at present. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as N. virescens 80.38 N. lugens 67.17 S. incertulas 66.5 and L. oratorius 93.46 when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction for the detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in low dose irradiated plant foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, Peter; Miesch, Michel; Hasselmann, Claude; Marchioni, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction [152 bar (15,200 kPa), 80 degrees C, 4 ml min(-1), 60 min], performed on lipids (2 g) previously extracted from irradiated plant foods, allowed a selective extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and its further detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  1. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  2. Screening of plant extracts for human tyrosinase inhibiting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Park, J; Song, K; Kim, H G; Koh, J-S; Boo, Y C

    2012-04-01

    Screening for tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitors potentially useful for control of skin pigmentation has been hampered by the limited availability of human TYR. To overcome this hurdle, we have established human embryonic kidney (HEK293)-TYR cells that constitutively express human TYR. In the current study, we assayed human TYR inhibition activities of 50 plant extracts using the lysates of transformed HEK293-TYR cells. The strongest inhibition of human TYR was shown by the extract of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunberg, followed by the extract of Morus bombycis Koidzumi. The former extract did not inhibit mushroom TYR activity whereas significant inhibition was observed with the latter extract, demonstrating the importance of using human TYR in the screening for human TYR inhibitors. Upon liquid-liquid partitioning of the extract from V. bracteatum, the active constituents were enriched in the ethyl acetate fraction, and the subsequent preparatory thin-layer chromatography identified p-coumaric acid (PCA) as the main active constituent. The hypo-pigmentation of PCA was verified in the MelanoDerm™ Skin Model. This study demonstrates that transformed HEK293-TYR cells could expedite the discovery of human TYR-specific inhibitors from natural sources which might be useful in the control of skin pigmentation. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Inhibitory activity of plant extracts on the early blight pathogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of two plant extracts, Ricinus communis and Chromolaena odorata on the control of the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.). The study was conducted in the Laboratory of the Crop Production and Horticulture Department, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa ...

  4. Effect of certain medicinal plants extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A queous, alcoholic and active ingredients extracts of karkatde, tamarind and licorice showed different inhibitory effects on the growth of some pathogenic srains. Active ingredients wwere the most effective on bacterial strains than alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Extracts of karkade and tamarind were more effective on diplococcus sp. and pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively than other bacterial strains under investigation and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 2 mu1/6 mm diameter disc. The extracts of karkade, tamarind and licorice increased the mycelial dry weight of aspergillus flavus by increasing the concentration of extracts in the media. Effect of extracted substances of tested plants on the ultra-structure of diplococcus sp. and p. aeruginosa and the changes in the morphological changes of A. flovus aflatoxin producer strain were studied by using electron and light microscopes, respectively. The treatment of p. aeruginosa with MIC (2 mu 1 ) of tamarined extract induced rupture of cell wall lysis of cytoplasmic ocntent. However, treatment of diplococcus sp. with 2 mu 1 of karkade extract caused patial rupture of cell wall while cell content still keeping its normal pattern. On the other hand, licorice extract stimulated germination of spores of A. Flavus.Total protein and carbohydrate contents of diplococcus sp., and p. aeruginosa decreased as a result of inhibition effect of active substance on bacterial cells. While, in A. flavus, it increased as a result of the stimulation effect of licorice extract on fungal spores

  5. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  6. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  7. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  8. Effect of Guava Extract Administration on Megakaryocytes Amount in Mice Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a disease spread by mosquito’s bite. Dengue fever is marked by the presence of thrombocytopenia. Traditional crops such as guava are commonly used to treat dengue fever. This research aims to know the effect of guava extract administration towards megakaryocytes amount in mice femur. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Therapy, Histology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Padjadjaran, Eijkman, Bandung from September until November 2016 using laboratory experimental study design. 20 Swiss webster mice strains were divided randomly into 4 groups. Group I and II were administered quinine 2.8 mg/20 grBW/day for 14 days to decrease amount of trombocytes. Group II and III were administered guava extract 0.785 mg/20 grBW/day for 5 days. Group IV was administered aquadest for 19 days. In the 27th day, the mice left femurs were collected and made into paraffin section preparations with hematoxylin-eosin staining and then observed under microscope. Group IV had the most megakaryocytes followed by Group II, III, and I. Based on Kruskal-Wallis test, a significant difference was shown (p<0.05. Mann-Whitney test showed that there were significant differences between Group I and Group II, III, and IV. Meanwhile there was no significant difference between normal mice and extract-given mice. Guava extract is proven statistically significant to increase the megakaryocytes amount in thrombocytopenic mice without increasing number of megakaryocytes in normal mice.

  9. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  10. In vitro evaluation of novel antiviral activities of 60 medicinal plants extracts against hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan

    2017-07-01

    Currently, >35 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants are traditionally used for various liver disorders without a scientific rationale. This is the first experimental evaluation of the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of the total ethanolic and sequential organic extracts of 60 candidate medicinal plants. The extracts were tested for toxicity on HepG2.2.15 cells and cytotoxicity concentration (CC 50 ) values were determined. The extracts were further investigated on HepG2.2.15 cells for anti-HBV activities by analyzing the inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg production in the culture supernatants, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and therapeutic index (TI) values were determined. Of the screened plants, Guiera senegalensis (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =10.65), Pulicaria crispa (ethyl acetate extract, IC 50 =14.45), Coccinea grandis (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =31.57), Fumaria parviflora (hexane extract, IC 50 =35.44), Capparis decidua (aqueous extract, IC 50 =66.82), Corallocarpus epigeus (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =71.9), Indigofera caerulea (methanol extract, IC 50 =73.21), Abutilon figarianum (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =99.76) and Acacia oerfota (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =101.46) demonstrated novel anti-HBV activities in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further qualitative phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, which are attributed to antiviral efficacies. In conclusion, P. crispa, G. senegalensis and F. parviflora had the most promising anti-HBV potentials, including those of C. decidua , C. epigeus, A. figarianum , A. oerfota and I. caerulea with marked activities. However, a detailed phytochemical study of these extracts is essential to isolate the active principle(s) responsible for their novel anti-HBV potential.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  12. aqueous plant extracts for control of groundnut leaf spot in burkina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Early and late leaf spots, the two fungal diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori. and .... effect of extracts of Azacdiractha indica on ... fruits of the other plants species were dried in.

  13. Fish scale collagen sponge incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract as a possible wound/burn dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Prabu, P; Ghosh, Kausik; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara

    2014-01-01

    Application of plant extracts for the burn/wound treatment is followed over the decades as a common practice and it is an important aspect in clinical management. In this study porous collagen sponges (CS) were prepared using fish scales and were incorporated with mupirocin (CSM) and extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum (CSPE) separately to impart antimicrobial activity to the sponges. The results showed that the addition of plant extract increased the tensile strength of CSPE and stability against collagenase enzyme. FTIR studies have shown the incorporation of plant extract in CSPE, SEM studies have revealed the porous nature of the sponges and XRD patterns have shown the retention of collagen triple helical structure even after the addition of plant extract. CSPE and CSM have exhibited antimicrobial properties. The sponges prepared were analysed for their in vitro biocompatibility studies using fibroblasts and keratinocyte cell lines and the results have shown their biocompatible nature. Based on the results obtained, CS, CSM and CSPE may be tried as a burn/wound dressing materials, initially, in small animals in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of South Indian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiplasmodial potential of Catharanthus roseus L (C. roseus, Coccinea grandis (C. grandis, Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana, Prosopis juliflora (P. juliflora, Acacia nilotica (A. nilotica, Azadirachta indica (A. indica (Abr. Juss and Morinda pubescens (M. pubescens. Methods: The C. roseus L, C. grandis, T. peruviana, P. juliflora, A. nilotica, A. indica (Abr. Juss and M. pubescens were collected from Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 毺 g/mL were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The phytochemical constituents in the potential extracts were also detected. Results: Of the selected plants species, the bark extract of A. indica (Abr. Juss showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50 29.77 毺 g/mL followed by leaf extract of A. indica (Abr. Juss (IC50 47.20 毺 g/mL and leaf extract of C. roseus L (IC50 49.63 毺 g/mL. The leaf, bark and flower extracts of P. juliflora showed IC50 values of more than 100 毺 g/mL. Statistical analysis reveals significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01 between the concentrations and time of exposure. Additionally, no chemical injury was found in the erythrocytes incubated with the ethanolic extract of all the tested plants. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of the tested plants. Conclusions: The ethanolic bark extracts of A. indica (Abr. Juss possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  15. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Extracts from Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushiken, Lucas F; Beserra, Fernando P; Rozza, Ariane L; Bérgamo, Patrícia L; Bérgamo, Danilo A; Pellizzon, Cláudia H

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plant species have been used in ethnopharmacology or to treat experimentally symptoms of this disease. When evaluated pharmacologically, most of the plants employed as antidiabetic substances have been shown to exhibit hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities, and to contain chemical constituents that may be used as new antidiabetic agents. There are many substances extracted from plants that offer antidiabetic potential, whereas others may result in hypoglycemia as a side effect due to their toxicity, particularly their hepatotoxicity. In this article we present an updated overview of the studies on extracts from medicinal plants, relating the mechanisms of action by which these substances act and the natural principles of antidiabetic activity.

  16. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.

    1979-02-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables

  17. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.

    1979-02-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables.

  18. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  19. COMPARATIVE HAEMOSTATIC EFFICACY OF SUCCULENT LEAF EXTRACTS AND LATEX OF SOME WOUND HEALING PLANTS ON FRESH WOUND OF RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal report of haemostatic activity of six medicinal plants was validated by a study of the effect of succulent leaf extract of plant parts on the punch wound of rabbit for the first time. It was found that the succulent leave extracts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke, Barleria lupulina Lindl., Blumea lacera Dc., Croton bonplandianum Baill, Glinus lotoides Lin. and Mikania scandens (L Willd. can induce haemostasis in fresh wounds as compared to automatic haemostasis (120.00 ±2.91 seconds. The fresh leave extract of Mikania scandens took 25.00 ±1.87 seconds for haemostatic activity. Artemisia nilagirica (35.00 ± 1.50 seconds, Barleria lupulina (30.00 ±2.34 seconds, Blumea lacera (38.00 ±1.87 seconds, Glinus lotoides (35.00 ±2.29 seconds are having better action than Croton bonplandianum (leaf extract, which took 40.00 ±2.69 seconds time for haemostasis. The latex collected from the wounded small branches of living Croton bonplandianum plant is having highest efficacy in causing haemostasis (10.00 ±1.22 seconds, better than the positive control of Tincture Ferric per Chloride (13.00 ±2.54 seconds. The dermal toxicity study reveals that the application of the fresh plant extract on the skin of rat failed to produce any detrimental effect. The plant extracts collected from succulent plant leaves and particularly the latex collected from the living Croton bonplandianum Baill. plant can be used as haemostatic agents.

