WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant disease management

  1. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  2. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pathogenic fungi and bacteria often damage their host (plants) tissues by producing toxic metabolites, which induced various symptoms ...

  3. Bespoke microbiome therapy to manage plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali eGopal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biological technologies are revealing that the microbiome, located in gut and rhizosphere, is responsible for maintaining the health of human beings and plants, respectively. Within the complete microbiome a ‘core-microbiome’ exists that plays the pivotal role. Recent studies in medicine have shown that an artificial mixture of bacteria representing the core gut microbiome of healthy person when transferred into gut of diseased person results in re-establishment of normal microflora in the latter leading to alleviation from diseased condition. In agriculture, plant disease management has been achieved through transfer of microbiome by mixing disease suppressive soils with disease conducive soils. However, the exact practice of transferring artificially cultivated core-microbiome as in medicine has not thus far been attempted in plant disease management. Nonetheless, as the gut and rhizosphere microbiome are known to share many common traits, there exists a good scope for accomplishing similar studies in agriculture. Based upon the information in microbiome studies of gut and rhizosphere, we propose that tailor-made core-microbiome transfer therapy can become a viable strategy for management of plant diseases in future.

  4. Climate change and plant disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, S M; Scherm, H; Chakraborty, S

    1999-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  Research on impacts of climate change on plant diseases has been limited, with most work concentrating on the effects of a single atmospheric constituent or meteorological variable on the host, pathogen, or the interaction of the two under controlled conditions. Results indicate that climate change could alter stages and rates of development of the pathogen, modify host resistance, and result in changes in the physiology of host-pathogen interactions. The most likely consequences are shifts in the geographical distribution of host and pathogen and altered crop losses, caused in part by changes in the efficacy of control strategies. Recent developments in experimental and modeling techniques offer considerable promise for developing an improved capability for climate change impact assessment and mitigation. Compared with major technological, environmental, and socioeconomic changes affecting agricultural production during the next century, climate change may be less important; it will, however, add another layer of complexity and uncertainty onto a system that is already exceedingly difficult to manage on a sustainable basis. Intensified research on climate change-related issues could result in improved understanding and management of plant diseases in the face of current and future climate extremes.

  5. Plant disease management in organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Ariena H C; Gamliel, Abraham; Finckh, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has significantly increased in importance in recent decades. Disease management in OF is largely based on the maintenance of biological diversity and soil health by balanced crop rotations, including nitrogen-fixing and cover crops, intercrops, additions of manure and compost and reductions in soil tillage. Most soil-borne diseases are naturally suppressed, while foliar diseases can sometimes be problematic. Only when a severe disease outbreak is expected are pesticides used that are approved for OF. A detailed overview is given of cultural and biological control measures. Attention is also given to regulated pesticides. We conclude that a systems approach to disease management is required, and that interdisciplinary research is needed to solve lingering disease problems, especially for OF in the tropics. Some of the organic regulations are in need of revision in close collaboration with various stakeholders.

  6. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. RNAi: A Novel Approach for Plant Disease Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahnawaz

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Silencing specific genes by RNAi is a desirable natural solution ... applications of this novel technology in plant disease management for sustainable ... Further study of genetic host ... process of co-evolution, though therapeutic tools based ..... technology, it would be feasible to create a new biological.

  8. Plant Diseases and Management Approaches in Organic Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, A H C; Finckh, M R

    2016-08-04

    Organic agriculture has expanded worldwide. Numerous papers were published in the past 20 years comparing plant diseases in organic and conventional crops. Root diseases are generally less severe owing to greater soil health, whereas some foliar diseases can be problematic in organic agriculture. The soil microbial community and nitrogen availability play an important role in disease development and yield. Recently, the focus has shifted to optimizing organic crop production by improving plant nutrition, weed control, and plant health. Crop-loss assessment relating productivity to all yield-forming and -reducing factors would benefit organic production and sustainability evaluation.

  9. iPathology: Robotic Applications and Management of Plants and Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Ampatzidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new technologies and the changing landscape of the online world (e.g., Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of All, cloud-based solutions provide a unique opportunity for developing automated and robotic systems for urban farming, agriculture, and forestry. Technological advances in machine vision, global positioning systems, laser technologies, actuators, and mechatronics have enabled the development and implementation of robotic systems and intelligent technologies for precision agriculture. Herein, we present and review robotic applications on plant pathology and management, and emerging agricultural technologies for intra-urban agriculture. Greenhouse advanced management systems and technologies have been greatly developed in the last years, integrating IoT and WSN (Wireless Sensor Network. Machine learning, machine vision, and AI (Artificial Intelligence have been utilized and applied in agriculture for automated and robotic farming. Intelligence technologies, using machine vision/learning, have been developed not only for planting, irrigation, weeding (to some extent, pruning, and harvesting, but also for plant disease detection and identification. However, plant disease detection still represents an intriguing challenge, for both abiotic and biotic stress. Many recognition methods and technologies for identifying plant disease symptoms have been successfully developed; still, the majority of them require a controlled environment for data acquisition to avoid false positives. Machine learning methods (e.g., deep and transfer learning present promising results for improving image processing and plant symptom identification. Nevertheless, diagnostic specificity is a challenge for microorganism control and should drive the development of mechatronics and robotic solutions for disease management.

  10. Management of pests and diseases of tropical sericultural plants by using plant-derived products:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R T Gahukar

    2015-01-01

    Host plants of domesticated silkworms in tropical countries are attacked by an array of insect pests, disease pathogens and nematodes. In order to reduce resulting plant damage, chemicals have been extensively used. In recent years, products extracted/isolated from 47 plant species have been tested as replacements for or to minimize the use of hazardous chemicals. Bioefficacy of the extract in water or chemical solvent, crude seed/leaf oil, and cake is discussed, and integrated management of major and occasional pests and plant diseases is proposed in sericultural plants in order to produce chemical-free foliage.

  11. The Evidential Basis of Decision Making in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2017-08-04

    The evidential basis for disease management decision making is provided by data relating to risk factors. The decision process involves an assessment of the evidence leading to taking (or refraining from) action on the basis of a prediction. The primary objective of the decision process is to identify-at the time the decision is made-the control action that provides the best predicted end-of-season outcome, calculated in terms of revenue or another appropriate metric. Data relating to disease risk factors may take a variety of forms (e.g., continuous, discrete, categorical) on measurement scales in a variety of units. Log10-likelihood ratios provide a principled basis for the accumulation of evidence based on such data and allow predictions to be made via Bayesian updating of prior probabilities.

  12. Harnessing Host-Vector Microbiome for Sustainable Plant Disease Management of Phloem-Limited Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Trivedi, Chanda; Grinyer, Jasmine; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes, and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved. These interactions take place within complex pathosystems and are shaped by a myriad of biotic and abiotic factors. However, our current understanding of these processes and their implications for the establishment and spread of insect-borne diseases remains limited. This article highlights the molecular, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of interactions among insects, plants, and their associated microbial communities with a focus on insect vectored and phloem-limited pathogens belonging to Ca. Phytoplasma and Ca. Liberibacter species. We propose that innovative and interdisciplinary research aimed at linking scales from the cellular to the community level will be vital for increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning plant-insect-microbe interactions. Examination of such interactions could lead us to applied solutions for sustainable disease and pest management.

  13. Harnessing host-vector microbiome for sustainable plant disease management of phloem-limited bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Trivedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca. Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved. These interactions take place within complex pathosystems and are shaped by a myriad of biotic and abiotic factors. However our current understanding of these processes and their implications for the establishment and spread of insect-borne diseases remains limited. This article highlights the molecular, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of interactions among insects, plants, and their associated microbial communities with a focus on insect vectored and phloem-limited pathogens belonging to Ca. Phytoplasma and Ca. Liberibacter species. We propose that innovative and interdisciplinary research aimed at linking scales from the cellular to the community level will be vital for increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning plant-insect-microbe interactions. Examination of such interactions could lead us to applied solutions for sustainable disease and pest management.

  14. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Dallot, Sylvie; Gottwald, Tim; Decroocq, Véronique; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV; genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, various management strategies have been implemented in different regions of the world, depending on the epidemiological context and on the objective (i.e., eradication, suppression, containment, or resilience). These strategies have exploited virus-free planting material, varietal improvement, surveillance and removal of trees in orchards, and statistical models. Variations on these management options lead to contrasted outcomes, from successful eradication to widespread presence of PPV in orchards. Here, we present management strategies in the light of sharka epidemiology to gain insights from this worldwide experience. Although focused on sharka, this review highlights more general levers and promising approaches to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

  15. Management of Parkinson's disease in Ayurveda: Medicinal plants and adjuvant measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak-Gandhi, Namyata; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants like Mucuna pruriens L.(DC) and Withania somnifera L.(Dunal) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to manage neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to share the role of Ayurveda's insights, traditional usage and contemporary investigations for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. High impact journals for Parkinson's diseases, traditional textbooks from Ayurveda as well as relevant clinical and para clinical studies with botanicals are selectively incorporated to evolve the aforesaid translational application. . A. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system, neurodegenerative disease. Though predominantly perceived as a motor disease, it also has debilitating non- motor features, which are frequently missed and not treated. Major treatment goals are to increase striatal dopamine levels with precursor-substitution and/or reduce its breakdown. As the disease progresses, a steady increase in the dose of levodopa is inevitable. However, higher doses cause motor complications of dyskinesia and dystonia and compromise medical treatment. B. ROLE OF MUCUNA PRURIENS L.DC), THE MOST PROMISING BOTANICAL FROM AYURVEDA: Ayurveda offers a natural source of levodopa - the seeds of Mucuna pruriens L.(DC)- which have a long standing safe use in the condition. Its clinical studies have shown pharmacokinetic profile distinct from synthetic levodopa, which is likely to reduce the untoward motor complications. Additionally, its seed extracts have shown neuroprotective benefits which are unrelated to levodopa. C. AYURVEDIC REGIMENS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR NEUROPROTECTIVE AND SYMPTOMATIC BENEFITS: Other regimens (Panchakarma) and medicinal plants used in Ayurveda have been subjected to exploratory studies with promising early results in the condition. The debilitating non motor symptoms in patients have shown response with one of the regimens - medicated oil enema

  16. Fungal Biofilms: Targets for the Development of Novel Strategies in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca; Cortesi, Paolo; Kunova, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The global food supply has been facing increasing challenges during the first decades of the 21(st) century. Disease in plants is an important constraint to worldwide crop production, accounting for 20-40% of its annual harvest loss. Although the use of resistant varieties, good water management and agronomic practices are valid management tools in counteracting plant diseases, there are still many pathosystems where fungicides are widely used for disease management. However, restrictive regulations and increasing concern regarding the risk to human health and the environment, along with the incidence of fungicide resistance, have discouraged their use and have prompted for a search for new efficient, ecologically friendly and sustainable disease management strategies. The recent evidence of biofilm formation by fungal phytopathogens provides the scientific framework for designing and adapting methods and concepts developed by biofilm research that could be integrated in IPM practices. In this perspective paper, we provide evidence to support the view that the biofilm lifestyle plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of plant diseases. We describe the main factors limiting the durability of single-site fungicides, and we assemble the current knowledge on pesticide resistance in the specific context of the biofilm lifestyle. Finally, we illustrate the potential of antibiofilm compounds at sub-lethal concentrations for the development of an innovative, eco-sustainable strategy to counteract phytopathogenic fungi. Such fungicide-free solutions will be instrumental in reducing disease severity, and will permit more prudent use of fungicides decreasing thus the selection of resistant forms and safeguarding the environment.

  17. Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, George W; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Yuan, Xiaochen; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. The attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. New and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip of potato) and established problems in new geographical regions (e.g. bacterial canker of kiwifruit in New Zealand) grab the headlines, but the list of bacterial disease problems with few effective management options is long. The ever-increasing global human population requires the continued stable production of a safe food supply with greater yields because of the shrinking areas of arable land. One major facet in the maintenance of the sustainability of crop production systems with predictable yields involves the identification and deployment of sustainable disease management solutions for bacterial diseases. In addition, the identification of novel management tactics has also come to the fore because of the increasing evolution of resistance to existing bactericides. A number of central research foci, involving basic research to identify critical pathogen targets for control, novel methodologies and methods of delivery, are emerging that will provide a strong basis for bacterial disease management into the future. Near-term solutions are desperately needed. Are there replacement materials for existing bactericides that can provide effective disease management under field conditions? Experience should inform the future. With prior knowledge of bactericide resistance issues evolving in pathogens, how will this affect the deployment of newer compounds and biological controls? Knowledge is critical. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathosystems is required to not

  18. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Plat, Jogchum; Turley, Stephen; Ginsberg, Henry N; Ellegård, Lars; Jessup, Wendy; Jones, Peter J; Lütjohann, Dieter; Maerz, Winfried; Masana, Luis; Silbernagel, Günther; Staels, Bart; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; De Backer, Guy; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S; Kovanen, Petri T; Riccardi, Gabriele; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Chapman, M John

    2014-02-01

    This EAS Consensus Panel critically appraised evidence relevant to the benefit to risk relationship of functional foods with added plant sterols and/or plant stanols, as components of a healthy lifestyle, to reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and thereby lower cardiovascular risk. Plant sterols/stanols (when taken at 2 g/day) cause significant inhibition of cholesterol absorption and lower LDL-C levels by between 8 and 10%. The relative proportions of cholesterol versus sterol/stanol levels are similar in both plasma and tissue, with levels of sterols/stanols being 500-/10,000-fold lower than those of cholesterol, suggesting they are handled similarly to cholesterol in most cells. Despite possible atherogenicity of marked elevations in circulating levels of plant sterols/stanols, protective effects have been observed in some animal models of atherosclerosis. Higher plasma levels of plant sterols/stanols associated with intakes of 2 g/day in man have not been linked to adverse effects on health in long-term human studies. Importantly, at this dose, plant sterol/stanol-mediated LDL-C lowering is additive to that of statins in dyslipidaemic subjects, equivalent to doubling the dose of statin. The reported 6-9% lowering of plasma triglyceride by 2 g/day in hypertriglyceridaemic patients warrants further evaluation. Based on LDL-C lowering and the absence of adverse signals, this EAS Consensus Panel concludes that functional foods with plant sterols/stanols may be considered 1) in individuals with high cholesterol levels at intermediate or low global cardiovascular risk who do not qualify for pharmacotherapy, 2) as an adjunct to pharmacologic therapy in high and very high risk patients who fail to achieve LDL-C targets on statins or are statin- intolerant, 3) and in adults and children (>6 years) with familial hypercholesterolaemia, in line with current guidance. However, it must be acknowledged that there are no randomised, controlled

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  20. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  1. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  2. Disease cycle approach to plant disease prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, Erick D; Isard, Scott A

    2007-01-01

    Plant disease cycles represent pathogen biology as a series of interconnected stages of development including dormancy, reproduction, dispersal, and pathogenesis. The progression through these stages is determined by a continuous sequence of interactions among host, pathogen, and environment. The stages of the disease cycle form the basis of many plant disease prediction models. The relationship of temperature and moisture to disease development and pathogen reproduction serve as the basis for most contemporary plant disease prediction systems. Pathogen dormancy and inoculum dispersal are considered less frequently. We found extensive research efforts evaluating the performance of prediction models as part of operation disease management systems. These efforts appear to be greater than just a few decades ago, and include novel applications of Bayesian decision theory. Advances in information technology have stimulated innovations in model application. This trend must accelerate to provide the disease management strategies needed to maintain global food supplies.

  3. An Approach Towards Structure Based Antimicrobial Peptide Design for Use in Development of Transgenic Plants: A Strategy for Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Humaira; Datta, Aritreyee; Bhunia, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), are ubiquitous and vital components of innate defense response that present themselves as potential candidates for drug design, and aim to control plant and animal diseases. Though their application for plant disease management has long been studied with natural AMPs, cytotoxicity and stability related shortcomings for the development of transgenic plants limit their usage. Newer technologies like molecular modelling, NMR spectroscopy and combinatorial chemistry allow screening for potent candidates and provide new avenues for the generation of rationally designed synthetic AMPs with multiple biological functions. Such AMPs can be used for the control of plant diseases that lead to huge yield losses of agriculturally important crop plants, via generation of transgenic plants. Such approaches have gained significant attention in the past decade as a consequence of increasing antibiotic resistance amongst plant pathogens, and the shortcomings of existing strategies that include environmental contamination and human/animal health hazards amongst others. This review summarizes the recent trends and approaches used for employing AMPs, emphasizing on designed/modified ones, and their applications toward agriculture and food technology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  5. Plant Diseases & Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sherm

    2008-01-01

    This course discusses the use of chemicals for plant disease control. Specifically, pesticides that can be used both in commercial or home/yard sitautions. This course also teaches how to determine plant diseases that may have caused a plant to die.

  6. Plant Pathology and Information Technology: Opportunity for Management of Disease Outbreak and Applications in Regulation Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luvisi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In many European rural areas, agriculture is not only an economic activity, but it is strictly linked to environmental and social characteristics of the area. Thus, sometimes, a pathogen can become a social threat, as in the case of Xylella fastidiosa and olive trees (Olea europaea L. in Salento. Fast and systemic response to threats represents the key to success in stopping pest invasions, and proves a great help in managing lots of data in a short time or coordinating large-scale monitoring coming from applying Information Technology tools. Regarding the field of applications, the advantages provided by new technologies are countless. However, is it the same in agriculture? Electronic identification tools can be applied for plant health management and certification. Treatments, agrochemical management or impact assessment may also be supported by dematerialization of data. Information Technology solution for urban forestry management or traceability of commodities belonging to “Food from Somewhere” regimes were analyzed and compared to protection from pests of a unique tree heritage such as olive trees in Salento.

  7. Will decision-support systems be widely used for the management of plant diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Decision-support systems (DSSs) are interactive computer-based systems that help decision makers solve unstructured problems under complex, uncertain conditions. Experimental use of DSSs has resulted in improved disease suppression and lowered risks of crop damage. In many cases, it has also led to the use of smaller quantities of active substances, as compared with standard spraying practices. Hundreds of DSSs have been developed over the years and are readily available and affordable. However, most farm managers do not use them as part of their integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Since the mid-1980s, the author of this paper, together with numerous colleagues, has developed DSSs and decision rules for the management of diseases in a variety of crops, including extensive crops, such as wheat, sunflower, and pea; semi-intensive crops, such as pear, chickpea, cotton, and tarragon; and intensive crops, such as tomato, potato, cucumber, sweet pepper, carrot, and grapevine. Some of these systems were used widely, but others were not. This experience may allow us to draw general conclusions regarding the use of DSSs and decision rules. Possible explanations for the widely varying acceptance rates are presented, and the effects of anticipated changes in the agribusiness sector on the future use of DSSs are discussed.

  8. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auddy, B; Ferreira, M; Blasina, F; Lafon, L; Arredondo, F; Dajas, F; Tripathi, P C; Seal, T; Mukherjee, B

    2003-02-01

    A number of Indian medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda). Amongst these are plants used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, loss of memory, degeneration of nerves and other neuronal disorders by the Ayurvedic practitioners. Though the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases remains enigmatic, there is evidence, which indicates that defective energy metabolism, excitotoxicity and oxidative damage may be crucial factors (Ann. Neurol. 38 (3) (1995) 357). The part of the Ayurvedic system that provides an approach to prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases is known as Rasayana, and plants used for this purpose are classed as rejuvenators. This group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity (Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 1175), but only a few have been investigated in detail. In the present study, three such rasayana plants were tested for the first time for their toxicity and free radical scavenging activity both in vitro and ex vivo. All the three plant infusions (up to 1 mg/ml) showed no toxic effects on the viability of PC12 cell line as judged by MTT-test. Both ethanolic extracts and water infusions of the plants were tested for their antioxidant activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS*(+)) radical cation decolorization assay; inhibition of lipid peroxidation by plant infusions was carried out using spontaneous lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenate, and IC50 values were determined. The results from the ABTS assay showed that the ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was found to be most potent (IC50 16.07 microg/ml), followed by Evolvulus alsinoides (IC50 33.39 microg/ml) and Cynodon dactylon (IC50 78.62 microg/ml). The relative antioxidant capacity for the water infusions was observed in the following order: E. alsinoides (IC50 172.25 microg/ml)>C. dactylon (IC50 273.64 microg

  9. STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AT LIBREVILLE (GABON: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Souza et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted at a Libreville herbal market located in Peyrie in order to inventory plants used by people for the management of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and to evaluate their pharmacological effects. The method of preparation and modes of administration were also recorded. Twenty nine herbalists were interviewed using questionnaires. Twenty two plant species belonging to sixteen families and seventeen recipes were identified. The commonly used plants were Guibourtia tessmannii, Musanga ceropioiodes, Senecio gabonensis. Among them, G. tessmannii appeared to be the most used plant species. Phytochemical studies on extracts of G. tessmannii revealed the presence of alkaloids, sugars, polyphenols, sterols, tannins and saponosids. Pharmacological studies performed in the isolated aorta of rats showed a vasorelaxant effect on adrenalin- or KCl- induced contraction. G Tessmannii-induced vasorelaxation was significantly but not totally reduced by endothelium removal or by a pretreatment with L-NAME, suggesting the involvement of endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Medicinal plants and G. tessmannii in particular may represent a source of efficient antihypertensive agents.

  10. Impact of agricultural land management systems on soil microbial diversity and plant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...

  11. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV;, genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, ...

  12. Effects of plant conduction systems and organic fertilizer management on disease incidence and severity in ‘Osiana’ and ‘Carola’ roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pruning is a very common practice for pruning rose cultivars in Brazil. However, few Brazilian producers known any other efficient plant training method for roses, namely “lateral stem bending” or “arching technique”, which involves bending the branches of the rosebush in order to increase the photosynthetic rate of the plant. As well as plant training, the use of fertilizers must also be done carefully in order to obtain high quality roses. Biofertilizers are recommended because of their multiple effects: fertilizer, protein synthesis stimulant, insect repellent, and disease controller. The aim of this study was to assess the plant training system and management of organic fertilizer on the incidence and severity of disease in the ‘Osiana’ and ‘Carola’ roses. The ‘Osiana’ rosebushes received three concentrations (0%, 5%, and 15% of foliar biofertilizer applied monthly to the leaves together with two plant conduction methods (conventional pruning and lateral stem bending. ‘Carola’ roses were treated with three types of fertilizer (chemical fertilizer on the soil + bokashi on the soil, chemical fertilizer on the soil + foliar FishfertilÒand chemical fertilization on the soil without applying organic fertilizers every two weeks, together with 2 plant conduction systems (conventional pruning and lateral stem bending. The additional treatments in ‘Carola’ roses were composed of two organic fertilizers (Bokashi and foliar Fishfertil® and chemical fertilization with lateral pruning. The incidence and severity of disease in these plants during the experiment were assessed over 5 months. For the ‘Osiana’ rose, the incidence and severity of disease were not influenced by fertilizer management or plant training methods. For the ‘Carola’ roses, the different types of fertilizer caused different responses according to the plant training system used, with the biofertilizer Fishfertil® reducing the incidence

  13. Silicon in plant disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ampélio Pozza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All essential nutrients can affect the incidence and severity of plant diseases. Although silicon (Si is not considered as an essential nutrient for plants, it stands out for its potential to decrease disease intensity in many crops. The mechanism of Si action in plant resistance is still unclear. Si deposition in plant cell walls raised the hypothesis of a possible physical barrier to pathogen penetration. However, the increased activity of phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases in plants treated with Si demonstrates the involvement of this element in the induction of plant defense responses. The studies examined in this review address the role of Si in disease control and the possible mechanisms involved in the mode of Si action in disease resistance in plants.

  14. Disease Management Update

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The rapid expansion of disease management continues. A multitude of stakeholders and marketplaces are now involved in providing cost-effective quality healthcare for individuals and populations. To help you keep up to date with the very latest developments in disease management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the disease management and pharmacoeconomic reporting servicePharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News. The following reports are selected from the very latest ...

  15. Disease Management Update

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of disease management continues. A multitude of stakeholders and marketplaces are now involved in providing cost-effective quality healthcare for individuals and populations. To help you keep up to date with the very latest developments in disease management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the disease management and pharmacoeconomic reporting service Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News. The following reports are selected from the very latest...

  16. Disease Management Update

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The rapid expansion of disease management continues. A multitude of stakeholders and marketplaces are now involved in providing cost-effective quality healthcare for individuals and populations. To help you keep up to date with the very latest developments in disease management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the disease management and pharmacoeconomic reporting service Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News. The following reports are selected from the very latest...

  17. Disease Management Update

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The rapid expansion of disease management continues. A multitude of stakeholders and marketplaces are now involved in providing cost effective quality healthcare for individuals and populations. To help you keep up-to-date with the very latest developments in disease management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the disease management and pharmacoeconomic reporting service Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News . The following reports are selected from the very lates...

  18. Disease Management Update

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The rapid expansion of disease management continues. A multitude of stakeholders and marketplaces are now involved in providing cost-effective quality healthcare for individuals and populations. To help you keep up-to-date with the very latest developments in disease management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the disease management and pharmacoeconomic reporting service PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News Weekly. The following reports are selected from the very...

  19. Disease Management Update

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The rapid expansion of disease management continues. A multitude of stakeholders and marketplaces are now involved in providing cost-effective quality healthcare for individuals and populations. To help you keep up-to-date with the very latest developments in disease management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the disease management and pharmacoeconomic reporting service Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News Weekly . The following reports are selected from the ver...

  20. Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S; Tiedemann, A V; Teng, P S

    2000-06-01

    Global climate has changed since pre-industrial times. Atmospheric CO(2), a major greenhouse gas, has increased by nearly 30% and temperature has risen by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. The intergovernmental panel on climate change predicts that with the current emission scenario, global mean temperature would rise between 0.9 and 3.5 degrees C by the year 2100. There are, however, many uncertainties that influence these predictions. Despite the significance of weather on plant diseases, comprehensive analysis of how climate change will influence plant diseases that impact primary production in agricultural systems is presently unavailable. Evaluation of the limited literature in this area suggests that the most likely impact of climate change will be felt in three areas: in losses from plant diseases, in the efficacy of disease management strategies and in the geographical distribution of plant diseases. Climate change could have positive, negative or no impact on individual plant diseases. More research is needed to obtain base-line information on different disease systems. Most plant disease models use different climatic variables and operate at a different spatial and temporal scale than do the global climate models. Improvements in methodology are necessary to realistically assess disease impacts at a global scale.

  1. From local to central: a network analysis of who manages plant pest and disease outbreaks across scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key determinants of success in managing natural resources is "institutional fit," i.e., how well the suite of required actions collectively match the scale of the environmental problem. The effective management of pest and pathogen threats to plants is a natural resource problem of particular economic, social, and environmental importance. Responses to incursions are managed by a network of decision makers and managers acting at different spatial and temporal scales. We applied novel network theoretical methods to assess the propensity of growers, local industry, local state government, and state and national government head offices to foster either within- or across-scale coordination during the successful 2001 Australian response to the outbreak of the fungal pathogen black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We also reconstructed the response network to proxy what that network would look like today under the Australian government's revised response system. We illustrate a structural move in the plant biosecurity response system from one that was locally driven to the current top-down system, in which the national government leads coordination of a highly partitioned engagement process. For biological incursions that spread widely across regions, nationally rather than locally managed responses may improve coordination of diverse tasks. However, in dealing with such challenges of institutional fit, local engagement will always be critical in deploying flexible and adaptive local responses based on a national system. The methods we propose detect where and how network structures foster cross-scale interactions, which will contribute to stronger empirical studies of cross-scale environmental governance.

  2. Managing sulfur metabolism in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, LJ

    2006-01-01

    Resolution and analysis of genes encoding components of the pathways of primary sulphur assimilation have provided the potential to elucidate how sulphur is managed by plants. Individual roles for members of gene families and regulatory mechanisms operating at gene, cellular and whole plant levels h

  3. Combating plant diseases--the Darwin connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomon, Derek W; Brent, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    Although Darwin knew of plant diseases, he did not study them as part of his analysis of natural selection. Effective plant disease control has only been developed after his death. This article explores the relevance of Darwin's ideas to three problem areas with respect to diseases caused by fungi: emergence of new diseases, loss of disease resistance bred into plants and development of fungicide resistance. Darwin's concept of change through natural or artificial selection relied on selection of many small changes, but subsequent genetic research has shown that change can also occur through large steps. Appearance of new diseases can involve gene duplication, transfer or recombination, but all evidence points to both host plant resistance and fungicide susceptibility being overcome through point mutations. Because the population size of diseases such as rusts and powdery and downy mildews is so large, all possible point mutations are likely to occur daily, even during moderate epidemics. Overcoming control measures therefore reflects the overall fitness of these mutants, and much resource effort is being directed towards assessment of their fitness, both in the presence and in the absence of selection. While recent developments in comparative genomics have caused some revision of Darwin's ideas, experience in managing plant disease control measures clearly demonstrates the relevance of concepts he introduced 150 years ago. It also reveals the remarkable speed and the practical impact of adaptation in wild microorganism populations to changes in their environment, and the difficulty of stopping or delaying such adaptation.

  4. Management of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammermeier, Jochen; Morris, Mary-Anne; Garrick, Vikki; Furman, Mark; Rodrigues, Astor; Russell, Richard K

    2016-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is rapidly increasing in children so an up to date knowledge of diagnosis, investigation and management is essential. Exclusive enteral nutrition is the first line treatment for active disease. The vast majority of children will need immunosuppressant treatment and around 20% will need treatment with biologics. Recent guidelines have helped make best use of available therapies.

  5. DISEASE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bens Pardamean; Anindito; Anjela Djoeang; Nana Tobing

    2013-01-01

    The study designed an information system model for Disease Management (DisMan) that met the specifications and needs of a consumer electronics manufacturer. The diseases monitored by this study were diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis. Data were collected through interviews with the companyâs human resources department and occupational health provider. As for the model, literature and online research were conducted to collect health standards and information system standards on existing D...

  6. Management of diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding.

  7. Pediatric asthma disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, T R; Chatburn, R L

    2000-03-01

    The prevalence of asthma in children in the United States is estimated at more than 5% of the population, and it has risen more than 40% in the previous decade. Several guidelines for the management of acute and chronic asthma exist, and they all emphasize several basic components including state-of-the-art pharmacologic treatment, trigger avoidance, and patient self-management skills. This Article highlights the necessary components for pediatric asthma disease management to insure a smooth continuum of care across all disciplines and settings.

  8. Engineering disease resistance in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.H.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The genetic engineering of plants for increased pathogen resistance has engaged researchers and companies for decades. Until now, thenumberof crops with genetically engineered disease resistance traits which have entered the market are limited to products displaying virus an

  9. Agrometeorology and plant disease management: a happy marriage Agrometeorologia e manejo de doenças de plantas: um casamento feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry James Gillespie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plant disease outbreaks are triggered by suitably warm temperatures during periods of leaf wetness. Measurements or estimations of leaf wetness duration provided by Agrometeorologists have allowed Plant Pathologists to devise weather timed spray schemes which often reduce the number of sprays required to control plant diseases, thus lowering costs and benefitting the environment. In the near future, tools such as numerical weather models with small grid spacings, and improved weather radar, are expected to reduce the need for tight networks of surface observations. The weather models will also provide growers with forecast warnings of potential upcoming disease outbreaks, which will further enhance the contribution of agrometeorology to plant disease management.A disseminação de muitas doenças de plantas é influenciada por condições favoráveis de temperatura durante o período de molhamento foliar. As medidas e estimativas da duração do período de molhamento foliar fornecidas pelos Agrometeorologistas têm permitido aos Fitopatologistas dar alertas sobre a necessidade de pulverizações com base nas condições meteorológicas, o que normalmente reduz o número de aplicações para o controle de doenças, resultando em menor custo de produção e menor contaminação do ambiente. Em um futuro próximo, ferramentas como os modelos numéricos de tempo, com alta resolução espacial, e os radares meteorológicos mais avançados, deverão reduzir a necessidade de redes de observação meteorológica de superfície mais densas. Os modelos meteorológicos também possibilitarão a previsão de disseminação potencial das doenças de plantas, o que irá aumentar ainda mais a contribuição da agrometeorologia para o controle fitossanitário mais racional.

  10. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  11. Fire management and invasive plants- A handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Lusk, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fire management can help maintain natural habitats, increase forage for wildlife, reduce fuel loads that might otherwise lead to catastrophic wildfire, and maintain natural succession. Today, there is an emerging challenge that fire managers need to be aware of: invasive plants. Fire management activities can create ideal opportunities for invasions by nonnative plants, potentially undermining the benefits of fire management actions. This manual provides practical guidelines that fire managers should consider with respect to invasive plants.

  12. Bioactive Plant Metabolites in the Management of Non-Communicable Metabolic Diseases: Looking at Opportunities beyond the Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been an unprecedented worldwide rise in non-communicable metabolic diseases (NCDs, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. While modern pharmacotherapy has decreased the mortality in the existing population, it has failed to stem the rise. Furthermore, a large segment of the world population cannot afford expensive pharmacotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for inexpensive preventive measures to control the rise in CVD and diabetes and associated co-morbidities. The purpose of this review is to explore the role of food bioactives in prevention of NCDs. To this end, we have critically analyzed the possible utility of three classes of food bioactives: (a resistant starch, a metabolically resistant carbohydrate known to favorably modulate insulin secretion and glucose metabolism; (b cyclo (His-Pro, a food-derived cyclic dipeptides; and (c polyphenol-rich berries. Finally, we have also briefly outlined the strategies needed to prepare these food-bioactives for human use.

  13. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  14. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  15. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  16. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  17. Non-smooth plant disease models with economic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Xiao, Yanni; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    In order to control plant diseases and eventually maintain the number of infected plants below an economic threshold, a specific management strategy called the threshold policy is proposed, resulting in Filippov systems. These are a class of piecewise smooth systems of differential equations with a discontinuous right-hand side. The aim of this work is to investigate the global dynamic behavior including sliding dynamics of one Filippov plant disease model with cultural control strategy. We examine a Lotka-Volterra Filippov plant disease model with proportional planting rate, which is globally studied in terms of five types of equilibria. For one type of equilibrium, the global structure is discussed by the iterative equations for initial numbers of plants. For the other four types of equilibria, the bounded global attractor of each type is obtained by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. The ideas of constructing Lyapunov functions for Filippov systems, the methods of analyzing such systems and the main results presented here provide scientific support for completing control regimens on plant diseases in integrated disease management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fertigation management of potted plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The horticultural crops considered in this chapter are characterised by the fact that the plants are grown in a restricted volume, like pots, containers, plastic trays or compressed peat blocks. In the market these crops are recognized as potted plants, bedding plants and container grown nursery sto

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  20. Managing Your Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Advocates Sign Up for Funding News npj Parkinson's Disease Scientific Advisory Board Understanding Parkinson's Coping with a Diagnosis What is Parkinson’s Disease? National HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News ...

  1. Signaling in Plant Disease Resistance and Symbiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songzi Zhao; Xiaoquan Qi

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between plants and microbes result in plant disease and symbiosis. The former causes considerable economic damage in modern agriculture, while the latter has produced great beneficial effects to our agriculture system. Comparison of the two interactions has revealed that a common panel of signaling pathways might participate in the establishment of the equilibrium between plant and microbes or its break-up. Plants appear to detect both pathogenic and symbiotic microbes by a similar set of genes. All symbiotic microbes seem to produce effectors to overcome plant basal defenses and it is speculated that symbiotic effectors have functions similar to pathogenic ones. Signaling molecules, salicylic acid (SA),jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), are involved in both plant defense and symbiosis. Switching off signals contributing to deterioration of disease symptom would establish a new equilibrium between plant and pathogenic microbes. This would facilitate the development of strategies for durable disease resistance.

  2. Identification and Classification of Leaf Diseases in Turmeric Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhini M,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease identification is the most important sector in agriculture. Turmeric is one of the important rhizomatous crops grown in India. The turmeric leaf is highly exposed to diseases like rhizome rot, leaf spot, and leaf blotch. The identification of plant diseases requires close monitoring and hence this paper adopts technologies to manage turmeric plant diseases caused by fungi to enable production of high quality crop yields. Various image processing and machine learning techniques are used to identify and classify the diseases in turmeric leaf. The dataset with 800 leaf images of different categories were pre-processed and segmented to promote efficient feature extraction. Machine learning algorithms like support vector machine, decision tree and naïve bayes were applied to train the model. The performance of the model was evaluated using 10 fold cross validation and the results are reported.

