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Sample records for plant development chemical

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  2. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  3. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit

  4. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  5. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  6. Advanced-safeguards systems development for chemical-processing plants. Final report for FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartan, F.O.

    1981-04-01

    The program is installing a computer system to test and evaluate process monitoring as a new Safeguards function to supplement the usual physical security and accountability functions. Safeguards development sensors and instruments installed in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) provide information via a data acquisition system to a Safeguards analysis computer. The monitoring function can significantly enhance current material control (accountability) and containment surveillance capabilities for domestic and international Safeguards uses. Installation of sensors and instruments in the ICPP was more than 75% complete in FY-1980. Installation work was halted at the request of ICPP operations near the end of the year to eliminate possible conflict with instrument calibrations prior to plant startup. Some improvements to the computer hardware were made during FY-1980. Sensor and instrument development during FY-1980 emphasized device testing for ICPP monitoring applications. Pressure transducers, pressure switches, a bubble flowmeter, and load cells were tested; an ultrasonic liquid-in-line sensor was developed and tested. Work on the portable, isotope-ratio mass spectrometer led to the comparison of the HP quadrupole instrument with a small magnetic instrument and to the selection of the quadrupole

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m 3 ) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF ampersand WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal

  10. The development of a nuclear chemical plant human reliability management approach: HRMS and JHEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, Barry

    1997-01-01

    -be-assessed, task or scenario. The extrapolation process therefore required a set of PSF profiles for a number of real and representative data-based scenarios, and empirically-derived rules to extrapolate to new but similar scenarios. Using existing nuclear chemical plant human error and other data, a PSF profiling and extrapolation system was developed, which could assess most HEPs required for nuclear chemical risk assessments. The two techniques were then employed in a major risk assessment, with HRMS being utilised for approximately twenty high risk scenarios, and JHEDI being used to calculate well over five hundred HEPs for a large range of tasks and scenarios, by a number of assessors

  11. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the development of tomato plants treated with different chemical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the purpose to study the physiological effects of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, plant growth regulators and plant extract on the accumulation of carbohydrates during the development of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana, in protected environment conditions. The treatments were: T1- control; T2- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1; T3- boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T4- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1 + boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T5- IBA + GA3 + kinetin 375 mg L-1, T6- GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine 100 mg L-1 and T7- plant extract 100 mg L-1. The carbohydrate accumulation curve was accomplished with 5 samples, at 20-day intervals between evaluations, the 1st evaluation being carried out at 30 days after transplantation, on the day of the first treatment application. At each sampling the plants were separated in stem, leaves and fruits, of which the contents of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and saccharose were evaluated. The effects of the treatments on chlorophyll content and gas exchanges were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 repetitions and 6 destructive evaluations during the development, with 1 plant per experimental unit for each sampling. The pyraclostrobin and boscalid applied in isolation and/or combined favor the increase of carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits of tomato hybrid Giuliana

  12. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  13. Advanced safeguards systems development for chemical processing plants. Final report for Fiscal Year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A computer system is being installed by INEL to test and evaluate safeguards monitoring concepts in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. Safeguards development sensors and instruments installed in the ICPP provide plant information to a computer data acquisition and analysis system. Objective of the system is to collect data from process and safeguards sensors and show how this data can be analyzed to detect diversion operations or improper plant operation, and to test the performance of the monitoring devices. Approximately one-third of the installation designs and one-eighth of the installations were completed in FY 1979. The ICPP processing schedule for FY 1980 permits installation of the remaining monitoring devices before process startup in the fourth quarter of FY 1980. All computer hardware was delivered and checked out in FY 1979. Computer software system designs were completed with the majority of the programming scheduled for FY 1980. Sensor and instrument development in FY 1979 emphasized device testing for ICPP monitoring applications

  14. Construction technique for a chemical plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book mentions the order of plant construction, building plant and related regulations, basic engineering design data, provide of equipment, plan and management on building plant, quality control, the budget and contract for building plant, public works for building chemical plant like road construction, basic plan and building for a chemical plant, introduction and principle on foundation improvement method, including pile foundation and design for footing, construction and installation for a chemical plant and a rotary machine for a chemical plant.

  15. Chemical defence and toxins of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, H.; Konno, K.; Sabelis, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Sassa, T.; Oikawa, H.; Mander, L.; Lui, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants protect themselves by producing a variety of secondary metabolites and proteins that are involved in defense against herbivores as well as microbial pathogens. Concerning microbial pathogenesis in plants, in many cases, it is known that phytotoxins that are produced by plant pathogens play an important role in disease development causing chlorosis, necrosis, or wilting. This chapter mainly focuses on the chemical structures, distribution, and biosynthesis of defense-related natu...