  20. Modification of radiation induced intestinal lesions by Aegle marmelos fruit extract, an Indian medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, some plant extracts have been screened out against radiation and found to be quite promising. Aegle marmelos (Bael), belonging to family Rutaceae, fruits are very good source of proteins which form 5.12% of the edible portion. It is claimed to be useful in treating pain, fever, inflammation, respiratory disorders, cardiac disorders, dysentery and diarrhea. The ripe fruit is used for the treatment of digestive and stomachic complications. Aegle marmelos is a useful medicine for herbalist and it holds a reputed position in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Protection of intestinal constituents by Aegle marmelos extract (AME) was studied after exposure to 6 Gy gamma radiations in mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided in various groups. Group I was administered with double distilled water (DDW), volume equal to AME (100 mg/kg body wt./animal), by oral gavage to serve as normal. Group II was administered orally AME extract once daily at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt./animal for 5 consecutive days. Group III was exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiations to serve as irradiated control. Group IV was treated with AME, orally for 5 consecutive days (as in Group-II), and were exposed to gamma radiation half an hour after the last administration of AME on day 5. Animals from all these group autopsied on 12 hrs, days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 post-treatment intervals

  1. Sesamin from Cuscuta palaestina natural plant extracts: Directions for new prospective applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Makhamra, Sadam; Rayan, Ibrahim; Barriah, Waseim; Nasser, Ahmed; Abu Farkh, Basheer; Rayan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to disclose the potential bioactive components of Cuscuta palaestina, a native parasitic natural plant of flora palaestina and to open direction towards new prospective application. GC-MS analysis identified 18 components in the methanolic extract of C. palaestina for the first time. The most appealing among them are Sesamin and two other phytosterols (Campesterol and Stigmasterol), all of which are documented in the scientific literature for their anticancer activity. Quantitation of Sesamin extracted from C. palaestina by HPLC-PDA with the use of three organic solvents showed that the Sesamin content in the methanolic extract was the highest. Following the disclosure of Sesamin presence in C. palaestina, we raised the question of whether it is produced naturally in C. palaestina or acquired from the host plant. The quantitation of Sesamin in C. palaestina was performed while being with five different host plants, and was compared with the amount of Sesamin in C. palaestina grown alone. The findings reveal that Sesamin is an endogenous secondary metabolite in C. palaestina. Thus, further studies are required to prove if C. palaestina can be used as an alternative source of anticancer phytochemicals, mainly Sesamin, and if proteins in the Sesamin production pathway could be valid biological targets for the development of novel and selective pesticides for control/ eradication of C. palaestina and maybe some other Cuscuta species. As well, the findings from this study raise a big question of whether inferring Sesamin production in C. palaestina could reduce its attack ability to host plants.

  2. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in HCl Solution by Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The strict environmental legislations and increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. In the present work, literature on green corrosion inhibitors has been reviewed, and the salient features of our work on green corrosion inhibitors have been highlighted. Among the studied leaves, extract Andrographis paniculata showed better inhibition performance (98% than the other leaves extract. Strychnos nuxvomica showed better inhibition (98% than the other seed extracts. Moringa oleifera is reflected as a good corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 M HCl with 98% inhibition efficiency among the studied fruits extract. Bacopa monnieri showed its maximum inhibition performance to be 95% at 600 ppm among the investigated stem extracts. All the reported plant extracts were found to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in acid media.

  3. Effect of acute administration of hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine and serotonin release in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, V; Di Giovanni, G; Di Mascio, M; Esposito, E

    2000-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum has been shown to be an effective antidepressant, although its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, in vivo microdialysis was used to investigate the effects of Hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) release in various areas of brain. Administration of Hypericum perforatum extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a slight, but significant increase of DA outflow both in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. The maximal increase of DA efflux (+19.22+/-1.93%, relative to the control group) in the nucleus accumbens occurred 100 min after administration of Hypericum perforatum. In the striatum, the extract maximally enhanced DA outflow (+24.83+/-7.49 %, relative to the control group) 80 min after administration. Extraneuronal DOPAC levels were not significantly affected by Hypericum perforatum treatment. Moreover, Hypericum perforatum (1 mg/kg, p.o.) did not produce any significant effect on either 5-HT or 5-HIAA efflux in the ventral hippocampus. This study shows for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extract is capable of increasing in vivo DA release.

  4. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts against Pyricularia oryzae. Olufolaji, D. B.1, Adeosun, B.O.1 and Onasanya, R. O.2. 1. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, The Federal University of Technology, PMB 704. Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. 2. Department of Agriculture, Federal College ...

  5. Simultaneous column chromatographic extraction and purification of abscisic acid in peanut plants for direct HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Wen; Fan, Wei-Wei; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hai-Hang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a universal signaling molecule, plays important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The low contents and complex components in plants make it difficult to be accurately analyzed. A novel one-step sample preparation method for ABA in plants was developed. Fresh peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant materials were fixed by oven-drying, microwave drying, boiling or Carnoy's fixative, and loaded onto a mini-preparing column. After washed the impurities, ABA was eluted with a small amount of solvent. ABA in plant materials was completely extracted and purified in 2mL solution and directly analyzed by HPLC, with a 99.3% recovery rate. Multiple samples can be simultaneously prepared. Analyses using this method indicated that the endogenous ABA in oven-dried peanut leaves increased 20.2-fold from 1.01 to 20.37μgg(-1) dry weight within 12h and then decreased in 30% polyethylene glycol 6000 treated plants, and increased 3.34-fold from 0.85 to 2.84μgg(-1) dry weight in 5 days and then decreased in soil drought treated plants. The method combined the column chromatographic extraction and solid-phase separation technologies in one step and can completely extracted plant endogenous ABA in a purified and highly concentrated form for direct HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayard, N.; Rharrabe, K.; Ghailani, N. N.; Jbilou, R.; Castanera, P.; Ortego, F.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens) on Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea) and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85%) and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva). The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm); and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and {alpha}-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate) activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate) increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed. (Author) 65 refs.

  7. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouayad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85% and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva. The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm; and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and α-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed.

  8. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Selected Plants on Quality of Stored Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga O. ADEOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g.The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of Ethiopian medicinal plant extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tauchen, J.; Doskočil, I.; Caffi, C.; Lulekal, E.; Maršík, Petr; Havlík, J.; Van Damme, P.; Kokoška, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 74, NOV 15 (2015), s. 671-679 ISSN 0926-6690 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidant * Anticarcinogenic * Plant extract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  10. Sterilization of African Violet in the in Vitro Culture Using Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles by Two Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major advantages of in vitro culture of African violet (Saintpaulha ionantha is production of new cultivars and propagation of their chimera which might not be propagated by the other methods. In this study, we tested the effects of silver nanoparticles on the sterilization rate (antifungal and antibacterial activity, regeneration and shoot formation of African violet "Pink Amiss" explants. These nanoparticles were synthesized from pomegranate peels and Damask rose petals extracts. We used a completely randomized design test with factorial arrangement to investigate various volumetric ratios of plant extracts to silver nitrate (1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 on the culture contaminations. Using silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts, especially Damask rose petals extract resulted in no fungal and bacterial contamination in the African violet explants after 1 and 3 weeks as compared to the control, and silver nitrate (1mM. All tested concentrations of the silver nanoparticles significantly (P &le 0.05 controlled both bacterial and fungal contaminations. The 1:20 ratio of plant extracts to silver nitrate showed the best control. In addition, the highest regeneration (%52 and shoot regeneration (%38 was observed in this treatment. In conclusion, we suggest using silver nanoparticles synthesized by plant extracts for sterilization of in Vitro Culture for African Violet rather than using other chemicals such as silver nitrate.

  11. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  12. Condensed tannins in extracts from European medicinal plants and herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9 g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1.6/98.4 to 100/0 and cis/trans flavan-3-ol ratios of 17.7/82.3 to 97.3/2.7. The majority of samples contained procyanidins, four contained A-type linkages (blackthorn flowers, heather flowers, bilberry leaves and cowberry leaves) and one sample also had galloylated procyanidins (great water dock roots). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  14. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  15. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  16. In-Vitro Antiviral Activities of Extracts of Plants of The Brazilian Cerrado against the Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LK Kohn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA enveloped virus of the Metapneumovirus genus belonging to theParamyxoviridae family. This virus may cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry, despite vaccination, which is the main tool for controlling and preventing aMPV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of extracts of four different native plants of the Brazilian Cerrado against aMPV. The antiviral activity against aMPV was determined by titration. This technique measures the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 to 2.5 µg mL-1 to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus, expressed as inhibition percentage (IP. The maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC of the extracts used in antiviral assay was 25 µg mL-1for Aspidosperma tomentosumand Gaylussacia brasiliensis, and 2.5 µg mL-1for Arrabidaea chicaand Virola sebifera. Twelve different extracts derived from four plant species collected from the Brazilian Cerrado were screened for antiviral activity against aMPV. G. brasiliensis, A. chica,and V. sebifera extracts presented inhibition rates of 99% in the early viral replication stages, suggesting that these extracts act during the adsorption phase. On the other hand, A. tomentosum inhibited 99% virus replication after the virus entered the cell. The biomonitored fractioning of extracts active against aMPV may be a tool to identify the active compounds of plant extracts and to determine their precise mode of action.