  3. Disease management strategies for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, G

    2002-04-01

    Three basic forms of management strategies exist for wildlife disease, as follows: prevention of introduction of disease, control of existing disease or eradication. Management may be directed at the disease agent, host population, habitat or be focused on human activities. Disease agents may be dealt with in the environment through disinfection or in the host through treatment. Disinfection and pesticides used to destroy agents or vectors are limited to local situations, may have serious environmental effects and may result in acquired resistance. Difficulty in delivering treatment limits chemotherapy to local situations. Host populations may be managed by immunisation, by altering their distribution or density, or by extirpation. Immunisation is best suited for microparasitic exogenous infections with a low reproductive rate and in populations which have a low turnover. Mass immunisation with oral baits has been effective, but this strategy is limited to a few serious diseases. It is difficult to move wild animals and techniques to discourage animals from entering an area become ineffective rapidly. The setting up of fences is feasible only in local situations. Selective culling is limited to situations in which affected individuals are readily identifiable. General population reduction has had little success in disease control but reducing populations surrounding a focus or creating a barrier to disease movement have been successful. Population reduction is a temporary measure. Eradication of a wildlife population has not been attempted for disease management. Habitat modification may be used to reduce exposure to disease agents, or to alter host distribution or density. Management of diseases of wild animals usually requires a change in human activities. The most important method is by restricting translocation of wild animals to prevent movement of disease.

  4. Plant-microbe interactions and the new biotechnological methods of plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, E; Bonaterra, A; Badosa, E; Francés, J; Alemany, J; Llorente, I; Moragrega, C

    2002-12-01

    Plants constitute an excellent ecosystem for microorganisms. The environmental conditions offered differ considerably between the highly variable aerial plant part and the more stable root system. Microbes interact with plant tissues and cells with different degrees of dependence. The most interesting from the microbial ecology point of view, however, are specific interactions developed by plant-beneficial (either non-symbiotic or symbiotic) and pathogenic microorganisms. Plants, like humans and other animals, also become sick, but they have evolved a sophisticated defense response against microbes, based on a combination of constitutive and inducible responses which can be localized or spread throughout plant organs and tissues. The response is mediated by several messenger molecules that activate pathogen-responsive genes coding for enzymes or antimicrobial compounds, and produces less sophisticated and specific compounds than immunoglobulins in animals. However, the response specifically detects intracellularly a type of protein of the pathogen based on a gene-for-gene interaction recognition system, triggering a biochemical attack and programmed cell death. Several implications for the management of plant diseases are derived from knowledge of the basis of the specificity of plant-bacteria interactions. New biotechnological products are currently being developed based on stimulation of the plant defense response, and on the use of plant-beneficial bacteria for biological control of plant diseases (biopesticides) and for plant growth promotion (biofertilizers).

  5. Operational management in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leutscher, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operational management in pot plant production was investigated by means of system analysis and simulation. A theoretical framework for operational decision-making consisted of elaboration decisions, progress decisions, and adoption decisions. This framework was incorporated in a pot plant

  6. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants...

  7. Risk and insurance management for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerig, M. [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The continuing negative experiences of insurers with biogas plants make it difficult for operators to get appropriate insurance cover. There are different reasons for this big number of damages. Especially in the beginning components have been rebuilt for biogas without sufficient experiences. Other damages have emerged due to improper or disregardful plant management. For that reason the insurers' standards for the biogas plant and the plant management have risen up. The following report deals with experiences of insurance for biogas plants and the resulting consequences. For that reason Marsh carried out a research project and analyzed all reported claims in the All Risk Insurance. The necessary technical minimum requirements for installation and operation are geared to the experiences with damages. But they also account for the interests of the insured. (orig.)

  8. Management of Perthes′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main complication of Perthes′ disease is femoral head deformation. Evidence from the literature highlights two important factors related to the cause and timing of this complication. (1 Extrusion of the femoral head appears to be a major factor that leads to femoral head deformation. (2 Deformation of the femoral head occurs in the latter part of the stage of fragmentation. The likelihood of preventing femoral head deformation is over 16 times higher if extrusion is reversed or prevented by the early stage of fragmentation than if done later. Several treatment options have been described in children who present later in the course of the disease but the outcomes of all these measures do not compare with those of early intervention.

  9. Soil health paradigms and implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Soil health has been defined as the capacity of soil to function as a vital living system to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant, animal, and human health. Building and maintaining soil health are essential to agricultural sustainability and ecosystem function. Management practices that promote soil health, including the use of crop rotations, cover crops and green manures, organic amendments, and conservation tillage, also have generally positive effects on the management of soilborne diseases through a number of potential mechanisms, including increasing soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity, resulting in greater biological suppression of pathogens and diseases. However, there also may be particular disease issues associated with some soil health management practices. In this review, research and progress made over the past twenty years regarding soil health, sustainability, and soil health management practices, with an emphasis on their implications for and effects on plant disease and disease management strategies, are summarized.

  10. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong [KOREA HYDRO and NUCLEAR POWER CO. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system.

  11. Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease is one of the most prevalent autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders but as the case of Ms. J illustrates, diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Based on serology studies, the prevalence of celiac disease in many populations is estimated to be approximately 1% and has been increasing steadily over the last 50 years. Evaluation for celiac disease is generally straightforward, and uses commonly available serologic tests, however the signs and symptoms of celiac disease are nonspecific and highly heterogeneous making diagnosis difficult. While celiac disease is often considered a mild disorder treatable with simple dietary changes, in reality celiac disease imparts considerable risks including reduced bone mineral density, impaired quality of life, and increased overall mortality. In addition, the gluten free diet is highly burdensome and can profoundly affect patients and their families. For these reasons, care of individuals with celiac disease requires prompt diagnosis and ongoing multidisciplinary management. PMID:21990301

  12. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  13. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sekhwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs, as resistance (R gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens’ resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed.

  14. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhwal, Manoj Kumar; Li, Pingchuan; Lam, Irene; Wang, Xiue; Cloutier, Sylvie; You, Frank M

    2015-08-14

    Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs), as resistance (R) gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens' resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin...... controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, western style diet and smoking......, whereas lifestyle intervention including weight loss may partly or fully resolve the symptoms of PCOS and could improve the long term prognosis. In this review the possible implications of increased morbidity for the clinical and biochemical evaluation of patients with PCOS at diagnosis and follow up...

  16. Plant-pathogen interactions: toward development of next-generation disease-resistant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Rookes, James; Mantri, Nitin L; Cahill, David M

    2017-03-01

    Briskly evolving phytopathogens are dire threats to our food supplies and threaten global food security. From the recent advances made toward high-throughput sequencing technologies, understanding of pathogenesis and effector biology, and plant innate immunity, translation of these means into new control tools is being introduced to develop durable disease resistance. Effectoromics as a powerful genetic tool for uncovering effector-target genes, both susceptibility genes and executor resistance genes in effector-assisted breeding, open up new avenues to improve resistance. TALENs (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases), engineered nucleases and CRISPR (Clustered Regulatory Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 systems are breakthrough and powerful techniques for genome editing, providing efficient mechanisms for targeted crop protection strategies in disease resistance programs. In this review, major advances in plant disease management to confer durable disease resistance and novel strategies for boosting plant innate immunity are highlighted.

  17. Thirteen challenges in modelling plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The underlying structure of epidemiological models, and the questions that models can be used to address, do not necessarily depend on the identity of the host. This means that certain preoccupations of plant disease modelers are similar to those of modelers of diseases in animals and humans. Howeve...

  18. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in resea

  19. Team management of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. By using published sources, the disease process, clinical findings, and medical management of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. The continual change in the clinical picture as well as the therapeutic needs require that clinicians have a full understanding of the disease and drugs used. This is followed by a description of a group program, including the evaluation process, treatment goals, and individual and group activities employed. Rehabilitation services are needed as medical management alone is not sufficient to maintain patient's daily living skills. The occupational therapist is skilled in assessment and training of activities for daily living. As a result, occupational therapy can be an integral part of the treatment program.

  20. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  1. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables.

  2. Disease management and medication compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua; Christensen, Kathyrn; Feldman, Lanna

    2012-02-01

    Lack of medication compliance is harmful to health care systems from both a clinical and economic perspective. This study examines the methods that disease management organizations employ to identify nonadherent patients and to measure effectiveness of compliance programs for patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cystic fibrosis. In addition, this study investigates the degree to which disease managers assume risk in their contracts, and whether compliance strategies are being coordinated with payers' use of value-based insurance design, in which patient cost sharing is a function of the relative value of pharmaceuticals. This study's findings suggest that disease management may be falling short in terms of: (a) comprehensive commitment to expert-recommended at-home devices used to self-diagnose and measure health indicators; (b) early adoption of expert-recommended new technologies to measure and improve compliance; (c) intensity of use of standard tests in outpatient clinics; (d) coordination of compliance strategies with payers' use of value-based insurance design; and (e) the proportion of risk assumed in disease management contracts.

  3. Management of active Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheifetz, Adam S

    2013-05-22

    Treatment of Crohn disease is rapidly evolving, with the induction of novel biologic therapies and newer, often more intensive treatment approaches. Knowing how to treat individual patients in this quickly changing milieu can be a challenge. To review the diagnosis and management of moderate to severe Crohn disease, with a focus on newer treatments and goals of care. MEDLINE was searched from 2000 to 2011. Additional citations were procured from references of select research and review articles. Evidence was graded using the American Heart Association level-of-evidence guidelines. Although mesalamines are still often used to treat Crohn disease, the evidence for their efficacy is lacking. Corticosteroids can be effectively used to induce remission in moderate to severe Crohn disease, but they do not maintain remission. The mainstays of treatment are immunomodulators and biologics, particularly anti-tumor necrosis factor. Immunomodulators and biologics are now the preferred treatment options for Crohn disease.

  4. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Jerome F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records

  5. Energy Management in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bruneo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid vision imposes a new approach towards energy supply that is more affordable, reliable and sustainable. The core of this new vision is the use of advanced technology to monitor power system dynamics in real time and identify system in stability. In order to implement strategic vision for energy management, it is possible to identify three main areas of investigation such as smart generation, smart grid and smart customer. Focusing on the latter topic, in this paper we present an application specifically designed to monitor an industrial site with particular attention to power consumption. This solution is a real time analysis tool, able to produce useful results to have a strategic approach in the energy market and to provide statistic analysis useful for the future choices of the industrial company. The application is based on a three layers architecture. The technological layer uses a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN to acquire data from the electrical substations. The middleware layer faces the integration problems by processing the raw data. The application layer manages the data acquired from the sensors. This WSN based architecture represents an interesting example of a low cost and non-invasive monitoring application to keep the energy consumption of an industrial site under control. Some of the added value features of the proposed solution are the routing network protocol, selected in order to have an high availability of the WSN, and the use of the WhereX middleware, able to easily implement integration among the different architectural parts.

  6. [Perioperative management of Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, A; Medrano, I Hernández; Cánovas, A Alonso; Lobo, E; Loinaz, C; Vela, L; Espiga, P García-Ruiz; Castrillo, J C Martínez

    2012-01-01

    One of the particular characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the wide clinical variation as regards the treatment that can be found in the same patient. This occurs with specific treatment for PD, as well as with other drug groups that can make motor function worse. For this reason, the perioperative management of PD requires experience and above all appropriate planning. In this article, the peculiarities of PD and its treatment are reviewed, and a strategy is set out for the perioperative management of these patients. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Ixcatec ethnoecology: plant management and biocultural heritage in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Studying motives of plant management allows understanding processes that originated agriculture and current forms of traditional technology innovation. Our work analyses the role of native plants in the Ixcatec subsistence, management practices, native plants biocultural importance, and motivations influencing management decisions. Cultural and ecological importance and management complexity may differ among species according with their use value and availability. We hypothesized t...

  8. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  9. Risk management method for small photovoltaic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Milena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is necessary for achieving the goals of the organization. There are many methods, approaches, and instruments in the literature concerning risk management. However, these are often highly specialized and transferring them to a different field can prove difficult. Therefore, managers often face situations where they have no tools to use for risk management. This is the case with small photovoltaic plants (according to a definition by the Bulgarian State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission small applies to systems with a total installed power of 200 kWp. There are some good practices in the energy field for minimizing risks, but they offer only partial risk prevention and are not sufficient. Therefore a new risk management method needs to be introduced. Small photovoltaic plants offer plenty of advantages in comparison to the other renewable energy sources which makes risk management in their case more important. There is no classification of risks for the exploitation of small photovoltaic systems in the available literature as well as to what degree the damages from those risks could spread. This makes risk analysis and evaluation necessary for obtaining information which could aid taking decisions for improving risk management. The owner of the invested capital takes a decision regarding the degree of acceptable risk for his organization and it must be protected depending on the goals set. Investors in small photovoltaic systems need to decide to what degree the existing risks can influence the goals previously set, the payback of the investment, and what is the acceptable level of damages for the investor. The purpose of this work is to present a risk management method, which currently does not exist in the Bulgaria, so that the risks and the damages that could occur during the exploitation of small photovoltaic plants could be identified and the investment in such technology – justified.

  10. RNA silencing and plant viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Bo; Masuta, Chikara; Smith, Neil A; Shimura, Hanako

    2012-10-01

    RNA silencing plays a critical role in plant resistance against viruses, with multiple silencing factors participating in antiviral defense. Both RNA and DNA viruses are targeted by the small RNA-directed RNA degradation pathway, with DNA viruses being also targeted by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To evade RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved a variety of counter-defense mechanisms such as expressing RNA-silencing suppressors or adopting silencing-resistant RNA structures. This constant defense-counter defense arms race is likely to have played a major role in defining viral host specificity and in shaping viral and possibly host genomes. Recent studies have provided evidence that RNA silencing also plays a direct role in viral disease induction in plants, with viral RNA-silencing suppressors and viral siRNAs as potentially the dominant players in viral pathogenicity. However, questions remain as to whether RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity or if other RNA-silencing-independent mechanisms also account for viral disease induction. RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals. Further understanding of the role of RNA silencing in plant-virus interactions and viral symptom induction is likely to result in novel anti-viral strategies in both plants and animals.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  12. Plant maintenance and outage management issue, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2005-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on plant maintenance and outage managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Dawn of a new era, by Joe Colvin, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI); Plant profile: Beloyarsk NPP, Russia, by Nikolai Oshkanov, Beloyarsk NPP, Russia; Improving economic performance, by R. Spiegelberg-Planner, John De Mella, and Marius Condu, IAEA; A model for improving performance, by Pet Karns, MRO Software; ASME codes and standards, by Shannon Burke, ASME International; and, Refurbishment programs, by Craig S. Irish, Nuclear Logistics, Inc.

  13. Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sally A; Beed, Fen D; Harmon, Carrie Lapaire

    2009-01-01

    Emerging, re-emerging and endemic plant pathogens continue to challege our ability to safeguard plant health worldwide. Further, globalization, climate change, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution have combined to increase the spread of invasive plant pathogens. Early and accurate diagnoses and pathogen surveillance on local, regional, and global scales are necessary to predict outbreaks and allow time for development and application of mitigation strategies. Plant disease diagnostic networks have developed worldwide to address the problems of efficient and effective disease diagnosis and pathogen detection, engendering cooperation of institutions and experts within countries and across national borders. Networking maximizes impact in the face of shrinking government investments in agriculture and diminishing human resource capacity in diagnostics and applied pathology. New technologies promise to improve the speed and accuracy of disease diagnostics and pathogen detection. Widespread adoption of standard operating procedures and diagnostic laboratory accreditation serve to build trust and confidence among institutions. Case studies of national, regional, and international diagnostic networks are presented.

  14. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ALEJANDRO CASAS; ADRIANA OTERO-ARNAIZ; EDGAR PÉREZ-NEGRÓN; ALFONSO VALIENTE-BANUET

    2007-01-01

    ... in plant populations under in situ management in the region. • Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria puntila, the tree Leucaena esculenta...

  15. Chlorophyll Meters Aid Plant Nutrient Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    On December 7, 1972, roughly 5 hours and 6 minutes after launch, the crew of Apollo 17 took one of history s most famous photographs. The brilliant image of the fully illuminated Earth, the African and Antarctic continents peering out from behind swirling clouds, came to be known as the Blue Marble. Today, Earth still sometimes goes by the Blue Marble nickname, but as the satellites comprising NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) scan the planet daily in ever greater resolutions, it is often the amount of green on the planet that is a focus of researchers attention. Earth s over 400,000 known plant species play essential roles in the planet s health: They absorb carbon dioxide and release the oxygen we breathe, help manage the Earth s temperature by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, provide food and habitats for animals, and offer building materials, medication, and sustenance for humans. As part of NASA s efforts to study our own planet along with the universe around it, the Agency s EOS satellites have been accumulating years of valuable data about Earth s vegetation (not to mention its land features, oceans, and atmosphere) since the first EOS satellite launched in 1997. Among the powerful sensors used is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. MODIS sweeps the entire Earth every few days, beaming back information gathered across 36 bands of visible and infrared light, yielding images that let scientists track how much of Earth is green over the course of seasons and years. Monitoring the density and distribution of vegetation on Earth provides a means of determining everything from the impact of natural and human-induced climate change to the potential outbreak of disease. (Goddard Space Flight Center and U.S. Department of Defense researchers have determined, for example, that vegetation density can be used to pinpoint regions of heavy rainfall in Africa regions ripe for outbreaks of rainfall

  16. Contemporary disease management in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogovor, Amédé; Savoie, Michelle; Moride, Yola; Krelenbaum, Marilyn; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Health or disease management (DM) has emerged as a promising solution to improve the quality of healthcare and patient outcomes in a cost-efficient way. This solution is particularly relevant in the care of our increasing, and aging, patient populations with multiple chronic diseases. This article reviews the recent history and current status of DM in the province of Quebec and summarizes its evolving perspectives and future prospects. Most DM projects in Quebec have developed from a public-private partnership, and they have addressed several disease states. The results of completed programs confirmed the presence of care gaps--the differences between best and usual care in several disease states. They also identified process changes leading to improved practices and enhanced professional satisfaction among stakeholders. Priorities identified for further research include increased knowledge of the underlying causes of care gaps and greater concentration on the measurement of clinical, humanistic and fiscal outcomes and their causal links to DM structures and processes. Although still embryonic in Quebec and Canada, the available evidence suggests that DM partnerships are practical and functional vehicles to expedite knowledge creation and transfer in the care of whole populations of patients. Future projects offer the promise of updated knowledge and continuously improved care and outcomes.

  17. Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Osikoya, Iyanuoluwa Olubukola; Fajimi, Oluwabukunmi Dorcas; Usoro, Priscilla Ibanga; Ogunleye, Damilola Olufunlayo; Bisi-Adeniyi, Tolulope; Adeyemi, Alaba O; Adekeye, Bosede Temitope

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many...

  18. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sunayna; Kumar, Puneet; Malik, Jai

    2013-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  19. Control effect of lanthanum against plant disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yajia; WANG Yan; WANG Fubin; LIU Yuming; CUI Jianyu; HU Lin; MU Kangguo

    2008-01-01

    Effect of La on emergence, growth and development of Isatis indigotica Fort and Festuca arundinacea seedlings was researched by pot experiments of inoculating Rhizoctonia solani and with the mixture of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in disinfected soil after the seeds were soaked in the solution with different concentrations of La3+. The results indicated that infection rate decreased and there were significant disease controlling effects on seed rot, bud rot and root rot caused by pathogenic fungi when the seeds were soaked by La3+. Thus, the rates of emergence of Isatis indigotica Fort. And turfgrass Festuca arundinacea were increased. When La3+ concentration was in a proper range, the growth and development of plant seedlings were promoted. Spraying La on rice plants showed a significant controling effect on Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the EC50 of La3+ performed 128.7 and 128.1 mg/L at 1 and 7 d after spraying La in rice plants, respectively. The EC50ofLa3+ performed in vivo (in rice plant) was lower than that in vitro (171.9 mg/L).

  20. Disease management contracting: key elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, D J

    1996-01-01

    Although the data at the outset of a contractual agreement can often be incomplete or inaccurate, and the analytical tools necessary to interpret these data are still being developed, partners about to enter a disease management (DM) arrangement can nonetheless take steps to ensure that the relationship will be sound and successful. Pharmaceutical firms (and other service providers) wishing to enter into DM relationships with managed-care organizations must consider several important factors of the contracting process to protect their financial interests and benefit from the partnership, particularly in the first 1 to 2 years of the arrangement. This paper provides recommendations for both general strategies and financial elements of DM contracting, and defines several contractual elements that can help to secure a harmonious and profitable partnership. These suggestions address concerns for various types of partnerships, including risk-sharing and fee-for-service plans. Early and careful consideration of the legal aspects of the DM business can protect companies from incurring significant, unanticipated losses.

  1. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A. R.; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the ‘elemental defense’ hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose–response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead–zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants. PMID:20838462

  2. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fones

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm. Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  3. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A R; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2010-09-09

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  4. Stochastic spatial models of plant diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D H

    2001-01-01

    I present three models of plant--pathogen interactions. The models are stochastic and spatially explicit at the scale of individual plants. For each model, I use a version of pair approximation or moment closure along with a separation of timescales argument to determine the effects of spatial clustering on threshold structure. By computing the spatial structure early in an invasion, I find explicit corrections to mean field theory. In the first chapter, I present a lattice model of a disease that is not directly lethal to its host, but affects its ability to compete with neighbors. I use a type of pair approximation to determine conditions for invasions and coexistence. In the second chapter, I study a basic SIR epidemic point process in continuous space. I implement a multiplicative moment closure scheme to compute the threshold transmission rate as a function of spatial parameters. In the final chapter, I model the evolution of pathogen resistance when two plant species share a pathogen. Evolution may lead...

  5. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  6. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  7. Sensitive Plants - Center for Natural Lands Management [ds458

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents sensitive plant data collected on Center for Natural Lands Management (CNLM) dedicated nature preserves in San Diego County, California. Data...

  8. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them.

  9. Problems, challenges and future of plant disease management:from an ecological point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dun-chun; ZHAN Jia-sui; XIE Lian-hui

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease management faces ever-growing chalenges due to: (i) increasing demands for total, safe and diverse foods to support the booming global population and its improving living standards; (i) reducing production potential in agriculture due to competition for land in fertile areas and exhaustion of marginal arable lands; (ii) deteriorating ecology of agro-ecosystems and depletion of natural resources; and (iv) increased risk of disease epidemics resulting from agricultural intensiifcation and monocultures. Future plant disease management should aim to strengthen food security for a stable society while simultaneously safeguarding the health of associated ecosystems and reducing dependency on natural resources. To achieve these multiple functionalities, sustainable plant disease management should place emphases on rational adaptation of resistance, avoidance, elimination and remediation strategies individualy and colectively, guided by traits of speciifc host-pathogen associations using evolutionary ecology principles to create environmental (biotic and abiotic) conditions favorable for host growth and development while adverse to pathogen reproduction and evolution.

  10. Pathogenesis and management of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Hepatolenticular degeneration, commonly known as Wilson disease, is an autosomal recessive inherited disease of abnormal copper metabolism, characterized by the accumulation of copper in the body due to decreased biliary excretion of copper from hepatocytes. Wilson disease protein, ATP7B, functions in copper excretion into bile and in copper secretion to the bloodstream coupled with ceruloplasmin synthesis. Various kinds of mutations of ATP7B cause Wilson disease. Wilson disease is a rare genetic disease that can be treated pharmacologically. Recognition and prompt diagnosis are very important, because Wilson disease is fatal if left untreated. In this review, I summarize the pathogenesis and management of Wilson disease.

  11. Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.; Dendy, S.P.; Frank, E.E.; Rouse, M. N.; Travers, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have reviewed the potential effects of climate change on plant disease, considering processes within plants as well as larger scale processes. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  12. Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.; Dendy, S.P.; Frank, E.E.; Rouse, M. N.; Travers, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have reviewed the potential effects of climate change on plant disease, considering processes within plants as well as larger scale processes. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  13. Principles of disease management in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, F W; Gwiazdowski, S

    1998-06-01

    This article emphasizes the emerging facets of disease-management practice that impact directly on establishing a measured care system that can produce the information needed to establish a continuous quality improvement program. The areas discussed are risk assessment, clinical management guidelines and carepaths, and the measurement of system output known as clinical outcomes. The remainder of the article details the aspects of risk assessment, guideline function, and outcome assessment, critical in a disease-managed measured care system.

  14. Managing the Chronic : Investigating chronic disease management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Hipple (Bethany)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis is based on research conducted on twenty-two disease management programs in the Netherlands. These programs were predominantly based in primary care facilities and focused on chronic diseases including diabetes, COPD, risk of cardiovascular disease, mental health issues,

  15. Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brenda, L.; Haddad, Nick, M.

    2011-08-01

    Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential negative effect of habitat corridors used in conservation, but the impacts of corridors on pathogen movement have never been tested empirically. Using sweet corn (Zea mays) and southern corn leaf blight (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) as a model plant-pathogen system, we tested the impacts of connectivity and habitat fragmentation on pathogen movement and disease development at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Over time, less edgy patches had higher proportions of diseased plants, and distance of host plants to habitat edges was the greatest determinant of disease development. Variation in average daytime temperatures provided a possible mechanism for these disease patterns. Our results show that worries over the potentially harmful effects of conservation corridors on disease dynamics are misplaced, and that, in a conservation context, many diseases can be better managed by mitigating edge effects.

  16. Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and soil organic amendments for the management of root diseases complex of uridbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-5 and IE-2 and Bacillus subtilis isolate alone or in conjunction with neem cake or Datura fastuosa was tested for the management of three soilbrne root-infecting fungi including Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica on uridbean. Biocontrol bacteria used in combination with either neem cake or D.fastuosa gave better control of the root-rot and root-knot infection with the enhancement of growth of uridbean compared to the use ofeither component alone. Neem cake l% w/w mixed with P.aeruginosa strain IE-2 caused greatest inhibition of the root-knot development due to M.javanica, P.aeruginosa and B.subtilis used with organic amendment also increased Bradyrhizobium-nodules in the root system.

  17. Framatome ANP worldwide experience in ageing and plant life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, B.; Nopper, H. [Framatome ANP (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant components and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP has developed an integrated PLIM concept focussing on the safety concept, plant components and documentation. Representative examples for plant wide analyses are described in the following. The results of the analyses support the plant owner for taking the strategic decisions, involved in plant life extension (PLEX). (orig.)

  18. Can Plant Microbiome Studies Lead to Effective Biocontrol of Plant Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jeffrey G

    2017-03-01

    In this review, the wisdom and efficacy of studies seeking disease attenuating microbes and microbiomes only in healthy plant communities is questioned and an alternative view is posited, namely that success in biocontrol of crop diseases may also come from studies of microbiota, or at least individual species isolates, associated with diseased plants. In support of this view, I summarize the current extensive knowledge of the biology behind what is probably the most successful biocontrol of a plant disease, namely the biocontrol of crown gall of stone fruit using non-pathogenic Rhizobium rhizogenes K84, in which the biocontrol agent itself came from a diseased plant.

  19. Ecological principles underpinning invasive plant management tools and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The broad focus of ecologically-based invasive plant management is to identify and repair the ecological processes facilitating plant invasion. To be useful, however, EBIPM requires that our application of management tools and strategies be based on ecological principles that determine the rate and ...

  20. Disease management as a performance improvement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, S

    2001-11-01

    Disease management is a strategy of organizing care and services for a patient population across the continuum. It is characterized by a population database, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and evidence-based clinical information. The effectiveness of a disease management program has been measured by a combination of clinical, financial, and quality of life outcomes. In early 1997, driven by a strategic planning process that established three Centers of Excellence (COE), we implemented disease management as the foundation for a new approach to performance improvement utilizing five key strategies. The five implementation strategies are outlined, in addition to a review of the key elements in outcome achievement.

  1. Management of polycystic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Gregory T; Taylor, Matthew R G

    2005-02-01

    The adult forms of polycystic liver disease are characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and numerous hepatic cysts, with or without renal involvement. Mutations in two distinct genes predispose to renal and liver cysts (PKD1 and PKD2), and mutations in two different genes yield isolated liver cysts (PRKCSH and SEC63). Mutations at certain loci of PKD1 may predispose to more severe renal cystic disease or cerebral aneurysms. Risk factors for severe hepatic cystic disease include aging, female sex, pregnancy, use of exogenous female steroid hormones, degree of renal cystic disease, or severity of renal dysfunction (in patients with mutations in PKD1 or PKD2). Although liver failure or complications of advanced liver disease is rare, some patients develop massive hepatic cystic disease and become clinically symptomatic. There is no effective medical therapy. Treatment options include cyst aspiration and sclerosis, open or laparoscopic cyst fenestration, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation.

  2. Celiac disease: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkowski, Timothy D; Viera, Anthony J

    2014-01-15

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. It is triggered by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a storage protein in wheat, rye, and barley, which are staples in many American diets. Celiac disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa, which leads to atrophy of the small intestinal villi and subsequent malabsorption. The condition may develop at any age. Intestinal manifestations include diarrhea and weight loss. Common extraintestinal manifestations include iron deficiency anemia, decreased bone mineral density, and neuropathy. Most cases of celiac disease are diagnosed in persons with extraintestinal manifestations. The presence of dermatitis herpetiformis is pathognomonic for celiac disease. Diagnosis is supported by a positive tissue transglutaminase serologic test but, in general, should be confirmed by a small bowel biopsy showing the characteristic histology associated with celiac disease. The presence of human leukocyte antigen alleles DQ2, DQ8, or both is essential for the development of celiac disease, and can be a useful genetic test in select instances. Treatment of celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Dietary education should focus on identifying hidden sources of gluten, planning balanced meals, reading labels, food shopping, dining out, and dining during travel. About 5% of patients with celiac disease are refractory to a gluten-free diet. These patients should be referred to a gastroenterologist for reconsideration of the diagnosis or for aggressive treatment of refractory celiac disease, which may involve corticosteroids and immunomodulators.

  3. Using fungi and yeasts to manage vegetable crop diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punja, Zamir K; Utkhede, Raj S

    2003-09-01

    Vegetable crops are grown worldwide as a source of nutrients and fiber in the human diet. Fungal plant pathogens can cause devastation in these crops under appropriate environmental conditions. Vegetable producers confronted with the challenges of managing fungal pathogens have the opportunity to use fungi and yeasts as biological control agents. Several commercially available products have shown significant disease reduction through various mechanisms to reduce pathogen development and disease. Production of hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics, competition for plant nutrients and niche colonization, induction of plant host defense mechanisms, and interference with pathogenicity factors in the pathogen are the most important mechanisms. Biotechnological techniques are becoming increasingly valuable to elucidate the mechanisms of action of fungi and yeasts and provide genetic characterization and molecular markers to monitor the spread of these agents.

  4. Psoriasis and comorbid diseases: Implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junko; Grewal, Sungat; Langan, Sinéad M; Mehta, Nehal N; Ogdie, Alexis; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Gelfand, Joel M

    2017-03-01

    As summarized in the first article in this continuing medical education series, the currently available epidemiologic data suggest that psoriasis may be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Emerging data also suggest associations between psoriasis and other comorbidities beyond psoriatic arthritis, including chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic disease, certain malignancies, infections, and mood disorders. Recognizing the comorbid disease burden of psoriasis is essential for ensuring comprehensive care of patients with psoriasis. The clinical implications of the comorbid diseases that are associated with psoriasis and recommendations for clinical management are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disease management in the genomics era - Summaries of focus issue papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics revolution has contributed enormously to research and disease management applications in plant pathology. This development has rapidly increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning pathogenesis and resistance, contributed novel markers for rapid pathogen detectio...

  6. Disease management of tomato through PGPB: current trends and future perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Vipin Kumar; Singh, Amit Kishore; Kumar, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    ... the texture or productivity of soil. In this context, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are one of the nature friendly, safe, and effective alternatives for the management of diseases and pathogens of tomato...

  7. MANAGEMENT OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is a genetically transmitted multisystem disease1 which includes a group of disorders that differs in severity sign and symptoms, The disease is not uniformly seen everywhere but it has some topographical distribution. In India, it is frequently seen in Central India, in and around the vicinity of Chhattisgarh in some religions in caste like kurmis, satnami, mahar, other backward caste and some tribes, it has great pathological significance considering the high morbidity and mortality resulting from the disease process. We have studied the cases of SCD from 2001 to 2015 series of such patients, since there is no cure of this disease, in regards to prevention of this genetic autosomal recessive disorder by marriage counseling, the incidence can be significantly reduced by avoiding consanguineous marriages in the susceptible community.

  8. Crohn Disease: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Joseph D; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills. There are 3 main disease phenotypes: inflammatory, structuring, and penetrating. In addition to the underlying disease phenotype, up to a third of patients will develop perianal involvement of their disease. In addition, in some cases, extraintestinal manifestations may develop. The diagnosis is typically made with endoscopic and/or radiologic findings. Disease management is usually with pharmacologic therapy, which is determined on the basis of disease severity and underlying disease phenotype. Although the goal of management is to control the inflammation and induce a clinical remission with pharmacologic therapy, most patients will eventually require surgery for their disease. Unfortunately, surgery is not curative and patients still require ongoing therapy even after surgery for disease recurrence. Importantly, given the risks of complications from both Crohn disease and the medications used to treat the disease process, primary care physicians play an important role in optimizing the preventative care management to reduce the risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New Directions in Chronic Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Sung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide epidemic of chronic disease, and complications thereof, is underway, with no sign of abatement. Healthcare costs have increased tremendously, principally because of the need to treat chronic complications of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, blindness, end-stage renal disease, and amputation of extremities. Current healthcare systems fail to provide an appropriate quality of care to prevent the development of chronic complications without additional healthcare costs. A new paradigm for prevention and treatment of chronic disease and the complications thereof is urgently required. Several clinical studies have clearly shown that frequent communication between physicians and patients, based on electronic data transmission from medical devices, greatly assists in the management of chronic disease. However, for various reasons, these advantages have not translated effectively into real clinical practice. In the present review, we describe current relevant studies, and trends in the use of information technology for chronic disease management. We also discuss limitations and future directions.

  10. Review of Studies on Rare Earth against Plant Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕康国; 张文吉; 崔建宇; 张福锁; 胡林

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural application of rare earth (RE) has been generalized for several decades, and it is involved in crops, vegetables and stock raising in China. However, all the researches on RE mainly focus on the fields such as plant physiological activity, physiological and biochemical mechanism, sanitation toxicology and environmental security. Plant protection by using RE and the induced resistance of plant against diseases were summarized. The mechanism of rare earth against plant disease is highlighted, which includes following two aspects. First, RE elements can control some phytopathogen directly and reduce its virulence to host plant. Another possibility is that RE elements can affect host plant and induce the plant to produce some resistance to disease.

  11. Plant Disease Control by the Use of Chemicals. MP-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, William D.; Bridgmon, George H.

    This document has been prepared as a reference manual providing information regarding plant diseases. The text concerns itself with the identification and development of infectious and non-infectious diseases and associated control measures. An appendix includes a glossary of plant pathological terms and a bibliography. (CS)

  12. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  13. Current management of Parkinson's disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is still incurable, a large number of different treatments have become ... (impaired balance); and pathologically by neuronal ..... neurons and at the same time, a reduction in the .... produce energy inside cells.

  14. Perioperative management of cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti, N A; Malik, A A; Ihsan, K M; Aftab, S M E; Khan, W S

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing cardiac disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality amongst patients undergoing non cardiac surgery. Patients with pre-existing cardiac disease or with risk factors for it, have as much as a 3.9% risk of suffering a major perioperative cardiac event (Lee et al 1999, Devereaux 2005). Furthermore, the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is increased 10 to 50 fold in patients with previous coronary events (Jassal 2008).