  16. Problems of developing remedial strategy for the uranium ore processing legacy site Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant site (Dneprodzerginsk, Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazantsev, V.; Bugai, D.; Skalskyy, A.; Tkachenko, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of works and studies carried out in the frame of ongoing national and international projects aimed at developing the remedial strategy for the Soviet era legacy uranium production site Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant, Dneprodzerginsk, Ukraine. The site includes several uranium mill tailings, contaminated buildings, ore storage grounds and other contaminated facilities. Taking into account the necessity to implement provisions of the new IAEA standards (Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, No. GSR Part 3 (Interim) and others) as well as the provisions of the ICRP 103 publication, the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate Ukraine developed the draft of the new licensing requirements for activities of uranium ores processing.

  17. English Language for the Chemical Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed for chemical plant employees, the course covers basic English speaking and writing skills needed to communicate effectively at work and outside the…

  18. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kochanek

    Full Text Available Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1, in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses.Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum. Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype.Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications.

  19. Volatile chemical interaction between undamaged plants

    OpenAIRE

    Glinwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses whether plant chemical communication is a mechanism by which plant genetic diversity can affect the natural enemies of herbivores. Plant genetic diversity influences natural enemies, and these insects use volatile chemical cues to locate suitable habitats. However, the importance of chemical communication for these interactions has not been considered. In this chapter, the latest research on chemical communication between undamaged plants is reviewed. ...

  20. Chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSTP) Hyderabad for achieving sustainable development in sector of agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Shaikh, N.; Ahmed, R.S.; Nawaz, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A study on the chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSPP) Hyderabad was studied. Chemical analysis on sludge samples collected form the waste stabilization for different micro-nutrients (essential manures, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) were conducted in year 1999-2000. These nutrients and metal were detected by reliable analytical method i.e. Kjeldahls method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The analysis showed that sewage sludge contained sufficient quantity of primary and secondary nutrients, hence sewage sludge could be utilized as a natural fertilizer. This will not only solve the disposal problem but it would also be environmentally safer way of providing regulators to the plants. (author)

  1. The material control and accounting system model development in the Radiochemical plant of Siberian Chemical Combine (SChC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A.S.; Purygin, V.Ya.; Skuratov, V.A.; Lapotkov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear material (NM) control and accounting computerized system is designed to automatically account NM reception, movement and storage at the Radiochemical Plant. The objective of this system development is to provide a constant surveillance over the process material movement, to improve their accountability and administrative work, to upgrade the plant protection against possible NM thefts, stealing and diversion, to rule out any casual errors of operators, to improve the timeliness and significance (reliability) of information about nuclear materials. The NM control and accounting system at the Radiochemical Plant should be based on the computerized network. It must keep track of all the material movements in each Material Balance Areas: material receipt from other plant; material local movement within the plant; material shipment to other plants; generation of required documents about NM movements and its accounting [ru

  2. Construction technique for a chemical plant (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book mentions design of instrumentation and construction for a chemical plant, which deals with the change of instrumentation, construction, choice of material test, construction of thermal insulation work for a chemical plant, about classification and main materials, the problems on construction, painting plan and construction for a chemical plant such as paint and painting, safety and hygiene, cleaning of a chemical plant on the time for washing and decision of the way of washing, start up test for a chemical plant such as introduction of the check, construction and repair.

  3. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, P.W.; Curtis, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  4. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE IS SPECIFICALLY CONCERNED WITH CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1) CHEMICALS AS MODIFIERS OF PLANT GROWTH, (2)…

  5. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  6. Plant cell tissue culture: A potential source of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Dougall, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Higher plants produce many industrially important products. Among these are drugs and medicinal chemicals, essential oils and flavors, vegetable oils and fats, fine and specialty chemicals, and even some commodity chemicals. Although, currently, whole-plant extraction is the primary means of harvesting these materials, the advent of plant cell tissue culture could be a much more effective method of producing many types of phytochemicals. The use of immobilized plant cells in an advanced bioreactor configuration with excretion of the product into the reactor medium may represent the most straightforward way of commercializing such techniques for lower-value chemicals. Important research and development opportunities in this area include screening for plant cultures for nonmedical, lower-value chemicals; understanding and controlling plant cell physiology and biochemistry; optimizing effective immobilization methods; developing more efficient bioreactor concepts; and perfecting product extraction and purification techniques. 62 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Health and Natural Resources: The Extraction of Useful Chemicals from Plants and their Impact on Socio-Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munavu, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries are based on the need to develop and improve the quality of life of people. The successful strategies link wealth creating activities of adding value to local resources with employment creation. These strategies lead to increased capacity to produce needed consumer goods such as food, fuel, construction materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals starting from local resources. Most value-adding transformations of materials to consumer goods use chemicals conversion processes

  8. Construction technique for a chemical plant (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book deals with design and construction for a chemical plant which includes design and building of steel structure for a chemical plant with types, basic regulation, plan, shop fabrication for steel structure and field construction. It explains design and construction of making building for a chemical construction with measurement, types of building and basic rule of the building, design of the building, constructing plumbing for a chemical plant with plan, management of material, checking for construction, construction of electrical installation on plan, know-how to construction and maintenance.