  17. The effect of selected plant extracts on the development of single-species dental biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, A.; Ismail, W.N.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of a mixture of plant extracts on the adherence and retention of bacteria in dental biofilm. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from December 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: For determination of adhering ability, experimental pellicle was first treated with the Plant Extracts Mixture (PEM) before inoculating it with individual bacterial species ( S. mitis / S. sanguinis / S. mutans). For the determination of retention ability, the procedure was repeated with the experimental pellicle being inoculated first with the individual bacterial species and then treating it with the PEM. These two experiments were repeated with deionized distilled water (negative control) and Thymol (0.64%) (positive control). The bacterial populations in biofilms for the two experiments were expressed as Colony Forming Unit (CFU) / mL x 10/sup 4/ and the corresponding values were expressed as mean +- SD. Results: The effect of the Plant Extracts Mixture (PEM) for the two experiments was compared with that of Thymol and deionized distilled water. It was shown that there is a reduced adherence of bacteria to PEM-treated and Thymol (0.064%) treated experimental pellicle compared with the negative control (p < 0.001). It was also found that the retention of bacteria in both treated biofilms is also lower than that of negative control (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Plant Extracts Mixture (PEM) may influence the development of dental biofilm by affecting the adhering and retention capacities of the bacterial species in the dental biofilms. (author)

  18. Antifeeding Activity of Several Plant Extracts Against Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gvozdenac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. is the most devastating polyphagous pest of deciduous forests, orchardsand urban greenery. To prevent damages that L. dispar larvae cause in forestry, agriculture andhorticulture, mechanical measures and the use of biological insecticides are the most frequentlyapplied practices. However, the use of conventional insecticides is inevitable in crop protectionand forest management on smaller areas, especially in gradation years. However, inadequateuse of these chemicals has led to disturbance of biocoenotic balance, outbreaks of somepreviously less harmful organisms and pesticide residues in soil and watercourses in someregions. To mitigate these consequences it is necessary to harmonize L. dispar control withintegrated management principles by applying selective and less toxic insecticides. Therefore,the potential of botanical insecticides and antifeeding substances is gaining in importance.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ethanol extracts (1, 2 and 5% of Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Daucus carota L., Morus alba L. and Aesculus hippocastanumL. on the feeding intensity of L. dispar larvae, i.e. to evaluate their antifeeding activity underthe conditions of “no-choice” test. Ten larvae per repetition were placed in Petri dishes andoffered oak leaf slices (2 x 9 cm2/repetition previously dipped in plant extract or ethanol (1, 2,and 5% for the control. Feeding intensity, expressed as a percentage of consumed leaf area (%,was measured after 48 h. For assessing the antifeeding activity of plant extracts AFI was calculatedand the extracts were classified according to scale: no antifeeding activity, slight antifeedingactivity, moderate antifeeding activity and strong antifeeding activity. Data were analyzedusing a two-way ANOVA and Duncan`s multiple range test. The results indicate that plantspecies, i.e. the origin of extracts, had a significant influence on the feeding intensity of L

  19. Amelioration effects against N-nitrosodiethylamine and CCl4-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Swiss albino rats by whole plant extract of Achyranthes aspera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartik, R.; Rao, Ch. V.; Trivedi, S.P.; Pushpangadan, P.; Reddy, G.D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them a promising therapeutic drug for free-radical-induced pathologies. In this study, we assessed the antioxidant potential and suppressive effects of Achyranthes aspera by evaluating the hepatic diagnostic markers on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: The in vivo model of hepatocarcinogenesis was studied in Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats were divided into five groups: control, positive control (NDEA and CCl4), A. aspera treated (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w.). At 20 weeks after the administration of NDEA and CCl4, treated rats received A. aspera extract (AAE) at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg once daily route. At the end of 24 weeks, the liver and relative liver weight and body weight were estimated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed. The hepatic diagnostic markers namely serum glutamic oxaloacetic transminase (AST), serum glutamic pyruvate transminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BL) were also assayed, and the histopathological studies were investigated in control, positive control, and experimental groups. Results: The extract did not show acute toxicity and the per se effect of the extract showed decrease in LPO, demonstrating antioxidant potential and furthermore no change in the hepatic diagnosis markers was observed. Administration of AAE suppressed hepatic diagnostic and oxidative stress markers as revealed by decrease in NDEA and CCl4 -induced elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP, GGT, bilirubin, and LPO. There was also a significant elevation in the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH as observed after AAE treatment. The

  20. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  1. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouannaud, C.; Rodier, J.; Fruchard, Y.; Peyresblanques, H.; Papault, C.; Tabardel-Brian, R.

    1968-08-01

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors) [fr

  2. Antifungal potential of marine sponge extract against plant and fish pathogenic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ravichandran, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Ciavatta, M.L.

    scope for rediscovering compounds with antimicrobial activity. This study screens extracts (Diethyl Ether and Butanol) of a marine red-Sea sponge Negombata magnifica for invitro fungicidal activity against 10 plant and 3 fish pathogens. Fungicidal...

  3. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides,

  4. Study effect of plant extraction for Cuscuta europaea (Dodder against two species of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim A. Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are no significant differences between the concentration of plant extract of bacteria, and we showed the plant extract have a high effect on gram positive bacteria but do not have any effect on gram negative bacteria.

  5. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer′s disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

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    M Obulesu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree, Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree, Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod, Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium, Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm, and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage.

  6. Effect of medicinal plants extracts on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by cucumber mosaic virus and growth of chili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidson, H.; Damiri, N.; Angraini, E.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of several extracts of medicinal plants on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus infection on the chili (Capsicum annuum L.) plantation. A Randomized Block Design with eight treatments including control was used throughout the experiment. Treatments consisted of Azadiracta indica (A), Piper bitle (B), Cymbopogon citrates (C), Curcuma domestica (D), Averroa bilimbi (E), Datura stramonium (F), Annona Muricata (G) and control (H). Each treatment consist of three replications. The parameters observed were the incidence of mosaic attack due to CMV, disease severity, plant height, wet and dry weight and production (number of fruits and the weight of total fruits) each plant. Results showed that the application of medicinal plant extracts reduced the disease severity due to CMV. Extracts of Annona muricata and Datura stramonium were most effective in suppressing disease severity caused by the virus as they significantly different from control and from a number of treatment. The plants medicinal extracts were found to have increased the plant height and total weight of the plant, fruit amount and fruit weight. Extracts of Curcuma domestica, Piper bitle and Cymbopogon citrates were the third highest in fruit amount and weight and significantly different from the control.

  7. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

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    Mizue Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE. In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42 structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r=0.882 which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  8. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R.; Simas, N. K.

    2017-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides. PMID:28396881

  9. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, G S; Mansur, E; Pacheco, G; Garcia, R; Leal, I C R; Simas, N K

    2017-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants ( Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil ) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n -butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  10. Blocking negative effects of senescence in human skin fibroblasts with a plant extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmermann, Ingo; Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Lucia; Weinmüllner, Regina; Schosserer, Markus; Dellago, Hanna; de Matos Branco, André Dargen; Autheried, Dominik; Sevcnikar, Benjamin; Kleissl, Lisa; Berlin, Irina; Morizot, Frédérique; Lejeune, Francois; Fuzzati, Nicola; Forestier, Sandra; Toribio, Alix; Tromeur, Anaïs; Weinberg, Lionel; Higareda Almaraz, Juan Carlos; Scheideler, Marcel; Rietveld, Marion; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoel; Tschachler, Erwin; Gruber, Florian; Grillari, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that senescent cells are a driving force behind many age-related pathologies and that their selective elimination increases the life- and healthspan of mice. Senescent cells negatively affect their surrounding tissue by losing their cell specific functionality and by secreting a pro-tumorigenic and pro-inflammatory mixture of growth hormones, chemokines, cytokines and proteases, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here we identified an extract from the plant Solidago virgaurea subsp. alpestris , which exhibited weak senolytic activity, delayed the acquisition of a senescent phenotype and induced a papillary phenotype with improved functionality in human dermal fibroblasts. When administered to stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts, this extract changed their global mRNA expression profile and particularly reduced the expression of various SASP components, thereby ameliorating the negative influence on nearby cells. Thus, the investigated plant extract represents a promising possibility to block age-related loss of tissue functionality.

  11. In vitro Studies of the Effectiveness of Five Plants Extracts Compared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude aqueous extracts of five plants, Cleome viscosa L. Hyptis suaveolens Poit, Crotalaria retusa L., Jatropha curcas L., and Jatropha gossypifolia l., and a synthetic nematicide Carbofuran were studied in-vitro for their efficacy in controlling the rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood.

  12. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

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    Niluni M. Wijesundara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS. There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA and peptidoglycan (PGN (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE or aqueous extracts (AE for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6% of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8, human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2, epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2. Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis.

  13. Intraspecific variability of Holostylis reniformis: concentration of lignans, as determined by maceration and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-CO2), as a function of plant provenance and plant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Gislaine F.; Pereira, Marcos D.P.; Lopes, Lucia M.X.; Krettli, Antoniana U.

    2014-01-01

    Maceration and supercritical fluid extraction were used to prepare extracts from parts of plants (Holostylis reniformis) collected in two different regions of Brazil. 1 H NMR, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, HPLC-DAD, GC-MS, and chemometric techniques were used to analyse lignans in the extracts and showed that yields of SFE-CO 2 were less than or equal to those of hexane maceration extracts. These analyses, in conjunction with the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl derivatives in the extracts, also allowed the chemical composition of parts and provenance of the plant to be differentiated. (author)

  14. In vitro and in vivo Nematocidal Activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta Extracts Against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio- Landín, Josefina; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Salinas-Sánchez, David Osvaldo; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; Hernández-Velázquez, Victor Manuel; Valladares-Cisneros, María Guadalupe

    2015-12-01

    In the Mexican ethno-medicine, a number of plants have shown a successful anthelmintic activity. This fact could be crucial to identify possible green anti-parasitic strategies against nematodes affecting animal production. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo nematocidal effects of two single and combined plant extracts: bulbs of Allium sativum (n-hexane) and flowers of Tagetes erecta (acetone). The in vivo assay evaluated the administration of extracts either individually or combined against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected gerbils. The in vitro larvicidal activity percentage (LAP) of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts against H. contortus (L3) was determined by means of individual and combined usage of the extracts. Similarly, the extracts were evaluated in terms of reduction in the parasitic population in gerbils infected with H. contortus by individual and combined usage. The LAP at 40 mg/mL was 68% with A. sativum and 36.6% with T. erecta. The combination caused 83.3% mortality of parasites. The oral administration of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts at 40 mg/mL, caused 68.7% and 53.9% reduction of the parasitic burden, respectively. Meanwhile, the combined effect of both extracts shown 87.5% reduction. This study showed evidence about the effect of A. sativum and T. erecta plant extracts by means of individual and combined usage against H. contortus in in vitro and in vivo bioassays in artificially H. contortus-infected gerbils as a model.