  15. Diagnosis and management of thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Alastair; Dodson, Paul; Reuser, Tristan

    2002-03-01

    Recent advances are helping elucidate the pathogenesis and improve the management of thyroid eye disease. While biochemical investigations and imaging may be supportive, ophthalmological and medical clinical assessments remain the key to the diagnosis and management of this sight-threatening disorder.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  17. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  18. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Vermeire (Silvio); F. Carbonnel (Franck); P.G. Coulie (Pierre); V. Geenen (Vincent); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); P.L. Masson (Pierre); F. de Keyser (Filip); E. Louis (Edouard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning decisions. Management of IBD in pregnancy requires a challenging balance between optimal dis

  19. Management of Paget's Disease of the Calcaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Joel; Pervez, Anum; Walker, Roland; Abbasian, Ali; Singh, Sam

    The calcaneum is not the most common site for Paget's disease of bone, with only a few reports of monostotic involvement. We present 2 cases of Paget's disease of bone affecting the calcaneus, present an overview of the published data, and describe our management of these interesting cases.

  20. Diagnosis and management of bullous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Maria Yadira; Mattox, Adam R

    2013-05-01

    As the population ages, the prevalence of bullous skin diseases will escalate. Efficient management depends on timely recognition by the physician and reduces the morbidity associated with the disease course. This article outlines the common bullous dermatoses affecting older adults and provides tips for a streamlined approach to workup and treatment.

  1. Mobile phone technology in chronic disease management

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones are being used to improve nurse-patient communication and monitor health outcomes in chronic disease. Innovative applications of mobile technology are expected to increase over time in community management of cancer, heart disease, asthma and diabetes. This article focuses on mobile phone technology and its contribution to health care.

  2. The Evolutionary Ecology of Plant Disease: A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Parker, Ingrid M

    2016-08-04

    An explicit phylogenetic perspective provides useful tools for phytopathology and plant disease ecology because the traits of both plants and microbes are shaped by their evolutionary histories. We present brief primers on phylogenetic signal and the analytical tools of phylogenetic ecology. We review the literature and find abundant evidence of phylogenetic signal in pathogens and plants for most traits involved in disease interactions. Plant nonhost resistance mechanisms and pathogen housekeeping functions are conserved at deeper phylogenetic levels, whereas molecular traits associated with rapid coevolutionary dynamics are more labile at branch tips. Horizontal gene transfer disrupts the phylogenetic signal for some microbial traits. Emergent traits, such as host range and disease severity, show clear phylogenetic signals. Therefore pathogen spread and disease impact are influenced by the phylogenetic structure of host assemblages. Phylogenetically rare species escape disease pressure. Phylogenetic tools could be used to develop predictive tools for phytosanitary risk analysis and reduce disease pressure in multispecies cropping systems.

  3. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  4. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  5. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  6. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of the neuroprotective plant adaptogen in neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson's disease as an example).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, E V; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I A; Poleshchuk, V V; Kucheryanu, V G; Il'enko, V A; Bocharova, O A

    2010-11-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of the plant neuroprotector Phytomix-40 in Parkinson's disease was demonstrated. This preparation consists of the components from extracts of 40 plants, including some adaptogens (ginseng, eleutherococcus, Rhodiola rosea, etc.). The preparation normalized immune, antioxidant, and hormonal parameters in patients. The neuroprotective plant adaptogen can be used in complex therapy for Parkinson's disease for improving its efficacy.

  8. Molecular communications between plant heat shock responses and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2012-08-01

    As sessile, plants are continuously exposed to potential dangers including various abiotic stresses and pathogen attack. Although most studies focus on plant responses under an ideal condition to a specific stimulus, plants in nature must cope with a variety of stimuli at the same time. This indicates that it is critical for plants to fine-control distinct signaling pathways temporally and spatially for simultaneous and effective responses to various stresses. Global warming is currently a big issue threatening the future of humans. Reponses to high temperature affect many physiological processes in plants including growth and disease resistance, resulting in decrease of crop yield. Although plant heat stress and defense responses share important mediators such as calcium ions and heat shock proteins, it is thought that high temperature generally suppresses plant immunity. We therefore specifically discuss on interactions between plant heat and defense responses in this review hopefully for an integrated understanding of these responses in plants.

  9. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A R; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate...

  10. [RNA silencing and viral disease induction in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing plays an important role in plant resistance against viruses. As a counter-defense against RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs). RNA silencing is likely to play a major role in disease development. For example, RSSs have been found to disturb the gene expression controlled by miRNAs in plant tissue and organ development, resulting in plant malformation. Mosaic symptoms, which are typical in virus-infected plants, are actually a consequence of local arms race between host RNA silencing and viral RSSs. In addition, recent studies revealed that viral siRNAs could induce RNA silencing even against a certain host gene and thus a disease symptom through a complementary (homologous) sequence coincidentally found between virus and host gene. RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity and disease induction and therefore should be exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals.

  11. Management Strategies for CLN2 Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth E; Adams, Heather R; Blohm, Martin; Cohen-Pfeffer, Jessica L; de Los Reyes, Emily; Denecke, Jonas; Drago, Kristen; Fairhurst, Charlie; Frazier, Margie; Guelbert, Norberto; Kiss, Szilárd; Kofler, Annamaria; Lawson, John A; Lehwald, Lenora; Leung, Mary-Anne; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Mink, Jonathan W; Nickel, Miriam; Shediac, Renée; Sims, Katherine; Specchio, Nicola; Topcu, Meral; von Löbbecke, Ina; West, Andrea; Zernikow, Boris; Schulz, Angela

    2017-04-01

    CLN2 disease (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2) is a rare, autosomal recessive, pediatric-onset, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) enzyme deficiency, and is characterized by language delay, seizures, rapid cognitive and motor decline, blindness, and early death. No management guidelines exist and there is a paucity of published disease-specific evidence to inform clinical practice, which currently draws upon experience from the field of childhood neurodisability. Twenty-four disease experts were surveyed on CLN2 disease management and a subset met to discuss current practice. Management goals and strategies are consistent among experts globally and are guided by the principles of pediatric palliative care. Goals and interventions evolve as the disease progresses, with a shift in focus from maintenance of function early in the disease to maintenance of quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach is critical for optimal patient care. This work represents an initial step toward the development of consensus-based management guidelines for CLN2 disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  13. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  14. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram eLamichhane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature however mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen-pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management.

  15. Management of thyroid eye disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalena, Luigi; Tanda, Maria Laura [Department of Endocrinology, University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Viale Borri, 57, 21100 Varese (Italy); Marcocci, Claudio; Pinchera, Aldo [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2002-08-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The choice of treatment relies on the assessment of both TED severity and activity. Removal of controllable risk factors, especially cigarette smoking, is important to improve the course and the therapeutic outcome. A coordinated approach to the treatment of hyperthyroidism and TED is also required. Novel promising treatments, to be verified in large series of patients, include somatostatin analogues and cytokine antagonists. (orig.)

  16. Plant Polyphenols as Dietary Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Bhooshan Pandey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.

  17. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  18. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruissem Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different species, cultivars or genetic composition. Introduction of a concise identifier system allows easy generation of pedigree trees. In addition, all information about any experimental plant – from growth conditions and dates over extracted samples such as RNA to files containing images of the plants – can be linked unequivocally. Conclusion We have been using PlantDB for several years in our laboratory and found that it greatly facilitates access to relevant information.

  19. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  20. Medication therapy disease management: Geisinger's approach to population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laney K; Greskovic, Gerard; Grassi, Dante M; Graham, Jove; Sun, Haiyan; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Murray, Michael F; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Nathanson, Douglas C; Wright, Eric A; Evans, Michael A

    2017-09-15

    Pharmacists' involvement in a population health initiative focused on chronic disease management is described. Geisinger Health System has cultivated a culture of innovation in population health management, as highlighted by its ambulatory care pharmacy program, the Medication Therapy Disease Management (MTDM) program. Initiated in 1996, the MTDM program leverages pharmacists' pharmacotherapy expertise to optimize care and improve outcomes. MTDM program pharmacists are trained and credentialed to manage over 16 conditions, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Over a 15-year period, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP)-insured patients with AF whose warfarin therapy was managed by the MTDM program had, on average, 18% fewer emergency department (ED) visits and 18% fewer hospitalizations per year than GHP enrollees with AF who did not receive MTDM services, with 23% lower annual total care costs. Over a 2-year period, GHP-insured patients with MS whose pharmacotherapy was managed by pharmacists averaged 28% fewer annual ED visits than non-pharmacist-managed patients; however, the mean annual total care cost was 21% higher among MTDM clinic patients. The Geisinger MTDM program has evolved over 20 years from a single pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic into a large program focused on managing the health of an ever-growing population. Initial challenges in integrating pharmacists into the Geisinger patient care framework as clinical experts were overcome by demonstrating the MTDM program's positive impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current Situation and Management Recommendations about Betel Nut Planting in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide HUANG; Haolun HUANG; Haiqing LIU

    2016-01-01

    The betel nut planting area and yield in Hainan have reached 94000 ha and 231000 t,respectively.There are some problems in betel nut planting such as dispersed cultivation,irrational planting layout,excessively dense planting and serious betel nut yellow leaf disease.For the sustainable development of Hainan betel nut,it is necessary to focus on building the disease-resistant betel nut plantation,so as to prevent and control the occurrence and spread of betel nut yellow leaf disease;transform the low-yield betel nut plantation,and strengthen betel nut production management,in order to improve betel nut yield and promote sustainable development of betel nut industry.

  2. Public and private roles in plant health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, government institutions play an important role in the management of plant health. This paper develops a conceptual framework in which suppliers and demanders jointly determine the optimal level of plant health in a hypothetical market. Next this paper argues that this market falls short

  3. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote atoll...

  4. Perioperative management of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Linn; Shtilbans, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, leading to a wide range of disability and medical complications. Managing patients with Parkinson's disease in the perioperative hospital setting can be particularly challenging. Suboptimal management can lead to medical complications, prolonged hospital stays, and delayed recovery. This review aims to address the most important issues related to caring for patients with Parkinson's disease perioperatively who are undergoing emergent or planned general surgery. It also intends to help hospitalists, internists, and other health care providers mitigate potential in-hospital morbidity and prevent prolonged recovery. Challenges in managing patients with Parkinson's disease in the perioperative hospital setting include disruption of medication schedules, "nothing by mouth" status, reduced mobility, and medication interactions and their side effects. Patients with Parkinson's disease are more prone to immobility and developing dysphagia, respiratory dysfunction, urinary retention, and psychiatric symptoms. These issues lead to higher rates of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, deconditioning, and falls compared with patients without Parkinson's disease, as well as prolonged hospital stays and a greater need for post-hospitalization rehabilitation. Steps can be taken to decrease these complications, including minimizing nothing by mouth status duration, using alternative routes of drugs administration when unable to give medications orally, avoiding drug interactions and medications that can worsen parkinsonism, assessing swallowing ability frequently, encouraging incentive spirometry, performing bladder scans, avoiding Foley catheters, and providing aggressive physical therapy. Knowing and anticipating these potential complications allow hospital physicians to mitigate nosocomial morbidity and shorten recovery times and hospital stays.

  5. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Fones; Calum A. R. Davis; Arantza Rico; Fang Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulation plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a...

  6. Climate change effects on plant disease: genomes to ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Dendy, S P; Frank, E E; Rouse, M N; Travers, S E

    2006-01-01

    Research in the effects of climate change on plant disease continues to be limited, but some striking progress has been made. At the genomic level, advances in technologies for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression have made it possible to begin discriminating responses to different biotic and abiotic stressors and potential trade-offs in responses. At the scale of the individual plant, enough experiments have been performed to begin synthesizing the effects of climate variables on infection rates, though pathosystem-specific characteristics make synthesis challenging. Models of plant disease have now been developed to incorporate more sophisticated climate predictions. At the population level, the adaptive potential of plant and pathogen populations may prove to be one of the most important predictors of the magnitude of climate change effects. Ecosystem ecologists are now addressing the role of plant disease in ecosystem processes and the challenge of scaling up from individual infection probabilities to epidemics and broader impacts.

  7. Prevalence and management of Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrow TA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available T Andrew Burrow, Sonya Barnes, Gregory A GrabowskiThe Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Gaucher disease is a phenotypically heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease, resulting from deficient activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase, acid ß-glucosidase due to mutations in GBA1. Gaucher disease is the prototype for which disease-specific pharmacological therapy was successfully employed. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive review and critical examination of the prevalence, pathophysiology, natural history, and management of Gaucher disease.Keywords: lysosomal storage disease, pathophysiology, treatment, inborn errors of metabolism

  8. Surgical management of hepatic hydatid disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hydatidosis is strictly a zoonosis. Humans are an accidental host. The disease is endemic in rural agricultural areas. However if acquired by humans, it can cause extensive spread affecting a wide range of organs with predilection for the liver. Managing such cases requires a sound fundamental knowledge of the parasite and its pathogenicity. It is essential that surgeons who deal with such cases have a good working knowledge of the disease. The approaches to hepatic hydatids with respect to t...

  9. Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutuian, Radu; Castell, Donald O

    2003-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic condition requiring long-term treatment. Simple lifestyle modifications are the first methods employed by patients and, because of their low cost and simplicity, should be continued even when more potent therapies are initiated. Potent acid-suppressive therapy is currently the most important and successful medical therapy. Whereas healing of the esophageal mucosa is achieved with a single dose of any proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in more than 80% of cases, symptoms are more difficult to control. Patients with persistent symptoms on therapy should be tested (preferably with combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH) for association of symptoms with acid, nonacid, or no GER. Long-term follow-up studies indicate that PPIs are efficacious, tolerable, and safe medication. So far, promotility agents have shown limited efficacy, and their side-effect profile outweighs their benefits. Antireflux surgery in carefully selected patients (ie, young, typical GERD symptoms, abnormal pH study, and good response to PPI) is as effective as PPI therapy and should be offered to these patients as an alternative to medication. Still, patients should be informed about the risks of antireflux surgery (ie, risk of postoperative dysphagia; decreased ability to belch, possibly leading to bloating; increased flatulence). Endoscopic antireflux procedures are recommended only in selected patients and given the relative short experience with these techniques, patients treated with endoscopic procedures should be enrolled in a rigorous follow-up program.

  10. Managing invasive plants in natural areas: Moving beyond weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plants present one of the greatest challenges to natural resource management. These weeds can alter entire communities and ecosystems, substantially degrading important ecosystem services such as forage for wild and domestic herbivores, water and soil quality, recreational values, and wildlife habitat. Traditionally, weed management in natural areas has...

  11. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  12. Immunosuppression and Chagas disease: a management challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Pinazo

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression, which has become an increasingly relevant clinical condition in the last 50 years, modifies the natural history of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in most patients with Chagas disease. The main goal in this setting is to prevent the consequences of reactivation of T. cruzi infection by close monitoring. We analyze the relationship between Chagas disease and three immunosuppressant conditions, including a description of clinical cases seen at our center, a brief review of the literature, and recommendations for the management of these patients based on our experience and on the data in the literature. T. cruzi infection is considered an opportunistic parasitic infection indicative of AIDS, and clinical manifestations of reactivation are more severe than in acute Chagas disease. Parasitemia is the most important defining feature of reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole and/or nifurtimox is strongly recommended in such cases. It seems reasonable to administer trypanocidal treatment only to asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients with detectable parasitemia, and/or patients with clinically defined reactivation. Specific treatment for Chagas disease does not appear to be related to a higher incidence of neoplasms, and a direct role of T. cruzi in the etiology of neoplastic disease has not been confirmed. Systemic immunosuppressive diseases or immunosuppressants can modify the natural course of T. cruzi infection. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids have not been associated with higher rates of reactivation of Chagas disease. Despite a lack of evidence-based data, treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox should be initiated before immunosuppression where possible to reduce the risk of reactivation. Timely antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole and nifurtimox (or with posaconazole in cases of therapeutic failure has proven to be highly effective in preventing Chagas disease reactivation, even if such treatment has not been

  13. Management intensity and topography determined plant diversity in vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Nascimbene

    Full Text Available Vineyards are amongst the most intensive forms of agriculture often resulting in simplified landscapes where semi-natural vegetation is restricted to small scattered patches. However, a tendency toward a more sustainable management is stimulating research on biodiversity in these poorly investigated agro-ecosystems. The main aim of this study was to test the effect on plant diversity of management intensity and topography in vineyards located in a homogenous intensive hilly landscape. Specifically, this study evaluated the role of slope, mowing and herbicide treatments frequency, and nitrogen supply in shaping plant diversity and composition of life-history traits. The study was carried out in 25 vineyards located in the area of the Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG (Veneto, NE Italy. In each vineyard, 10 plots were placed and the abundance of all vascular plants was recorded in each plot. Linear multiple regression was used to test the effect of management and topography on plant diversity. Management intensity and topography were both relevant drivers of plant species diversity patterns in our vineyards. The two most important factors were slope and mowing frequency that respectively yielded positive and negative effects on plant diversity. A significant interaction between these two factors was also demonstrated, warning against the detrimental effects of increasing mowing intensity on steep slope where plant communities are more diverse. The response of plant communities to mowing frequency is mediated by a process of selection of resistant growth forms, such in the case of rosulate and reptant species. The other two management-related factors tested in this study, number of herbicide treatments and N fertilization, were less influential. In general, our study corroborates the idea that some simple changes in farming activities, which are compatible with grape production, should be encouraged for improving the natural and cultural value of the

  14. Management intensity and topography determined plant diversity in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Ivan, Diego; Zottini, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Vineyards are amongst the most intensive forms of agriculture often resulting in simplified landscapes where semi-natural vegetation is restricted to small scattered patches. However, a tendency toward a more sustainable management is stimulating research on biodiversity in these poorly investigated agro-ecosystems. The main aim of this study was to test the effect on plant diversity of management intensity and topography in vineyards located in a homogenous intensive hilly landscape. Specifically, this study evaluated the role of slope, mowing and herbicide treatments frequency, and nitrogen supply in shaping plant diversity and composition of life-history traits. The study was carried out in 25 vineyards located in the area of the Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG (Veneto, NE Italy). In each vineyard, 10 plots were placed and the abundance of all vascular plants was recorded in each plot. Linear multiple regression was used to test the effect of management and topography on plant diversity. Management intensity and topography were both relevant drivers of plant species diversity patterns in our vineyards. The two most important factors were slope and mowing frequency that respectively yielded positive and negative effects on plant diversity. A significant interaction between these two factors was also demonstrated, warning against the detrimental effects of increasing mowing intensity on steep slope where plant communities are more diverse. The response of plant communities to mowing frequency is mediated by a process of selection of resistant growth forms, such in the case of rosulate and reptant species. The other two management-related factors tested in this study, number of herbicide treatments and N fertilization, were less influential. In general, our study corroborates the idea that some simple changes in farming activities, which are compatible with grape production, should be encouraged for improving the natural and cultural value of the landscape by

  15. Management of Kawasaki disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, Kara J; Clark, Daniel E; Markham, Larry W

    2017-07-27

    Kawasaki disease is the most common childhood vasculitis in the USA and the most common cause of acquired cardiac disease in children in developed countries. Since the vast majority of Kawasaki disease initially presents at Kawasaki disease, making it increasingly relevant for adult cardiologists as this population transitions into adulthood. As the 2017 American Heart Association (AHA) and 2014 Japanese Circulation Society (JCS) guidelines emphasise, Kawasaki disease requires rigorous follow-up with cardiac stress testing and non-invasive imaging to detect progressive stenosis, thrombosis and luminal occlusion that may lead to myocardial ischaemia and infarction. Due to differences in disease mechanisms, coronary disease due to Kawasaki disease should be managed with different pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment algorithms than atherosclerotic coronary disease. This review addresses gaps in the current knowledge of the disease and its optimal treatment, differences in the AHA and JCS guidelines, targets for future research and obstacles to transition of care from adolescence into adulthood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Disease management research using event graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Schruben, L W

    2000-08-01

    Event Graphs, conditional representations of stochastic relationships between discrete events, simulate disease dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate how Event Graphs, at an appropriate abstraction level, also extend and organize scientific knowledge about diseases. They can identify promising treatment strategies and directions for further research and provide enough detail for testing combinations of new medicines and interventions. Event Graphs can be enriched to incorporate and validate data and test new theories to reflect an expanding dynamic scientific knowledge base and establish performance criteria for the economic viability of new treatments. To illustrate, an Event Graph is developed for mastitis, a costly dairy cattle disease, for which extensive scientific literature exists. With only a modest amount of imagination, the methodology presented here can be seen to apply modeling to any disease, human, plant, or animal. The Event Graph simulation presented here is currently being used in research and in a new veterinary epidemiology course. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. In situ management and domestication of plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-11-01

    Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the

  18. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome ePouzoulet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp. vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance towards vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management.

  19. Disease management in soilless culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    2010-01-01

    EU legislation, laid down in the Water Framework Directive, demands to minimize emissions of nitrogen, phosphate and crop protection products to achieve an excellent chemical and ecological quality in 2015. The aim is to force growers to a better water and disease management. Supply water of excelle

  20. Disease management in soilless culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    2010-01-01

    EU legislation, laid down in the Water Framework Directive, demands to minimize emissions of nitrogen, phosphate and crop protection products to achieve an excellent chemical and ecological quality in 2015. The aim is to force growers to a better water and disease management. Supply water of

  1. Disease management in soilless culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    2010-01-01

    EU legislation, laid down in the Water Framework Directive, demands to minimize emissions of nitrogen, phosphate and crop protection products to achieve an excellent chemical and ecological quality in 2015. The aim is to force growers to a better water and disease management. Supply water of excelle

  2. Managing Amphibian Disease with Skin Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Bletz, Molly; Kueneman, Jordan; McKenzie, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    The contribution of emerging amphibian diseases to the sixth mass extinction is driving innovative wildlife management strategies, including the use of probiotics. Bioaugmentation of the skin mucosome, a dynamic environment including host and microbial components, may not provide a generalized solution. Multi-omics technologies and ecological context underlie effective implementation.

  3. Disease Management in the Dutch Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, Guus; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Laag, Han van der; Rutten, Guy; Nabarro, Guido; Schene, Aart; Linden, Barbara van der; Acampo, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This book explores the extent to which ten characteristics of the concept of disease management are advisable in the long-term for certain types of patient care in the Netherlands. The care in mind for this concept covers certain patient populations as well as a number of health problems. For this p

  4. Northwest forest plants defeat pests and diseases!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha Vizcarra; Rick Kelsey; Joe. Karchesy

    2017-01-01

    Societies use biologically active chemicals as medicines and pesticides to protect human and agricultural health. But widespread use of synthetic compounds raises concerns about their safety, and resistance development in targeted pests.To find safer alternatives, scientists turned to native plants and trees in Pacific Northwest forests...

  5. Huntington's disease: review and anesthetic case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, C F; Miller, R J

    1998-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited progressive autosomal disease that affects the basal ganglia. Symptoms appear later in life and manifest as progressive mental deterioration and involuntary choreiform movements. Patients with Huntington's disease develop a progressive but variable dementia. Dysphagia, the most significant related motor symptom, hinders nutrition intake and places the patient at risk for aspiration. The combination of involuntary choreoathetoid movements, depression, and apathy leads to cachexia. Factors of considerable concern to the anesthesiologist who treats patients with Huntington's disease may include how to treat frail elderly people incapable of cooperation, how to treat patients suffering from malnourishment, and how to treat patients with an increased risk for aspiration or exaggerated responses to sodium thiopental and succinylcholine. The successful anesthetic management of a 65-yr-old woman with Huntington's disease who presented for full-mouth extractions is described.

  6. Updates in management of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Heon; Chae, Shung Chull [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasing during the last decade and is the one of major causes of death. The management of patients with coronary artery disease has evolved considerably. There are two main strategies in the management of CAD, complementary, not competitive, each other; the pharmacologic therapy to prevent and treat CAD and the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore coronary flow. Antiplatelet drugs and cholesterol lowering drugs have central roles in pharmacotherapy. Drug eluting stent (DES) bring about revolutional changes in PCL in the management of patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there has been a debate on the better strategy for the restoration of coronary flow. Thrombolytic therapy is widely available and easy to administer, whereas primary PCI is less available and more complex, but more complete. Recently published evidences in the pharmacologic therapy including antiplatelet and statin, and PCI including DES and reperfusion therapy in patients with ST segment elevation AMI were reviewed.

  7. Principles for assessing disease management outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Karen; Sidorov, Jaan; Fetterolf, Don; Wennberg, David; Eisenberg, Edward; Cousins, Michael; Hoffman, Joel; Haughton, John; Charlton, Warwick; Krause, David; Woolf, Allen; Mcdonough, Kenneth; Todd, Warren; Fox, Kathe; Plocher, David; Juster, Iver; Stiefel, Matt; Villagra, Victor; Duncan, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Disease management (DM) is rapidly becoming an important force in the late 20th and early 21st century as a strategy for managing the chronic illness of large populations. Given the increasing visibility of DM programs, the clinical, economic and financial impact of this support are vital to DM program accountability and its acceptance as a solution to the twin challenges of achieving affordable, quality health care. Measuring and reporting outcomes in DM is difficult. DM programs must adapt to local market conditions and customer desires, which in turn limits generalizability, and still account for the overlapping/interlocking/multifaceted nature of the interventions included in any DM program. The Disease Management Association of America convened a Steering Committee to suggest a preferred approach, not a mandated or standardized approach for DM program evaluation. This paper presents the Steering Committee's "Consensus Statement" and "Guiding Principles" for robust evaluation.

  8. Pheochromocytoma – update on disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Jacques W.M.; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Naumann, Bernd; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare endocrine tumors that can present insidiously and remain undiagnosed until death or onset of clear manifestations of catecholamine excess. They are often referred to as one of the ‘great mimics’ in medicine. These tumors can no longer be regarded as a uniform disease entity, but rather as a highly heterogeneous group of chromaffin cell neoplasms with different ages of onset, secretory profiles, locations, and potential for malignancy according to underlying genetic mutations. These aspects all have to be considered when the tumor is encountered, thereby enabling optimal management for the patient. Referral to a center of specialized expertise for the disease should be considered wherever possible. This is not only important for surgical management of patients, but also for post-surgical follow up and screening of disease in patients with a hereditary predisposition to the tumor. While preoperative management has changed little over the last 20 years, surgical procedures have evolved so that laparoscopic resection is the standard of care and partial adrenalectomy should be considered in all patients with a hereditary condition. Follow-up testing is essential and should be recommended and ensured on a yearly basis. Managing such patients must now also take into account possible underlying mutations and the appropriate selection of genes for testing according to disease presentation. Patients and family members with identified mutations then require an individualized approach to management. This includes consideration of distinct patterns of biochemical test results during screening and the appropriate choice of imaging studies for tumor localization according to the mutation and associated differences in predisposition to adrenal, extra-adrenal and metastatic disease. PMID:23148191

  9. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  10. Environmental Assessment: Invasive Pest Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    region of the EHR. “Barrens” most often refers to grasslands similar to the Midwestern tallgrass prairie but may also be used to describe openings with... prairies in the midwestern United States and also include many wildflower and bird species associated with that region. According to the IEMP (Call...The plant species found at Arnold AFB are those common to the EHR Ecological Association. Oak-hickory forest and a mosaic of bluestem prairie and

  11. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    the east coast until 1954 when it began rapid growth and expansion ( Stevenson and Confer, 1978). It became a serious problem in Chesapeake Bay and...milfoil infestation and indicates that there is some flexibility in waterfowl feeding habits. Stevenson and Confer (1978), in an analysis of species...and a comparative absence of humus , detritus, and plankton. Besides the lack of suitable substrate, vascular plants have a complexity of organization

  12. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  13. Managed care and the infectious diseases specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, A D; Slama, T G; Berman, S; Braun, P; Burke, J P; Cherney, A; Gross, P A; Harris, P; Reid-Hatton, M; Hoffman, R; Joseph, P; Lawton, S; Massanari, R M; Miller, Z I; Osheroff, W J; Poretz, D; Shalowitz, M; Simmons, B; Turner, J P; Wade, B; Nolet, B R

    1996-08-01

    There is growing demand to contain health care costs and to reassess the value of medical services. The traditional hospital, academic, and research roles of the infectious disease (ID) specialist are threatened, yet there is an increasing need for expertise because of growing antimicrobial resistance and emerging pathogens. Opportunities exist to develop and expand services for the care of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and in infection control, epidemiology, outcomes research, outpatient intravenous therapy, and resource management. It is important for ID physicians to appreciate the principles involved in managed care and the areas in which ID services can be valuable. To be effective, physicians need to know about tools such as practice guidelines, physician profiling, outcomes monitoring, computerized information management, risk sharing, networking, and marketing, as well as related legal issues. With a positive attitude toward learning, application, and leadership, ID physicians can redefine their role and expand their services through managed care.

  14. Management of Pruritus in Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There continues to be uncertainty on the ideal treatment of pruritus in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to gather the latest information on the evidence-based management of pruritus in chronic liver disease. Methodology. A literature search for pruritus in chronic liver disease was conducted using Pubmed and Embase database systems using the MeSH terms “pruritus,” “chronic liver disease,” “cholestatic liver disease,” and “treatment.” Results. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus is described in addition to detailing research into contemporary treatment options of the condition. These medical treatments range from bile salts, rifampicin, and opioid receptor antagonists to antihistamines. Conclusion. The burden of pruritus in liver disease patients persists and, although it is a common symptom, it can be difficult to manage. In recent years there has been greater study into the etiology and treatment of the condition. Nonetheless, pruritus remains poorly understood and many patients continue to suffer, reiterating the need for further research to improve our understanding of the etiology and treatment for the condition.

  15. Embedded mobile farm robot for identification of diseased plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadistap, S. S.; Botre, B. A.; Pandit, Harshavardhan; Chandrasekhar; Rao, Adesh

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a mobile robot used in farms for identification of diseased plants. It puts forth two of the major aspects of robotics namely automated navigation and image processing. The robot navigates on the basis of the GPS (Global Positioning System) location and data obtained from IR (Infrared) sensors to avoid any obstacles in its path. It uses an image processing algorithm to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased plants. A robotic platform consisting of an ARM9 processor, motor drivers, robot mechanical assembly, camera and infrared sensors has been used. Mini2440 microcontroller has been used wherein Embedded linux OS (Operating System) is implemented.

  16. Medicinal plants used to treat the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe rural community, Eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarivelo, Nivo H; Rakotoarivony, Fortunat; Ramarosandratana, Aro Vonjy; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina H; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-09-15

    Traditional medicine remains the only health care available in many rural areas in Madagascar like the rural community of Ambalabe, located in a very remote area in the eastern part of the country. With limited access to modern medicine, the local population uses medicinal plants to treat most diseases. In this study, we aimed to inventory medicinal plants used by local people and how those relate to the treatment of the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe. We interviewed participants in order to identify the most frequent diseases in the region and the medicinal plants used to treat them. The local physician was asked about the most frequent diseases, and ethnobotanical surveys to record medicinal plants and their uses, using semi-structured interviews and free listing, were conducted among 193 informants in local villages, of which 54 % were men and 46 % were women, ageing from 16 to 86 years. The local names, the uses of each plant species and the way they are prepared and administered were recorded and accompanied by herbarium specimens for identification. We also interviewed four traditional healers to elicit more details on the preparation and the use of plants. Our research allowed us to identify six most frequent diseases, namely diarrhea, malaria, stomach-ache, cough, bilharzia and dysentery. Among 209 plant species identified as having medicinal use, 83 species belonging to 49 families and 77 genera were used to treat these diseases. Our analyses highlighted the 11 commonly used species for their treatment, and also 16 species with a high fidelity level (FL ≥ 75 %) for each ailment. Diarrhea is one of the diseases with high number of species recorded. This study highlighted the closed relationship between people in Ambalabe and plant species, especially when faced with frequent diseases. However, most of the species used were collected in the surroundings of the villages. Few species were from Vohibe forest in which a management system on

  17. Building the chronic kidney disease management team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The need to be efficient and the demands for performance-based service are changing how nephrologists deliver care. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in patients with complex medical and social problems. CKD management requires that multidisciplinary professionals provide patient education, disease management, and psychosocial support. To remain cost-efficient, many physicians are training and supervising midlevel practitioners in the delivery of specialized health care. Specialized care that meets present CKD patient needs is best delivered in a CKD clinic. Three models of CKD clinic are identified: (1) anemia management CKD clinic, (2) the basic CKD clinic, and (3) the comprehensive CKD clinic. Each clinic model is based on critical elements of staffing, billable services, and patient-focused health care. Billable services are anemia-management services, physician services that may be provided by midlevel practitioners, and medical nutrition therapy. In some cases, social worker services may be billable. Building a patient-focused clinic that offers CKD management requires planning, familiarity with federal regulations and statutes, and skillful practitioners. Making services cost-efficient and outcome oriented requires careful physician leadership, talented midlevel practitioners, and billing professionals who understand the goals of the CKD clinic. As Medicare payment reforms evolve, a well-organized CKD program can be well poised to meet the requirements of payers and congressional mandates for performance-based purchasing.

  18. Update on thyroid eye disease and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick D Bothun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Erick D Bothun,1,2 Ryan A Scheurer,1 Andrew R Harrison,1,3 Michael S Lee1,4,51Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Pediatrics, 3Otolaryngology, 4Neurosurgery, and 5Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAAbstract: Thyroid eye disease is a heterogeneous autoimmune orbital reaction typically manifesting in middle age. The inflammation may parallel or remain isolated from a related inflammatory cascade in the thyroid called Graves’ disease. The orbital manifestations can lead to severe proptosis, dry eyes, strabismus, and optic neuropathy. In this article, we will discuss this unique condition including the ophthalmic findings and management. Keywords: Graves’ disease, thyroid eye disease, proptosis, orbital decompression, enlarged extraocular muscles

  19. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D. [MDC-Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  20. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  1. Gestational trophoblastic disease with hyperthyroidism: Anesthetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of hyperthyroidism with gestational trophoblastic disease is a known albeit rare clinical condition. We herein report the successful anesthetic management of such a case in our institute. There are only few case reports in literature of this association. Often, the diagnosis of hyperthyroid state is retrospective one, as it can be missed in the emergency scenario of patient requiring molar evacuation. This case report highlights the perioperative management and optimization of hyperthyroid state prior to surgical evacuation of the invasive hydatidiform mole.

  2. Medicinal Plants Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases in View of Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Nami, Saeed Reza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named "The treatise on cardiac drugs" which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs. Here, we perform a detailed search in scientific databases to verify the cardiovascular activities of the medicinal plants suggested by Avicenna. Also, we discussed cardiovascular activities of a number of the most important suggested plants as well as their efficacy in clinical studies. Major bioactive compounds identified from these plants are also discussed. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the majority of these plants are effective in cardiovascular health with various mechanisms. Among them, Crocus sativus L., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Melissa officinalis L. and Phyllanthus emblica L. have proved to be more effective. The above-mentioned plants can be rich sources for developing new and effective pharmaceuticals for the treatment of CVDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Silicon control of bacterial and viral diseases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakr Nachaat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon plays an important role in providing tolerance to various abiotic stresses and augmenting plant resistance against diseases. However, there is a paucity of reports about the effect of silicon on bacterial and viral pathogens of plants. In general, the effect of silicon on plant resistance against bacterial diseases is considered to be due to either physical defense or increased biochemical defense. In this study, the interaction between silicon foliar or soil-treatments and reduced bacterial and viral severity was reviewed. The current review explains the agricultural importance of silicon in plants, refers to the control of bacterial pathogens in different crop plants by silicon application, and underlines the different mechanisms of silicon-enhanced resistance. A section about the effect of silicon in decreasing viral disease intensity was highlighted. By combining the data presented in this study, a better comprehension of the complex interaction between silicon foliar- or soil-applications and bacterial and viral plant diseases could be achieved.