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  17. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

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    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  19. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  20. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  1. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage.

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values

  3. Are administrative courts a stumbling block in the installation of industrial-size plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, H.

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the immediate impacts of preliminary legal redress and the time schedule of administrative procedures. Tables are presented to show the time lag caused by legal procedures in case of individual nuclear power plant construction. The indirect consequences emanating from administrative court proceedings are studied and more deeply lying causes of delays are explained. The author concludes by calling for better standardization as a basis for licensing procedures, for instance by working out a reactor safety ordinance. (HSCH) [de

  4. In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; β-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions.

  5. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  6. Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on determining the level of the antioxidant activity of beer, to which sensory acceptable amounts of selected extracts of medicinal plants were added, with the aim of obtaining a beer with increased functional and new sensory features. For purposes of this study a commercial lager beer type Pils and extracts of herbal drugs: Melissae folium, Thymi herba, Juniperi fructus, Urticae radix and Lupuli strobuli, were used. Total phenols were analyzed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, and the antioxidant activity of samples using FRAP and DPPH test. Sensory evaluation of beer was conducted on 80 subjects, using a nine levels hedonic scale. The results showed that the content of total phenols was the highest in the beer which thyme, juniper and lemon balm were added to (384.22, 365.38 and 363.08 mg GAE/L, respectively, representing the increase of 37.09, 30.36 and 29.55% (respectively compared to the commercial lager beer. Values of antioxidant activity were correlated with the content of total phenols. The extract of lemon balm blended in the best manner with the baseline, commercial lager beer in terms of sensory acceptability. New beer, enriched with lemon balm, had a pleasant, appealing and harmonious flavor and aroma.

  7. THE COMBINATION OF MANGOSTEEN PEEL EXTRACT WITH ROSELLA FLOWER PETALS EXTRACT AND ANTHILL PLANT EXTRACT AS CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES REDUCER ON MALE WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Mahardian Kusuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a disease associated with high levels of cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. Utilization of the commercial drugs can be given; however apart from the expensive price, adverse side effects might occur. It makes people choose alternative medication with herbal medicine through the use of natural materials. This study aimed to determine the effect of the combination of mangosteen peel extract-extract of roselle calyx and mangosteen peel extract-extract the ant nest plant as lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in male rats. The method used in this study was a laboratory experimental method using device posttest only control group design (simple experimental design. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain, divided into 5 groups; Group I: group without treatment, group II: control group solvent (NaCMC 1%, group III: positive control group (Simvastatin, Group IV: combination group mangosteen peel extract (200 mg / kg - extract of roselle calyx (250 mg / kg, group V: group combination of mangosteen peel extract 200 mg / kg - extract anthill (270 mg / kg. Induction of cholesterol in rats using quail egg yolk (10 ml / kg. The results showed that there was no significant difference in cholesterol and triglycerides between the combination of both extracts of mangosteen peel with a positive control (p<0,05.

  8. EVALUATION OF CELL CYCLE OF Aspergillus nidulans EXPOSED TO THE EXTRACT OF Copaifera officinalis L PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jurema Ruggeri Chiuchetta, Uériton Dias de Oliveira e Josy Fraccaro de Marins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil extracted from the Copaifera officinalis L plant has been used in popular medicine to the treatment of several diseases, like cancer. In eukaryotic cells, the process of cellular proliferation follows a standard cycle, named cellular cycle. The transformation of a normal cell in a malignant one requires several steps, in which genes that control normal cellular division or cellular death are modified. Aspergillus nidulans fungus is an excellent system for the study of the cellular differentiation. Its asexual cycle results in the formation of conidia, which are disposed like chains, constituting a structure named conidiophore. This structure consists in an aerial hifae, multinucleate vesicle and uninucleate cells. Current research evaluated the capacity of the C. officinalis L plant extract in promoting alterations in the cellular cycle of A. nidulans diploid strains, by observing macroscopic and microscopic alterations in cellular growth of this fungus. Results shown that no macroscopic alterations were observed in cellular growth of strains exposed to the extract, however, microscopic alterations of conidiophore have been observed in the different extract concentrations analyzed. In this way, the study of the action of C. officinalis L plant extract becomes important considering the fact that this substance is capable to promote alterations in cellular cycle of eukaryotic cells.

  9. Evaluation of Some Plant Extract in the Control of Early Blight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UB

    of each plant extract were determined for inhibitory activity of A. solani growth. From the radial ... resistance tomato cultivars in the field has been a major problem, and has been ... identification guide according to Larone (1995). The isolate (A.

  10. Simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites from Vinca rosea plant extractives by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Ismail, Zhari; Saidan, Noor Hafizoh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vinca rosea (Apocynaceae) is one of the most important and high value medicinal plants known for its anticancer alkaloids. It is the iota of the isolated secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy to treat diverse cancers. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed to quantify the active alkaloids in the plant. However, this method may serve the purpose in quantification of V. rosea plant extracts in totality. Objective: To develop and validate the reverse phase (RP)-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites, namely alkaloids from V. rosea plant extracts. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination was conducted by RP-HPLC equipped with ultraviolet detector. Optimal separation was achieved by isocratic elution with mobile phase consisting of methanol:acetonitrile:ammonium acetate buffer (25 mM) with 0.1% triethylamine (15:45:40 v/v) on a column (Zorbax Eclipse plus C18, 250 mm % 4.6 mm; 5 μm). The standard markers (vindoline, vincristine, catharanthine, and vinblastine) were identified by retention time and co-injected with reference standard and quantified by external standard method at 297 nm. Results: The precision of the method was confirmed by the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), which was lower than 2.68%. The recoveries were in the range of 98.09%-108%. The limits of detection (LOD) for each marker alkaloids were lower than 0.20 μg. Different parts of the V. rosea extracts shows different concentrations of markers, flower samples were high in vinblastine content, while methanol extract from the leaves contains all the four alkaloids in good yield, and there is no significant presence of markers in water extracts. Conclusion: HPLC method established is appropriate for the standardization and quality assurance of V. rosea plant extracts. PMID:21716929

  11. Study of aqueous extract of three medicinal plants on cell membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of three medicinal plants, Artemisia dracunculus L, Cuminum cyminum L and Heracleum persicum Desf, which contain saponins on biological membrane. Also in this study, some of their physicochemical properties were studied. At the first step, the aqueous ...

  12. The effect of plant extracts fed before farrowing and during lactation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a mixture of plant extracts (XTRACT. 6930), consisting of 5.4% (wt/wt) carvacrol (oregano), 3.2% cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) and 2.2% capsicum oleoresin (Mexican pepper), on piglet and sow performance when used as dietary supplements to the sows.

  13. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  14. Extraction process technology for the new reprocessing plants in France and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Drain, F.; Hugelman, D.

    1991-01-01

    The new reprocessing plants UP3 and UP2-800 in France and Rokkasho in Japan use or will use an improved technology for their extraction cycles. The equipment selected are pulse columns (cylindrical and annular) and mixer-settlers (normal type and extra-flat type). This paper presents the equipment selected for each plant and the extensive R and D performed especially for pulsed columns by CEA and also the results of first active runs in UP3

  15. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of two spices of mangrove plant extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rastegar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and the radical scavenging capacity related to antioxidant potential of ethanol and water extracts of leaves of Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata and Avicennia marina (A. marina mangrove plant species against five postharvest pathogenic bacteria. Methods: In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antifungal activities was evaluated in this present study for both aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of A. marina and R. mucronata. The antioxidant activities of these mangroves were evaluated by using reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays with butylated hydroxytoluene and L-(+- ascorbic acid as standards. Results: The result showed that the antioxidant activities of all extracts increased with increasing concentration of extracts. However, the ethanol extracts of both species showed the highest antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial tests were then carried out by the disk diffusion method. The ethanol extracts of both species showed antifungal activities on Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium italicum. However, none of the water extracts exhibited antifungal activity on the studied fungi. Among all the pathogens, tested Aspergillus flavus was the most resistant fungi. Different concentrations of extracts from A. marina and R. mucronata showed different amounts of control against tested fungal strains. Conclusions: This study indicated that mangrove species has natural antioxidant and antifungal properties.

  16. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  17. a comparative study of a local plant extract as a possible potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    www.globaljournalseries.com, Email: info@globaljournalseries.com. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF A LOCAL PLANT EXTRACT AS A. POSSIBLE POTENTIAL MEDICATED AGENT IN THE SOAP. INDUSTRY. INNOCENT O. OBOH AND EMMANUEL O. ALUYOR. (Received 23 July 2010; Revision Accepted 30 August 2010).

  18. Ethanol stem bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria ameliorates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The Parkinson's disease was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP. After 72h of induction, the young adult male rats were treated with oral administration of stem bark ethanol extract of the plant daily for 2 weeks. The blood chemistry, antioxidant markers and brain dopamine levels were ...

  19. Activity of Scottish plant, lichen and fungal endophyte extracts against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordien, Andréa Y; Gray, Alexander I; Ingleby, Kevin; Franzblau, Scott G; Seidel, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    With tuberculosis the leading bacterial killer worldwide and other mycobacterial diseases on the increase, the search for new antimycobacterial agents is timely. In this study, extracts from plants, lichens and fungal endophytes of Scottish provenance were screened for activity against Mycobacterium aurum and M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv. The best activity against M. aurum was observed for extracts of Juniperus communis roots and Cladonia arbuscula (MIC = 4 microg/mL), and a fungal endophyte isolated from Vaccinium myrtillus (MIC = 8 microg/mL). The best activity against M. tuberculosis was observed for extracts of C. arbuscula, Empetrum nigrum, J. communis roots, Calluna vulgaris aerial parts, Myrica gale roots and stems (93 to 99% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Potent antitubercular activity (90 to 96% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) was also observed for the ethanol extracts of Xerocomus badius, Chalciporus piperatus, Suillus luteus and of endophytes isolated from C. vulgaris, E. nigrum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus. The results obtained this study provide, in part, some scientific basis for the traditional use of some of the selected plants in the treatment of tuberculosis. They also indicate that fungal endophytes recovered from Scottish plants are a source of antimycobacterial agents worthy of further investigation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Genotoxic and mutagenic properties of Bauhinia platypetala extract, a traditional Brazilian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Francisco José Borges Dos; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Péres, Valéria Flores; Sperotto, Angelo Regis de Moura; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo; Saffi, Jenifer

    2012-12-18

    Bauhinia platypetala Burch. is a traditionally used Brazilian medicinal plant, although no evidence in the literature substantiates the safety of its use. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the ethanolic extract and the ethereal fraction of B. platypetala leaves. The identification of chemical compounds from the B. platypetala ethanolic extract and its ethereal fraction was performed by GC/MS and ESI-MS/MS. The plant's toxicological, cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic properties were determined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and V79 cell culture by survival assays and comet assay. The major compound identified in the B. platypetala ethanolic extract is palmitic acid, kaempferitirin and quercitrin, while the B. platypetala ethereal fraction was found to be rich in phytol, gamma-sitosterol and vitamin E. Moreover, the results indicated that the B. platypetala ethanolic extract has an anti-oxidative effect against H(2)O(2) in yeast. In addition, the B. platypetala ethanolic extract did not induce mutagenic effects on the S. cerevisiae N123 strain, but the ethereal fraction of B. platypetala at higher concentrations (250-500 μg/mL) induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A slight cytotoxic effect was observed in mammalian V79 cells; however, both the B. platypetala ethanolic extract and its ethereal fraction were able to induce DNA strand breaks in V79 cells, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. The B. platypetala ethanolic extract has antioxidant action and showed absence of mutagenic effects in yeast S. cerevisiae. On the other hand B. platypetala ethereal fraction is mutagenic and does not show antioxidant activity in yeast. In mammalian cells B. platypetala ethanolic extract and it's ethereal fraction induce cyotoxic and genotoxic action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  2. Cancer-suppressive potential of extracts of endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii: effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Ivana Z; Aljancić, Ivana; Vajs, Vlatka; Jadranin, Milka; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Juranić, Zorica D

    2013-09-01

    Helichrysum zivojinii Cernjavski & Soska is an endemic plant species that grows in the National Park Galicica in Macedonia. Five extracts were isolated as fractions from the aerial parts of the plant: a n-hexane extract (1), a dichloromethane extract (2), an ethyl-acetate extract (3), a n-butanol extract (4) and a methanol extract (5). A dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of the extracts on MDA-MB-231 and EA.hy926 cells was observed. Extracts exhibited more pronounced cytotoxic actions on MDA-MB-231 cells than on EA.hy926 cells. The n-hexane extract (1), at a non-toxic concentration, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration as well the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. The dichloromethane extract (2), at a non-toxic concentration, demonstrated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells invasion. Each of the five extracts applied at non-toxic concentrations inhibited migration of EA.hy926 cells. The prominent inhibitory effect of the n-hexane extract on EA.hy926 cells migration was associated with a notable anti-angiogenic action of this extract. The other four tested extracts demonstrated mild anti-angiogenic activity. Our data highlight the prominent anticancer potential of n-hexane (1) and dichloromethane (2) extracts, which could be attributed to their very pronounced and selective cytotoxic activities as well as their anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic properties.

  3. Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Activities of Phragmanthera austroarabica Extract in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibah M. Aldawsari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity of Phragmanthera austroarabica extract were tested in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. All the chemical constituents of the plant extract were identified. Additionally, the extract was standardized and proved to contain total phenolic contents equal to 379.92±1.32 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry plant extract. Induction of kindling was achieved by repeated intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg twice weekly. Male albino mice were given P. austroarabica extract (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg. The two higher doses (400 or 800 mg/kg of the extract significantly caused notable reduction in seizure activity and hippocampal malondialdehyde level compared to pentylenetetrazole control group. The highest dose enhanced cortical GSH level and showed intact DNA in the laddering assay. Upon studying the neuroprotective effect, mice treated with the higher dose of the extract demonstrated an improvement in the percent of surviving neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. We concluded that P. austroarabica extract ameliorated seizure activity and protected cortical and hippocampal neurons against pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.

  4. Extraction of zirconium from raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Garima; Chinchale, R.; Renjith, A.U.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from dilute streams is a major task in nuclear industry in the view of environmental remediation and value recovery. Presently solvent extraction process is employed on the commercial scale to recover nuclear pure zirconium using TBP as extractant. The waste stream of TBP extraction process contains about 1.2 gpl of Zirconium in nitrate form. At present there is no process to recover Zirconium from this raffinate stream. Hence, under the present study recovery of zirconium from the raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant Raffinate has been investigated. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry is not suitable for the extraction of zirconium from lean solution at low acidity as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In search of a suitable extractant Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) was investigated as potential carrier. Parametric batch studies for various equilibrium data like extractant concentration, strippant concentration, solvent reusability, equilibration time, acidity etc. were done to optimize the process condition. For the distribution studies, equal volumes of the raffinate and organic phase were shaken at room temperature in digital wrist action shaker for 10 minutes to ensure complete equilibrium. It was found that 0.1 M MAPO in 80:20 dodecane: isodecanol is suitable for extraction of Zr at 2 N acidity. 0.1 M MAPO gives distribution coefficient in the range of 12-15 for Zr. The slope of log-log plot between MAPO concentration and K, suggests involvement of 3 molecules of MAPO in the formation of extracting species. 0.2 M Oxalic acid was able to completely back extract Zr from the organic phase into aqueous phase. Also good regeneration capacity of MAPO projects its potential to be used as extractant for the process. Based on the equilibrium studies, Dispersion Liquid Membrane configuration in hollow fiber contactor was explored for the extraction of Zirconium from Zirconium Nitrate Pure

  5. Inorganic constituents determination in medicinal plants and their extracts; Determinacao dos constituintes inorganicos em plantas medicinais e seus extratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisconi, Lucilaine Silva

    2014-07-01

    Different types of therapies have been introduced as an alternative treatment to combat different types of human disorders. Among them, the use of herbal teas has been highlighted by the cost/benefit, easiness of acquisition and administration. The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic constituents, and evaluate the element concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg. Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis; and Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, by atomic emission spectrometry, with inductively coupled plasma source and Hg, by atomic absorption spectrometry, with cold vapor generation in medicinal plants and their extracts, whose marketing was recently regulated by National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The relevance of these analyses is justified by the need of contributing to the recommendation of such plants as sources of minerals in the diet and, also, to verify if their concentrations cam pose some harm to the organism. The techniques showed adequate sensitivity in determining the concentration for most of the elements. Toxic elements were found in concentration not harmful to the human body. The results, also, allowed possible to correlate the elemental concentration in the analyzed species, by the determination the correlation coefficients and applications of cluster analysis. From these results it was confirmers in the groups of elements, regarding the variation of the concentrations observed in some plants and their extracts. The elements that play important roles in the human metabolism were determined in concentrations that can help both, to avoid the lack of these elements in the organisms, from the diet, and in treatment of disease. (author)

  6. Toxicological studies of stem bark extract from Schefflera barteri Harms (Araliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsafack, Serge Secco; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; De Dieu, Tamokou Jean; Magnifouet Nana, Huguette; Ebelle Etame, Rébecca Madeleine; Biyiti, Lucie; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie

    2015-03-07

    The use of herbal medicines as complements or alternatives to orthodox medicines has been on the increase. There has been the erroneous belief that these medicines are free from adverse effects. Schefflera barteri is popularly used in the West region of Cameroon for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, spasm, pneumonia and animals bite. Considering the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant, this study was designed to investigate the possible toxic effects of the stem bark extract of S. barteri. The extract was prepared by maceration of stem bark dry powder in methylene chloride/methanol mixture. Phytochemical analysis was performed by chemical reaction method. Oral acute toxicity study was carried out by administering single geometric increasing doses (2 to 16 g/kg body weight) of plant extract to Swiss albino mice. For sub-acute toxicity study, repeated doses (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were given to Wistar albino rats for 28 consecutive days by oral route. At the end of the treatment period, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed, as well as histopathological studies. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark extract of S. barteri revealed the presence of anthocyanins, anthraquinons and saponins. Acute toxicity results showed that the LD50 was greater than 16000 mg/kg. Sub-acute treatment significantly (P congestion, inflammation of peri-portal and vacuolization of hepatocytes at the level of the liver. Leucocytes infiltration of peri-portal veins were noticed on lungs and liver cells as well as inflammatory peri-bronchial and basal membranes seminar tube merely joined on lungs and testis respectively. The results suggest that acute administration of the stem bark extract of S. barteri is associated with signs of toxicity, administration over a long duration provokes hepatotoxicity, testes and lungs toxicities.

  7. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumeng Li

    Full Text Available This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface, and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the

  8. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintini Jaime, María F; Redko, Flavia; Muschietti, Liliana V; Campos, Rodolfo H; Martino, Virginia S; Cavallaro, Lucia V

    2013-07-27

    Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and > 117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50 = 3.1 μg/ml; SI = 37

  9. Development of a Biochar-Plant-Extract-Based Nitrification Inhibitor and Its Application in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhónatan Reyes-Escobar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global use of nitrogen (N fertilizer has increased 10-fold in the last fifty years, resulting in increased N losses via nitrate leaching to groundwater bodies or from gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. One of the biggest problems farmers face in agricultural production systems is the loss of N. In this context, novel biological nitrification inhibitors (BNI using biochar (BC as a renewable matrix to increase N use efficiency, by reducing nitrification rates, have been evaluated. The chemical and morphological characteristics of BC were analyzed and BC-BNI complexes were formulated using plant extracts from pine (Pinus radiata, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus and peumo (Cryptocarya alba. In field experiments, fertilizer and treatments, based on crude plant extracts and BC-BNI complexes, were applied and the effect on nitrification was periodically monitored, and at the laboratory level, a phytotoxicity assay was performed. The biochar-peumo (BCPe complex showed the highest nitrification inhibition (66% on day 60 after application compared with the crude plant extract, suggesting that BCPe complex protects the BNI against biotic or abiotic factors, and therefore BC-BNI complexes could increase the persistence of biological nitrification inhibitors. None of the biochar complexes had toxic effect on radish plants.