  4. Managing the Nutrition of Plants and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One definition of food security is having sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs. This paper highlights the role of plant mineral nutrition in food production, delivering of essential mineral elements to the human diet, and preventing harmful mineral elements entering the food chain. To maximise crop production, the gap between actual and potential yield must be addressed. This gap is 15–95% of potential yield, depending on the crop and agricultural system. Current research in plant mineral nutrition aims to develop appropriate agronomy and improved genotypes, for both infertile and productive soils, that allow inorganic and organic fertilisers to be utilised more efficiently. Mineral malnutrition affects two-thirds of the world's population. It can be addressed by the application of fertilisers, soil amelioration, and the development of genotypes that accumulate greater concentrations of mineral elements lacking in human diets in their edible tissues. Excessive concentrations of harmful mineral elements also compromise crop production and human health. To reduce the entry of these elements into the food chain, strict quality requirements for fertilisers might be enforced, agronomic strategies employed to reduce their phytoavailability, and crop genotypes developed that do not accumulate high concentrations of these elements in edible tissues.

  5. Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used in the management of sickle cell disorder in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amujoyegbe, O O; Idu, M; Agbedahunsi, J M; Erhabor, J O

    2016-06-05

    The present study entails the medicinal plant species used to manage sickle cell disorder in Southern States of Nigeria. The ethnomedicinal information was gathered through multistage approach from three geopolitical zones of Southern Nigeria, which were purposively selected. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered on 500 respondents in 125 locations. The ethnomedicinal data collected were analyzed using quantitative value indices such as fidelity level (percentage) and use value. The information got was cross checked using literature search and other related materials. Five hundred respondents comprising 53.12% females and 46.88% males were observed. It was noted that 26.70% were illiterate while 73.30% had formal education. Seventy-nine percent is traditional healers, 27% herb traders and the other 4% are those who have awareness of sickle cell disease . One hundred and seventy five plant species belonging to 70 families, of which Fabaceae made up 26.76% and Euphorbiaceae 16.90% forming the highest occurrence. It was observed that leaves were the most common plant part used (69.10%) followed by root (15%) and stem bark (14%) in the preparation for sickle cell management. Majority (48.57%) of these plants were harvested from wild with 38.86% being trees. Citrus aurantifolia and Newbouldia laevis had highest use values of 0.69 and 0.64 respectively. Plants with the least use value (0.001) include Abrus canescens, Acacia xanthophloea, Aerva lanata and Axonopus compressus. The result of fidelity level values of the plant species for the management of Sickle Cell Disorder (SCD) revealed that Citrus aurantifolia had the highest value of 70.2% while Angraecum distichum and Axonopus compressus had the lowest Fidelity Level value of 0.18%. The study revealed that people in the studied areas were well grounded in the medicinal plants used to manage sickle cell disease. This study reported for the first time 102 plant species having anti-sickling potentials with

  6. Reliability block diagrams to model disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M; Bauerfeind, P

    1999-01-01

    Studies of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in the management of any given disease tend to focus on one particular aspect of the disease and ignore the interaction between the multitude of factors that determine its final outcome. The present article introduces a mathematical model that accounts for the joint contribution of various medical and non-medical components to the overall disease outcome. A reliability block diagram is used to model patient compliance, endoscopic screening, and surgical therapy for dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. The overall probability of a patient with a Barrett's esophagus to comply with a screening program, be correctly diagnosed with dysplasia, and undergo successful therapy is 37%. The reduction in the overall success rate, despite the fact that the majority of components are assumed to function with reliability rates of 80% or more, is a reflection of the multitude of serial subsystems involved in disease management. Each serial component influences the overall success rate in a linear fashion. Building multiple parallel pathways into the screening program raises its overall success rate to 91%. Parallel arrangements render systems less sensitive to diagnostic or therapeutic failures. A reliability block diagram provides the means to model the contributions of many heterogeneous factors to disease outcome. Since no medical system functions perfectly, redundancy provided by parallel subsystems assures a greater overall reliability.

  7. Chagas disease: changes in knowledge and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescure, François-Xavier; Le Loup, Guillaume; Freilij, Hector; Develoux, Michel; Paris, Luc; Brutus, Laurent; Pialoux, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    More than 100 years after the discovery of human American trypanosomiasis by Carlos Chagas, our knowledge and management of the disease are profoundly changing. Substantial progress made by disease control programmes in most endemic areas contrasts with persisting difficulties in the Gran Chaco region in South America and the recent emergence of the disease in non-endemic areas because of population movements. In terms of pathogenesis, major discoveries have been made about the life cycle and genomics of Trypanosoma cruzi, and the role of the parasite itself in the chronic phase of the disease. From a clinical perspective, a growing number of arguments have challenged the notion of an indeterminate phase, and suggest new approaches to manage patients. New methods such as standardised PCR will be necessary to ensure follow-up of this chronic infection. Although drugs for treatment of Chagas disease are limited, poorly tolerated, and not very effective, treatment indications are expanding. The results of the Benznidazole Evaluation For Interrupting Trypanosomiasis (BENEFIT) trial in 2012 will also help to inform treatment. Mobilisation of financial resources to fund research on diagnosis and randomised controlled trials of treatment are international health priorities.

  8. Lafora disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    Lafora disease is a rare, fatal, autosomal recessive, progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It may also be considered as a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism because of the formation of polyglucosan inclusion bodies in neural and other tissues due to abnormalities of the proteins laforin or malin. The condition is characterized by epilepsy, myoclonus and dementia. Diagnostic findings on MRI and neurophysiological testing are not definitive and biopsy or genetic studies may be required. Therapy in Lafora disease is currently limited to symptomatic management of the epilepsy, myoclonus and intercurrent complications. With a greater understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved, there is justified hope for future therapies.

  9. Management of autoimmune blistering diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Tess; Venning, Vanessa V

    2011-10-01

    Autoimmune blistering disease (AIBD) in pregnancy raises several complex management issues associated with underlying pathogenesis and treatment options. This article considers the effects of the disease as well as its treatment for both mother and fetus. All AIBDs can occur in pregnancy but are relatively rare. Pemphigoid gestationis is a rare AIBD that is specific to pregnancy. The article considers each AIBD in turn and then looks at treatment options for the group as a whole, as there are many issues common to all.

  10. Surgical management of hepatic hydatid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is strictly a zoonosis. Humans are an accidental host. The disease is endemic in rural agricultural areas. However if acquired by humans, it can cause extensive spread affecting a wide range of organs with predilection for the liver. Managing such cases requires a sound fundamental knowledge of the parasite and its pathogenicity. It is essential that surgeons who deal with such cases have a good working knowledge of the disease. The approaches to hepatic hydatids with respect to the principles of surgical treatment are presented in this article. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1834-1837

  11. Understanding Parkinson's disease: detection and early disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss within the basal ganglia and insufficient levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of voluntary movement), and postural disturbances. Exact cause is unknown, but theories surrounding environmental or endogenous toxicities have been suggested. Differential diagnoses include genetic and other neurologic disorders that may share symptoms similar to those seen in PD. Clinical progression has been categorized into three phases of the disease: early, nonfluctuating, and fluctuating. Medications generally offer good symptom relief during the early and nonfluctuating phases of the disease. Classifications of anti-PD medications include anticholinergics, dopamine agonists, amantadine, MAO-B inhibitors, levodopa-carbidopa, and Catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors. Surgical intervention may be an option for select patients whose conditions are not well controlled though medical management strategies. Primary care providers often can manage patients in the early stage of PD, but later stages require expert neurologic management. Patient/family education and anticipatory guidance is imperative.

  12. Diagnosis and management of kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguil, Aaron; Fargo, Matthew; Grogan, Scott

    2015-03-15

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects patients younger than five years. It represents the most prominent cause of acquired coronary artery disease in childhood. In the United States, 19 per 100,000 children younger than five years are hospitalized with Kawasaki disease annually. According to U.S. and Japanese guidelines, Kawasaki disease is a clinical diagnosis. Classic (typical) Kawasaki disease is diagnosed based on the presence of a fever lasting five or more days, accompanied by four out of five findings: bilateral conjunctival injection, oral changes such as cracked and erythematous lips and strawberry tongue, cervical lymphadenopathy, extremity changes such as erythema or palm and sole desquamation, and polymorphous rash. Incomplete (atypical) Kawasaki disease occurs in persons with fever lasting five or more days and with two or three of these findings. Transthoracic echocardiography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice to screen for coronary aneurysms, although other techniques are being evaluated for diagnosis and management. Treatment for acute disease is intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. If there is no response to treatment, patients are given a second dose of intravenous immunoglobulin with or without corticosteroids or other adjunctive treatments. The presence and severity of coronary aneurysms and obstruction at diagnosis determine treatment options and the need, periodicity, and intensity of long-term cardiovascular monitoring for potential atherosclerosis.

  13. Diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Thad; Jarvis, Kathryn; Patel, Jigneshkumar

    2011-12-15

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract at any point from the mouth to the rectum. Patients may experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, abdominal masses, and anemia. Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease include osteoporosis, inflammatory arthropathies, scleritis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, and erythema nodosum. Acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are often increased with inflammation and may correlate with disease activity. Levels of vitamin B12, folate, albumin, prealbumin, and vitamin D can help assess nutritional status. Colonoscopy with ileoscopy, capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, and small bowel follow-through are often used to diagnose Crohn's disease. Ultrasonography, computed axial tomography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging can assess for extraintestinal manifestations or complications (e.g., abscess, perforation). Mesalamine products are often used for the medical management of mild to moderate colonic Crohn's disease. Antibiotics (e.g., metronidazole, fluoroquinolones) are often used for treatment. Patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease are treated with corticosteroids, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (e.g., infliximab, adalimumab). Severe disease may require emergent hospitalization and a multidisciplinary approach with a family physician, gastroenterologist, and surgeon.

  14. Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...

  15. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E. [ABB Combuions Engineering Nuclear Systems (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  16. Current management of urethral stricture disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Smith

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Progress is being made toward consistent terminology, and nomenclature which will, in turn, help to standardize treatment within the field of urology. Treatment for urethral stricture and stenosis remains inconsistent between reconstructive and nonreconstructive urologists due to varying treatment algorithms and approaches to disease management. Tissue engineering appears to be future for reconstructive urethral surgery with reports demonstrating feasibility in the use of different tissue substitutes and grafts.

  17. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  18. Technological Advances in Huanglongbing (HLB or Citrus Greening Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Paudyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, previously citrus greening disease, is the most destructive of citrus species causing major threat to the world citrus industry. The disease was reported from China in 1919 and now known to occur in more than 40 different countries of Asia, Africa, South and North America. Three species of gram negative bacterium namely Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus are the casual organisms of HLB, respectively prevailing in the continent of Asia, Africa and South America. It is one of the most extensively researched subjects in citriculture world. HLB was detected in 2004 and 2005, respectively in San Paulo of Brazil and Florida of USA: the two leading citrus production hub of the world causing huge economic loss within 5 years of first detection. Since then research on HLB detection and management was further accelerated in American continents. This paper presents the scientific advancement made on detection, spread, economic losses caused by HLB in different parts of the world and controlling management strategies. Remarkable achievements have been made on HLB detection techniques including iodine test, qPCR and more recently in spectroscopy. While efforts are being made to develop resistance varieties using conventional and biotechnological tools management strategy which includes reduction of inoculums source, vector control and replant with disease-free planting materials still remains major option for HLB control. Citrus intercropping with guava have shown promising results for vector reduction.

  19. Plant invasions in mountains: Global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use management case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land managers of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active management because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for management of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to global levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of management actions; (iii) the economic importance of management should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of management programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of global change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.

  20. Probiotic Diversity Enhances Rhizosphere Microbiome Function and Plant Disease Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jie; Wei, Zhong; Friman, Ville Petri; Gu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Eisenhauer, Nico; Yang, Tian-jie; Ma, Jing; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-chun; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with plant roots play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne pathogens, and multispecies probiotic consortia may enhance disease suppression efficacy. Here we introduced defined Pseudomonas species consortia into naturally complex microbial communities and measured the importance of Pseudomonas community diversity for their survival and the suppression of the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. The ...

  1. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD.

  2. The vital signs of chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Kapur, Anil; Jahn, Andreas; Enarson, Donald A

    2009-06-01

    The vital signs of pulse rate, blood pressure, temperature and respiratory rate are the 'nub' of individual patient management. At the programmatic level, vital signs could also be used to monitor the burden and treatment outcome of chronic disease. Case detection and treatment outcome constitute the vital signs of tuberculosis control within the WHO's 'DOTS' framework, and similar vital signs could be adapted and used for management of chronic diseases. The numbers of new patients started on therapy in each month or quarter (new incident cases) are sensitive indicators for programme performance and access to services. Using similar reporting cycles, treatment outcomes for all patients can be assessed, the vital signs being: alive and retained on therapy at the respective facility; died; stopped therapy; lost to follow-up; and transferred out to another facility. Retention on treatment constitutes the prevalent number of cases, the burden of disease, and this provides important strategic information for rational drug forecasting and logistic planning. If case numbers and outcomes of chronic diseases were measured reliably and consistently as part of an integrated programmatic approach, this would strengthen the ability of resource-poor countries to monitor and assess their response to these growing epidemics.

  3. Social networks in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T; Yan, Xia; Farshid, Maryam; Barakat, Samer; Jung, Miah; Low, Sara; Fedder, Donald

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Social networks have a positive association with obesity, smoking cessation and weight loss. This article summarizes studies evaluating the impact of social networks on the management of cardiovascular disease. The 35 studies included in the article describe the impact of social networks on a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality. In addition, having a large-sized social network is also associated with better outcomes and improved health. The role of pharmacists is beginning to play an important role in the patient-centered medical home, which needs to be incorporated into social networks. The patient-centered medical home can serve as an adaptive source for social network evolvement.

  4. The impact of transition metals on bacterial plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Preston, Gail M

    2013-07-01

    Metals play essential roles in many biological processes but are toxic when present in excess. This makes their transport and homoeostatic control of particular importance to living organisms. Within the context of plant-pathogen interactions the availability and toxicity of transition metals can have a substantial impact on disease development. Metals are essential for defensive generation of reactive oxygen species and other plant defences and can be used directly to limit pathogen growth. Metal-based antimicrobials are used in agriculture to control plant disease, and there is increasing evidence that metal hyperaccumulating plants use accumulated metal to limit pathogen growth. Pathogens and hosts compete for available metals, with plants possessing mechanisms to withhold essential metals from invading microbes. Pathogens, meanwhile, use low-metal conditions as a signal to recognise and respond to the host environment. Consequently, metal-sensing systems such as fur (iron) and zur (zinc) regulate the expression of pathogenicity and virulence genes; and pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to acquire metal during growth in plant tissues, including the production of multiple siderophores. This review explores the impact of transition metals on the processes that determine the outcome of bacterial infection in plants, with a particular emphasis on zinc, iron and copper. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commerci

  6. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars.

  7. The plant management system of PP Vendsysselvaerket, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, P. [ABB Utility Automation GmbH, Minden (Germany); Larsen, J. [NV Kraft A/S Vendsysselvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The liberalization of the energy market in Denmark means growing importance of fuel economy, thermal efficiency, waste heat recovery, environmental compatibility and up-to-date control systems in power generation. Vendsysselvaerket Unit 3 that entered commercial operation in September 1998 is fulfilling these demands by using state-of-the-art control and plant management systems. (author)

  8. Scientific challenges in the field of invasive alien plant management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines scientific challenges in the field of invasion alien plant management in South Africa. Overview of the Working for Water program, Issues of research funding, and Biological control research. It also includes some of the papers...

  9. Development of plant maintenance management system (pmms): a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Azhar, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In large plant industry, it is not easy to maintain machine performance without using any method such as checklist system. Manual checklist is a common maintenance checklist used in industry. All machine, equipment and parts that need to be checked will be written down for the employee to do maintenance checks. Converting the manual checklist to the Plant Maintenance Management System (PMMS) can improve the way of employees work and make plant management easier. Therefore, a new system was designed to maintain the equipment so that the activities are more efficient and cost effective. The system consists of three frames that connect to each other. The frames divide to section, equipment and checklist. This system also builds to prevent data from arbitrarily changes. Only certain officers or staffs are permitted to make modifications to data. Using this system, a company can make the office environment a paperless environment.

  10. The disease management approach to controlling asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahtela, T

    2002-02-01

    Asthma has become an important public health issue worldwide and certain groups, such as children, are at particular risk of the disease. Often asthma remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Despite these worrying trends, the disease management approach to asthma control can help most asthma patients achieve a 'normal' way of life. The increased prevalence and greater diagnostic awareness of asthma have placed increased demands on healthcare resources, but effective asthma control can minimize the personal, social and economic burdens of asthma. Early diagnosis and immediate anti-inflammatory treatment is the first step in gaining control of symptoms. A stepwise approach is then used to classify asthma severity and treatment, with the number and frequency of medications increasing (step up) as asthma severity increases and decreasing (step down) when asthma is under control. This stepwise approach to asthma management necessitates regular review of treatment once asthma is under control. However, effective asthma management is dependent on successful patient education, adherence to prescribed medication and good doctor patient partnerships. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of a written asthma management plan that should be agreed between the doctor and patient. These plans should cover all aspects of asthma treatment, including prevention steps for long-term control and action steps to stop attacks once a worsening in asthma has been recognized. This comprehensive approach to asthma management increases the likelihood of achieving asthma control, which in turn reduces the need for emergency visits to the hospital or clinic and reduces the limitations on physical activity previously imposed by the condition.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant land management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    On October 30, 1992, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act became law. This Act transferred the responsibility for the management of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WILWA) from the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of Energy. In accordance with sections 3(a)(1) and (3) of the Act, these lands {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}are withdrawn from all forms of entry, appropriation, and disposal under the public land laws{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}and are reserved for the use of the Secretary of Energy {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}for the construction, experimentation, operation, repair and maintenance, disposal, shutdown, monitoring, decommissioning, and other activities, associated with the purposes of WIPP as set forth in the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Act of 1980 and this Act.{close_quotes}. As a complement to this LMP, a MOU has been executed between the DOE and the BLM, as required by section 4(d) of the Act. The state of New Mexico was consulted in the development of the MOU and the associated Statement of Work (SOW).

  12. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R

    2008-12-01

    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  13. Diagnosis and management of polycystic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Tom J G; Drenth, Joost P H

    2013-02-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as a liver that contains >20 cysts. The condition is associated with two genetically distinct diseases: as a primary phenotype in isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and as an extrarenal manifestation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Processes involved in hepatic cystogenesis include ductal plate malformation with concomitant abnormal fluid secretion, altered cell-matrix interaction and cholangiocyte hyperproliferation. PLD is usually a benign disease, but can cause debilitating abdominal symptoms in some patients. The main risk factors for growth of liver cysts are female sex, exogenous oestrogen use and multiple pregnancies. Ultrasonography is very useful for achieving a correct diagnosis of a polycystic liver and to differentiate between ADPKD and PCLD. Current radiological and surgical therapies for symptomatic patients include aspiration-sclerotherapy, fenestration, segmental hepatic resection and liver transplantation. Medical therapies that interact with regulatory mechanisms controlling expansion and growth of liver cysts are under investigation. Somatostatin analogues are promising; several clinical trials have shown that these drugs can reduce the volume of polycystic livers. The purpose of this Review is to provide an update on the diagnosis and management of PLD with a focus on literature published in the past 4 years.

  14. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  15. Blumea lacera Plant Poisoning in Cattle; Epidemiology and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Nusrat Zahan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning in grazing animals is more common in Bangladesh, especially during the scarcity period. The present study was undertaken to find out the epidemiology of Blumea lacera fresh plant poisoning and its management in cattle. A total of 765 suspected clinical cases were examined, of these 48 were diagnosed as Blumea lacera plant poisoning. The poisoning was found more in local cattle (92% than that of crossbred (8% cattle. Most of the cases were found in autumn (71%, in compare to summer (23% and winter (6%. The highest occurrence of poisoning was observed in cattle of 6 months to 2 years of age (57% in comparison to other age category. Therapeutic response (16% was found if treatments were given within 4 hours of ingestion of the plant and the effective treatment was a combination of laxative, normal saline, vitamin B1. Veterinarian can apply this treatment during Blumea lacera poisoning in animals.

  16. Disease management programs for the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswell, Ronald; Butler, Michael K; Kaiser, Michael; Moody-Thomas, Sarah; McNabb, Shannon; Besse, Jay; Abrams, Amir

    2008-06-01

    Disease management has become an important tool for improving population patient outcomes. The Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division (HCSD) has used this tool to provide care to a largely uninsured population for approximately 10 years. Eight programs currently exist within the HCSD focusing on diabetes, asthma, congestive heart failure, HIV, cancer screening, smoking cessation, chronic kidney disease, and diet, exercise, and weight control. These programs operate at hospital and clinic sites located in 8 population centers throughout southern Louisiana. The programs are structured to be managed at the system level with a clinical expert for each area guiding the scope of the program and defining new goals. Care largely adheres to evidence-based guidelines set forth by professional organizations. To monitor quality of care, indicators are defined within each area and benchmarked to achieve the most effective measures in our population. For example, hemoglobin A1c levels have shown improvements with nearly 54% of the population management efforts, HCSD utilizes an electronic data repository that allows physicians to track patient labs and other tests as well as reminders. To ensure appropriate treatment, patients are able to enroll in the Medication Assistance program. This largely improves adherence to medications for those patients unable to afford them otherwise.

  17. Using transgenic plants and modified plant viruses for the development of treatments for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Hwei-San; Green, Brian J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2017-08-08

    Production of proteins in plants for human health applications has become an attractive strategy attributed by their potentials for low-cost production, increased safety due to the lack of human or animal pathogens, scalability and ability to produce complex proteins. A major milestone for plant-based protein production for use in human health was achieved when Protalix BioTherapeutics produced taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso(®)) in suspension cultures of a transgenic carrot cell line for the treatment of patients with Gaucher's disease, was approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration in 2012. In this review, we are highlighting various approaches for plant-based production of proteins and recent progress in the development of plant-made therapeutics and biologics for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Japanese model of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Naoki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Nishida, Daisuke; Tanaka, Naomi; Nakazono, Hiromi; Hoshino, Akihiko; Soejima, Hidehisa; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Nawata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We started a disease management model, Carna, that includes two programs: one for primary prevention of lifestyle diseases and one for secondary/tertiary prevention of diabetes mellitus. These programs support the family doctor system and education for participants to allow the concept of disease management to take root in Japan. We developed a critical pathway system that can optimize health care of individual participants by matching individual status. This is the core technology of the project. Under the primary prevention program, we can perform the health check-up/ instruction tasks in the 'Tokutei Kenshin', which will start for all Japanese citizens aged 40-74 years in April 2008. In the diabetic program, Carna matches doctors and new patients, prevents patient dropout, supports detection of early-stage complications by distributing questionnaires periodically, and facilitates medical specialists' cooperation with family doctors. Carna promotes periodic medical examinations and quickly provides the result of blood tests to patients. We are conducting a study to assess the medical outcomes and business model. The study will continue until the end of 2007.

  19. Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Cordelier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950’s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed.

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  1. Genome-Editing Technologies for Enhancing Plant Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Iovieno, Paolo; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for agricultural science in the 21st century is to improve yield stability through the progressive development of superior cultivars. The increasing numbers of infectious plant diseases that are caused by plant-pathogens make it ever more necessary to develop new strategies for plant disease resistance breeding. Targeted genome engineering allows the introduction of precise modifications directly into a commercial variety, offering a viable alternative to traditional breeding methods. Genome editing is a powerful tool for modifying crucial players in the plant immunity system. In this work, we propose and discuss genome-editing strategies and targets for improving resistance to phytopathogens. First of all, we present the opportunities to rewrite the effector-target sequence for avoiding effector-target molecular interaction and also to modify effector-target promoters for increasing the expression of target genes involved in the resistance process. In addition, we describe potential approaches for obtaining synthetic R-genes through genome-editing technologies (GETs). Finally, we illustrate a genome editing flowchart to modify the pathogen recognition sites and engineer an R-gene that mounts resistance to some phylogenetically divergent pathogens. GETs potentially mark the beginning of a new era, in which synthetic biology affords a basis for obtaining a reinforced plant defense system. Nowadays it is conceivable that by modulating the function of the major plant immunity players, we will be able to improve crop performance for a sustainable agriculture. PMID:27990151

  2. Sweet smells prepare plants for future stress: airborne induction of plant disease immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min; Heil, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Plants require protection against a wide range of attackers such as insects and pathogens. The adequate plant defense responses are regulated via sophisticated signal cascades, which are activated following the perception of specific cues of the attackers. Plants might, however, gain a significant fitness advantage when pre-empting enemy attack before it actually occurs. Monitoring cues from attacked neighbors can permit plants to reach this goal. We have recently found airborne disease resistance against a bacterial pathogen in uninfected lima bean plants when these were located close to conspecific, resistance-expressing neighbors. The emitters could be chemically induced with benzothiadiazole or biologically with an avirulent pathogen. Unexpectedly, receiver plants, although expressing a functioning resistance, did not show reduced growth rates, which represent a common side-effect of directly induced pathogen resistance. Nonanal was identified as an active volatile and, rather than directly inducing full resistance, primed defense gene expression, which became fully activated only when the plants were subsequently challenged by a virulent pathogen. Priming by airborne signals allows for a more efficient and less costly preparation of plants for future attack and airborne signaling can affect resistance against both major groups of plant enemies: herbivores and pathogens.

  3. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON VIRAL DISEASE SPREAD IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldakimova N.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important factor affecting the quality and quantity of crop yields. The total area of the world’s land exposed salinity increased to 15% in 2011 compared to 7% in 2001. In addition, crops are susceptible to disease, which strongly affects the yield. Thus, viral diseases reduce crop yield, sometimes up to 80-100%, for example Eggplant mottled crinkle virus (EMCV can infect up to 100% yield of eggplant. Taken together, these two stress factors can cause enormous economic damage to agriculture. Despite of the importance, the effect of salinity on plant virus disease has not been well studied.In our study, we investigated the effect of high concentrations of salt (150mM NaCl on the systemic viral disease caused by EMCV. The virus causes the systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. Systemic accumulation of virus at high concentrations of NaCl was drastically reduced. In the plants exposed to salt stress (100mM and 150mM NaCl for 21 days before infection systemic symptoms were significantly delayed. The relationship between plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors may indicate the existence of universal defensive pathways of plant adaptation to unfavorable conditions.

  4. Probiotic Diversity Enhances Rhizosphere Microbiome Function and Plant Disease Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with plant roots play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne pathogens, and multispecies probiotic consortia may enhance disease suppression efficacy. Here we introduced defined Pseudomonas species consortia into naturally complex microbial communities and measured the importance of Pseudomonas community diversity for their survival and the suppression of the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. The survival of introduced Pseudomonas consortia increased with increasing diversity. Further, high Pseudomonas diversity reduced pathogen density in the rhizosphere and decreased the disease incidence due to both intensified resource competition and interference with the pathogen. These results provide novel mechanistic insights into elevated pathogen suppression by diverse probiotic consortia in naturally diverse plant rhizospheres. Ecologically based community assembly rules could thus play a key role in engineering functionally reliable microbiome applications.

  5. Wireless technology in disease management and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Gari D; Clifton, David

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare information, and to some extent patient management, is progressing toward a wireless digital future. This change is driven partly by a desire to improve the current state of medicine using new technologies, partly by supply-and-demand economics, and partly by the utility of wireless devices. Wired technology can be cumbersome for patient monitoring and can restrict the behavior of the monitored patients, introducing bias or artifacts. However, wireless technologies, while mitigating some of these issues, have introduced new problems such as data dropout and "information overload" for the clinical team. This review provides an overview of current wireless technology used for patient monitoring and disease management. We identify some of the major related issues and describe some existing and possible solutions. In particular, we discuss the rapidly evolving fields of telemedicine and mHealth in the context of increasingly resource-constrained healthcare systems.

  6. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases.

  7. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  8. Optimal Use of Plant Stanol Ester in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Rosin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant stanol ester is a natural compound which is used as a cholesterol-lowering ingredient in functional foods and food supplements. The safety and efficacy of plant stanol ester have been confirmed in more than 70 published clinical studies and the ingredient is a well-established and widely recommended dietary measure to reduce serum cholesterol. Daily intake of 2 g plant stanols as plant stanol ester lowers LDL-cholesterol by 10%, on average. In Europe, foods with added plant stanol ester have been on the market for 20 years, and today such products are also available in many Asian and American countries. Despite the well-documented efficacy, the full potential in cholesterol reduction may not be reached if plant stanol ester is not used according to recommendations. This review therefore concentrates on the optimal use of plant stanol ester as part of dietary management of hypercholesterolemia. For optimal cholesterol lowering aiming at a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, plant stanol ester should be used daily, in sufficient amounts, with a meal and in combination with other recommended dietary changes.

  9. The management of rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K; Kaul, M; Clowse, Megan E B

    2010-03-01

    Pregnancy can create a challenge for physicians caring for women with rheumatic diseases. For many women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), pregnancy can provide a reprieve from long-term joint pain and inflammation, but others will not experience remission and will continue to need medication. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may remain quiet in some women, but in others may become more aggressive during pregnancy, putting both mother and foetus at risk. Women with limited scleroderma can do remarkably well, but scleroderma renal crises can be difficult to manage. A third of pregnancies in women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may be refractory to our best therapy. In general, active inflammation from rheumatic diseases poses a stronger threat to the well-being of both mother and foetus than many immunosuppressant medications. Therefore, continued immunosuppression with the least risky medications will allow for the most optimal pregnancy outcomes.

  10. An ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat liver diseases in the Maritime region of Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpodar, Madje S; Karou, Simplice D; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Anani, Kokou; Gbekley, Holaly E; Adjrah, Yao; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-04-02

    In Togo, many persons still rely on plants for healing, however very little is known about the medicinal practices of the indigenous people. The present study aimed to document the medicinal plant utilization for the management of liver diseases in the Maritime region of the country. This was an ethnobotanical survey conducted in the Maritime region of Togo from June to August 2015. The data were gathered from 104 traditional healers (TH) by direct interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The calculated use values (UV) were used to analyze the importance of the cited plants. A total of 99 plant species belonging to 88 genera and 49 families were cited by the TH as curing the hepatic diseases. The most represented families were Caesalpiniaceae with 8 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae with 7 species, Apocynaceae and Asteraceae with 6 species each. The highest UV were recorded with Gomphrena celosioides (0.13), Xylopia ethiopica (0.12), Senna occidentalis (0.12), Bridelia ferruginea (0.12), Cymbopogon citratus (0.12), Kigellia Africana (0.09), Cassia sieberiana (0.08) and Sanseviera liberica (0.08), showing their importance in the management of liver dysfunction in the surveyed region. The main used parts were the leaves, followed by the roots, the whole plant, the rhizome and the bark, accounting for more than 10% each. The herbal medicines were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and administrated by oral route. This study showed that Maritime region of Togo has an important plant biodiversity that is exploited by the indigenous TH. However, some plants cited by the TH have not been studied for their possible hepatoprotective effects. These plants are therefore a starting point for biological screenings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, C C

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  12. Surgical management of polycystic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Adult polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant condition commonly associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However in the last decade, it has been recognized that there is a distinct form of autosomal dominant PCLD that arises without concomitant ADPKD. Early knowledge of the pathogenesis was gained from the study of hepatic cysts in patients with ADPKD. Bile duct overgrowth after embryogenesis results in cystic hepatic dilatations that are known as biliary microhamartomas or von Meyenburg complexes. Further dilatation arises from cellular proliferation and fluid secretion into these cysts.There is a variable, broad spectrum of manifestations of PCLD. Although PCLD is most often asymptomatic,massive hepatomegaly can lead to disabling symptoms of abdominal pain, early satiety, persistent nausea,dyspnea, ascites, biliary obstruction, and lower body edema. Complications of PCLD include cyst rupture and cyst infection. Also, there are associated medical problems, especially intracranial aneurysms and valvular heart disease, which clinicians need to be aware of and evaluate in patients with PCLD. In asymptomatic patients, no treatment is indicated for PCLD. In the symptomatic patient, surgical therapy is the mainstay of treatment tailored to the extent of disease for each patient. Management options include cyst aspiration and sclerosis, open or laparoscopic fenestration, liver resection with fenestration, and liver transplantation.The surgical literature discussing treatment of PCLD,including techniques, outcomes, and complication rates,are summarized in this review.

  13. Management of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Anja U; D'Haens, Geert R

    2013-01-01

    The course of Crohn's disease (CD) is unpredictable and potentially destructive. The percentage of patients requiring surgery at some stage in their disease accumulates to over 70%. After resection of the affected intestine, reappearance of CD occurs in the majority of patients. Prophylactic medical therapy to reduce the rate of postoperative recurrence has been proven to be effective, yet the incidence of recurrence remains high. Patient profiling (risk stratification) is important in this postoperative setting. High-risk patients (associated with e.g. smoking, the need of repetitive surgery and penetrating disease) require strong immunosuppressive treatment, which should be commenced immediately after surgery, when recurrent disease activity begins. Additionally, early screening endoscopy should be performed to monitor treatment effect. The efficacy of thiopurines is shown to be higher than mesalazine or imidazole antibiotics alone for preventing and ameliorating endoscopic recurrence of CD postoperatively; however, anti-tumor necrosis factors (anti-TNFs) are increasingly considered the most potent agents. In patients with a risk factor for early postoperative recurrence, the first line of treatment is 6-mercaptopurine, in combination with imidazole antibiotics if tolerated, followed by anti-TNFs. When lesions are found at colonoscopy, therapy should be upscaled. We propose a treatment algorithm to direct therapeutic management of CD postoperatively. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Selection and Assessment of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria for Biological Control of Multiple Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Newman, Molli; McInroy, John A; Hu, Chia-Hui; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2017-08-01

    A study was designed to screen individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for broad-spectrum disease suppression in vitro and in planta. In a preliminary screen, 28 of 196 strains inhibited eight different tested pathogens in vitro. In a secondary screen, these 28 strains showed broad spectrum antagonistic activity to six different genera of pathogens, and 24 of the 28 strains produced five traits reported to be related to plant growth promotion, including nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and biofilm formation. In advanced screens, the 28 PGPR strains selected in vitro were tested in planta for biological control of multiple plant diseases including bacterial spot of tomato caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, damping-off of pepper caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. In all, 5 of the 28 tested strains significantly reduced three of the four tested diseases, and another 19 strains showed biological control to two tested diseases. To understand the observed broad-spectrum biocontrol capacity, antiSMASH was used to predict secondary metabolite clusters of selected strains. Multiple gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites, e.g., bacillibactin, bacilysin, and microcin, were detected in each strain. In conclusion, selected individual PGPR strains showed broad-spectrum biocontrol activity to multiple plant diseases.

  15. Introducing the term 'Biocontrol Plants' for integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Parolin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of interactions between crops, additional plants, pests and beneficial organisms already exist as well as studies of natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. However, these studies focus on tri-trophic interactions from an "arthropod" point of view. We think that in order to optimize crop protection methods we need to understand the effects that plant structures have on the various arthropods and on subsequent tri-trophic interactions. Although studies and reviews describing the role of secondary plants in Integrated Pest Management (IPM exist, to date a general term which encompasses all plants added to a cropping system with the aim of enhancing IPM strategies has yet to be formulated. Therefore, we suggest a new term, "biocontrol plants", which we define as plants that are intentionally added to a crop system with the aim of enhancing crop productivity through pest attraction and/or pest regulation; a term that will promote the use of biocontrol services, and can ultimately lead to an increase in the sustainability of cropping systems.

  16. Using Deep Learning for Image-Based Plant Disease Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sharada P; Hughes, David P; Salathé, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof). The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale.

  17. Using Deep Learning for Image-Based Plant Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sharada P.; Hughes, David P.; Salathé, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof). The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale. PMID:27713752

  18. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  19. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Sun, Yu; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture.

  20. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  1. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR; Planes de gestion de vida en centrales nucleares PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-10-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  2. System configuration for advanced water management in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirazza, G.; Sigon, F.; Zagano, C. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Water ie required for power plant operation and electricity generation. The water demand is steadily increasing depending on the enrgy pro-capite demand, the available or innovative technologies for power generation and the need for emissions control. Water management is also required to comply with the regulatory trends and it agrees with the guidelines for the sustainable development, as recommended at the Rio conference (Agenda 21). In order to assess the design and the operating alternatives for the water system of power plants and the impact of innovative technologies, a simulation code has been developed. The ENEL proprietary WATERSOFT code is presented in this paper. Some significant results will be presented and discussed, within the frame of improving the water management and optimizing the overall performances of the actual water systems.