  10. Intraspecific variability of Holostylis reniformis: concentration of lignans, as determined by maceration and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-CO{sub 2}), as a function of plant provenance and plant parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Gislaine F.; Pereira, Marcos D.P.; Lopes, Lucia M.X., E-mail: lopesxl@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Silva, Tito da [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Imperatriz, MA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Sociais, Saude e Tecnologia; Rosa, Paulo de T. Vieira e; Barbosa, Fernanda P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Messiano, Gisele B. [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Krettli, Antoniana U. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto Rene Rachou

    2014-04-15

    Maceration and supercritical fluid extraction were used to prepare extracts from parts of plants (Holostylis reniformis) collected in two different regions of Brazil. {sup 1}H NMR, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, HPLC-DAD, GC-MS, and chemometric techniques were used to analyse lignans in the extracts and showed that yields of SFE-CO{sub 2} were less than or equal to those of hexane maceration extracts. These analyses, in conjunction with the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl derivatives in the extracts, also allowed the chemical composition of parts and provenance of the plant to be differentiated. (author)

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 9 selected medicinal plants against UTI causing MDR bacteria

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    Monali P. Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI has become a more grievous problem today, due to multidrug resistance of infecting Gram-positive (GP and Gram-negative (GN bacteria, sometimes even with multiple infections. This study examines effectivity of 9 tropical flowering plants (Anogeissus acuminata, Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia variegata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Punica granatum, Soymida febrifuga, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia and Tribulus terrestris for possible use as source of antimicrobials for multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria, along with main-stream antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from urine samples of patients attending and admitted in the hospital. Antibiograms of 11 isolated bacteria (GPs, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus; and GNs, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were ascertained by the disc-diffusion method, and antibacterial effectivity of plant extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method. Isolated bacteria were floridly MDR to most antibiotics of the day. Methanol extracts of 9 plants were used, and extracts of 3 plants, A. acuminata, P. granatum and S. febrifuga at least caused 25–29 mm as the maximum size of zone of inhibition on bacterial lawns. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of methanol extracts of 9 plants were recorded. The methanol extract of A. acuminata had 0.29 mg/ml as the lowest MIC value and 0.67 mg/ml as the lowest MBC value, against MDR S. aureus, signifying effectivity; but, it had the highest MIC value of 3.41 mg/ml. and the highest MBC value of 4.27 mg/ml for most other MDR bacteria including E. coli. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done for these 9 plants and information on leading phytochemicals was presented retrieved from PubChem database. Thus

  12. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Kasim Roba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts against Culex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  13. The participation of singlet oxygen in a photocitotoxicity of extract from amazon plant to cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcibulnikova, Anna V.; Degterev, Igor A.; Bryukhanov, Valery V.; Roberto, Mantuanelly M.; Campos Pereira, F. D.; Marin-Morales, M. A.; Slezhkin, Vasily A.; Samusev, Ilya G.

    2018-01-01

    We have been searching for new photosensitizers (PS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer based on extracts from Amazonian plants since 2009. In this paper, we demonstrate that, under certain conditions, the extract from fruits of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleraceae (popular name Açaí) can serve as a PS for PDT treatment of murine breast cancer cells (4T1 cell line). We have been first to show directly that the photodynamic effect of plant PS is due to singlet oxygen.

  14. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-12-15

    To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus ( n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield ( P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield ( P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly ( P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1.03%). CM

  15. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  16. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2013-08-01

    To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100% tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O. heterophyllum and ethanolic

  17. Effects of Thai piperaceae plant extracts on Neospora caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2017-06-01

    Neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. This study investigated the effects of Thai piperaceae (Piper betle, P. nigrum, and P. sarmentosum) extracts on Neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, P. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (IC 50 of GFP-expressing N. caninum parasites, 22.1μg/ml). The P. betle extract, at 25μg per ml, inhibited parasite invasion into host cells. Furthermore, in two independent experiments, treating N. caninum-infected mice with the P. betle extract for 7days post-infection increased their survival. In trial one, the anti-N. caninum effects of the P. betle extract reduced the mouse clinical scores for 30days post-infection (dpi). The survival rate of the mice treated with 400mg/kg was 100% compared with 66.6% for those treated with 100mg/kg and the non-treated controls. In trial two, treating the infected mice with the P. betle extract increased their survival at 50dpi. All mice in the non-treatment group died; however, the survival rates of the 400mg/kg-treated and 100mg/kg-treated mice were 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Also, a trend towards a reduced parasite burden was noted in the brains of the P. betle extract-treated mice, compared with the control mice. Therefore P. betle extract has potential as a medicinal plant for treating neosporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Tritium Activity in Plants by Ice Extraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; Ovad, S.; Tubul, Y.; Tsroya, S.; Gonen, R.; Abraham, A.; Weinstein, M.; German, U.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is produced primarily by interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. However, nuclear installations may add significantly tritium to the surroundings, increasing its concentration. The main sources of tritium released by man are linked to the nuclear power cycle: nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or tritium production plants. Tritium is found in the environment mainly as tritiated water, in gaseous or liquid form (HTO, T2O), in the surrounding air and in soil. It accumulates in plants, which may use as a measure to the level of tritium concentration in the environment. The most common routes of tritium uptake from the environment in plants are from atmospheric humidity and by precipitation water which entered the soil. The fraction of tritium bound to the plant tissue is small compared to that present as tritiated water in the plant (from 0.06% to 0.3% for growing crops). The tritiated water uptake is through the roots, as tritiated water from the soil follows a pathway similar to that of ordinary water. As most tritium in plants consists of tritiated water, the measurements of only the tissue free water tritium concentration (as HTO or T2O) gives an accurate estimate of the tritium content in the plant. Analyzing free tritium in biological matrices usually requires using the freeze-drying method to extract the water from the sample, and then measure the water collected in a cold trap with a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). The 'freeze-drying' occurs because of the sublimation of the frozen water inside the plant, that takes place when the temperature is beneath the triple point and the vapour pressure is low. In the temperature range of -5° to -10° C the mechanism that plants use to avoid freezing is drawing of water from the cell protoplasm into the intercellular spaces. Changes in cell membrane permeability allow water to leave the cell and enter the spaces between the cells where it freezes instead of freezing within the

  19. Plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions on the population control of Bradybaena similaris

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to test the efficiency of plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions, as alternatives to the population control of the snail Bradybaena similaris , and to investigate the effect of the plant extracts in reducing the damage of the snail on Brassica oleracea . The experiments were performed at the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (Unochapecó, using a random experimental design with nine treatments in triplicate. Five adult individuals of B. similaris were subjected to each trial, totaling 135 snails. The following treatments were tested: cinnamon ( Melia azedarach , timbó ( Ateleia glazioveana , rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis , mate herb ( Ilex paraguariensis , two concentrations of metaldehyde (3% and 5%, two concentrations of salt solution (5% and 10 %, and a control treatment (distilled water. To evaluate the survival of B. similaris it was checked the treatments every 24 hours, over four consecutive days. The results revealed that the two concentrations of metaldehyde were fully efficient, that the saline solution (10% had and intermediate efficiency, and that all other treatments were not effective. The treatment with the M. azedarach extract induced a higher consumption of B. oleracea , while the saline solution at 10% and the extracts of R. officinalis and I. paraguariensis inhibited leaf consumption.

  20. An in vivo model to study the anti-malaric capacity of plant extracts

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    Misael Chinchilla

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model to study the antimalaric effect of plant extracts is described. White mice (25-30g body weight are treated subcutaneously with 0.6ml of the diluted extract starting seven days before P. berghei infection; treatment continues until death or for 30 days. Simultaneously 0.2ml of the extract are applied per os starting three days before infection. In a test of the model, treated and non-treated animals differed in body weight, survival time, haematocrite, parasitemia development, and spleen or liver weight of recent dead or killed mice.

  1. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

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    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  2. Genotoxic studies of selected plant oil extracts on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

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    Sameer H. Qari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the genotoxic effects of various concentrations of plant oils from Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae and Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae to the conventional organophosphate insecticide (Chlorpyrifos against Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius. The R. dominica population was reared for several generations without exposure to any insecticide. Wheat grains were sterilized at 55 °C for 6 h in order to eliminate any hidden infestation, treated with serial dilutions of Chlorpyrifos and plant oil extracts, and subsequently fed to R. dominica for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 days. The results indicated that the LC50 values of oils from E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. Majorana were 0.14, 0.23 and 0.32%, respectively, after 2 days. Genetic variations in DNA fragments after treatment with LC50 and LC25 concentrations of E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. majorana were detected by RAPD-PCR analysis using five primers. The results exhibited distinct DNA polymorphisms or alterations in DNA bands. These alterations varied depending on the substance being examined. Chlorpyrifos causes the highest level of DNA alterations (based on the appearance and disappearance DNA bands followed by E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. majorana. These results were in direct correlation with the differences in mortality rates between extracts. It could be concluded that the plant oil extracts can be used as one of the integrated pest management tools to control R. dominica in stored products, as they are safer than chemical insecticides.

  3. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  4. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and two plant extracts, Nicandra physaloide and Dodonaea viscosa, on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.M.; El-Kholy, M.S.; Shoman, A.A.; El-Gengaihi, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The petroleum ether extract of the plant Nicandra Physaloide L. and the alcoholic plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa L. were subjected to the biological evaluation to assess their toxic effects on the reproductive abilities and survival survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata Wied., exposed to the treated diet in the larval stage. The produced full grown pupae (1-2 day old) were gamma irradiated (90 Gy). Neither percent pupation, adult emergence nor survival were affected by treating larvae with any of the two plant extracts alone at the tested concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 3,5 and 7 ppm).Applying each of the two plant extracts recorded insignificant effect on egg hatch. however, irradiating pupae produced from larvae subjected to the extracts significantly affected the male fertility and mating competitiveness

  5. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  6. Specification of an Expert system for the control of extraction units in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, A.; Charon, E.; Coppens, P.; Romet, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial operation of extraction units in reprocessing plants is very complex because the great number of chemical and hydraulic parameters to take into account. This complexity associated to the impossibility to see inside the active enclosures make difficult the operation processes, diagnosis and corrections. Management of parameters by an expert system will increase productivity and safety of solvent extraction in pulsed columns [fr

  7. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

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    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  8. Antibacterial efficacies of some plant extracts against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of farmed catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis

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    Albert P. Ekanem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases are responsible for mortalities of some farmed catfish in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacies of extracts of some plants against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, Citrus limon, Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were tested against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of H. longifilis by disc diffusion assay. Extracts of P. amarus, A. sativum, A. annua and C. limon were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitive to A. hydrophila and P. flourescens than M. oleifera, A. cepa and A. indica which were effective against P. flourescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts were 25mg/ml for P. amarus and A. annua; 25 and 100mg/ml for C. lemon and A. cepa respectively and 50mg/ml for A. indica.  Alkaloid was demonstrated in all plants except A. annua by qualitative methods. Moderate amount (++ of cardiac glycosides was demonstrated in A. sativum, M. oleifera and P. amarus. Saponin (+++ was present in M. oleifera and A. indica while, tannin (++ was present in M. oleifera, P. amarus and A. indica respectively. Phlobatanins and Anthraquinones (++ were present in P. amarus and M. oleifera respectively.  Extracts of aforementioned plants have potentials as therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of farmed catfish.

  9. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Charlson, Mary E; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pandey; N. Goel; S.K. Sirohi

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and r...

  11. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  12. Antifungal (in vitro activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, frame (Artemisia vulgaris, lavender (Lavandula officinalis and chamico (Datura ferox were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping, in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus, the treatment with lavender extract obtained by the steam trapping method presented the greatest efficiency for anthracnose control (66.23%. The other treatments tested also showed effectiveness against the anthracnose pathogen in the following order of inhibition: chamomile (52.78%, frame (21.63, chamico (24.14%, nettle (12.94, the ability of various species to inhibit certain fungal diseases, taking into account the different content of secondary metabolites that have each of the plant species, constituting new clean production alternatives that reduce the use of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases.

  13. Detection of radiation treatment of dry plant extracts by thermoluminescence and pulsed photostimulated luminescence. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.; Guzik, G.

    2009-01-01

    Results of the examination of the variety of dry plant extracts (Thyme extract, Celery seed extract, Artichoke extract, Citrus aurantium extract and others) by two different detection methods are described. Both PSL and TL methods are presented and discussed. Comparative study based on the analysis of the results obtained by thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurements delivered the arguments that preselection of detection methods based on model studies is rational to be adapted in analytical laboratories specialized in the detection of irradiated foods. (authors)

  14. Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Wightman, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery.

  15. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Spanou

    Full Text Available Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50 values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  16. Extractability of added lead in soils and its concentration in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, A J; Halstead, R L; Finn, B J

    1969-01-01

    The concentrations of Pb in five species of plants were found to increase with proximity of the sampling sites to a well-travelled highway. The Pb content of oats and alfalfa grown in four soils pretreated with PbCl/sub 2/ in pot tests varied inversely with the organic matter content and pH of the soils. The amounts of Pb taken up by the plants were reduced upon addition of phosphate or of lime to the acid soils. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of organic matter, phosphate and lime in reducing Pb in the plants were usually in accord with corresponding reductions in extractable Pb in the soils as measured in 1 N neutral ammonium acetate and 0.1 M CaCl/sub 2/. 11 references, 6 tables.

  17. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomari E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in

  18. A three-phase microfluidic chip for rapid sample clean-up of alkaloids from plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Swarts, J.W.; Chen, B.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    A three-phase microchip was developed for the rapid and efficient small-scale purification of alkaloids from plant extracts. As part of the development of such a three-phase microchip, first a two-phase microchip with two channels (3.2 cm and 9.3 cm) was used to study the extraction efficiency of

  19. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  20. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Saharan medicinal plant Limoniastrum feei: Ethnomedical survey and preliminary phytochemical screening of antibacterial extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAHMANI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Limoniastrum feei (plumbagenaceae a medicinal plant, used in Saharan ethnopharmacopeae to treat gastric tract, hepatit desorder and cought. The antibacterial extracts from leaves, stem and twig of this plant are screened for the principal classes of secondary metabolites, such as Alkaloids, Saponins, Terpenes, Tannins, Flavonoids, Steroids and Cardenolids.

  2. Antifungal (in vitro) activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo; León-Gordon Olguer; Santana-Mayorga Rita; Mangui-Tobar José; Carranza Galo; Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), frame (Artemisia vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula officinalis) and chamico (Datura ferox) were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping), in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth o...

  3. Variation of the rare earth element concentrations in the soil, soil extract and in individual plants from the same site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.; Schleppi, P.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of various types (spruce needles, blackberry leaves, soils, and soil extracts) have each been taken at 6 places from the same site. In addition, 4 whirls each from 2 spruce trees were sampled. Rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in these samples by neutron activation analysis with a chemical group separation. Variations between places were found to be small with soils and soil extracts, but large with plants. Variations between whirls were small. Plants neither reflected the soil nor the soil extract. Both plant species were dissimilar, but the logarithm of their ratio was a linear function of the atomic number of the REE. A negative Ce anomaly (with respect to soil) was found in both plant species. (author)

  4. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  5. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-08-18

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  6. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzie, Emeka E.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts

  7. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzie, Emeka E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria)], E-mail: oguziemeka@yahoo.com

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts.

  8. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds' aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  9. Phytochemical screening and in vivo antimalarial activity of extracts from three medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, A E; Adekunle, A A; Sowemimo, A A; Umebese, C E; Abiodun, O; Gbotosho, G O

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant to meet health-care needs has greatly increased worldwide in the recent times. The search for new plant-derived bioactive agents that can be explored for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria infection is urgently needed. Thus, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of three medicinal plants used in Nigerian folklore for the treatment of malaria infection. A modified Peter's 4-day suppressive test was used to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the plant extracts in a mouse model of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Animals were treated with 250, 500, or 800 mg/kg of aqueous extract. It was observed that of all the three plants studied, Markhamia tomentosa showed the highest chemosuppression of parasites of 73 % followed by Polyalthia longifolia (53 %) at day 4. All the doses tested were well tolerated. Percentage suppression of parasite growth on day 4 post-infection ranged from 1 to 73 % in mice infected with P. berghei and treated with extracts when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a chemosuppression of 90 %. The percentage survival of mice that received extract ranged from 0 to 60 % (increased as the dose increases to 800 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and phenolic compounds in all the three plants tested.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Alumina Nanoparticles Using Some Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Hasanpoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study we used five green plants for microwave assisted synthesis of Alumina nanoparticles from Aluminum nitrate. Structural characterization was studied using x-ray diffraction that showed semi- crystalline and possibly, amorphous structure. Fourier infrared spectroscopy was used to determine Al-O bond and functional groups responsible for synthesis of nanoparticles. FTIR confirmed existence of Al-O band and bio-functional groups, originated from plant extract. Morphology and size of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. It was observed that nanoparticles have near-spherical shape. Average size of clusters of nanoparticles varied with different routes from of 60 nm to 300 nm. AFM images showed that Individual nanoparticles were less than 10 nm.

  11. Effects of different natural extracts in an experimental model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Irene; Campolo, Michela; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Filippone, Antonio; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2018-04-20

    To characterize the impact of inflammatory process and oxidative stress in the degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition in which chronic inflammation plays a crucial role, we investigated the effect of different plant extract preparations in an in vivo model of BPH as new therapeutic target. BPH was made in rats with daily administration of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) for 14 days. Rats were randomized into different groups to receive oral administration of plant extract preparations: Serenoa repens with selenium (SeR 28.5 mg/kg associated with Se 0.005 mg/kg), Teoside (2 mg/kg), and Puryprost (14 mg/kg containing Teoside 50% 2 mg/kg and Epilobium 12 mg/kg). After 14 days, rats were killed and histological changes, prostate weight and apoptotic pathways were assayed. The results obtained demonstrated that the association of treatments reduced prostate weight and hyperplasia, while treatment with Puryprost demonstrated a greater trend of protection compared to the other treatments. Thus, our results indicate that plant extract could be considered as new useful therapy in the treatment of BPH with particular attention on Puryprost that represents a rational approach to reduce BPH through modulation of inflammatory process and anti-oxidant process.

  12. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Mathew

    Full Text Available Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD. Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease.

  13. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  14. Insecticidal activities and phytochemical screening of crude extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    The extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants species Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis were tested for insecticidal activities and preliminary phytochemical evaluation with the intention of standardization and proper manage of bioactive principles in such heterogonous botanicals and to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extracts and fractions from Nepeta plants showed moderate to strong insecticidal activity. Among the fractions from Nepeta kurramensis the n-butanol fraction showed strongest insecticidal activity with 89% mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum followed by methanol extract with 88% mortality ratio and in case of Nepeta leavigata the potential activity was showed by methanol extracts with 93% mortality rate against the tested insect. Surprisingly none of the extract / fractions obtained from Rhynchosia reniformis plant exhibited any insecticidal activity. The phytochemicals screening results revealed that both species of Nepeta showed similar phytochemicals profile. The group of chemicals terpenes, flavonoids and glycosides were observed in all the extracts/fractions of Nepeta plants. While phenolic compounds, acidic compounds and alkaloids were found in methanolic extracts, chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The Rhynchosia reniformis was observed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and fats. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  16. Investigation the antinociceptive, antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extracts in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunee Khamjun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae is known in Thai as Waan-Ma-Haa-Mek. The rhizomes of this plant have been used as a component of Thai herbal medicinal recipes used for decreasing dysmenorrhea. In the present study, the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions of this plant were investigated in experimental animals. The rhizomes of C. aeruginosa were extracted with chloroform, methanol and water to give chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The effects of the three extracts on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice were performed. The antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever and the anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of orally administered the chloroform extract and methanol extract in mice was 3.03 g/kg. No dead mice were observed after oral administration of aqueous extract at the dose of 10 g/kg. Oral administration of the chloroform extract and the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa rhizomes (100-400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid. Only the chloroform extract suppressed the licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test in mice. All extracts of C. aeruginosa rhizomes had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice, yeast-induced fever and carrageenin-induced edema in rats. These results suggest that the chloroform extract of C. aeruginosa rhizome possesses analgesic effect via a different mechanism from that of the aspirin.