  3. Microtubule Associated Proteins in Plants and the Processes They Manage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that physically bind to microtubules in eukaryotes. MAPs play important roles in regulating the polymerization and organization of microtubules and in using the ensuing microtubule arrays to carry out a variety of cellular functions. In plants, MAPs manage the construction, repositioning, and dismantling of four distinct microtubule arrays throughout the cell cycle. Three of these arrays, the cortical array, the preprophase band,and the phragmoplast, are prominent to plants and are responsible for facilitating cell wall deposition and modification,transducing signals, demarcating the plane of cell division, and forming the new cell plate during cytokinesis, This review highlights important aspects of how MAPs in plants establish and maintain microtubule arrays as well as regulate cell growth, cell division, and cellular responses to the environment.

  4. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  5. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...... for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented....

  6. Indigenous bacteria may interfere with the biocontrol of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Nobutaka; Akutsu, Katsumi

    2009-06-01

    Prodigiosin is a reddish antibiotic pigment that plays an important role in the biocontrol of plant diseases by the bacterium Serratia marcescens. However, its activity is unstable under agricultural conditions; further, it can be degraded by various environmental factors. To examine the effect of epiphytic microbes on the stability of prodigiosin used for biological control processes, we collected a total of 1,280 bacterial isolates from the phylloplane of cyclamen and tomato plants. Approximately 72% of the bacterial strains isolated from the cyclamen plants and 66% of those isolated from the tomato plants grew on minimal agar medium containing 100 μg ml-1 prodigiosin. Certain isolates obtained from both plant species exhibited prodigiosin-degrading activity. We compared the 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from the isolates with sequences in a database. The comparison revealed that the sequences determined for the prodigiosin-degrading isolates were homologous to those of the genera Pseudomonas, Caulobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Novosphingobium, and Rathayibacter. These results indicate that indigenous epiphytic microorganisms may interfere with the interaction between plant pathogens and biocontrol agents by degrading the antibiotics produced by the agents.

  7. Forecast Inaccuracies in Power Plant Projects From Project Managers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Orlando

    Guided by organizational theory, this phenomenological study explored the factors affecting forecast preparation and inaccuracies during the construction of fossil fuel-fired power plants in the United States. Forecast inaccuracies can create financial stress and uncertain profits during the project construction phase. A combination of purposeful and snowball sampling supported the selection of participants. Twenty project managers with over 15 years of experience in power generation and project experience across the United States were interviewed within a 2-month period. From the inductive codification and descriptive analysis, 5 themes emerged: (a) project monitoring, (b) cost control, (c) management review frequency, (d) factors to achieve a precise forecast, and (e) factors causing forecast inaccuracies. The findings of the study showed the factors necessary to achieve a precise forecast includes a detailed project schedule, accurate labor cost estimates, monthly project reviews and risk assessment, and proper utilization of accounting systems to monitor costs. The primary factors reported as causing forecast inaccuracies were cost overruns by subcontractors, scope gaps, labor cost and availability of labor, and equipment and material cost. Results of this study could improve planning accuracy and the effective use of resources during construction of power plants. The study results could contribute to social change by providing a framework to project managers to lessen forecast inaccuracies, and promote construction of power plants that will generate employment opportunities and economic development.

  8. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  9. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up till now, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. Although mainly arable and/or mixed arable/pastoral farmers, Ameru of central Kenya are known to have a rich history of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Their collective and accumulative ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK is likely to be just as rich and worth documenting. The aim of the study was to document and analyse the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the Ameru. Methods Non-alienating, dialogic, participatory action research (PAR and participatory rural appraisal (PRA approaches involving 21 women and men aged between 50 and 79 years old were utilized. A combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to select 21 key respondents. The methods comprised a set of triangulation approach needed in EVK for non-experimental validation of ethnoknowledge of the Ameru. Results A total of 48 plant species distributed in 26 families were documented with details of diseases/ill-health conditions, parts of plants used and form of preparation and administration methods applied to different animal groups. Of these families, Fabaceae had the highest number of species (16.67%, followed by Solanaceae (12.5%, Asteraceae and Euphorbiacea (each comprising 8.33%, Lamiaceae (6.25%, Apocynaceae and Boraginaceae (each comprising 4.17%, while the rest of the 19 families, each was represented by a single plant species. About 30 livestock diseases/ill-health conditions were described, each treated by at least one of the 48 plant species. Most prevalent diseases/ill-health conditions included: - anaplasmosis, diarrhea, East Coast fever, pneumonia, helminthiasis, general weakness and skin diseases involving wounds caused by ectoparasites. Conclusion The study showed that there was a rich knowledge and ethnopractices for traditional animal healthcare amongst the Ameru. This study therefore provides some groundwork for elucidating the efficacy of

  10. Investigation on rice virus diseases transmitted by rice plant hoppers in low and hot valley of Yunnan Province in winter and suggestion on virus diseases management%云南低热河谷地区冬季稻飞虱传播的水稻病毒病调查及防治建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭荣; 吕建平; 肖文祥; 李建华; 王树明

    2013-01-01

    During February 2012,field investigation and sample collection of suspicious infected rice,maize and ryegrass as well as rice plant hoppers (BPH,WBPH,SBPH) were conducted in Shidian and Yuanjiang County,Yunnan where rice virus diseases including SRBSDV and RRSV have spread widely and caused heavy loss.Virus detection tests showed that some WBPHs were viruliferous with SRBSDV and some BPHs with RRSV,meanwhile some ratoon rice were infected with SRBSDV,RBSDV and RRSV respectively or simultaneously.Rice seedling was infected with SRBSDV.Autumn/winter-maize in Shidian County was infected severely with SRBSDV by 36.81% infected acreage of growing area.These results suggested that overwintering rice plant hoppers were major vector for virus diseases of early rice and maize in low and hot valley of Yunnan.Ratoon rice,dropping-grain rice,early rice seedling,and autumn/winter maize were major hosts of viruses during winter and etiology of virus diseases of early rice.The main measure on management of virus diseases in rice and maize in low and hot valley are to grow vegetables in place of maize in winter,or to postpone sowing date to keep field empty for at least one month between late rice harvest and winter maize sowing,and to cover rice seedling bed with insect net or non-woven fabric.%于2012年2月对云南低热河谷地区施甸县、元江县玉米、水稻、黑麦草和稻飞虱调查及样本检测,结果显示,白背飞虱携带南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(SRBSDV),褐飞虱携带水稻齿叶矮缩病毒(RRSV),再生稻感染SRBSDV、水稻黑条矮缩病毒(RBSDV)和RRSV,水稻秧苗感染SRBSDV.玉米SRBSDV发病面积占种植面积的36.81%.云南低热河谷地区越冬稻飞虱是早春水稻、玉米病毒病传播的重要介体,再生稻、秧苗、玉米是病毒冬季存续循环的重要寄主和初始毒源.改秋冬种玉米为蔬菜,或推迟玉米播期,晚稻收割后及时翻耕,晚稻收割后至玉米播种期间有1个月以上的空

  11. Plant Resistance to Virus Diseases through Genetic Engineering: Can a Similar Approach Control Plant-parasitic Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann-Philipp, Ulrich; Beachy, Roger N.

    1993-01-01

    Genetically engineered resistance against plant virus diseases has been achieved by transforming plants with gene constructs that encode viral sequences. Several successful field trials of virus-resistant transgenic plants have been carried out. Specific features of virus infection make it possible to interfere with different steps of the infection and disease cycle by accumulating products of chimeric genes introduced into transgenic plants. In this paper we describe the most common methods ...

  12. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    2008-04-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore striatal dopamine signaling by increasing the supply of dopamine with oral levodopa (L-dopa), stimulating dopamine receptors directly using dopamine agonists, or inhibiting the reuptake of endogenous dopamine. L-dopa is standard therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, with continued treatment and disease progression, the response to oral dopaminergic drugs becomes unstable and motor fluctuations emerge, including off periods and dyskinesia. Direct duodenal-administered infusible L-dopa/carbidopa is effective for the management of refractory motor fluctuations in some patient populations. However, enteral infusions cannot mimic the function of the normal dopaminergic brain, and around-the-clock constant-rate administration carries the risk of causing refractory off periods associated with severe immobility and hyperpyrexia. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is also a promising treatment. DBS passes a high-frequency electrical current into the target area, mimicking the effect of lesioning the stimulated area. However, this treatment requires invasive surgery and is appropriate for a limited segment of the patient population. This supplement provides a rationale for the use of continuous dopaminergic receptor stimulation and offers guidelines on the individualization of treatment decisions, with special focus on continuous L-dopa infusion and STN DBS. Erik Wolters, MD, PhD, offers an introduction to the impact of continuous L-dopa infusion. Andrew J. Lees, MD, FRCP, provides an overview of the physiologic response to L-dopa and reviews clinical pharmacologic studies of intravenous and intraduodenal L-dopa. Jens Volkmann, MD, discusses

  13. Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

    2008-01-01

    The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities.

  14. Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacchaeus Omogbadegun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databases. Unified Modelling Language, Microsoft-Visual-Studio.Net, C#3.0, Microsoft-Jet-Engine4.0, MySQL, Loquendo Multilingual Text-to-Speech Software, YouTube, and VLC Media Player were used.

  15. Taming wildlife disease: bridging the gap between science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Mihaljevic, Joseph R.; Arellano, Ana Lisette; Kueneman, Jordan G.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2013-01-01

    1.Parasites and pathogens of wildlife can threaten biodiversity, infect humans and domestic animals, and cause significant economic losses, providing incentives to manage wildlife diseases. Recent insights from disease ecology have helped transform our understanding of infectious disease dynamics and yielded new strategies to better manage wildlife diseases. Simultaneously, wildlife disease management (WDM) presents opportunities for large-scale empirical tests of disease ecology theory in diverse natural systems. 2.To assess whether the potential complementarity between WDM and disease ecology theory has been realized, we evaluate the extent to which specific concepts in disease ecology theory have been explicitly applied in peer-reviewed WDM literature. 3.While only half of WDM articles published in the past decade incorporated disease ecology theory, theory has been incorporated with increasing frequency over the past 40 years. Contrary to expectations, articles authored by academics were no more likely to apply disease ecology theory, but articles that explain unsuccessful management often do so in terms of theory. 4.Some theoretical concepts such as density-dependent transmission have been commonly applied, whereas emerging concepts such as pathogen evolutionary responses to management, biodiversity–disease relationships and within-host parasite interactions have not yet been fully integrated as management considerations. 5.Synthesis and applications. Theory-based disease management can meet the needs of both academics and managers by testing disease ecology theory and improving disease interventions. Theoretical concepts that have received limited attention to date in wildlife disease management could provide a basis for improving management and advancing disease ecology in the future.

  16. Managing patients for zoonotic disease in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Corning, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses involve infections and infestations transmissible from animals to humans. Zoonoses are a major global threat. Exposure to zoonotic pathogens exists in various settings including encroachment on nature; foreign travel; pet keeping; bushmeat consumption; attendance at zoological parks, petting zoos, school ‘animal contact experiences’, wildlife markets, circuses, and domesticated and exotic animal farms. Under-ascertainment is believed to be common and the frequency of some zoonotic disease appears to be increasing. Zoonoses include direct, indirect and aerosolized transmission. Improved awareness of zoonoses in the hospital environment may be important to the growing need for prevention and control. We reviewed relevant literature for the years 2000 to present and identified a significant need for the promotion of awareness and management of zoonoses in the hospital environment. This article provides a new decision-tree, as well as staff and patient guidance on the prevention and control of zoonoses associated with hospitals. PMID:24040497

  17. Heart Failure Update: Chronic Disease Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Lorna B

    2016-03-01

    With high mortality and readmission rates among patients with heart failure (HF), multiple disease management models have been and continue to be tested, with mixed results. Early postdischarge care improves outcomes for patients. Telemonitoring also can assist in reducing mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. Office-based team care improves patient outcomes, with important components including rapid access to physicians, partnerships with clinical pharmacists, education, monitoring, and support. Pay-for-performance measures developed for HF, primarily use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, also improve patient outcomes, but the influence of adherence to other measures has been minimal. Evaluating comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and making drug adjustments for patients with HF to include blood pressure control and use of metformin, when possible, can reduce mortality and morbidity.

  18. Trevor's Disease: Management Difficulties and Proposed Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Daine O

    2016-09-01

    Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, also known as Trevor's disease, is a rare developmental disorder with osteocartilagenous overgrowth of the epiphysis or epiphyseal equivalent. The condition bears similarities to osteochondroma in terms of its radiographic appearance, but differs in its pathobiology and geographic occurrence. Unlike the metaphyseal occurrence of osteochondromata, it arises from the epiphysis. The clinical presentation is wide and varied, but mechanical symptoms and deformities predominate. Early reports of the condition suggested involvement of the lower limbs only. However, since then, numerous reports have indicated a more generalized distribution. Difficulties in management and recurrence rates seem to hinge on whether its origin is intra-articular or extra-articular. A new classification system to include these parameters is discussed. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e967-e969.].

  19. The potential of disease management for neuromuscular hereditary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc; Tremblay, Carmen; Côté, Charlotte; Leclerc, Nadine; Mathieu, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular hereditary disorders require long-term multidisciplinary rehabilitation management. Although the need for coordinated healthcare management has long been recognized, most neuromuscular disorders are still lacking clinical guidelines about their long-term management and structured evaluation plan with associated services. One of the most prevalent adult-onset neuromuscular disorders, myotonic dystrophy type 1, generally presents several comorbidities and a variable clinical picture, making management a constant challenge. This article presents a healthcare follow-up plan and proposes a nursing case management within a disease management program as an innovative and promising approach. This disease management program and model consists of eight components including population identification processes, evidence-based practice guidelines, collaborative practice, patient self-management education, and process outcomes evaluation (Disease Management Association of America, 2004). It is believed to have the potential to significantly improve healthcare management for neuromuscular hereditary disorders and will prove useful to nurses delivering and organizing services for this population.

  20. Plant phosphates, phytate and pathological calcifications in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buades Fuster, Juan Manuel; Sanchís Cortés, Pilar; Perelló Bestard, Joan; Grases Freixedas, Félix

    Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential. Dietary phosphorus can be classified according to its structure in organic phosphorus (plant and animal) and inorganic (preservatives and additives). Plant-phosphorus (legumes and nuts), mainly associated with InsP6, is less absorbable by the human gastrointestinal tract as the bioavailability of phosphorous from plant-derived foods is very low. Recent data indicate that restriction of foods containing plant phosphates may compromise the adequate supply of nutrients that have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular events, such as InsP6 or fibre found in legumes and nuts. Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in humans suggest that InsP6 can prevent lithiasis and VCs and protect from osteoporosis. In conclusion, we need prospective studies to elucidate the potential benefits and risks of phytate (InsP6) through the diet and as an intravenous drug in patients on haemodialysis.

  1. Ethnomedicinal values of some selected plant species in Fed-eral College of Wildlife Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osunsina IOO; Ogunjinmi AA; Ajani MO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The objective of this study was to identify the ethno-medicinal values of some selected plant species in Federal College of Wildlife Management,New Bussa,Niger state,Nigeria.Methods:Three methods of da-ta collection were employed:(1)reconnansance survey of the College Estate was carried out to identify some selected medicinal plants found within the area;(2)field observations alongside personal recognition of some of these plant species were carried out and (3)interview was also carried out in three villages around the Col-lege Estate to determine the plants being utilized by the villagers.The villages were Kere,Labararu and Pop-poi.The various uses of the identified plants and their parts used for the said purposes were recorded.One hundred people were interviewed altogether in these villages.Recorded information gathered on the medicinal uses of plants includes the type of plants,the part used to cure sickness,preparation of concoction,and the type of sickness cured.The data gathered were presented and analyzed using tables.Results:The results re-vealed that the identified plant species were being used in curing various diseases such as dysentery,fever, stomach pains,cough,malaria,yellow fever,diarrhea,gonorrhea,pile,body pains and other diseases.Con-clusion:The study concluded that since the vast numbers of species in the study area possess medicinal values, there is need to conserve and protect the vegetation of the area from unsustainable exploitations which are the common features of vegetation in the surrounding land uses.

  2. Asthma Management in Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common comorbid factor in sickle cell disease (SCD. However, the incidence of asthma in SCD is much higher than expected compared to rates in the general population. Whether “asthma” in SCD is purely related to genetic and environmental factors or rather is the consequence of the underlying hemolytic and inflammatory state is a topic of recent debate. Regardless of the etiology, hypoxemia induced by bronchoconstriction and inflammation associated with asthma exacerbations will contribute to a cycle of sickling and subsequent complications of SCD. Recent studies confirm that asthma predisposes to complications of SCD such as pain crises, acute chest syndrome, and stroke and is associated with increased mortality. Early recognition and aggressive standard of care management of asthma may prevent serious pulmonary complications and reduce mortality. However, data regarding the management of asthma in SCD is very limited. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of current asthma therapy in patients with SCD and coincident asthma, while mechanistic studies are needed to delineate the underlying pathophysiology.

  3. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditional adult-onset HD. Nonetheless, the frequent predominance of bradykinesia and dystonia early in the course of the illness, more frequent occurrence of epilepsy and myoclonus, more widespread pathology, and larger genetic lesion means that the distinction is still relevant. In addition, the relative rarity of JHD means that the clinician managing the patient is often doing so for the first time. Management is, at best, symptomatic and supportive with few or no evidence-based guidelines. In this article, the authors will review what is known of the condition and present some suggestions based on their experience. PMID:24416077

  4. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wright, M.D

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  5. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the abnormal bone remodeling in myeloma bone disease. Myeloma cells drive bone destruction that increases tumor growth, directly stimulates the OCL formation, and induces cells in the marrow microenvironment to produce factors that drive OCL formation and suppress OBL formation. Factors produced by marrow stromal cells and OCL promote tumor growth through direct action on myeloma cells and by increasing angiogenesis. Current therapies targeting MMBD focus on preventing osteoclastic bone destruction; however regulators of OBL inhibition in MMBD have also been identified, and targeted agents with a potential anabolic effect in MMBD are under investigation. This review will discuss the mechanisms responsible for MMBD and therapeutic approaches currently in use and in development for the management of MMBD. PMID:26909272

  6. Faecal calprotectin: Management in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; Manuel; Benítez; Valle; García-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disorder which leads to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. A tailored therapy to achieve mucosal healing with the less adverse events has become a key issue in the management of IBD. In the past, the clinical remission was the most important factor to consider for adapting diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies. However, there is no a good correlation between symptoms and intestinal lesions, so currently the goals of treatment are to achieve not only the control of symptoms, but deep remission, which is related with a favourable prognosis. Thus, the determination of biological markers or biomarkers of intestinal inflammation play a crucial role. Many biomarkers have been extensively evaluated in IBD showing significant correlation with endoscopic lesions, risk of recurrence and response to treatment. One of the most important markers is faecal calprotectin(FC). Despite calprotectin limitations, this biomarker represents a reliable and noninvasive alternative to reduce the need for endoscopic procedures. FC has demonstrated its performance for regular monitoring of IBD patients, not only to the diagnosis for discriminating IBD from non-IBD diagnosis, but for assessing disease activity, relapse prediction and response to therapy. Although, FC provides better results than other biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, these surrogate markers of intestinal inflammation should not be used isolation but in combination with other clinical, endoscopic, radiological or/and histological parameters enabling a comprehensive assessment of IBD patients.

  7. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  8. Detection of plant leaf diseases using image segmentation and soft computing techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Vijai; Misra, A.K

    Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural...

  9. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment.

  10. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  11. The management of refractory coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with coeliac disease are ‘nonresponsive’ to gluten withdrawal. Most cases of nonresponsive coeliac disease are due to persisting gluten ingestion. Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is currently defined by persistent symptoms and signs of malabsorption after gluten exclusion for 12 months with ongoing intestinal villous atrophy. Primary (without initial response to diet) and secondary (relapse following response to diet) RCD is recognized. RCD is further classified as type I or type II based on the absence or presence of a population of aberrant intestinal lymphocytes. Quality of dietetic advice and support is fundamental, and lack of objective corroboration of gluten exclusion may result in over-identification of RCD I, particularly in those cases with persisting antibody responses. Over-reliance on lymphocyte clonality similarly may result in over-diagnosis of RCD II which requires careful quantification of aberrant lymphocyte populations. Management of RCD should be undertaken in specialist centres. It requires initial intensive dietary supervision, strict gluten exclusion and subsequent re-evaluation. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend specific treatments. Steroids are often used in both RCD I and II (albeit with little objective evidence of benefit in RCD II), and azathioprine as steroid-sparing therapy in RCD I. There is growing evidence for the use of cladribine in RCD II with autologous stem cell transplantation in nonresponders, but this requires further multicentre evaluation. There remains considerable controversy regarding the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of RCD: international consensus in these areas is urgently required to facilitate future therapeutic advances. PMID:23556127

  12. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host-pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host-pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such interactions have for

  13. Plant hormone interactions: innovative targets for crop breeding and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Veselov, Dmitry S; Arkhipova, Tatyana N; Davies, William J

    2012-05-01

    Here we highlight how both the root and shoot environment impact on whole plant hormone balance, particularly under stresses such as soil drying, and relate hormone ratios and relative abundances to processes influencing plant performance and yield under both mild and more severe stress. We discuss evidence (i) that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene act antagonistically on grain-filling rate amongst other yield-impacting processes; (ii) that ABA's effectiveness as an agent of stomatal closure can be modulated by coincident ethylene or cytokinin accumulation; and (iii) that enhanced cytokinin production can increase growth and yield by improving foliar stay-green indices under stress, and by improving processes that impact grain-filling and number, and that this can be the result of altered relative abundances of cytokinin and ABA (and other hormones). We describe evidence and novel processes whereby these phenomena are/could be amenable to manipulation through genetic and management routes, such that plant performance and yield can be improved. We explore the possibility that a range of ABA-ethylene and ABA-cytokinin relative abundances could represent targets for breeding/managing for yield resilience under a spectrum of stress levels between severe and mild, and could circumvent some of the pitfalls so far encountered in the massive research effort towards breeding for increases in the complex trait of yield.

  14. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M D; Heron, Scott F; Noble, Rachel T; Revie, Crawford W; Shields, Jeffrey D; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-05

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B.; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Heron, Scott F.; Noble, Rachel T.; Revie, Crawford W.; Shields, Jeffrey D.; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C. Drew

    2016-01-01

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require. PMID:26880835

  16. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  17. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), e.g. ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The present paper provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, and management of rheumatic, metabo...

  18. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative co

  19. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  20. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  1. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunayna Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington′s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  2. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  3. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods: The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected.Results:various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species.Conclusions:The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region.

  4. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Alves, Daniela Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Ana Livya Moreira; dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; de Menezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results. PMID:28316633

  5. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, Alexandre Batista; De Morais, Selene Maia; Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Alves, Daniela Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Ana Livya Moreira; Dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; de Menezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results.

  6. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Batista Penido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results.

  7. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  8. Pricing specialty carve-outs and disease management programs under managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPensee, K T

    1997-01-01

    The drive toward improved efficiency and effectiveness in health care has spawned disease management programs to address the needs of patients with certain conditions. These programs parallel traditional case management programs in monitoring patients, but disease management differs from case management in early assessment of patient risk, with proactive clinical interventions and educational efforts. The most comprehensive programs include a coordinated delivery system that can be "carved out" from other health care benefits. Pricing disease management can benefit from the analysis of detailed, disease-specific and community-specific data from public or private sources.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  10. [Horticultural plant diseases multispectral classification using combined classified methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-Ning; Yang, Wei-Ping; Hou, De-Dong; Liao, Ning-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The research on multispectral data disposal is getting more and more attention with the development of multispectral technique, capturing data ability and application of multispectral technique in agriculture practice. In the present paper, a cultivated plant cucumber' familiar disease (Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is the research objects. The cucumber leaves multispectral images of 14 visible light channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation and illumination environment, and 210 multispectral data samples which are the 16 bands spectral reflectance of different cucumber disease were obtained. The 210 samples were classified by distance, relativity and BP neural network to discuss effective combination of classified methods for making a diagnosis. The result shows that the classified effective combination of distance and BP neural network classified methods has superior performance than each method, and the advantage of each method is fully used. And the flow of recognizing horticultural plant diseases using combined classified methods is presented.

  11. Implementing plant biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystems. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mire, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of sustainable agricultural production, agroecology aims at optimizing the economic and environmental performances of beneficial ecosystem services in order to (i increase the productivity and resilience of cultivated ecosystems and (ii preserve their natural resources. The maintenance of such performances is supported by research via the development of new tools that enhance plant tolerance to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Literature. Biostimulants can be used as a tool to complement the use of chemical inputs, by involving non-living-based products, or living-based products containing beneficial rhizosphere microbiome, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Pest management research has also made major advances in the development of efficient biocontrol methods. Elicitors and semiochemicals are considered to be some of the most promising tools for inducing plant resistance to various diseases and enhancing natural predation, respectively. Several products are already on the market. This review discusses current methods for exploiting and applying biostimulant and biocontrol products in contemporary agricultural systems. Future applications of these tools for sustainable management of cultivated ecosystems are also discussed. Conclusions. These tools are still difficult to use because of their lack of reliability in the field and their uneasy integration in the cropping systems. Further studies are needed to better understand the parameters influencing the efficiency of PGPR, elicitors and semiochemicals. Special attention needs to be given to the formulation and the interactions of these products with plant physiology and the environment.

  12. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  13. An inventory of plants commonly used in the treatment of some disease conditions in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunnisola, O S; Adetutu, A; Afolayan, A J

    2015-02-23

    This study was designed to take an inventory of medicinal plants, recipes and methods commonly used traditionally to treat some cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in five local government areas in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. First-hand field survey through semi-structured questionnaire was employed in the 5 months study. A total of 101 plant species (medicinal plants (80.90%), spices (17.5%) and vegetables (1.53%)) belonging to 51 different families were mentioned for the treatment of various types of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The survey revealed that 51.5% of the plants mentioned are used for the management of inflammatory diseases, 34.7% for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and 11.9% of the plants are used for the treatment of both diseases. Euphorbiaceae (7.9%) are the most frequently used families of plants for the treatment of the various types of diseases mentioned, followed by Caesalpiaceae, (4.9%), Apocynoceae (4.9%) and Poaceae (4.9%). Fifty-nine recipes are usually prepared for the treatment of the six types of inflammatory diseases while twenty-three recipes are reportedly used for the treatment of the four types of cardiovascular diseases mentioned in this study. The recipes covered in the survey were mostly prepared from leaves (37.6%) and roots (23.8%) decoction or infusions. Medications are mostly administered orally with few numbers of the recipes showing side effect. The study has documented indigenous plants in Ogbomoso as a potential source for the development of new drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  15. Managing Abiotic Factors of Compost to Increase Soilborne Disease Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Deirdre E.

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can devastate crops, causing economic losses for farmers due to reduced yields and expensive management practices. Fumigants and fungicides have harmful impacts on the surrounding environment and can be toxic to humans. Therefore, alternative methods of disease management are important. The disease suppressive abilities of…

  16. Managing Abiotic Factors of Compost to Increase Soilborne Disease Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Deirdre E.

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can devastate crops, causing economic losses for farmers due to reduced yields and expensive management practices. Fumigants and fungicides have harmful impacts on the surrounding environment and can be toxic to humans. Therefore, alternative methods of disease management are important. The disease suppressive abilities of…

  17. A taxonomy for disease management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Harlan M; Currie, Peter M; Riegel, Barbara; Phillips, Christopher O; Peterson, Eric D; Smith, Renee; Yancy, Clyde W; Faxon, David P

    2006-09-26

    Disease management has shown great promise as a means of reorganizing chronic care and optimizing patient outcomes. Nevertheless, disease management programs are widely heterogeneous and lack a shared definition of disease management, which limits our ability to compare and evaluate different programs. To address this problem, the American Heart Association's Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group developed a system of classification that can be used both to categorize and compare disease management programs and to inform efforts to identify specific factors associated with effectiveness. The AHA Writing Group began with a conceptual model of disease management and its components and subsequently validated this model over a wide range of disease management programs. A systematic MEDLINE search was performed on the terms heart failure, diabetes, and depression, together with disease management, case management, and care management. The search encompassed articles published in English between 1987 and 2005. We then selected studies that incorporated (1) interventions designed to improve outcomes and/or reduce medical resource utilization in patients with heart failure, diabetes, or depression and (2) clearly defined protocols with at least 2 prespecified components traditionally associated with disease management. We analyzed the study protocols and used qualitative research methods to develop a disease management taxonomy with our conceptual model as the organizing framework. The final taxonomy includes the following 8 domains: (1) Patient population is characterized by risk status, demographic profile, and level of comorbidity. (2) Intervention recipient describes the primary targets of disease management intervention and includes patients and caregivers, physicians and allied healthcare providers, and healthcare delivery systems. (3) Intervention content delineates individual components, such as patient education, medication management, peer support, or some

  18. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    effects of spectral quality on disease development when other wavelengths were included in the light source (MH-, 660/BF-, and 660/735-grown plants) were equivocal. These results demonstrate that spectral quality may be useful as a component of an integrated pest management program for future space-based controlled ecological life support systems.

  19. The use and role of predictive systems in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David H; Mahaffee, Walter F; McRoberts, Neil; Pfender, William F

    2013-01-01

    Disease predictive systems are intended to be management aids. With a few exceptions, these systems typically do not have direct sustained use by growers. Rather, their impact is mostly pedagogic and indirect, improving recommendations from farm advisers and shaping management concepts. The degree to which a system is consulted depends on the amount of perceived new, actionable information that is consistent with the objectives of the user. Often this involves avoiding risks associated with costly disease outbreaks. Adoption is sensitive to the correspondence between the information a system delivers and the information needed to manage a particular pathosystem at an acceptable financial risk; details of the approach used to predict disease risk are less important. The continuing challenge for researchers is to construct tools relevant to farmers and their advisers that improve upon their current management skill. This goal requires an appreciation of growers' decision calculus in managing disease problems and, more broadly, their overall farm enterprise management.

  20. Disease management. A global cost-containing initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, K; Maynard, A

    2000-06-01

    Disease management has been marketed by healthcare industry providers as a way of improving resource allocation in healthcare and containing costs. However, to achieve improved efficiency in healthcare requires the guidelines and protocols in the disease management process to be based on sound evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness. This has not always been the case. The approach itself has an inadequate evidence base in terms of randomised controlled trials, other rigorous methods of evaluation and the results of economic evaluation. Disease management can be viewed as an attempt by pharmaceutical companies to undertake forward vertical integration into other parts of the healthcare process. This could reduce uncertainty for purchasers and reduce transaction costs, thereby potentially facilitating both healthcare expenditure control and efficiency. However, such cost savings may be outweighed by a concentration of power in disease management (pharmaceutical) companies, and the exploitation of such power to inflate expenditure and misallocate resources. Disease management must be appraised with care.

  1. Resistance induced component of management of diseases of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusciélio Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of induced resistance presents as a viable alternative in the management of diseases of the vine. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Agro Mos® and potassium phosphite in controlling diseases of grapevine under field conditions in the Valley San Francisco. O test was conducted under field conditions in the experimental area IFSertão Pernambucano, Petrolina, PE, using the cultivar Petit Sirah. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, composed of five treatments and five replicates: T1 - control; T2 - Cabrio Top® - CT (2kg ha-1; T3 - Agro Mos® - AM (3mL L-1; T4 - Fosfito de potássio - FP (4mL L-1; T5 - Agro Mos® - AM (3mL L-1 interleaved with the fungicide Cabrio Top® - CT (2kg ha-1. Each plot consisted of eight plants. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and averages compared by Tukey test at 5%. Conditions in which the experiment was developed, the use of potassium phosphite and Agro-Mos® promoted a significant reduction in the incidence of Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator.Key-words: resistance induced, Plasmopara viticola, Uncinula necator.

  2. Protecting crops from non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses: a review on the use of barrier plants as a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-09-01

    Barrier plants are a management tool based on secondary plants used within or bordering a primary crop for the purpose of disease control. Aphid-transmitted viruses account for approximately 50% of the 600 known viruses with an invertebrate vector. Barrier plants may act as real natural sinks for non-persistent aphid-transmitted viruses and have proved in the past to be an effective crop management strategy to protect against virus infection. Increasing the knowledge on aphid host seeking and flying behaviour, and on how barrier plants may affect the behaviour of aphids and their natural enemies will allow further development of this environmentally-friendly habitat manipulation strategy. An ideal plant barrier should be a non-host for the virus and the vector, but appealing to aphid landing and attractive to their natural enemies and should allow sufficient residence time to allow aphid probing before taking-off occurs. In this review, we have addressed why aphids are manageable by barrier cropping, the mechanisms by which barrier plants affect the occurrence of non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses and the limitations of using barrier plants as a virus control strategy. Finally, we have pointed out future directions of research that should be conducted to integrate barrier cropping with other disease management strategies, and optimise and extend the use of barrier plants as a strategy for managing aphid-transmitted virus diseases.

  3. PLANT PRODUCTS POTENTIAL AS ANTI-ANGIOGENIC AND IN CANCER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Kalpana S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease that knows no geographic boundaries. Cancer is abnormal malignant growth of body tissue or cell. A cancerous growth is called a malignant tumor or malignancy. A non cancerous growth is called benign tumor. The process of cancer metastasis is consisting of series of sequential interrelated steps, each of which is rate limiting. Plants are loaded with chemical with chemo preventive activities of some of them are undergoing clinical trial. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels important during fatal life and growth of adult blood. It is essential step in tumor growth, as tumors cant grow approximately to 2mm3 without developing new blood supply. The complex interplay of positive and negative regulators of angiogenic process determines the degree of new blood vessels formation in and around a tumor. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a potentially novel method of cancer therapy. The anti-angiogenic agents in current use are unable to destroy the tumor vasculature completely. Extensive screening of plants for anti-cancer profile has shown some good results. Some plants are already in use. Isolation of active principle of these plants may provide the basic nucleus upon which synthetic drug can be produced. The selected and careful use of this plant products may definitely help in anti-angiogenic therapy and thus, in cancer management. Hence it is possible that herbal remedies definitely hold hope for the discovery of potent anti-angiogenic and drugs on metastasis.

  4. Evaluation of the hypertension disease management program in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younmi; Lee, Kunsei; Shin, Eunyoung; Kim, Hyeongsu; June, Kyung Ja

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated how the Hypertension Disease Management Program (HDMP) affects patient's blood pressure, knowledge, health behaviors, and use of medical services. Evaluation was performed by 2 measures, which were before and after comparison within the management group (n = 210) and comparison between the management group and control group (n = 1050) in 2005. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of management group significantly decreased from 137.5 and 86.0 mm Hg to 131.2 and 83.8 mm Hg (P management techniques significantly increased after HDMP. However, there was no significant difference in the use of medical service between the disease management group and the control group. This study showed that the HDMP improved lifestyle and reduced blood pressure on the disease management group, but changed neither medical costs nor use of medical services. Long-term evaluation should be performed to determine if the HDMP reduce medical costs and use of medical services.

  5. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouan; Mersha, Zelalem; Vallad, Gary E; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole). In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  6. Disease management in healthcare organizations: results of in-depth interviews with disease management decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whellan, David J; Cohen, Elizabeth J; Matchar, David B; Califf, Robert M

    2002-07-01

    Despite the widening use of disease management (DM) programs throughout the country, little is understood about the "state of DM" in healthcare systems and managed care organizations. To better characterize the range of users of DM in healthcare and to identify critical issues, both present and future, for DM. Qualitative survey. Forty-seven healthcare systems (n = 22) and managed care organizations (n = 25) were randomly selected. Decision makers were identified and interviewed between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2000. We limited quantitative analysis to tabulations of suitable responses, without statistical testing. Responses were organized around 3 themes: models for DM, implementation strategies, and measurements of success. Of 47 decision makers surveyed, 42 (89%) reported that their organizations currently have (75%) or are working to develop (14%) DM programs. Although the goals of DM programs were similar, organizations took a variety of approaches to achieving these ends. There were typically 3 steps in implementing a DM program: analysis of patient data, external analysis, and organizational analysis. Decision makers believed that DM programs had only achieved partial success in reaching the 2 main goals of improved quality of care and cost savings. Given the variety of DM programs, there is a need to develop a classification scheme to allow for better comparison between programs. Further quantitative studies of decision makers' opinions would be helpful in developing programs and in designing necessary studies of patient management strategies.

  7. Environmental Management System of Thermal plants: SIGMA; El sistema de gestion medioambiental de centrales termicas: SIGMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo Montoya, I.; Rodriguez Zarzalejos, A.

    1995-04-01

    SIGMA, (Sistema de Gestion Medioambiental) this Environmental Management System includes the different factors that are present in the environmental management of a conventional Thermal Plant such as: Air and Water Pollution, Hazardous Waste Management, Energy Recovery and Control of the Environmental Impact. Up to date the section Air Pollution is being developed and set up in the Thermal Plant of Meirama. (Author)

  8. Managing refractory Crohn's disease: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanida S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Tanida, Keiji Ozeki, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Takahito Katano, Hiromi Kataoka, Takeshi Kamiya, Takashi Joh Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Aichi Prefecture, Japan Abstract: The goals of treatment for active Crohn's disease (CD are to achieve clinical remission and improve quality of life. Conventional therapeutics for moderate-to-severe CD include 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, purine analogs, azathioprine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Patients who fail to respond to conventional therapy are treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab, but their efficacy is limited due to primary nonresponse or loss of response. It is suggested that this requires switch to another TNF-α inhibitor, a combination therapy with TNF-α blockade plus azathioprine, or granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis, and that other therapeutic options having different mechanisms of action, such as blockade of inflammatory cytokines or adhesion molecules, are needed. Natalizumab and vedolizumab are neutralizing antibodies directed against integrin a4 and a4ß7, respectively. Ustekinumab is a neutralizing antibody directed against the receptors for interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. Here, we provide an overview of therapeutic treatments that are effective and currently available for CD patients, as well as some that likely will be available in the near future. We also discuss the advantages of managing patients with refractory CD using a combination of TNF-α inhibitors plus azathioprine or intensive monocyte adsorptive apheresis. Keywords: adalimumab, granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis, combination therapy, complete remission

  9. Conceptual model for heart failure disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulou, Efstathia; Abbate, Kariann; Whellan, David J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to propose a conceptual model for heart failure (HF) disease management (HFDM) and to define the components of an efficient HFDM plan in reference to this model. Articles that evaluated 1 or more of the following aspects of HFDM were reviewed: (1) outpatient clinic follow-up; (2) self-care interventions to enhance patient skills; and (3) remote evaluation of worsening HF either using structured telephone support (STS) or by monitoring device data (telemonitoring). The success of programs in reducing readmissions and mortality were mixed. Outpatient follow-up programs generally resulted in improved outcomes, including decreased readmissions. Based on 1 meta-analysis, specialty clinics improved outcomes and nonspecialty clinics did not. Results from self-care programs were inconsistent and might have been affected by patient cognitive status and educational level, and intervention intensity. Telemonitoring, despite initially promising meta-analyses demonstrating a decrease in the number and duration of HF-related readmissions and all-cause mortality rates at follow-up, has not been shown in randomized trials to consistently reduce readmissions or mortality. However, evidence from device monitoring trials in particular might have been influenced by technology and design issues that might be rectified in future trials. Results from the literature suggest that the ideal HFDM plan would include outpatient follow-up at an HF specialty clinic and continuous education to improve patient self-care. The end result of this plan would lead to better understanding on the part of the patient and improved patient ability to recognize and respond to signs of decompensation. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Opportunities for administrators to promote disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Gamm, Larry D; Bolin, Jane Nelson; Peck, B Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Studies of disease management (DM) have shown that patients who participate in such programs achieve better health status and make fewer emergency room visits. Private and government payers have recently increased their efforts to promote DM initiatives through financial incentives to healthcare providers. This article explores opportunities for administrators of health services organizations (HSO) to promote DM in the current political and economic environment. Our survey of professionals (DM leaders, physicians, and DM nurses) in six DM programs reveals these professionals' assessments of the key players and resources that they deem important to their respective DM programs. They view DM programs as heavily dependent on the support of physicians, nurses, and health plan leaders but relatively less so on the support of HSO administrators- a situation that may suggest opportunities for administrators to take on greater leadership in moving the HSO toward developing DM programs. Survey results also indicate a strong need for the integration of resources such as communication systems, electronic medical records, and DM reporting. Taken collectively, these needs suggest a number of strategies for the administrator to play a larger role in supporting the adoption and effective implementation of DM. In the article, we propose that DM programs can benefit substantially from an administrator who can demonstrate a thorough knowledge of DM-related government and private-payer initiatives and who has the ability to provide leadership to develop and implement viable DM programs. Valued contributions that the administrator should bring to the table include support of standardized DM processes, use of practice guidelines, and provision of pertinent information systems.

  11. Traditional used Plants against Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Peter Eckert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by progressive memory deficits, impaired cognitive function, and altered and inappropriate behavior. Aging represents the most important risk factor for AD and the global trend in the phenomenon of population aging has dramatic consequences for public health, healthcare financing and delivery systems in the word and, especially in developing countries. Mounting evidence obtained in in vitro and in vivo studies, suggests that various traditionally used plants in Asia, India and Europe significantly affect key metabolic alterations culminating in AD-typical neurodegeneration. The present article aims to bring the reader up-to-date on the most recent studies and advances describing the direct and indirect activities of traditional used plants and its constituents possibly relieving features of AD. A variety of traditional used plants and its extracts exerted activities on AD related drug targets including AChE activity antioxidative activity, modulation of Aβ-producing secretase activities, Aβ-degradation, heavy metal chelating, induction of neurotrophic factors and cell death mechanisms. Although pre-clinical investigations identified promising drug candidates for AD, clinical evidences are still pending.

  12. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface.

  13. Application of multispectral systems for the diagnosis of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Guolong; Luo, Yongdao; Liang, Minyong

    2008-03-01

    Multispectral imaging technique combines space imaging and spectral detecting. It can obtain the spectral information and image information of object at the same time. Base on this concept, A new method proposed multispectral camera system to demonstrated plant diseases. In this paper, multispectral camera was used as image capturing device. It consists of a monochrome CCD camera and 16 narrow-band filters. The multispectral images of Macbeth 24 color patches are captured under the illumination of incandescent lamp in this experiment The 64 spectral reflectances of each color patches are calculated using Spline interpolation from 400 to 700nm in the process. And the color of the object is reproduced from the estimated spectral reflectance. The result for reproduction is contrast with the color signal using X-rite PULSE spectrophotometer. The average and maximum ΔΕ * ab are 9.23 and 12.81. It is confirmed that the multispectral system realizes the color reproduction of plant diseases from narrow-band multispectral image.

  14. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community.

  15. Managing Acute Complications Of Sickle Cell Disease In Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sathyaseelan; Chao, Jennifer H

    2016-11-01

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic hematologic disease with a variety of acute, and often recurring, complications. Vaso-occlusive crisis, a unique but common presentation in sickle cell disease, can be challenging to manage. Acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death in patients with sickle cell disease, occurring in more than half of patients who are hospitalized with a vaso-occlusive crisis. Uncommon diagnoses in children, such as stroke, priapism, and transient red cell aplasia, occur more frequently in patients with sickle cell disease and necessitate a degree of familiarity with the disease process and its management. Patients with sickle cell trait generally have a benign course, but are also subject to serious complications. This issue provides a current review of evidence-based management of the most common acute complications of sickle cell disease seen in pediatric patients in the emergency department.

  16. Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.P. [Olin Corp., Baraboo, WI (United States). Badger Army Ammunition Plant

    1994-12-31

    At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

  17. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  18. Integration of freshwater environmental policies and wastewater treatment plant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Acuña, Vicenç; Ginebreda, Antoni; Poch, Manel

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the political awareness of river water quality issues has grown substantially over the world and legislation is accordingly adapting. In the European Union (EU), two different directives regulate separately the characteristics of the discharged water and the chemical status of the receiving freshwater ecosystem. On the one hand, the characteristics of the urban effluents are regulated by the EU Directive 91/271/EEC, which defines limits on different elements set in the form of both static emission limits and minimum percentage load reductions. On the other hand, the characteristics of the receiving freshwater ecosystems are described in the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EEC), which sets minimum 'good' chemical and ecological status in water bodies that should be achieved by 2015, and aims for an ecosystem-based management. With the support of an example, we show that there is a gap in these EU environmental policies leading to non-integrated management, which may result on adverse environmental and economical consequences. We believe that these policies should be updated and tuned to account for an integrated perspective, allowing a more efficient and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants, maximizing the ecological, economical and social benefits of the system as a whole.

  19. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J.; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore

  20. Diagnosis and management of fistulizing Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Rogler, Gerhard; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    The transmural inflammation characteristic of Crohn's disease predisposes patients to the formation of fistulas. Up to 50% of patients with Crohn's disease are affected by fistulas, which is a major problem given the considerable morbidity associated with this complication. Appropriate treatment...... of fistulizing Crohn's disease. Particular focus is given to external and perianal fistulas, for which treatment options are well established. Available therapeutic options, including novel therapies, are discussed. Wherever possible, practical and evidence-based treatment regimens for Crohn's disease...

  1. Huntington's disease: review and anesthetic case management.

    OpenAIRE

    Cangemi, C. F.; Miller, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited progressive autosomal disease that affects the basal ganglia. Symptoms appear later in life and manifest as progressive mental deterioration and involuntary choreiform movements. Patients with Huntington's disease develop a progressive but variable dementia. Dysphagia, the most significant related motor symptom, hinders nutrition intake and places the patient at risk for aspiration. The combination of involuntary choreoathetoid movements, depress...

  2. Managing breaches of containment and eradication of invasive plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Murphy, Helen T; Grice, Anthony C; Clarkson, John R

    2015-02-01

    Containment can be a viable strategy for managing invasive plants, but it is not always cheaper than eradication. In many cases, converting a failed eradication programme to a containment programme is not economically justified. Despite this, many contemporary invasive plant management strategies invoke containment as a fallback for failed eradication, often without detailing how containment would be implemented.We demonstrate a generalized analysis of the costs of eradication and containment, applicable to any plant invasion for which infestation size, dispersal distance, seed bank lifetime and the economic discount rate are specified. We estimate the costs of adapting eradication and containment in response to six types of breach and calculate under what conditions containment may provide a valid fallback to a breached eradication programme.We provide simple, general formulae and plots that can be applied to any invasion and show that containment will be cheaper than eradication only when the size of the occupied zone exceeds a multiple of the dispersal distance determined by seed bank longevity and the discount rate. Containment becomes proportionally cheaper than eradication for invaders with smaller dispersal distances, longer lived seed banks, or for larger discount rates.Both containment and eradication programmes are at risk of breach. Containment is less exposed to risk from reproduction in the 'occupied zone' and three types of breach that lead to a larger 'occupied zone', but more exposed to one type of breach that leads to a larger 'buffer zone'.For a well-specified eradication programme, only the three types of breach leading to reproduction in or just outside the buffer zone can justify falling back to containment, and only if the expected costs of eradication and containment were comparable before the breach.Synthesis and applications. Weed management plans must apply a consistent definition of containment and provide sufficient implementation detail

  3. Management of renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podymow, Tiina; August, Phyllis; Akbari, Ayub

    2010-06-01

    Although renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, it poses considerable risk to maternal and fetal health. This article discusses renal physiology and assessment of renal function in pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on renal disease in patients with diabetes, lupus, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and chronic pyelonephritis. Renal diseases occasionally present for the first time in pregnancy, and diagnoses of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are described. Finally, therapy of end-stage renal disease in pregnancy, dialysis, and renal transplantation are reviewed.

  4. An architecture model for multiple disease management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lichin; Yu, Hui-Chu; Li, Hao-Chun; Wang, Yi-Van; Chen, Huang-Jen; Wang, I-Ching; Wang, Chiou-Shiang; Peng, Hui-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chi-Huang; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang; Lai, Feipei

    2013-04-01

    Disease management is a program which attempts to overcome the fragmentation of healthcare system and improve the quality of care. Many studies have proven the effectiveness of disease management. However, the case managers were spending the majority of time in documentation, coordinating the members of the care team. They need a tool to support them with daily practice and optimizing the inefficient workflow. Several discussions have indicated that information technology plays an important role in the era of disease management. Whereas applications have been developed, it is inefficient to develop information system for each disease management program individually. The aim of this research is to support the work of disease management, reform the inefficient workflow, and propose an architecture model that enhance on the reusability and time saving of information system development. The proposed architecture model had been successfully implemented into two disease management information system, and the result was evaluated through reusability analysis, time consumed analysis, pre- and post-implement workflow analysis, and user questionnaire survey. The reusability of the proposed model was high, less than half of the time was consumed, and the workflow had been improved. The overall user aspect is positive. The supportiveness during daily workflow is high. The system empowers the case managers with better information and leads to better decision making.

  5. Plant diseases in landrace varieties and hybrid maize cultivated using different technology levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vinicius de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Local soil and climate conditions as well as management techniques used in maize cropping affect disease development. In the present study, the incidence and severity of diseases were evaluated in four maize genotypes cultured in three management systems with different technology levels. We tested two landrace varieties from the North of Minas Gerais state, one double-cross hybrid and 1 singlecross hybrid. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block in lays (four varieties and three management systems and three repetitions. Disease incidence was determined by calculating the percentage of plants with symptoms, and its severity was assessed using a scale diagram to categorize symptom levels from 0 to 5. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by mean contrasts using the Scott-Knott test at a significance level of 0.05. In conclusion, cropping system affects the incidence and severity of southern rust, which is increased by high technology systems. Landrace varieties Argentino and BR da Várzea and double-cross hybrid SHS 4080 have higher resistance to southern rust than single-cross hybrid IAC 8333.

  6. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang Xinxin [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow Modeling is given and a detailed presentation of the foundational means-end concepts is presented and the conditions for proper use in modelling accidents are identified. It is shown that Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used for modelling and reasoning about design basis accidents. Its possible role for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented.

  7. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide 30 food plants deliver 95% of human daily intake of plant food calories and around 300 other plant species are delivering the last 5%. These some 300 food plants are likely to be considered traditional in Europe, while the nearly 7000 other plant species traditionally used in the human ...... at the second step. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Management of rheumatic diseases during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amy B; Chakravarty, Eliza F

    2010-05-01

    Systemic rheumatic diseases commonly affect women during the childbearing years. Many women with these diseases may be contemplating pregnancy or discover an inadvertent pregnancy, leading to concerns regarding medication use, changes in disease activity during pregnancy, safety of lactation, and future ability to care for a child given the presence of chronic illnesses. There are outstanding reviews that summarize the safety and use of immunosuppressive medications during pregnancy. However, in addition to medication use, providers need to be aware of the available data regarding fertility, pregnancy outcomes, delivery, and lactation issues that may be specific to individual diseases. Optimally, women should plan pregnancies to occur around times of disease quiescence, several months after potentially teratogenic medications have been discontinued. The course of the underlying rheumatic disease during pregnancy is variable, and there are no specific clinical or laboratory variables that consistently predict disease improvement or worsening during pregnancy. Recent data suggest that increased disease activity in women with most autoimmune diseases during pregnancy may lead to increased risk of premature delivery, low-birth-weight infants, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Arthritis involving the cervical spine and hips may impact delivery and must be considered by both obstetricians and obstetric anesthesiologists. Data are mixed regarding the impact of breastfeeding on underlying autoimmune diseases; the choice to continue breastfeeding is a personal decision.

  9. Health information technology: transforming chronic disease management and care transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaline; Brammer, Craig; McKethan, Aaron; Buntin, Melinda B

    2012-06-01

    Adoption of health information technology (HIT) is a key effort in improving care delivery, reducing costs of health care, and improving the quality of health care. Evidence from electronic health record (EHR) use suggests that HIT will play a significant role in transforming primary care practices and chronic disease management. This article shows that EHRs and HIT can be used effectively to manage chronic diseases, that HIT can facilitate communication and reduce efforts related to transitions in care, and that HIT can improve patient safety by increasing the information available to providers and patients, improving disease management and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

    2013-11-01

    Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants.

  11. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukungu, Nillian; Abuga, Kennedy; Okalebo, Faith; Ingwela, Raphael; Mwangi, Julius

    2016-12-24

    Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria. Most of these indigenous knowledge is undocumented and risks being lost yet such information could be useful in the search of new antimalarial agents. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, a malaria epidemic region, with the aim of documenting the plants used in the management of malaria. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 21 informants who included traditional medicine practitioners and other caregivers who had experience in use of plants in management of malaria. These were drawn from 4 villages located in Kakamega East sub-county, within Kakamega County based on their differences in topography. Information recorded included plant names, parts used, mode of preparation and administration and the sources of plant materials. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and google scholar to identify the reported traditional uses of these plants and studied antiplasmodial activities. In this study, 57% of the informants were aged above 50 years and a total of 61% had either no formal education or had only attained primary school education. A total of 42 plant species belonging to 24 families were identified. Most plants used in the management of malaria in this community belonged to Lamiaceae (18%), Leguminosae (9%) and Compositae (9%) plant families. Plants mostly used included Melia

  12. Coeliac disease: review of diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marjorie M; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Sanders, David S

    2017-08-21

    Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disease triggered by exposure to gluten, and manifested by small intestinal enteropathy and gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Recent guidelines recommend a concerted use of clear definitions of the disease. In Australia, the most recent estimated prevalence is 1.2% in adult men (1:86) and 1.9% in adult women (1:52). Active case finding is appropriate to diagnose coeliac disease in high risk groups. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is important to prevent nutritional deficiency and long term risk of gastrointestinal malignancy. The diagnosis of coeliac disease depends on clinico-pathological correlation: history, presence of antitransglutaminase antibodies, and characteristic histological features on duodenal biopsy (when the patient is on a gluten-containing diet). Human leucocyte antigen class II haplotypes DQ2 or DQ8 are found in nearly all patients with coeliac disease, but are highly prevalent in the general population at large (56% in Australia) and testing can only exclude coeliac disease for individuals with non-permissive haplotypes. Adhering to a gluten free diet allows duodenal mucosal healing and alleviates symptoms. Patients should be followed up with a yearly review of dietary adherence and a health check. Non-coeliac gluten or wheat protein sensitivity is a syndrome characterised by both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten and possibly other wheat proteins in people who do not have coeliac disease or wheat allergy recognised by diagnostic tests.

  13. Study of plants traditionally used in public and animal health management in Seharti Samre District, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Solomon; Abera, Balcha; Giday, Mirutse

    2015-03-15

    In Ethiopia, medicinal plants have continued to play vital role in fulfilling human and livestock healthcare needs of different communities. However, these valuable resources are being depleted mainly due to agricultural expansion and deforestation. Therefore, immediate action is required to conserve these resources and document the associated knowledge. The purpose of this study was, thus, to document and analyze information associated with medicinal plants that are used in managing public and animal health problems in Seharti Samre District, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected from July 1, 2011 to December 30, 201 mainly using semi-structured interviews with informants sampled using purposive sampling technique and through field observations. The study revealed the use of 90 medicinal plant species in Seharti Samre District for the treatment of several human and livestock diseases. The plants belonged to 46 families and 82 genera. The majority of the medicinal plants were indicated to be harvested from the wild. Leaf was the most frequently harvested plant part accounting for 44% of the reported plants, followed by roots (16%), whole plants (10%) and seeds (8%). The most widely used method of preparation was crushing (37%), pounding (15%) and chewing (13%). Most medicinal plants were applied internally (64.6%), followed by external application on the skin (35.4%). Febrile illness is the disease group in the study area that scored the highest ICF value (0.97), followed by cardio-vascular problems (0.97) and evil eye (0.95). Different preference ranking exercises were also used to determine the most preferred and potential medicinal plants in the study area. In Seharti Samre District, medicinal plants are still playing important role in the management of various human and livestock diseases, many of which are harvested for their leaf parts. However, activities of claimed medicinal plants need to be evaluated before recommending them for

  14. The Ebb and Flow of Airborne Pathogens: Monitoring and Use in Disease Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffee, Walter F; Stoll, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Perhaps the earliest form of monitoring the regional spread of plant disease was a group of growers gathering together at the market and discussing what they see in their crops. This type of reporting continues to this day through regional extension blogs, by crop consultants and more formal scouting of sentential plots in the IPM PIPE network (http://www.ipmpipe.org/). As our knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has increased, we have also increased our ability to detect and monitor the presence of pathogens and use this information to make management decisions in commercial production systems. The advent of phylogenetics, next-generation sequencing, and nucleic acid amplification technologies has allowed for development of sensitive and accurate assays for pathogen inoculum detection and quantification. The application of these tools is beginning to change how we manage diseases with airborne inoculum by allowing for the detection of pathogen movement instead of assuming it and by targeting management strategies to the early phases of the epidemic development when there is the greatest opportunity to reduce the rate of disease development. While there are numerous advantages to using data on inoculum presence to aid management decisions, there are limitations in what the data represent that are often unrecognized. In addition, our understanding of where and how to effectively monitor airborne inoculum is limited. There is a strong need to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that influence inoculum dispersion across scales as particles move from leaf to leaf, and everything in between.

  15. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  16. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  17. Dynamic operational risk management at industrial irradiation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia, E-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lustosa, Leonardo J. [Pontifical Catholic Univ. (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Although feasibility studies indicate that industrial irradiation can be sound business, some initiatives fail in few years. In Brazil, the operation of some industrial irradiation plants has been discontinued in spite of the growing export market for tropical fruits like mangoes and papayas, of which Brazil is one of the major producers. This paper discusses the overall aspects of the food irradiation in Brazil, singles out dynamic operation risk management as an important need and provides suggestions for further developments. This research work involves literature review as well as interviews with irradiation industry stake holders in order to identify the ORs and to assess the situation in a logical and integrated way. The results show that public acceptance is not a major issue for the food preservation industry in Brazil. On the contrary, evidences show that there is public support, provided that information on the subject is disseminated among consumers. Need for improvements have been detected in the areas of industrial operational risk management, external relations for export, and regulatory issues, among others to support decision making in establishing and developing industrial food irradiation capabilities to serve Brazilian tropical fruit exports. (author)

  18. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J.; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore st

  19. Recommendations for the management of autoinflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, Nienke M.; Oswald, Marlen; Jeyaratnam, Jerold; Anton, Jordi; Barron, Karyl S.; Brogan, Paul A.; Cantarini, Luca; Galeotti, Caroline; Grateau, Gilles; Hentgen, Veronique; Hofer, Michael; Kallinich, Tilmann; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Lachmann, Helen J.; Ozdogan, Huri; Ozen, Seza; Russo, Ricardo; Simon, Anna; Uziel, Yosef; Wouters, Carine; Feldman, Brian M.; Vastert, SJ; Wulffraat, Nico W.; Benseler, Susanne M.; Frenkel, Joost; Gattorno, Marco; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B.

    2015-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are characterised by fever and systemic inflammation, with potentially serious complications. Owing to the rarity of these diseases, evidence-based guidelines are lacking. In 2012, the European project Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE

  20. Managing coeliac disease in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M M; Cureton, P A; Fasano, A

    2015-01-01

    The association between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes has long been established. The combination of genetic susceptibility along with a potential role for gluten in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity makes defining gluten's role in type 1 diabetes extremely important. Evidence supporting the role of a gluten-free diet to improve complications associated with type 1 diabetes is not robust. However there is evidence to support improved growth, bone density and potentially the prevention of additional autoimmune diseases in patients with coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gluten free diet is expensive and challenging to adhere to in people already on a modified diet. Early identification of those who have coeliac disease and would benefit from a gluten-free diet is of utmost importance to prevent complications associated with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Research on the Intensive Material Management System of Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruosi; Hao, Tianyi; Li, Yunxiao; Zhang, Fangqing; Ding, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    In view of the universal problem which the material management is loose, and lack of standardization and interactive real-time in the biomass power plant, a system based on the method of intensive management is proposed in this paper to control the whole process of power plant material. By analysing the whole process of power plant material management and applying the Internet of Things, the method can simplify the management process. By making use of the resources to maximize and data mining, material utilization, circulation rate and quality control management can be improved. The system has been applied in Gaotang power plant, which raised the level of materials management and economic effectiveness greatly. It has an important significance for safe, cost-effective and highly efficient operation of the plant.

  2. Is "disease management" the answer to our problems? No! Population health management and (disease) prevention require "management of overall well-being"

    OpenAIRE

    Cramm, Jane; Nieboer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Disease management programs based on the chronic care model have achieved successful and long-term improvement in the quality of chronic care delivery and patients' health behaviors and physical quality of life. However, such programs have not been able to maintain or improve broader self-management abilities or social well-being, which decline over time in chronically ill patients. Disease management efforts, population health management initiatives and innovative pri...

  3. Motivational Interviewing to Engage Patients in Chronic Kidney Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must manage numerous medical treatments and lifestyle changes that strain their treatment adherence. An important strategy to improve adherence is to activate the patients’ motivation to manage their CKD. This article describes an approach for enhancing patients’ motivation for change, called motivational interviewing (MI), a treatment that is increasingly being used in health care settings to counsel patients with chronic diseases. Its basic princip...

  4. Etiology, pathophysiology and conservative management of degenerative joint disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of degenerative joint diseases Etiology of degenerative joint diseases is still not clearly understood and there is no specific management for this group of diseases. Various pathological conditions cause damage of the articular cartilage and lead to clinically and radiographically recognized impairment. Biomechanical, metabolic, genetic factors inflammation and other risk factors contribute to development of osteoarthrosis. Pathophysiology of degenerative joint diseases Osteoarthrosis is characterized by progressive erosion of articular cartilage and bone overgrowth at the joint margins. Cartilage integrity requires balance between synthesis and degradation of matrix components. Chondrocytes react to various mechanical and chemical stresses in order to stabilize and restore the tissue. Failures in stabilizing and restoring the tissue lead to cartilage degeneration that may be irreversibile. For better understanding of conservative management of degenerative joint diseases it is important to know the impact of pathophysiology mechanisms on development of degenerative joint diseases. There is great variability in the rate of progression of erosive processes in articular cartilage in clinical radiographic signs and course of the disease. This is in relation with many factors, as well as with management and response to therapy. Treatment of degenerative joint diseases Treatment should vary depending on the severity of disease and patient's expectations and level of activity. Besides analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, conventional and not conventional treatment and techniques can be used for management of osteoarthrosis. Physical therapy and exercises are very important for maintaining muscle strength, joint stability and mobility, but should be closely monitored for optimal efficacy.

  5. Carcinoid heart disease: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Sushil A; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Hedinger syndrome refers to carcinoid valvular heart disease. The disease is believed to be triggered by vasoactive substances that result in valvular fibrosis. It classically occurs in patients with metastatic carcinoid and preferentially involves the right sided cardiac valves. Affected valves become thickened and retracted, exhibiting regurgitation and sometimes, stenosis. Echocardiography is recommended in patients with carcinoid syndrome and a follow up study is advisable in those who develop a murmur or other symptoms or signs of valvular heart disease. For appropriately selected patients, valve replacement surgery appears to improve outcomes.

  6. Managing immune diseases in the smartphone era: how have apps impacted disease management and their future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe; O'Donoghue, John; Car, Josip

    2015-04-01

    Immunology, similar to other areas of clinical science, is a data-rich discipline that involves a great deal of interaction between healthcare professionals and their patients. The focus of this editorial is to review the challenges and opportunities for mobile healthcare applications within immunology. It is clear that further research is required to fully maximize the potential of mobile apps (e.g., regulations and guidelines, electronic health). However, it is equally clear that mobile healthcare applications have had a positive impact on patient outcomes (better response rates, more efficient usage of time and more accurate diagnosis). Overall, healthcare applications have a fundamental role to play in the future management of diseases as they will help to ensure that we deliver more effective patient care.

  7. Pregnancy in patients with rheumatic diseases: obstetric management and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, D W

    2004-01-01

    The obstetric management of the pregnant rheumatic patient is largely dictated by the specific disease and the degree to which it is associated with recognizable and treatable adverse obstetric outcomes, maternal or fetal. This review will cover the obstetric management of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Most experts agree that a co-ordinated management effort on the part of obstetricians and rheumatologists will likely yield the optimal achievable results.

  8. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Quinot, P. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Bloc Reacteur et Boucles Primaires, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Ingenierie et Service, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  9. Plant management in natural areas: balancing chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  10. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (106 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould. PMID:27721697

  11. An Overview of Plant Phenolic Compounds and Their Importance in Human Nutrition and Management of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which includes the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin, attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids, UV screens (flavonoids, signal compounds (salicylic acid and flavonoids and defense response chemicals (tannins and phytoalexins. From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, it is beneficial to eat such plant foods that have a high antioxidant compound content, which will cut down the incidence of certain chronic diseases, for instance diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases, through the management of oxidative stress. Furthermore, berries and other fruits with low-amylase and high-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be regarded as candidate food items in the control of the early stages of hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

  12. An Overview of Plant Phenolic Compounds and Their Importance in Human Nutrition and Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Derong; Xiao, Mengshi; Zhao, Jingjing; Li, Zhuohao; Xing, Baoshan; Li, Xindan; Kong, Maozhu; Li, Liangyu; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yaowen; Chen, Hong; Qin, Wen; Wu, Hejun; Chen, Saiyan

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which include the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin), attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids), UV screens (flavonoids), signal compounds (salicylic acid, flavonoids) and defense response chemicals (tannins, phytoalexins). From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, it is beneficial to eat such plant foods that have a high antioxidant compound content, which will cut down the incidence of certain chronic diseases, for instance diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases, through the management of oxidative stress. Furthermore, berries and other fruits with low-amylase and high-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be thought of as candidate food items in the control of the early stages of hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Remote home management for chronic kidney disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Liu, Xing; Li, Ying; Wu, Qiaoyu; Liu, Meilin; Yuan, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background Remote home management is a new healthcare model that uses information technology to enhance patients' self-management of disease in a home setting. This study is designed to identify the effects of remote home management on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed in January 2015. The reference listings of the included articles in this review were also manually examined. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to evaluate the effects of remote home management on patients with CKD were included. Results Eight trials were identified. The results of this study suggest that the quality of life (QOL) enabled by remote home management was higher than typical care in certain dimensions. However, the effects of remote home management on blood pressure (BP) remain inconclusive. The studies that assessed health service utilization demonstrated a significant decrease in hospital readmission, emergency room visits, and number of days in the hospital. Another favorable result of this study is that regardless of their gender, age or nationality, patients tend to comply with remote home management programs and the use of related technologies. Conclusions The available data indicate that remote home management may be a novel and effective disease management strategy for improving CKD patients' QOL and influencing their attitudes and behaviors. And, relatively little is known about BP and cost-effectiveness, so future research should focus on these two aspects for the entire population of patients with CKD.

  14. Calprotectin as a biomarker for melioidosis disease progression and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    1 Calprotectin as a biomarker for melioidosis disease progression and management 1 2 Mohan Natesana, Enoka Coread, Shivankari...linked to therapeutic responses to 36 antibiotics. Our results indicate that calprotectin may be a sensitive indicator of melioidosis disease 37... hospitalization (5). Patient 52 monitoring is essential, and clinical evaluations along with blood cultures are the only tools that are 53 currently used

  15. Self management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, M.; Brusse-Keizer, M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Zielhuis, G.A.; Monninkhof, E.M.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Frith, P.A.; Effing, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self management interventions help patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acquire and practise the skills they need to carry out disease-specific medical regimens, guide changes in health behaviour and provide emotional support to enable patients to control their

  16. Development of Information Processing and the Network System for the Control and Management of Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Doo Young; Woo, Joo Hee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Wook Hyun; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Hong Joo; Moon, Sang Yong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is needed to supervise, control and manage the inter operation of the system that is connected together to achieve good operation and high performance of the power plant. Moreover, the interconnection of the power plant is indispensable and they must be managed together. At present the control management systems that are on operation at power plants are composed of various systems from different companies, and the power plants have their own structure, we have much difficulty in managing communication of the systems. So, this study suggests the standard specification of the communication network for power plants. We have developed the network hardware, the 7 layers UCA, the network application software, the gateway between 3 layers UCA and the 7 layers UCA. Finally, we have developed the interface to Infi`90 which is one of the most popularly used system for power plant control, so that PC can be used for the operation of Infi`90. (author). 82 refs., figs.

  17. Management of psychosis in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, E C; Berendse, H W

    2001-08-01

    Psychosis is quite common in Parkinson's disease (approximately 25% of patients) and therefore constitutes a serious public health problem. All patients suffering from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, and especially elderly and demented patients, are at risk of developing delusions or hallucinations. The most prominent psychotogenic factors are dopaminomimetic agents, which may induce dopamine hypersensitivity in the frontal and limbic dopamine projection regions, and consequently, either directly or indirectly, elicit psychotic signs and symptoms. A Parkinson's disease-related cholinergic deficit in combination with an age-related further loss of cholinergic integrity also plays a prominent role. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease patients appears to be a more important contributor to caregiver distress than motor parkinsonism. Psychosis therefore probably represents the single greatest risk factor for nursing home placement. Typical antipsychotic drugs, because of their selective dopamine receptor antagonistic effects, can reduce psychotic signs but at the cost of an increase in parkinsonism. As a consequence of a non-selective antagonism at both serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors, atypical antipsychotic drugs are associated with fewer extrapyramidal side-effects. On the other hand, hypersensitivity to these agents may induce delirium or a malignant neuroleptic syndrome. Atypical antipsychotic agents such as clozapine, quetiapine and olanzapine should therefore be started at very low doses that are increased gradually. Cholinomimetic therapy may prove to be helpful in the prevention and treatment of psychotic manifestations in Parkinson's disease patients, given the effects observed in patients suffering from dementia with Lewy bodies.

  18. Complicated Coeliac Disease : Diagnosis and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Toma, A.

    2007-01-01

    Dit proefschrift geeft een gedetailleerd overzicht van het management van gecompliceerde vormen van coeliakie, met name refractaire coeliakie, met de huidige onderverdeling in twee categorieën (RCD type I en II), en enteropathie geassocieerd T-cel lymfoom (EATL).

  19. Aneurysmal disease – current management concepts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an increase in diameter of ≥50% than that of the 'normal' undilated ... Professor Van Marle has a special interest in the endovascular management of peripheral ... balance the risk of intervention against ... Backache. Leg pain. Ureter obstruction (due to retroperitoneal. Hydro-ureter ... Open surgery is an effective procedure.

  20. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  1. Management of a Pregnancy Complicated by Pompe Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As more women with metabolic muscle diseases reach reproductive age, knowledge of these diseases and their impact on pregnancy is necessary. Case. 23-year-old G1P0 with juvenile-onset Pompe disease (PD delivered a viable infant by cesarean section at 32 weeks and 6 days. The pregnancy was complicated by worsening maternal pulmonary status, muscular strength, and mobility. Conclusion. The management of pregnancies complicated by Pompe disease requires a multidisciplinary approach, including expertise in neuromuscular disease, maternal-fetal medicine, biochemical genetics, pulmonology, anesthesia, and dietetics.

  2. Biological management of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. The present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27, and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant growth maximally both in the presence and absence of the pathogen. Increase in plant length, total biomass, number of leaves, nodules and secondary roots, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and yield were recorded in plants treated with microbial consortia. Also, a decrease in plant mortality was observed in plants treated with microbial consortia in comparison to untreated control plants challenged with S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the decrease in disease of all the treatments can be associated with differential improvement of growth induced in pea.

  3. Surgical management of moyamoya disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaj, Ali A; Agazzi, Siviero; Sayed, Zafar A; Toledo, Maria; Spetzler, Robert F; van Loveren, Harry

    2009-04-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive, occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid arteries associated with secondary stenosis of the circle of Willis. Symptoms include ischemic infarcts in children and hemorrhages in adults. Bypass of the stenotic vessel(s) is the primary surgical treatment modality for MMD. Superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass is the most common direct bypass method. Indirect techniques rely on the approximation of vascularized tissue to the cerebral cortex to promote neoangiogenesis. This tissue may be in the form of muscle, pericranium, dura, or even omentum. This review highlights the surgical options available for the treatment of MMD.