  17. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.

    1979-02-01

    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U 3 O 8 per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc

  18. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.

    1979-02-01

    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc.

  19. Entomocidal activity of microwave energy & some aqueous plant extracts against Tribolium castaneum Herbst & Trogoderma granarium Everts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, W. N. A.; Amin, A. H.; Khidr, S. K.; Ismail, A. Y.

    2017-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of microwave radiation and aqueous plant extracts against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum & khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. The larvae stage with dried fruits (black raisin, red raisin, fig and apricot) were subjected to microwave radiation at different power levels (280,560 and 840) watt for three exposure times (10, 30 and 50) seconds. Mortalities increased with an increase of concentration or exposure time or both. Thus, highest mortality 90% was achieved at 840 watt power output and exposure time 50 second for both aforementioned species. Likewise, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, mint Mentha canadensis and myrtle Myrtus communis were studied for their toxicity effect on mortality of larval stage at three dosages (12500, 25000 and 50000) ppm for different exposure times (1, 2, 3 and 7) days. The larvae of khapra beetle were more resistant to the insecticidal activity of plant extracts in comparison with red flour beetle larvae. The LC50 values were varied in accordance to plant extracts types and concentrations within the four interval times of exposure. The LC50 values for both khapra & red flour beetles were (47234.07 & 5760.90) ppm respectively on black raisin after 7 days exposure to eucalyptus aqueous extract.

  20. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, cellulose and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction employing crown ethers and calix-crown derivatives as extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Two crown ethers (CEs) viz. dibenzo18crown6, and dibenzo12crown7 and three calix-crown derivatives viz. (octyloxy)calix[4]arene-mono-crown-6 (CMC), calix[4]arene-bis(o-benzocrown-6) (CBC), and calix[4]arene-bis(naphthocrown-6) (CNC) were evaluated for the recovery of 137 Cs from synthetic soil, cellulose (tissue paper), and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route. CEs showed poor extraction of 137 Cs from soil matrix. SFE experiments using 1 × 10 -3 M solutions of CMC, CBC and CNC in acetonitrile at 3 M HNO 3 as modifiers displayed better extraction of 137 Cs, viz. 21(±2) % (CMC), 16.5(±3) % (CBC), and 4(±1) % (CNC). It was not possible to recover 137 Cs quantitatively from soil matrix. The inefficient extraction of 137 Cs from soil matrix was attributed to its incorporation into the interstitial sites. Experiments on tissue papers using CMC showed near quantitative 137 Cs recovery. On the other hand, recovery from plant samples varied between 50(±5) % (for stems) and 75(±5) % (for leaves). (author)

  1. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

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    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  2. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, S K; Goel, N; Pandey, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern, while sequential incubations (0, 1, 2, 3, 6 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h) were carried out for gas production kinetics. Results showed that methane production was reduced, ammonia nitrogen was increased significantly, while no significant effect was found on pH and protozoal population following addition of different plant extracts in both diets except mehandi. Green chili significantly reduced digestibility of dry matter, total fatty acid and acetate concentration at incubation with sorghum based high and low fiber diets. Among all treatments, green chili increased potential gas production, while jaiphal decreased the gas production rate constant significantly. The present results demonstrate that methanolic extracts of different plants are promising rumen modifying agents. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, potential gas production, gas production rate constant, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  3. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg

    between 200 to 300 mu g.ml sup(-1), whereas, the bacterial inhibition zone around the disc containing about 600-800 mu g of extract ranged between 1-5 mm. The results suggest that the crude extract of the plant is nontoxic and possesses both antibacterial...

  4. Toxicologic evaluation of acute and subacute oral administration of Cucurbita maxima seed extracts to rats and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz-Neto, A; Mataqueiro, M I; Santana, A E; Alessi, A C

    1994-06-01

    The extract prepared from dried seeds of Cucurbita maxima was administered to rats and pigs. Following a single dose or 4 weeks of daily oral administration, the extract produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, uric acid, GOT, GPT, LDH or blood counts. Urine analysis (urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, Na and K), as well as histopathological investigation, showed no abnormalities. These results taken as a whole indicate that the seeds of C. maxima as used in Brazilian folk medicine are not toxic for rats and swine.

  5. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J; Kidukuli, Abdul W

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 10(7) erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria.

  6. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani SO Nondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 Χ 10 7 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day and solvent (5 mL/kg/day were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s. In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria.

  7. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  8. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intawongse, Marisa [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Dean, John R. [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.dean@unn.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables.

  9. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intawongse, Marisa; Dean, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables

  10. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  11. Investigation of the acaricidal activity of the acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 South African plants against the adult ticks of Rhipicephalus turanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL. Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers had the highest corrected mortality (CM of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant with a CM of 88.9%, Ficus sycomorus (bark and stems 86.7% and Senna italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits 83.3%. Selected extracts were tested at five different concentrations using the adult immersion test. From dose–response assays, EC50 values of 61.82 mg/mL, 115.21 mg/mL and 161.02 mg/mL were obtained for the acetone extracts of S. pinnata (whole plant, S. italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits and C. aurea (leaves and flowers respectively. The ethanol extract of Monsonia angustifolia (whole plant had the highest CM of 97.8% followed by S. pinnata (whole plant with a CM of 86.7%, C. aurea (leaves and flowers 81.1% and Cleome gynandra (leaves 77.8%. There is potential for the development of environmentally benign botanicals as natural acaricides against R. turanicus.

  12. Effect of Topical Administration of Fractions and Isolated Molecules from Plant Extracts on Skin Wound Healing: A Systematic Review of Murine Experimental Models

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    Mariáurea Matias Sarandy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Skin wound healing is a dynamic process driven by molecular events responsible for the morphofunctional repair of the injured tissue. In a systematic review, we analyzed the relevance of plant fractions and isolates on skin wound healing. By revising preclinical investigations with murine models, we investigated if the current evidence could support clinical trials. Methods. Studies were selected in the MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases according to the PRISMA statement. All 32 identified studies were submitted to data extraction and the methodological bias was investigated according to ARRIVE strategy. Results. The studies demonstrated that plant fractions and isolates are able to modulate the inflammatory process during skin wound healing, being also effective in attenuating the oxidative tissue damage in the scar tissue and stimulating cell proliferation, neoangiogenesis, collagen synthesis, granulation tissue expansion, reepithelialization, and the wound closure rate. However, we identified serious methodological flaws in all studies, such as the high level of reporting bias and absence of standardized experimental designs, analytical methods, and outcome measures. Conclusion. Considering these limitations, the current evidence generated from flawed methodological animal studies makes it difficult to determine the relevance of herbal medicines to treat skin wounds and derails conducting clinical studies.

  13. Root Canal Irrigation: Chemical Agents and Plant Extracts Against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzini, Letizia; Condò, Roberta; De Dominicis, Paolo; Casaglia, Adriano; Cerroni, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are various microorganisms related to intra and extra-radicular infections and many of these are involved in persistent infections. Bacterial elimination from the root canal is achieved by means of the mechanical action of instruments and irrigation as well as the antibacterial effects of the irrigating solutions. Enterococcus faecalis can frequently be isolated from root canals in cases of failed root canal treatments. Antimicrobial agents have often been developed and optimized for their activity against endodontic bacteria. An ideal root canal irrigant should be biocompatible, because of its close contact with the periodontal tissues during endodontic treatment. Sodium hypoclorite (NaOCl) is one of the most widely recommended and used endodontic irrigants but it is highly toxic to periapical tissues. Objectives: To analyze the literature on the chemotherapeutic agent and plant extracts studied as root canal irrigants. In particularly, the study is focused on their effect on Enterococcus faecalis. Method: Literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 1982 to April 2015. The searched keywords were “endodontic irrigants” and “Enterococcus faecalis” and “essential oil” and “plant extracts”. Results: Many of the studied chemotherapeutic agents and plant extracts have shown promising results in vitro. Conclusion: Some of the considered phytotherapic substances, could be a potential alternative to NaOCl for the biomechanical treatment of the endodontic space. PMID:28217184

  14. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  15. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  16. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruchi; Tyagi, Varun; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K; Mendki, Murlidhar J; Jain, Ashok K; Sukumaran, Devanathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory. Methods: Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20–400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior) against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50), while OAI (Oviposition activity index) was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts. Results: Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466) at 100ppm. Conclusion: Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito. PMID:26114131

  17. Evaluation of cytotoxic and antitumoral properties of Tessaria absinthioides (Hook & Arn DC, "pájaro bobo", aqueous extract

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    Fabio A. Persia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have provided various natural derived drugs used currently in western medicine. Tessaria absinthioides (Hook. & Arn. DC, Asteraceae, is a native plant from South-America with reported ethnopharmacological and culinary uses. Despite recent scientific reports about plants properties, there is not a well conducted research about its anticancer and potential toxic effects. The current work demonstrates the plant aqueous extract composition; the in vitro induced cytotoxicity, and explores, in vivo, its oral toxicity and antitumoral effects. Composition of aqueous extract was determined by phytochemical reactions. Cytotoxicity was tested in tumoral (Hela, Gli-37, HCT-116 and MCF-7 and non-tumoral (HBL-100 cells, using MTT assay. Oral toxicity and the antitumor activity against colorectal carcinoma were studied in rodents. The chemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates, sterols, terpenes and tannins. Cytotoxicity towards tumoral cells was observed (CV50: 3.0 to 14.8 ug/ml; while in non-tumoral cells, extracts evidenced a selective reduced toxicity (CV50: 29.5 ug/ml. Oral administration of the extract does not induce acute nor dose-repeated toxicity at doses up to 2000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. The antitumoral effect was confirmed by a significant increase in a median survival from 24 weeks (non-treated to 30 weeks (T. absinthioides treated. The present data indicate that T. absinthioides extract exhibits cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines, with no-toxic effects and significant antitumoral effects in colorectal cancer when is orally administrated. In conclusion, T. absinthioides possesses selective cytotoxicity and antitumoral activities, making its plant derivatives products promising for cancer research and treatment.

  18. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

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    Körpe, Didem Aks