  4. Management of the sick neonate with suspected heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Paul A; Penny, Daniel J

    2008-03-01

    A proportion of symptomatic neonates with congenital heart disease have lesions requiring urgent stabilisation. Despite increasing antenatal diagnoses, the importance of early recognition of symptomatic neonates is highlighted by the fact that up to 10% of all deaths in congenital heart disease continue to occur in children undiagnosed at the time of death. Specific anatomical knowledge of the many complex lesions is not required for good early management. The focus of this article is the specific symptom complexes in critically ill neonates with congenital heart disease, initial management strategies for stabilization and transfer to specialist centres, and issues in the ongoing preoperative care.

  5. Microbiome Networks: A Systems Framework for Identifying Candidate Microbial Assemblages for Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, R; Jumpponen, A; Schlatter, D C; Paulitz, T C; Gardener, B B McSpadden; Kinkel, L L; Garrett, K A

    2016-10-01

    Network models of soil and plant microbiomes provide new opportunities for enhancing disease management, but also challenges for interpretation. We present a framework for interpreting microbiome networks, illustrating how observed network structures can be used to generate testable hypotheses about candidate microbes affecting plant health. The framework includes four types of network analyses. "General network analysis" identifies candidate taxa for maintaining an existing microbial community. "Host-focused analysis" includes a node representing a plant response such as yield, identifying taxa with direct or indirect associations with that node. "Pathogen-focused analysis" identifies taxa with direct or indirect associations with taxa known a priori as pathogens. "Disease-focused analysis" identifies taxa associated with disease. Positive direct or indirect associations with desirable outcomes, or negative associations with undesirable outcomes, indicate candidate taxa. Network analysis provides characterization not only of taxa with direct associations with important outcomes such as disease suppression, biofertilization, or expression of plant host resistance, but also taxa with indirect associations via their association with other key taxa. We illustrate the interpretation of network structure with analyses of microbiomes in the oak phyllosphere, and in wheat rhizosphere and bulk soil associated with the presence or absence of infection by Rhizoctonia solani.

  6. Study on Model for Assessmentof Quality Management Performance of Coal Preparation Plant in CIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the method to calculate intangible quality cost is put forward for the first time based on theproduction and management characteristics of coal preparation plant. A model for assessment of quality manage-ment performance of coal preparation plant is established on the ground of quality cost. By using of CIMS integra-tion environment the strategy to carry out the model and the application example are also offered. It provides a newand feasible way to assess performance quality management of coal preparation plant.

  7. Managing the lipid profile of coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulou, Maria; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Synetos, Andreas; Trantalis, George; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    Lipid profile management is even more critical in patients treated for secondary prevention, since patients with established coronary heart disease are at higher risk of developing events. Current guidelines encourage lifestyle modification and patient engagement in disease prevention. However, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines seem to differ considerably from their predecessors, having an impact on clinical practice of lipid management. Area covered: This review article discusses and provides a summary of the current recommendations for lipid profile management in patients with coronary heart disease, with a view to present lifestyle modification and novel treatment strategies, and to indicate areas of dispute among recent guidelines. Expert commentary: Existing controversies between current guidelines concerning treatment goals and therapeutic decisions may have potential implications on the clinical management of patients. In the meantime, we eagerly wait for the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating promising, potent, safe and prolonged drugs that are in progress.

  8. IT Solution For Disease Management At PT Panasonic Manufacturing Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bens Pardamean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of company’s occupational health programs is disease management which is a part of preventive health care. In its realization, it was discovered that there some challenges in data collection, monitoring of catering and sport activity, employee health reports, and medical costs. The purpose of this study is to design an IT solution for the disease management program at PT. Panasonic Manufacturing Indonesia (PMI. The diseases in focus are diabetes, hypertension, and tuberculosis. Methodology starts with survey on PT. PMI requirements, research parameters, problem analysis, literature study, and system design. Solution is focused on designing a registry system that includes Alert Management System, Food Tracking, EHR, Sport Tracking, Guidelines, and Report System. The results of this study is a web-based information system that can assist health care workers in seeking data, monitoring food intake and sport activity, and reporting systems for upper-level management

  9. Application of a theoretical model to evaluate COPD disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asin Javier D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes are heterogeneous in nature and often lack a theoretical basis. An evaluation model has been developed in which theoretically driven inquiries link disease management interventions to outcomes. The aim of this study is to methodically evaluate the impact of a disease management programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD on process, intermediate and final outcomes of care in a general practice setting. Methods A quasi-experimental research was performed with 12-months follow-up of 189 COPD patients in primary care in the Netherlands. The programme included patient education, protocolised assessment and treatment of COPD, structural follow-up and coordination by practice nurses at 3, 6 and 12 months. Data on intermediate outcomes (knowledge, psychosocial mediators, self-efficacy and behaviour and final outcomes (dyspnoea, quality of life, measured by the CRQ and CCQ, and patient experiences were obtained from questionnaires and electronic registries. Results Implementation of the programme was associated with significant improvements in dyspnoea (p Conclusions The application of a theory-driven model enhances the design and evaluation of disease management programmes aimed at improving health outcomes. This study supports the notion that a theoretical approach strengthens the evaluation designs of complex interventions. Moreover, it provides prudent evidence that the implementation of COPD disease management programmes can positively influence outcomes of care.

  10. Application of a theoretical model to evaluate COPD disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Karin M M; Nieboer, Anna P; Rutten-Van Mölken, Maureen P M H; van Schayck, Constant P; Asin, Javier D; Dirven, Jos A M; Huijsman, Robbert

    2010-03-26

    Disease management programmes are heterogeneous in nature and often lack a theoretical basis. An evaluation model has been developed in which theoretically driven inquiries link disease management interventions to outcomes. The aim of this study is to methodically evaluate the impact of a disease management programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on process, intermediate and final outcomes of care in a general practice setting. A quasi-experimental research was performed with 12-months follow-up of 189 COPD patients in primary care in the Netherlands. The programme included patient education, protocolised assessment and treatment of COPD, structural follow-up and coordination by practice nurses at 3, 6 and 12 months. Data on intermediate outcomes (knowledge, psychosocial mediators, self-efficacy and behaviour) and final outcomes (dyspnoea, quality of life, measured by the CRQ and CCQ, and patient experiences) were obtained from questionnaires and electronic registries. Implementation of the programme was associated with significant improvements in dyspnoea (p model showed associations between significantly improved intermediate outcomes and improvements in quality of life and dyspnoea. The application of a theory-driven model enhances the design and evaluation of disease management programmes aimed at improving health outcomes. This study supports the notion that a theoretical approach strengthens the evaluation designs of complex interventions. Moreover, it provides prudent evidence that the implementation of COPD disease management programmes can positively influence outcomes of care.

  11. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular disease. After malignancy and heart disease, cerebral vascular disease is the third leading of death and estimated that an average 500,000 new stroke occurred in each year. Advance techniques such as Carotid Endarterectomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Angiography and Single photon emission computed tomography etc are used for management of cerebral vascular disease.

  12. Knowledge and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease by managing community pharmacists: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerafa, Natalie; Scerri, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Background Managing community pharmacists can play a leading role in supporting community dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Objective The main purpose of this study was to assess knowledge of managing community pharmacists towards Alzheimer's disease and its pharmacological management. Setting Community pharmacies in the Maltese islands. Method A nationwide survey was conducted with full-time managing community pharmacists in possession of a tertiary education degree in pharmacy studies. The level of knowledge was investigated using the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and the Alzheimer's Disease Pharmacotherapy Measure. Participants were also asked to rate a number of statements related to disease management. Results Maltese managing community pharmacists (57 % response rate) had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, caregiving issues and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease. Age and number of years working in a community pharmacy setting were found to be negatively correlated with increased knowledge. Conclusion The findings highlight the need of providing training and continued educational support to managing community pharmacists in order to provide quality advice to individuals with dementia and their caregivers in the community.

  13. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: School Nurse Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Initial symptoms and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occur between 10 and 20 years of age, although younger cases are reported. The complicated nature of IBD diagnosis and treatment can interfere with physical and emotional development that normally occurs in school-age children and adolescents. The school nurse should be…

  15. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Chronic disease management and the development of virtual communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    The current volume and expected increases in the number of patients with chronic diseases are concerned significant and substantial. Patients with chronic diseases have a great need to personally manage their health-related behaviour, such as food consumption, and its impact on their health indicators, like blood pressure, body weight, blood sugar, cholesterol, to name a few. Current healthcare systems are unable to meet the needs of patients with chronic diseases for management, due to the need for acute care. An analysis of the needs was performed and recommendations for virtual communities were made to help patients with chronic diseases monitor and manage their health. Virtual communities have the potential to meet the need to assist with monitoring activities, education, community membership, and the sale of products and services. However, they also face risks inherent to accepting and storing any form of personal health information, and of remaining in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act of 2001.

  17. Pregnancy in Wilson disease - management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Beinhardt, Sandra; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Haag, Nicola; Freissmuth, Clarissa; Reuner, Ulrike; Gauss, Annika; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schilsky, Michael L; Ferenci, Peter; Weiss, Karl Heinz

    2017-08-31

    Introduction Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism causing toxic hepatic and neural copper accumulation. Clinical symptoms vary widely, from asymptomatic disease to acute liver failure or chronic liver disease without or with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Continuation of specific medical treatment for WD is recommended during pregnancy, but reports of pregnancy outcomes in WD patients are sparse. Patients and methods In a retrospective, multicenter study, 282 pregnancies in 136 WD patients were reviewed. Age at disease onset, age at conception and WD-specific treatments were recorded. Maternal complications during pregnancy, rate of spontaneous abortions and birth defects were analyzed with respect to medical treatment during pregnancy. Results Worsening of liver function tests was evident during 16/282 (6%) pregnancies and occurred in undiagnosed patients as well as in those under medical treatment. Liver test abnormalities resolved in all cases after delivery. Aggravation of neurological symptoms during pregnancy was rare (1%) but tended to persist after delivery. The overall spontaneous abortion rate in the study cohort was 73/282 (26%). Patients with an established diagnosis of WD receiving medical treatment experienced significantly fewer spontaneous abortions than patients with undiagnosed WD (Odds ratio: 2.853 [95% CI: 1.634-4.982]). Birth defects occurred in 7/209 (3%) live births. Conclusion Pregnancy in WD patients on anti-copper therapy is safe. The spontaneous abortion rate in treated patients was lower than that in therapy-naive patients. Although the teratogenic potential of copper chelators is a concern, the rate of birth defects in our cohort was low. Treatment for WD should be maintained during pregnancy, and patients should be monitored closely for hepatic and neurologic symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  19. Self-Management Skills in Chronic Disease Management: What Role Does Health Literacy Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Laura M; Doody, Catherine; Werner, Erik L; Fullen, Brona

    2016-08-01

    Self-management-based interventions can lead to improved health outcomes in people with chronic diseases, and multiple patient characteristics are associated with the development of self-management behaviors. Low health literacy (HL) has been implicated in poorer self-management behaviors and increased costs to health services. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the current review is to assess the association between HL and patient characteristics related to self-management behaviors (i.e., disease-related knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy). The review comprised 3 phases: 1) database searches, 2) eligibility screening, and 3) study quality assessment and strength of evidence. Inclusion criteria specified that a valid HL screening tool was used, that at least one self-management behavior was assessed, and that patients had a chronic condition. An initial search generated a total of 712 articles, of which 31 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. A consistent association was found between low HL and poorer disease-related knowledge in respiratory diseases, diabetes, and multiple disease categories. A significant association between low HL and poorer self-efficacy was reported in cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, and multiple disease categories. HL was significantly associated with poorer beliefs in respiratory, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular diseases. The findings from the current review suggest that low HL may affect behaviors necessary for the development of self-management skills. Given that self-management strategies are core components for effective treatment of a range of chronic diseases, low HL poses a considerable health concern. Further research is needed to understand the mediating influence of HL on disease-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and beliefs. From this, HL-sensitive, self-management interventions ought to be devised and implemented. © The Author

  20. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  1. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P < 0.05 reduced powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole. In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  2. Disaster management tool serving information reducing health disasters in animals and plants in Cuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haymee Canales Becerra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to disseminate the experiences of the information management work in REDesastres, the first telematic network of the Training Center for the Reduction of Animal and Plant Health Disasters (CEDESAP, attached to the National Center for Agricultural and Livestock Health (CENSA and Sponsored by the Ministry of Higher Education (MES and the National Civil Defense National Staff (EMNDC of Cuba. REDesastres provides informational support to all members of the network as a key factor for updating, timely decision making and active participation of all actors and sectors involved in the reduction of animal and plant health disasters. It has more than 510 destinations and enables the real-time interconnection of professionals, executives and officials from various Cuban and Latin American disciplines and institutions. Through the network, more than 1376 messages have been circulated with relevant up-to-date and commented information from health agencies and international news agencies, scientific publications and national sources on emerging, reemerging, transboundary diseases and disaster management.

  3. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies.

  4. Some plants described by Pliny for the treatment of renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis Tortora, M

    1994-01-01

    Pliny the Elder described medicinal plants in books XX-XXVII of Naturalis Historia, reporting the therapeutic properties and preparations of the plants for use in different parts of the body. An exhibition of 20 plants chosen from those indicated for renal diseases is described.

  5. Model analysis for plant disease dynamics co-mediated by herbivory and herbivore-borne phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takefumi; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Urano, Satoru

    2012-08-23

    Plants are subject to diseases caused by pathogens, many of which are transmitted by herbivorous arthropod vectors. To understand plant disease dynamics, we studied a minimum hybrid model combining consumer-resource (herbivore-plant) and susceptible-infected models, in which the disease is transmitted bi-directionally between the consumer and the resource from the infected to susceptible classes. Model analysis showed that: (i) the disease is more likely to persist when the herbivore feeds on the susceptible plants rather than the infected plants, and (ii) alternative stable states can exist in which the system converges to either a disease-free or an endemic state, depending on the initial conditions. The second finding is particularly important because it suggests that the disease may persist once established, even though the initial prevalence is low (i.e. the R(0) rule does not always hold). This situation is likely to occur when the infection improves the plant nutritive quality, and the herbivore preferentially feeds on the infected resource (i.e. indirect vector-pathogen mutualism). Our results highlight the importance of the eco-epidemiological perspective that integration of tripartite interactions among host plant, plant pathogen and herbivore vector is crucial for the successful control of plant diseases.

  6. Mitochondrial Diseases: Clinical Features- Management of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Koc

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are unique organells which their own DNA in cells. Human mitochondrial DNA is circular, double-stranded molecule and small. Because all mitochondria are contributed by the ovum during the formation of the zygote, the mitochondrial genom is transmitted by maternal inheritance. Multisystem disorders such as deafness, cardiomyopathy, miyopathy can be seen in mitochondrial diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(0.100: 14-31

  7. The management of rheumatic diseases in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, K; Kaul, M; Clowse, MEB

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy can create a challenge for physicians caring for women with rheumatic diseases. For many women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), pregnancy can provide a reprieve from long-term joint pain and inflammation, but others will not experience remission and will continue to need medication. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may remain quiet in some women, but in others may become more aggressive during pregnancy, putting both mother and foetus at risk. Women with limited scleroderma can do ...

  8. Mitochondrial Diseases: Clinical Features- Management of Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Koc; Yakup Sarica

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria are unique organells which their own DNA in cells. Human mitochondrial DNA is circular, double-stranded molecule and small. Because all mitochondria are contributed by the ovum during the formation of the zygote, the mitochondrial genom is transmitted by maternal inheritance. Multisystem disorders such as deafness, cardiomyopathy, miyopathy can be seen in mitochondrial diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(0.100): 14-31

  9. Atypical Celiac Disease: From Recognizing to Managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Admou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD becomes increasingly common in physician’s daily practice, which requires an awareness of its many clinical faces with atypical, silent, and latent forms. Besides the common genetic background (HLA DQ2/DQ8 of the disease, other non-HLA genes are now notably reported with a probable association to atypical forms. The availability of high-sensitive and specific serologic tests such as antitissue transglutuminase, antiendomysium, and more recent antideamidated, gliadin peptide antibodies permits to efficiently uncover a large portion of the submerged CD iceberg, including individuals having conditions associated with a high risk of developing CD (type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, family history of CD, etc., biologic abnormalities (iron deficiency anemia, abnormal transaminase levels, etc., and extraintestinal symptoms (short stature, neuropsychiatric disorders, alopecia, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent aphtous stomatitis, etc.. Despite the therapeutic alternatives currently in developing, the strict adherence to a GFD remains the only effective and safe therapy for CD.

  10. Management of diverticular disease is changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin H Floch; Jonathan A White

    2006-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is primarily a disease of humans living in westernized and industrialized countries. Sixty percent of humans living in industrialized countries will develop colonic diverticula. It is rare before the age of 40, but more prone to complications when it occurs in the young. By age 80, over 65% of humans have colonic diverticula. The cause remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies attribute it to dietary fiber deficiency. The cause of diverticulitis remains uncertain, but new observations and hypotheses suggest that it is due to chronic inflammation in the bowel wall. Standard medical therapies of bowel rest and antibiotics are still the recommended treatment.However, changing concepts and new therapies indicate that anti-inflammatory agents such as mesalamine and possibly probiotics may be helpful in shortening the course and perhaps preventing recurrences. Standard surgical treatment for perforation for severe acute disease has developed so that two-stage procedures are recommended. In addition, laparoscopic surgery has proven safe and may slowly become the technique of choice.

  11. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar Singh Policepatel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region.Methods:gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews.Results:A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported.Conclusions:The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  12. On the political economy of plant disease epidemics : capita selecta in historical epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Food security has been and always will be a human concern. Food security has always been fragile, threatened by a variety of factors including plant disease epidemics. Several plant disease epidemics of the past lead to questions like: What happened? How did people deal with these epidemics? What we

  13. Plant alkaloids as drug leads for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yu Pong; Or, Terry Cho Tsun; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative illness associated with dementia and is most prevalent among the elderly population. Current medications can only treat symptoms. Alkaloids are structurally diverse and have been an important source of therapeutics for various brain disorders. Two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for AD, galantamine and rivastigmine, are in fact alkaloids. In addition, clinical trials of four other extensively studied alkaloids-huperzine A, caffeine, nicotine, and indomethacin-have been conducted but do not convincingly demonstrate their clinical efficacy for AD. Interestingly, rhynchophylline, a known neuroprotective alkaloid, was recently discovered by in silico screening as an inhibitor of EphA4, a novel target for AD. Here, we review the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD, current treatment strategies, and therapeutic potential of several selected plant alkaloids in AD, highlighting their various drug targets and the key supportive preclinical and clinical studies. Future research should include more rigorous clinical studies of the most promising alkaloids, the further development of recently discovered candidate alkaloids, and the continual search for new alkaloids for relevant drug targets. It remains promising that an alkaloid drug candidate could significantly affect the progression of AD in addition to providing symptomatic relief.

  14. Detection of Disease Symptoms on Hyperspectral 3d Plant Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, Ribana; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Dupuis, Jan; Kuhlmann, Heiner; Plümer, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the benefit of combining hyperspectral images information with 3D geometry information for the detection of Cercospora leaf spot disease symptoms on sugar beet plants. Besides commonly used one-class Support Vector Machines, we utilize an unsupervised sparse representation-based approach with group sparsity prior. Geometry information is incorporated by representing each sample of interest with an inclination-sorted dictionary, which can be seen as an 1D topographic dictionary. We compare this approach with a sparse representation based approach without geometry information and One-Class Support Vector Machines. One-Class Support Vector Machines are applied to hyperspectral data without geometry information as well as to hyperspectral images with additional pixelwise inclination information. Our results show a gain in accuracy when using geometry information beside spectral information regardless of the used approach. However, both methods have different demands on the data when applied to new test data sets. One-Class Support Vector Machines require full inclination information on test and training data whereas the topographic dictionary approach only need spectral information for reconstruction of test data once the dictionary is build by spectra with inclination.

  15. Medicinal Plants Used in Mali for the Treatment of Malaria and Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Mahamane; Bourdy, Geneviève; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra; Traore, Korotoumou; Giani, Sergio; Sanogo, Rokia

    2016-03-01

    Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and

  16. Disparities in Confidence to Manage Chronic Diseases in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Elder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic diseases are highly prevalent among men in the United States and chronic disease management is problematic for men, particularly for racial and ethnic minority men. Objectives: This study examined the association between health information seeking and confidence to manage chronic diseases among men. Methods: Study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Tracking Household Survey and analyzed using multiple binary logistic regressions. The analytical sample included 2,653 men, 18 years and older with a chronic illness. Results: Health information seeking was not associated with confidence to manage chronic illnesses. African-American men had lower odds than White men to agree to take actions to prevent symptoms with their health. Hispanic men had lower odds than White men to agree to tell a doctor concerns they have, even when not asked. Conclusions: Racial and ethnic minority men with a chronic condition appear to be less confident to manage their health compared to white men. Chronic disease management needs greater exploration to understand the best ways to help racial and ethnic minority men successfully manage their chronic condition.

  17. A review of the use of engineered nanomaterials to suppress plant disease and enhance crop yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servin, Alia; Elmer, Wade; Mukherjee, Arnab; Torre-Roche, Roberto De la [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (United States); Hamdi, Helmi [University of Carthage, Water Research and Technology Center (Tunisia); White, Jason C., E-mail: jason.white@ct.gov [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (United States); Bindraban, Prem; Dimkpa, Christian [Virtual Fertilizer Research Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnology has the potential to play a critical role in global food production, food security, and food safety. The applications of nanotechnology in agriculture include fertilizers to increase plant growth and yield, pesticides for pest and disease management, and sensors for monitoring soil quality and plant health. Over the past decade, a number of patents and products incorporating nanomaterials into agricultural practices (e.g., nanopesticides, nanofertilizers, and nanosensors) have been developed. The collective goal of all of these approaches is to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural practices by requiring less input and generating less waste than conventional products and approaches. This review evaluates the current literature on the use of nanoscale nutrients (metals, metal oxides, carbon) to suppress crop disease and subsequently enhance growth and yield. Notably, this enhanced yield may not only be directly linked to the reduced presence of pathogenic organisms, but also to the potential nutritional value of the nanoparticles themselves, especially for the essential micronutrients necessary for host defense. We also posit that these positive effects are likely a result of the greater availability of the nutrients in the “nano” form. Last, we offer comments on the current regulatory perspective for such applications.

  18. The management of peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Japie A; Marks, I N Solly

    2003-11-01

    The period under review has seen little evolution in our understanding of the empiric management of dyspepsia. The role of Helicobacter pylori in this setting remains controversial, and a policy of risk stratification with the prudent use of test and treat and symptomatic therapy, with endoscopy for nonresponsive cases, seems to have some support from the literature in this period. The management of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-associated and aspirin-associated complications has received a lot of attention in the period under review. The COX-2 selective agents have maintained their reputation as safer (but not "safe") options, although some of the original work with one of these agents has been rigorously interrogated and found wanting. Studies in the review period have focused our attention on the less than satisfactory protection of proton pump inhibitor cotherapy, the site-specific nature of ulcer recurrences (which may have therapeutic implications), lower gastroenterology complications associated with NSAID use, and the beneficial effect of proton pump inhibitor cotherapy for patients receiving low-dose aspirin. One should also expect a lot more information in the future with regard to the use of the nitric oxide donating class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and aspirin. Findings are presented that suggest that the H.pylori stool antigen test is not as reliable as the urea breath test, while the most promising "new therapy" for H. pylori is not new, but rather an amalgam of some older drugs combined in a new "quadruple" therapy strategy, which shows some promise.

  19. Management of ticks and tick-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Stafford, K.C.; Goodman, J.L.; Dennis, D.T.; Sonenshine, D .E.

    2005-01-01

    The mainstays of tick management and protection from tick-borne diseases have traditionally been personal precautions and the application of acaricides. These techniques maintain their value, and current innovations hold considerable promise for future improvement in effective targeting of materials for tick control. Furthermore, an explosion of research in the past few decades has resulted in the development and expansion of several novel and potentially valuable approaches to tick control, including vaccination against tick-borne pathogen transmission and against tick attachment, host management, use of natural enemies (especially entomopathogenic fungi), and pheromone-based techniques. The situations that require tick management are diverse, and occur under varied ecological conditions. Therefore, the likelihood of finding a single ?magic bullet? for tick management is low. In practical terms, the approach to tick management or to management of tick-borne disease must be tailored to the specific conditions at hand. One area that needs increased attention is the decision-making process in applying IPM to tick control. Further development of novel tick control measures, and increased efficiency in their integration and application to achieve desired goals, holds great promise for effective future management of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  20. Impacts of climate change on plant diseases – opinions and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pautasso, Marco; Döring, Thomas F.; Garbelotto, M.; Pellis, L; Jeger, MJ

    2012-01-01

    There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant diseases in the coming decades. This review addresses the need for review of this burgeoning literature by summarizing opinions of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak Death is used as an introductory case study: Californian forests could become even more susceptible to this emerging plant disease, if spring precipitat...

  1. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pujari, Jagadeesh D.; Rajesh Yakkundimath; Abdulmunaf. Syedhusain. Byadgi

    2016-01-01

    Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system) using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identi...

  2. Parkinson's disease managing reversible neurodegeneration [Corrigendum

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz M; Stein A; Cole T; McDougall B; Westaway M

    2016-01-01

    Hinz M, Stein A, Cole T, McDougall B, Westaway M. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2016;12:763–775.On page 774, Disclosure section, “MH discloses his relationship with DBS Laboratory services and NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. The other authors report no conflicts of interest in this work” should have been “MH discloses his relationship with DBS Laboratory services and NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. CHK Nutrition is a subsidiary of West Duluth Distribution Co. The CEO...

  3. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditio...

  4. Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2014-11-01

    Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid.

  5. Lifetime Management in Non-US-Technology Nuclear Power Plants using US Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius Steenkamp, J.; Encabo Espartero, J.; Garcia Iglesias, R.

    2013-07-01

    In July 2009 the Spanish Nuclear Regulator (CSN) issued a Safety Instruction (IS-22) for the development of Lifetime Management in the Nuclear Power Plants within Spain. The context of this Safety Instruction is based on the American Regulations 10CFR54, NUREG1800/1801 and the technical guide NEI95-10. All these regulations are aimed at US-Technology Nuclear Power Plants. Lifetime Management of Nuclear Power Plants with a plant design different from US technologies can most certainly be developed with the mentioned US regulations. The successful development of Lifetime Management in these cases depends on the adaptation of the different requirements of the regulations. Challenges resulting from the adaptation process can be resolved by taking into consideration the plant design of the plant in question.

  6. Management of adynamic bone disease in chronic kidney disease: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi K. Sista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO work group released recommendations in 2006 to define the bone-related pathology associated with chronic kidney disease as renal osteodystrophy. In 2009, KDIGO released revised clinical practice guidelines which redefined systemic disorders of bone and mineral metabolism due to chronic kidney disease as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. Conditions under this overarching term include osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteomalacia, and adynamic bone disease. We aim to provide a brief review of the histopathology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic features of adynamic bone disease, focusing on current trends in the management of this complex bone disorder.

  7. Factors Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tiffany; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Browne, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected 26 million U.S. adults. Many end-stage CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis experience self-management challenges. However, factors associated with CKD self-management are under-identified. This article describes a mixed-methods study to identify factors associated with self-management in end-stage CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. A total of 107 patients age 50 and older were interviewed. Overall, participants had low mean scores for exercise (2.46), communication with physicians (2.50), and cognitive symptom management (0.89) and were adherent for greater than 11 days in a 2-week period with fluid (11.86) and diet (11.65) regimens. There were statistically significant age group differences in the self-management behavior of fluid adherence (p social work interventions aimed at increasing self-management behaviors in end-stage CKD patients.

  8. Maple syrup urine disease: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Patrick R; Gass, Jennifer M; Vairo, Filippo Pinto E; Farnham, Kristen M; Atwal, Herjot K; Macklin, Sarah; Klee, Eric W; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2017-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated. Treatment consists of dietary restriction of BCAAs and close metabolic monitoring. Clinical outcomes are generally good in patients where treatment is initiated early. Newborn screening for MSUD is now commonplace in the United States and is included on the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP). We review this disorder including its presentation, screening and clinical diagnosis, treatment, and other relevant aspects pertaining to the care of patients.

  9. Pathophysiology and management of multivalvular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Philippe; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Lindman, Brian R.; Mathieu, Patrick; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Multivalvular disease (MVD) is a common condition with a complex pathophysiology, dependent on the specific combination of valve lesions. Diagnosis is challenging as several echocardiographic methods commonly used for the assessment of stenosis or regurgitation have been validated only in patients with single valve disease. Decisions about the timing and type of treatment should be made by a multidisciplinary heart valve team, on a case-by-case basis. Several factors should be considered, including the severity and consequences of the MVD, the patient’s life expectancy and comorbidities, the surgical risk associated with combined valve procedures, the long-term risk of morbidity and mortality associated with multiple valve prostheses, and the likelihood and risk of reoperation. The introduction of transcatheter valve therapies into clinical practice has provided new treatment options for patients with MVD, and decision-making algorithms on how to combine surgical and percutaneous treatment options are evolving rapidly. In this Review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MVD, focussing on the combination of valve pathologies that are most often encountered in clinical practice. PMID:27121305

  10. Medical management of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, G C

    1981-03-01

    Medical therapy primarily affects myocardial oxygen demands. Nitrates and other vasodilators decrease filling pressure, ventricular diastolic volume and to some extent, impedance to ventricular emptying. Beta blockers decrease myocardial contractility and heart rate through a reduction of sympathetic neural traffic. Afterload reduction by the control of hypertension and preload reduction via the LaPlace relationship through reversal of congestive failure are critical for successful therapy. Modification of smoking habits and personality traits with renunciation of a sedentary life-style are also therapeutically useful. While increases in myocardial blood flow have depended primarily on surgical revascularization procedures, calcium antagonists such as nifedipine have been shown to affect flow by reversing vasospasm, which has been recognized with increasing frequency as a concomitant of even fixed coronary arterial disease. The first therapy, however, is diet since it affects both the supply and demand sides of myocardial oxygen balance. Reduction of body bulk decreases myocardial oxygen demand since both vary in obligate parallel. Religious abstention from saturated fats and cholesterol-containing foods, especially by those with pre-existing coronary heart disease, may arrest the otherwise inexorable deterioration.

  11. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowora, Abayomi; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Onayade, Adedeji

    2013-08-12

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the 'whole population' and 'high-risk' strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention.

  12. [Disease resistance signal transfer between roots of different tomato plants through common arbuscular mycorrhiza networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Jun; Song, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Ren-Sen; Wang, Rui-Long; Wei, Xiao-Chen; Ye, Mao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) are the underground conduits of nutrient exchange between plants. However, whether the CMNs can serve as the underground conduits of chemical communication to transfer the disease resistance signals between plants are unknown. By inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae to establish CMNs between 'donor' and 'receiver' tomato plants, and by inoculating Alternaria solani, the causal agent of tomato early blight disease, to the 'donor' plants, this paper studied whether the potential disease resistance signals can be transferred between the 'donor' and 'receiver' plants roots. The real time RT-PCR analysis showed that after inoculation with A. solani, the AMF-inoculated 'donor' plants had strong expression of three test defense-related genes in roots, with the transcript levels of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX) and chitinase (PR3) being significantly higher than those in the roots of the 'donor' plants only inoculated with A. solani, not inoculated with both A. solani and AMF, and only inoculated with AMF. More importantly, in the presence of CMNs, the expression levels of the three genes in the roots of the 'receiver' plants were significantly higher than those of the 'receiver' plants without CMNs connection, with the connection blocking, and with the connection but the 'donor' plants not A. solani-inoculated. Compared with the control (without CMNs connection), the transcript level of the PAL, LOX and PR3 in the roots of the 'receiver' plants having CMNs connection with the 'donor' plants was 4.2-, 4.5- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. In addition, the 'donor' plants activated their defensive responses more quickly than the 'receiver' plants (18 and 65 h vs. 100 and 140 h). These findings suggested that the disease resistance signals produced by the pathogen-induced 'donor' tomato plant roots could be transferred to the 'receiver' plant roots through CMNs.

  13. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant

  14. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lori R; Salvaudon, Lucie; Mauck, Kerry E; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and

  15. Distinct management issues with Crohn's disease of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Steven C M; Irving, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Small bowel Crohn's disease can present with clinical challenges that are specific to its location. In this review, we address some of the areas that present particular problems in small bowel Crohn's disease. A key issue specific to small bowel Crohn's disease relates to its diagnosis given that access to the small bowel is limited. Radiological advances, particularly in small bowel ultrasonography and MRI, as well as the introduction of capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy are helping to address this. In addition, our ability to differentiate small bowel Crohn's disease from other causes of inflammation, such as tuberculosis, is improving on the basis of better understanding of the features that differentiate these conditions. It is also becoming apparent that jejunal Crohn's disease represents a distinct disease phenotype with potentially worse clinical outcomes. Finally, because it is a rare complication, our understanding of small bowel cancer associated with Crohn's disease remains limited. Recent publications are, however, starting to improve our knowledge of this condition. Although small bowel Crohn's disease presents specific management issues not seen in patients with Crohn's disease elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, our knowledge of how to manage these is improving.

  16. Possibilities of Strawberry Integrated Disease Management in Different Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years strawberry production in Croatia is constantly increasing. One of the main problems in production are diseases. During two-year trials in strawberry plantations in northern Croatia, the occurrence of diseases was monitored in order to establish the most effective methods of integrated disease management. Trials were performed in three cultivation system: open field, greenhouse and hydroponics. The most frequent disease in all three production systems was gray mould (Botrytis cinerea. In open field production, the occurrence of common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae and leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earliana were also frequently observed, while leaf blotch (Gnomonia comari, leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans and fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp. were only sporadically present. For the control of the most important disease, gray mould, forecast model BOTMAN was implemented. As relatively simple model based on meteorological data, BOTMAN allowed effective, ecologically and economically more acceptable control, based on integrated chemical and biological measures. Meteorological data were obtained from the State Hydrometeorological Department (DHMZ. Results showed no significant difference in intensity of gray mould infection between usual chemical control and BOTMAN-based control. Two-years research on strawberry disease management in Croatia revealed perspective possibilities of integrated strawberry disease management.

  17. A framework for modeling emerging diseases to inform management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge.

  18. Design of Knowledge Management System for Diabetic Complication Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiarni, Cut

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how to develop a Model for Knowledge Management System (KMS) for diabetes complication diseases. People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing a series of serious health problems. Each patient has different condition that could lead to different disease and health problem. But, with the right information, patient could have early detection so the health risk could be minimized and avoided. Hence, the objective of this research is to propose a conceptual framework that integrates social network model, Knowledge Management activities, and content based reasoning (CBR) for designing such a diabetes health and complication disease KMS. The framework indicates that the critical knowledge management activities are in the process to find similar case and the index table for algorithm to fit the framework for the social media. With this framework, KMS developers can work with healthcare provider to easily identify the suitable IT associated with the CBR process when developing a diabetes KMS.

  19. Hybrid Workflow Policy Management for Heart Disease Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As science technology grows, medical application is becoming more complex to solve the physiological problems within expected time. Workflow management systems (WMS in Grid computing are promisingsolution to solve the sophisticated problem such as genomic analysis, drug discovery, disease identification, etc. Although existing WMS can provide basic management functionality in Grid environment, consideration of user requirements such as performance, reliability and interaction with user is missing. In this paper, we proposehybrid workflow management system for heart disease identification and discuss how to guarantee different user requirements according to user SLA. The proposed system is applied to Physio-Grid e-health platform to identify human heart disease with ECG analysis and Virtual Heart Simulation (VHS workflow applications.

  20. Hybrid Workflow Policy Management for Heart Disease Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Youn, Chan-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    As science technology grows, medical application is becoming more complex to solve the physiological problems within expected time. Workflow management systems (WMS) in Grid computing are promising solution to solve the sophisticated problem such as genomic analysis, drug discovery, disease identification, etc. Although existing WMS can provide basic management functionality in Grid environment, consideration of user requirements such as performance, reliability and interaction with user is missing. In this paper, we propose hybrid workflow management system for heart disease identification and discuss how to guarantee different user requirements according to user SLA. The proposed system is applied to Physio-Grid e-health platform to identify human heart disease with ECG analysis and Virtual Heart Simulation (VHS) workflow applications.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  2. Managing Phenol Contents in Crop Plants by Phytochemical Farming and Breeding—Visions and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Treutter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two main fields of interest form the background of actual demand for optimized levels of phenolic compounds in crop plants. These are human health and plant resistance to pathogens and to biotic and abiotic stress factors. A survey of agricultural technologies influencing the biosynthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds in crop plants is presented, including observations on the effects of light, temperature, mineral nutrition, water management, grafting, elevated atmospheric CO2, growth and differentiation of the plant and application of elicitors, stimulating agents and plant activators. The underlying mechanisms are discussed with respect to carbohydrate availability, trade-offs to competing demands as well as to regulatory elements. Outlines are given for genetic engineering and plant breeding. Constraints and possible physiological feedbacks are considered for successful and sustainable application of agricultural techniques with respect to management of plant phenol profiles and concentrations.

  3. Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The EMPRES-livestock: an FAO initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Valdir Roberto; Vargas Terán, Moisés

    2004-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) decided that the Organization should be focusing on the goal of enhancing world food security and the fight against transboundary animal diseases and plant pests. A mandate was obtained from the Governing Council and Conference to establish two new Special Programmes to address these fundamental issues. The first is the Special Programme on Food Security and the second is the Emergency Prevention System against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (EMPRES). EMPRES has two components, created after 1994 by a new policy of the Director-General of the FAO to better direct the FAO: the plant pest component focuses on the desert locust, whereas the animal diseases component focuses primarily on rinderpest but also on other epidemic diseases (e.g., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, peste de petit ruminants). For the program as a whole, a high-level EMPRES Steering Committee was established. This is chaired by the FAO Director-General and consists of the heads of key departments (Assistant Directors-General) and Divisional Directors. For the animal diseases component (hereafter referred to as EMPRES-Livestock Programme), FAO established a management unit within its Animal Health Service (AGAH), that is, the Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group, to be responsible for implementation, including liaison with the Joint FAO-International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Division in Vienna for some of the functions suballocated there. This paper briefly describes FAO EMPRES Livestock, its vision, its mission, and its activities to assist FAO developing member countries and regions in improving the ability of veterinary services to reduce the risks of introduction and/or dissemination of transboundary animal disease, by preventing, controlling, and eradicating those diseases, assisting countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Regenerative therapies in autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Earn H; Pearce, Simon H

    2017-03-01

    The treatment for autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) has remained virtually unchanged in the last 60 years. Most patients have symptoms that are relatively well controlled with exogenous steroid replacement, but there may be persistent symptoms, recurrent adrenal crisis and poor quality of life, despite good compliance with optimal current treatments. Treatment with conventional exogenous steroid therapy is also associated with premature mortality, increased cardiovascular risk and complications related to excessive steroid replacement. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches have emerged in the last decade attempting to improve the long-term outcome and quality of life of patients with AAD. This review discusses the recent developments in treatment innovations for AAD, including the novel exogenous steroid formulations with the intention of mimicking the physiological biorhythm of cortisol secretion. Our group has also carried out a few studies attempting to restore endogenous glucocorticoid production via immunomodulatory and regenerative medicine approaches. The recent advances in the understanding of adrenocortical stem cell biology, and adrenal plasticity will also be discussed to help comprehend the science behind the therapeutic approaches adopted. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  6. Parkinson's disease managing reversible neurodegeneration [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hinz M, Stein A, Cole T, McDougall B, Westaway M. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2016;12:763–775.On page 774, Disclosure section, “MH discloses his relationship with DBS Laboratory services and NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. The other authors report no conflicts of interest in this work” should have been “MH discloses his relationship with DBS Laboratory services and NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. CHK Nutrition is a subsidiary of West Duluth Distribution Co. The CEO of this company is Amy M. Gunther-Hinz and the Registered Agent is Thais M Hinz. These persons are the daughter and the wife of Dr Marty Hinz. Thais Hinz is also a shareholder of West Duluth Distribution Co. The other authors report no conflicts of interest in this work”. Read the original article

  7. Reduction of mercury in plant effluents data management implementation plan, FY 1998, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.N.; Forsberg, V.M.

    1998-03-26

    The purpose of the Data Management Implementation Plan (DMIP) is to document the requirements and responsibilities for managing, using, and archiving data used for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) project. The DMIP was created for the RMPE project in accordance with the guidance given in Environmental Data Management Implementation Handbook for the Environmental Restoration Program (ES/ER/TM- 88/R 1) and in ``Developing, implementing, and Maintaining Data Management Implementation Plans`` (EMEF/ER-P2216, Rev. 0). This document reflects the state of the RMPE project and the types of environmental monitoring planned as they existed through March 16, 1998. The scope of this document is the management of the RMPE project`s environmental information, which includes electronic or hard copy records describing environmental processes or conditions. The RMPE program was established as a best management practice to address sources in the Y-12 Plant that contribute mercury to plant effluents being discharged to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek. The strategy is multifaceted: reroute clean water through clean conduits; clean, reline, and/or replace mercury-contaminated water conduits; eliminate or reduce accumulations of mercury in tanks and sumps; isolate inaccessible mercury from contact with water; and install treatment capability for streams where the source(s) cannot be eliminated or mitigated to acceptable levels. The RMPE project database consists of data from surface water monitoring and sediment sampling at locations of interest within the Y-12 Plant. This DMIP describes the types and sources of RMPE data, other data systems relevant to the RMPE project, the different data management interactions and flow of information involved in processing RMPE data, and the systems used in data management.

  8. Implementing a Compressed Air System Leak Management Program at an Automotive Plant (Visteon's Monroe Plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The energy team at Visteon’s Monroe plant, formerly owned by Ford Motor Company, implemented an ongoing compressed air system leak management program. The team developed an approach that combined a traditional “find and fix” effort with an innovative implementation and marketing program. As a result of the leak management program, compressed air system consumption was reduced by more than 50% on a per production unit basis.

  9. Disease management strategy: initiative links pharmaceutical and mental health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, J P

    1996-02-01

    The emphasis in healthcare is shifting to practical applications of medical knowledge for the provision of more cost-effective care. This requires greater linkages among clinical information systems across multiple organizations. This article describes new initiatives in disease management to link the traditionally separate data systems fo pharmaceutical, behavioral and general medical care. The potential for improved patient care is highlighted. The author is an expert consultant for a large pharmaceutical manufacturer's disease state management initiative, and has an extensive leadership background in many segments of the behavioral healthcare industry.

  10. Sickle Cell Disease and Stroke: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Courtney; Webb, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Both adult and pediatric patients with sickle cell disease face a higher risk of stroke than the general population. Given the different underlying pathophysiology predisposing these patients to stroke, providers should be aware of differences in guidelines for stroke management. This paper reviews diagnostic considerations and recommendations during the evaluation and acute management of patients with sickle cell disease presenting with stroke, focusing on recent updates in the literature. Given the high recurrence rate of stroke in these patients, secondary prevention and curative measures will also be reviewed.

  11. Disease management with ARIMA model in time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Renato Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of infectious and noninfectious disease management can be done through the use of a time series analysis. In this study, we expect to measure the results and prevent intervention effects on the disease. Clinical studies have benefited from the use of these techniques, particularly for the wide applicability of the ARIMA model. This study briefly presents the process of using the ARIMA model. This analytical tool offers a great contribution for researchers and healthcare managers in the evaluation of healthcare interventions in specific populations.

  12. [Chronic disease management: mistaken approach in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Renato Peixoto

    2012-12-01

    Lifestyle changes, including unhealthy eating habits and high rates of physical inactivity and stress, along with an increase in life expectancy have been accompanied by increasing rates of chronic non-communicable diseases. Chronic diseases are the main causes of death and disability in Brazil. Chronic disease management is one of the most important challenges facing health managers who are constantly seeking interventions and strategies to reduce costs and hospital admissions and to prevent other conditions. However, most existing models of health care have focused exclusively on disease, but it is a mistaken approach. An integrated approach is required to effectively meet patient needs. The purpose of this article was to further discuss policies and strategies for the development of new models of care for the elderly with an emphasis on prevention and resolution actions.

  13. Diagnosis and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Roy O; Bangalore, Sripal; Lavelle, Michael P; Pellikka, Patricia A; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Boden, William E; Asif, Arif

    2016-12-28

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, likely reflecting the presence of traditional risk factors. A greater distinguishing feature of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in CKD is the severity of the disease, which is reflective of an increase in inflammatory mediators and vascular calcification secondary to hyperparathyroidism of renal origin that are unique to patients with CKD. Additional components of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that are prominent in patients with CKD include microvascular disease and myocardial fibrosis. Therapeutic interventions that minimize cardiovascular events related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD, as determined by well-designed clinical trials, are limited to statins. Data are lacking regarding other available therapeutic measures primarily due to exclusion of patients with CKD from major trials studying cardiovascular disease. Data from well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to guide clinicians who care for this high-risk population in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Clinical utility of sympathetic blockade in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Soon; Lee, Hae-Young

    2017-04-01

    A dysregulated sympathetic nervous system is a major factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; thus, understanding the mechanism and function of the sympathetic nervous system and appropriately regulating sympathetic activity to treat various cardiovascular diseases are crucial. Areas covered: This review focused on previous studies in managing hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and perioperative management with sympathetic blockade. We reviewed both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Expert commentary: Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation is related to several cardiovascular diseases mediated by various pathways. Advancement in measuring sympathetic activity makes visualizing noninvasively and evaluating the activation level even in single fibers possible. Evidence suggests that sympathetic blockade still has a role in managing hypertension and controlling the heart rate in atrial fibrillation. For ischemic heart disease, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists have been considered a milestone drug to control symptoms and prevent long-term adverse effects, although its clinical implication has become less potent in the era of successful revascularization. Owing to pathologic involvement of sympathetic nervous system activation in heart failure progression, sympathetic blockade has proved its value in improving the clinical course of patients with heart failure.

  15. The clinical management of Type 2 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karin; Gonzalez, Ashley N; Lopez, Grisel; Pedoeim, Leah; Groden, Catherine; Sidransky, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    Gaucher disease, the inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders. Type 2 Gaucher disease, the most severe and progressive form, manifests either prenatally or in the first months of life, followed by death within the first years of life. The rarity of the many lysosomal storage disorders makes their diagnosis a challenge, especially in the newborn period when the focus is often on more prevalent illnesses. Thus, a heightened awareness of the presentation of these rare diseases is necessary to ensure their timely consideration. This review, designed to serve as a guide to physicians treating newborns and infants with Gaucher disease, discusses the presenting manifestations of Type 2 Gaucher disease, the diagnostic work-up, associated genotypes and suggestions for management. We also address the ethical concerns that may arise with this progressive and lethal disorder, since currently available treatments may prolong life, but do not impact the neurological manifestations of the disease.

  16. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... be arranged and lastly, a theoretical contribution to how disease preparedness costs could be shared. An exploration of literature on issues regarding animal disease prevention in the Danish livestock sector is used in paper 1, while an empirical approach is used in paper 2, 3 and 4. A theoretical approach...... to elaborate on the private and public incentives that influence Danish farmers to prevent animal diseases. The paper reveals that public incentives could be improved by clearly stating repercussions for not following certain regulations and the current compensation strategy could be adjusted in a way...

  17. Current trends in pharmacy benefit designs: a threat to disease management in chronic complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gary; Emons, Matthew F; Christian-Herman, Jennifer; Lawless, Grant

    2007-04-01

    With a focus on those patients who are candidates for treatment with biologic agents, we review the impact that current pharmacy benefit trends have on patients with chronic complex diseases and how they affect opportunities for disease management in this unique patient population. Dramatic increases in health care costs have led to a variety of strategies to manage cost. Many of these strategies either limit access to care or increase the patient's responsibility for choosing and paying for care, especially for medications. These strategies have a disproportionate impact on patients with chronic complex diseases, particularly those who require the use of biologic medications. A fundamental prerequisite of disease management has been coverage of disease-modifying therapies. If current pharmacy benefit trends continue, unintended consequences will likely occur including lost opportunities for disease management. Current pharmacy benefit trends could adversely impact disease management, particularly for patients requiring the use of biologic agents. Health plans should consider innovative benefit designs that reflect an appropriate level of cost sharing across all key stake-holders, ensuring appropriate access to needed therapies. Additional research is needed to clarify the value of newer approaches to therapies or benefit design changes.

  18. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in the pregnant patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flavio M Habal; Nikila C Ravindran

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder affecting young adults in their reproductive years.Many young women with IBD express concern about the effect their disease will have on fertility,pregnancy course and fetal development This article presents an approach to management of IBD in the pregnant patient,including counseling and investigation,and summarizes existing data on the safety of medications used to treat IBD in pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  19. [The physician-patient relationship in chronic disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginies, P

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between patients and clinicians is a key element in the management of chronic diseases. With the objective of a more efficient communication, the clinician should know his own personality but also the patient personality. The organisation of the consultation, of the waiting room and of the secretary has to facilitate this relationship. The amelioration of this relationship is usefulness only for the clinician in particularly complicated cases but also for the patients suffering from chronic diseases.

  20. Current Pharmacological Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Kuang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, a common disorder with troublesome symptoms caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, has adverse impact on quality of life. A variety of medications have been used in GERD treatment, and acid suppression therapy is the mainstay of treatment for GERD. Although proton pump inhibitor is the most potent acid suppressant and provides good efficacy in esophagitis healing and symptom relief, about one-third of patients with GERD still have persistent symptoms with poor response to standard dose PPI. Antacids, alginate, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, and prokinetic agents are usually used as add-on therapy to PPI in clinical practice. Development of novel therapeutic agents has focused on the underlying mechanisms of GERD, such as transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, motility disorder, mucosal protection, and esophageal hypersensitivity. Newer formulations of PPI with faster and longer duration of action and potassium-competitive acid blocker, a newer acid suppressant, have also been investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the current and developing therapeutic agents for GERD treatment.

  1. Diagnostic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, B D L; Sachs, A P E; Hoes, A W; Verheij, T J M; Moons, K G M

    2012-01-01

    Detection of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is recommended; however, diagnosing COPD is difficult because a single gold standard is not available. The aim of this article is to review and interpret the existing evidence, theories and consensus on the individual parts of the diagnostic work-up for COPD. Relevant articles are discussed under the subheadings: history taking, physical examination, spirometry and additional lung function assessment. Wheezing, cough, phlegm and breathlessness on exertion are suggestive signs for COPD. The diagnostic value of the physical examination is limited, except for auscultated pulmonary wheezing or reduced breath sounds, increasing the probability of COPD. Spirometric airflow obstruction after bronchodilation, defined as a lowered ratio of the forced volume in one second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC ratio), is a prerequisite, but can only confirm COPD in combination with suggestive symptoms. Different thresholds are being recommended to define low FEV1/FVC, including a fixed threshold, and one varying with gender and age; however, the way physicians interpret these thresholds in their assessment is not well known. Body plethysmography allows a more complete assessment of pulmonary function, providing results on the total lung capacity and the residual volume and is indicated when conventional spirometry results are inconclusive. Chest radiography has no diagnostic value for COPD but is useful to exclude alternative diagnoses such as heart failure or lung cancer. Extensive history taking is of key importance in diagnosing COPD.

  2. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Patel, Nikkita G; Morales, Francisco J; Epstein, Paul R; Daszak, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the anthropogenic introduction of parasites, although severe weather events are also important drivers of disease emergence. Much is known about crop plant EIDs, but there is little information about wild-plant EIDs, suggesting that their impact on conservation is underestimated. We conclude with recommendations for improving strategies for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs.

  3. Q-bank, a database with information for identification of plant quarantine plant pest and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Edema, M.J.; Robert, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the database Q-bank (www.q-bank.eu). This freely accessible database contains data on plant pathogenic quarantine organisms to allow fast and reliable identification. Development of accurate identification tools for plant pests is vital to support European Plant Health Policies.

  4. GRAPEVINE VIRUS DISEASES:ECONOMIC IMPACT AND CURRENT ADVANCES IN VIRAL PROSPECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNANDO BASSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine (Vitis spp. is a major vegetative propagated fruit crop with high socioeconomic importance worldwide. It is susceptible to several graft-transmitted agents that cause several diseases and substantial crop losses, reducing fruit quality and plant vigor, and shorten the longevity of vines. The vegetative propagation and frequent exchanges of propagative material among countries contribute to spread these pathogens, favoring the emergence of complex diseases. Its perennial life cycle further accelerates the mixing and introduction of several viral agents into a single plant. Currently, approximately 65 viruses belonging to different families have been reported infecting grapevines, but not all cause economically relevant diseases. The grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, leaf degeneration and fleck diseases are the four main disorders having worldwide economic importance. In addition, new viral species and strains have been identified and associated with economically important constraints to grape production. In Brazilian vineyards, eighteen viruses, three viroids and two virus-like diseases had already their occurrence reported and were molecularly characterized. Here, we review the current knowledge of these viruses, report advances in their diagnosis and prospection of new species, and give indications about the management of the associated grapevine diseases.

  5. Is plant temporal beta diversity of field margins related to changes in management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alignier, Audrey; Baudry, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Field margins have considerable ecological significance in agriculture-dominated landscapes by supporting biodiversity and associated services. However, agricultural changes during mid-20th century led to their drastic loss with a serious threat for biodiversity. Using time-series data, we aimed to get better insights into processes underlying plant patterns of field margins through time by i) quantifying plant temporal beta diversity components, ii) assessing whether the observed changes in plant communities can be related to changes in management practices applied to field margins. During the springs of 1994, 1998 and 2001, we surveyed plant communities and management practices of the same 116 field margins in three contrasted landscapes. We estimated temporal beta diversity in plant communities and partitioned it into its two dissimilarity resultant components, accounting for replacement of species (i.e. turnover) and for the nested gain or loss of species (i.e. nestedness). We then tested whether the observed changes in plant communities between 1994 and 1998 and, between 1998 and 2001 were related to changes in management practices using linear models. Plant communities of field margins exhibited strong temporal beta diversity dominated by turnover. Temporal turnover in plant communities was partly related to changes in management practices, i.e., a decrease of grazing concomitant to an increase of herbicide spraying. However, relationships were not consistent between all landscape contexts nor time period, suggesting that other unmeasured deterministic or stochastic processes could be driving the observed plant patterns. Taken together, our results suggest that maintaining a wide diversity of field margins with contrasted management contribute to maintaining plant diversity at a landscape scale. They underline the value of investigating plant temporal diversity patterns using time-series data and thus, the need to develop long-term studies making it possible

  6. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selbig Joachim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In the Golm Plant Database System, we devised a data management system based on a classical Laboratory Information Management System combined with web-based user interfaces for data entry and retrieval to collect this information in an academic environment. Results The database system contains modules representing the genetic features of the germplasm, the experimental conditions and the sampling details. In the germplasm module, genetically identical lines of biological material are generated by defined workflows, starting with the import workflow, followed by further workflows like genetic modification (transformation, vegetative or sexual reproduction. The latter workflows link lines and thus create pedigrees. For experiments, plant objects are generated from plant lines and united in so-called cultures, to which the cultivation conditions are linked. Materials and methods for each cultivation step are stored in a separate ACCESS database of the plant cultivation unit. For all cultures and thus every plant object, each cultivation site and the culture's arrival time at a site are logged by a barcode-scanner based system. Thus, for each plant object, all site-related parameters, e.g. automatically logged climate data, are available. These life history data and genetic information for the plant objects are linked to analytical results by the sampling module, which links sample components to plant object identifiers. This workflow uses controlled vocabulary for organs and treatments. Unique

  7. The management of combined coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cassar (Andrew); D. Poldermans (Don); C.S. Rihal (Charanjit); B.J. Gersh (Bernard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCoronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) remain highly prevalent in the population due to population ageing, smoking, diabetes, unhealthy lifestyles, and the epidemic of obesity, and frequently coexist. The management of combined CAD and PVD is a common challen

  8. Protection of Vine Plants against Esca Disease by Breathable Electrospun Antifungal Nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Viola; Molnar, Melanie; Wang, Hui; Reich, Steffen; Agarwal, Seema; Fischer, Michael; Greiner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The harmful Esca disease in vine plants caused by wood-inhabiting fungi including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) is spreading all across the world. This disease leads to poor vine crops and a slow decline or to a sudden dieback of the vine plants. The pruning wounds of vine plants are the main entry point for Pch. While model experiments with aerosol particles recommend electrospun nonwovens as a suitable barrier to block Pch, tests with living spores show clearly that only electrospun fibrous nonwovens do not prevent Pch invasion. However it is found, that with antifungal additives electrospun nonwovens could be applied successfully for blocking of Pch to infect the substrate. Thereby, a highly useful concept for the protection of vine plants against Esca disease is provided which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Management of anemia in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, J M

    2008-01-01

    1. All patients with anemia secondary to CKD should be treated and evaluated for possible treatment, irrespective of underlying disease, associated comorbidity or possibility of kidney replacement therapy. 2. In patients treated with ESAs, Hb concentrations should be monitored at least monthly. 3. Hb targets: In all patients with CKD, Hb concentration should be > 11 g/dl and there is no evidence to justify total correction of anemia on a routine basis. Normalization of Hb levels in CKD is associated with an improvement in health-related quality of life, but without differences in mortality or the rate of loss of kidney function (Strength of Recommendation A). 4. Indications for iron therapy: Iron therapy is required in the large majority of patients with CKD treated with ESAs to achieve a Hb equal to or greater than 11 g/dl (Strength of Recommendation B). The recommended serum concentration of ferritin is > 100 mg/dl, which should be associated with a TSI > 20% (Strength of Recommendation C). Iron therapy in patients with CKD can be given orally or intravenously, although the IV route is more effective (Strength of Recommendation A). 5. The initial dose of ESA and its adjustments will depend on the patients clinical condition, baseline Hb levels, the Hb target and the rate of increase in Hb levels observed (Strength of Recommendation C). 6. In all cases and for all ESAs, the subcutaneous route is the recommended route of administration for patients with CKD (Strength of Recommendation C). 7. Resistance to ESAs: A hyporesponse to ESAs is considered to be present when an Hb level of 11 g/dl is not achieved with a dose of epoetin > 300 IU/kg/week or a dose of darbepoetin alpha > 1.5 microg/kg/week (Strength of Recommendation B). 8. There is insufficient evidence in patients with CKD to justify routine use of coadjuvant treatments.

  10. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Urban Water-Quality Management. Rain Garden Plants

    OpenAIRE

    French, Sue (Sue C.); Fox, Laurie; Andruczyk, Mike; Gilland, Traci; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.

  12. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  13. [The hospital perspective: disease management and integrated health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2003-06-01

    Disease Management is a transsectoral, population-based form of health care, which addresses groups of patients with particular clinical entities and risk factors. It refers both to an evidence-based knowledge base and corresponding guidelines, evaluates outcome as a continuous quality improvement process and usually includes active participation of patients. In Germany, the implementation of disease management is associated with financial transactions for risk adjustment between health care assurances [para. 137 f, Book V of Social Code (SGB V)] and represents the second kind of transsectoral care, besides a program designed as integrated health care according to para. 140 a ff f of Book V of Social Code. While in the USA and other countries disease management programs are made available by several institutions involved in health care, in Germany these programs are offered by health care insurers. Assessment of disease management from the hospital perspective will have to consider three questions: How large is the risk to compensate inadequate quality in outpatient care? Are there synergies in internal organisational development? Can the risk of inadequate funding of the global "integrated" budget be tolerated? Transsectoral quality assurance by valid performance indicators and implementation of a quality improvement process are essential. Internal organisational changes can be supported, particularly in the case of DRG introduction. The economic risk and financial output depends on the kind of disease being focussed by the disease management program. In assessing the underlying scientific evidence of their cost effectiveness, societal costs will have to be precisely differentiated from hospital-associated costs.

  14. Rust and Thinning Management Effect on Cup Quality and Plant Performance for Two Cultivars of Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria-Beirute, Fabian; Murray, Seth C; Klein, Patricia; Kerth, Chris; Miller, Rhonda; Bertrand, Benoit

    2017-09-29

    Beverage quality is a complex attribute of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Genotype (G), environment (E), management (M), postharvest processing, and roasting are all involved. However, little is known about how G × M interactions influence beverage quality. We investigated how yield and coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease (caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br.) management affect cup quality and plant performance, in two coffee cultivars. Sensory and chemical analyses revealed that 10 of 70 attributes and 18 of 154 chemical volatile compounds were significantly affected by G and M. Remarkably, acetaminophen was found for the first time in roasted coffee and in higher concentrations under more stressful conditions. A principal component analysis described 87% of the variation in quality and plant overall performance. This study is a first step in understanding the complexity of the physiological, metabolic, and molecular changes in coffee production, which will be useful for the improvement of coffee cultivars.

  15. Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

  16. The ABC's required for establishing a practical computerized plant engineering management data base system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiocco, F. R.; Hume, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A system's approach is outlined in the paper to assist facility and Plant Engineers improve their organization's data management system. The six basic steps identified may appear somewhat simple; however, adequate planning, proper resources, and the involvement of management will determine the success of a computerized facility management data base. Helpful suggestions are noted throughout the paper to insure the development of a practical computerized data management system.

  17. Aquatic Plants: Management and Control. Special Circular 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, R. G.; And Others

    This publication, produced by the Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Service, is a non-technical guide to chemical control of aquatic vegetation. The purpose of this circular is to aid the land owner or manager in managing ponds, streams, and other water bodies for desired uses by managing the vegetation in, on, and around the water. Among the…

  18. Roles of small RNAs in plant disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Hai Huang

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between plants and pathogens represents a dynamic competition between a robust immune system and efficient infectious strategies. Plant innate immunity is composed of complex and highly regulated molecular networks, which can be triggered by the perception of either conserved or race-specific pathogenic molecular signatures. Smal RNAs are emerging as versatile regulators of plant development, growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. They act in different tiers of plant immunity, including the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered and the effector-triggered immunity. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved effector molecules to suppress or hijack the host smal RNA pathways. This leads to an arms race between plants and pathogens at the level of smal RNA-mediated defense. Here, we review recent advances in smal RNA-mediated defense responses and discuss the chal enging questions in this area.

  19. Use of decision trees for evaluating severe accident management strategies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclerar Engineering; Lee, Yongjin; Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2016-07-15

    Accident management strategies are defined to innovative actions taken by plant operators to prevent core damage or to maintain the sound containment integrity. Such actions minimize the chance of offsite radioactive substance leaks that lead to and intensify core damage under power plant accident conditions. Accident management extends the concept of Defense in Depth against core meltdown accidents. In pressurized water reactors, emergency operating procedures are performed to extend the core cooling time. The effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) became an important issue. Severe accident management strategies are evaluated with a methodology utilizing the decision tree technique.

  20. Non-Medical Management of Raynaud’s Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-29

    I AD-AIll 032 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA F/B &/ S I NON-MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RAYNAUD’S OISEASE,(U) I JUN 81 J B JOBE. J B...collagen disease, they are referred to as Rana d’s phenomenon or syndrome . Minimal criteria for diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease have long been established...JAMA. l945; 129:1-- s . 2. blain, A 1l1, Coiler, FA, Carver, 6i. Raynaud’s disease: A study ot criteria for prognosis. Surgery. 19)1; 2V:387-31)7. 3

  1. Kawasaki disease: current aspects on aetiopathogenesis and therapeutic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexoudi, Iliana; Kanakis, Meletios; Kapsimali, Violetta; Vaiopoulos, George

    2011-07-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that affects mainly children of 6 months to 4 years old. It is important to be early recognised so as to limit the inflammatory cascade that may lead to aneurysmatic dilatations of coronary arteries. The causative agent of KD has not been still indentified and the aetiopathogenetic theories are based on epidemiologic, laboratory and histological data. The management of the disease is divided according to the clinical stage and patients' follow up should be continued for years after the disease onset. The exact period is determined by the risk level of the KD.

  2. Software Configuration Management Plan for the B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-08-31

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This Software Configuration Management Plan provides instructions for change control of the CVCS.

  3. Pathway models for analysing and managing the introduction of alien plant pests - an overview and categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Pautasso, M.; Venette, R.C.; Robinet, C.; Hemerik, L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Schans, J.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Alien plant pests are introduced into new areas at unprecedented rates through global trade, transport, tourism and travel, threatening biodiversity and agriculture. Increasingly, the movement and introduction of pests is analysed with pathway models to provide risk managers with quantitative

  4. Living PSA program: LIPSAS development for safety management of an LMFBR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Kiyoto [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nakai, Ryodai [O-arai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    During construction and subsequent operation of a nuclear power plant, many changes occur in components, systems and operating procedures, which continuously modify the configuration of the power plant. A living PSA program can assess and manage safety-related operations and plant changes by adequately reproducing plant models and structured databases corresponding to the changes in system configuration. A living PSA system, LIPSAS, has been developed for the Japanese prototype liquid metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor (LMFBR), Monju, which is in the preoperation functional test stage. In order to utilize the LIPSAS as a risk management tool, equations for the schematic time history of the plant risk level and the relative risk criteria have been developed. Experience with LIPSAS shows that this program is a prospective tool to support decisions that affect plant safety, although a continuing and significant resource commitment of the operations staff at the site is still required. (author).

  5. Heart Disease Management by Women: Does Intervention Format Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noreen M.; Janz, Nancy K.; Dodge, Julia A.; Lin, Xihong; Trabert, Britton L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Mosca, Lori; Wheeler, John R.; Keteyian, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of two formats of a program (Women Take PRIDE) to enhance management of heart disease by patients was conducted. Older women (N = 575) were randomly assigned to a group or self-directed format or to a control group. Data regarding symptoms, functional health status, and weight were collected at baseline and at 4, 12,…

  6. Heart Disease Management by Women: Does Intervention Format Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noreen M.; Janz, Nancy K.; Dodge, Julia A.; Lin, Xihong; Trabert, Britton L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Mosca, Lori; Wheeler, John R.; Keteyian, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of two formats of a program (Women Take PRIDE) to enhance management of heart disease by patients was conducted. Older women (N = 575) were randomly assigned to a group or self-directed format or to a control group. Data regarding symptoms, functional health status, and weight were collected at baseline and at 4, 12,…

  7. Otitis media across nine countries : Disease burden and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arguedas, A.; Kvaerner, K.; Liese, J.; Schilder, A. G. M.; Pelton, S. I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceived disease burden and management of otitis media (OM) among an international cohort of experienced physicians. Methods: A cross-sectional survey conducted in France, Germany, Spain, Poland, Argentina, Mexico, South Korea, Thailand and Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interv

  8. Rotator Cuff Disease and Injury--Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randy

    This presentation considers the incidence, evaluation, and management of rotator cuff disease and injury. Pathogenesis, symptoms, physical findings, treatment (therapeutic and surgical), and prevention are discussed. It is noted that rotator cuff problems, common in athletes, are usually related to an error in training or lack of training. They…

  9. Detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Wildt, J.; Kappers, I.F.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes an overview of studies that report on the impact of infectious and noninfectious diseases on these emissions and discusses the specificity of disease-induced emissions. The

  10. Detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Wildt, J.; Kappers, I.F.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes an overview of studies that report on the impact of infectious and noninfectious diseases on these emissions and discusses the specificity of disease-induced emissions. The r

  11. Classic nursing management skills and disease management: something old, something new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, K

    1997-06-01

    With the advent of managed care, nursing has the opportunity to shine through the current chaos in the health care industry because of its steadfast use and necessary expertise in the five classic management skills: planning, coordinating, controlling, delegating, and communicating. The new focus on disease management provides nursing with the best chance ever to position itself as the most skilled and pivotal player in an incredibly competitive arena. The five skills will be described in the new context of disease management, with the hope that nurses in diverse roles will demonstrate that excellent management of clinical care is a patient's best chance for achieving optimal outcomes and a health care system's best chance at achieving value.

  12. Pisa syndrome in Parkinson's disease: diagnostic and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Miletić Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders Centre, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: Pisa syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by marked lateral flexion of the trunk, which is typically mobile and resolves at supine position. When observed in clinical practice, it denotes an incapacitating symptom of underlying neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the development of Pisa syndrome are poorly understood, and its management remains a challenge. In this review, we will focus our attention on Pisa syndrome in patients with Parkinson's disease, and provide an update on prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment options. Keywords: Pisa syndrome, lateral trunk flexion, Parkinson's disease

  13. Tools for primary care management of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Alice L; Munkholm, Pia; Andrews, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    are helpful but they are not designed for the primary care setting. Few non-expert IBD management tools or guidelines exist compared with those used for other chronic diseases such as asthma and scant data have been published regarding the usefulness of such tools including IBD action plans and associated......Healthcare systems throughout the world continue to face emerging challenges associated with chronic disease management. Due to the likely increase in chronic conditions in the future it is now vital that cooperation and support between specialists, generalists and primary health care physicians...... affected by IBD in their caseload, the proportion of patients with IBD-related healthcare issues cared for in the primary care setting appears to be widespread. Data suggests however, that primary care physician's IBD knowledge and comfort in management is suboptimal. Current treatment guidelines for IBD...

  14. Second Korean guidelines for the management of Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Jun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jong Wook; Park, Dong Il; Yoon, Hyuk; Im, Jong Pil; Lee, Kang Moon; Yoon, Sang Nam; Lee, Heeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and disabling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with an uncertain etiopathogenesis. CD can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, and is associated with serious complications, such as bowel strictures, perforations, and fistula formation. The incidence and prevalence rates of CD in Korea are still lower compared with those in Western countries, but they have been rapidly increasing during the recent decades. Although there are no definitive curative modalities for CD, various medical and surgical therapies have been applied for the treatment of this disease. Concerning CD management, there have been substantial discrepancies among clinicians according to their personal experience and preference. To suggest recommendable approaches to the diverse problems of CD and to minimize the variations in treatment among physicians, guidelines for the management of CD were first published in 2012 by the IBD Study Group of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. These are the revised guidelines based on updated evidence, accumulated since 2012. These guidelines were developed by using mainly adaptation methods, and encompass induction and maintenance treatment of CD, treatment based on disease location, treatment of CD complications, including stricture and fistula, surgical treatment, and prevention of postoperative recurrence. These are the second Korean guidelines for the management of CD and will be continuously revised as new evidence is collected. PMID:28239314

  15. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of specialized (or secondary) metabolites that function as chemical defence compounds and provide protection against microbial pathogens or herbivores. This chapter focuses on the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways for plant chemical defence compounds...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  17. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker.

  18. Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Deris, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any

  19. Dental health and management for children with congenital heart disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common developmental anomalies. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developing oral disease, and are at increased risk from the systemic effects of oral disease. Recent changes in guidelines related to prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining oral health for this group of patients. The management of children with CHD can be complex and, unfortunately, many of these children do not receive the care they require. The challenges that these children pose are discussed, and suggestions are made for the appropriate management of these patients and the key role that all those working in primary dental care have to play.

  20. Micro Data: Wearable Devices Contribute to Improved Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Andria; Parke, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Issues involving chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) are prevalent in today's aging society, and suggestions for improvement are essential to treat this patient demographic effectively. This article addresses the use of wearable devices for the medical community to improve CDPM by relying on the accumulation of micro data. For the patient, we recognize that these devices can be an effective tool to facilitate real-time monitoring of their vital signs and activity levels. With real-time monitoring and earlier responses, individuals can benefit by preventing, delaying or reducing exacerbations of chronic diseases. Use of these devices also has great benefit to the person and has the potential to decrease the individual's emergency room visits, hospital admissions and re-admissions. As patients and their healthcare providers work together to identify cumulative trends in their micro data, transitions in care planning will be enhanced, further contributing to improved chronic disease management.