  9. Survey of awareness about hazardous chemicals of residents living near chemical plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Don-Hee; Park, Min Soo

    2018-02-10

    With economic growth, the use of chemicals has continually increased, resulting in an increase of chemical accidents. Chemical accidents pose a life threat and can lead to many health problems among the residents living in close proximity to chemical plants. This study aimed to investigate the awareness of the residents living near chemical plants about hazardous chemicals, as well as to survey the awareness of workers who do not directly handle chemicals at chemical plants (WNHCs). To this end, a questionnaire survey was conducted among a total of 600 residents and 160 WNHCs. The questionnaire was composed of three items: awareness of chemical risk, awareness of countermeasures in chemical accidents, and imperious necessity of PPE (personal protective equipment). Statistical analysis of the data was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. The results show that the government needs to complement the notification system of chemical risk for residents who live close to chemical plants. The highest priority of PPE which residents want to prepare for chemical accidents was respiratory protective equipment (RPE). They responded that, if necessary to purchase PPE, they could bear a portion of the expenses (up to US $30). This study provides basic data for the development of programs and policies on chemical safety relevant for the residents living in close proximity to chemical plants in South Korea.

  10. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  12. Plant protective chemicals in forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Freidhager, R.; Hackl, J.

    1993-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine critically the use of pesticides in forestry and the resulting problems. Further, the study points out possibilities for dispensing with chemical treatments altogether. This work is intended to assist those deciding upon suitable forest protection procedures. There are also comments on the particular dangers arising from the use of pesticides (R-Saetze) and safety advice as regards their proper application. The first part of the present study contains both a discussion of the humanotoxicological and ecological consequences of pesticide applications in forestry as well as the legal basis for the sale and use of pesticides in Austria. The following parts (herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, game deterrents, fungicides) treat the use of pesticides according to their respective area of application. Discussed here are chemical properties, toxicity, and the environmental compatibility of the pesticides in question, including demonstrations of environmentally sound ways to avoid or restrict the use of pesticides. (authors)

  13. Chemical regulators of plant hormones and their applications in basic research and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Asami, Tadao

    2018-04-20

    Plant hormones are small molecules that play versatile roles in regulating plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Classic methodologies, including genetics, analytic chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology, have contributed to the progress in plant hormone studies. In addition, chemical regulators of plant hormone functions have been important in such studies. Today, synthetic chemicals, including plant growth regulators, are used to study and manipulate biological systems, collectively referred to as chemical biology. Here, we summarize the available chemical regulators and their contributions to plant hormone studies. We also pose questions that remain to be addressed in plant hormone studies and that might be solved with the help of chemical regulators.

  14. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  15. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzmann, A.

    1997-01-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  16. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  17. Influence of Photo period and Gamma Irradiation on Shoot Development and Chemical Composition of Yucca elephantipes Regel Plant in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Sharnouby, M.E.; Ragab, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In-Vitro propagated plant lets of Yucca elephantipes were placed under different photo periods (24/0, 16/8, and 0/24 L/D) for two months after cultured on MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose. Growing explants of Yucca elephantipes cultured on MS medium placed under photo period 24/0 L/D gave the highest shoot length and best proliferation than other treatments especially in subculture 3. Exposure to gamma irradiation at doses 0.0, 5 ,10, 20 and 40 Gy, and placed on the same conditions .Irradiated plantlets exhibited changes in shoot growth especially on photo period at 16/8 L/D than others, also with gamma irradiation at dose 20 Gy. Using gamma irradiation at level of 20 and 40 Gy stimulated both leaf shape and thickness of stem. The contents of total phenol, total saponin and some unsap contents were increased with increasing gamma irradiation

  18. Plants and chemical constituents with giardicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M.M. Amaral

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection caused by Giardia lamblia represents a serious public health problem, with increased rates of prevalence in numerous countries. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side-effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Natural products, especially of plant origin, represent excellent starting point for research. The objective of this study is to review the literature on plant extracts, fractions and chemical constituents whose giardicidal activity has been investigated in vitro. The review describes 153 (one hundred and fifty-three plant species from 69 (sixty-nine families that were evaluated for their giardicidal activity. The geographical distribution of the plant species, the part used, preparation, strain of Giardia lamblia tested and the results obtained by the authors are also given. One hundred and one compounds isolated from plant species, classified by chemical class, are presented. Recent aspects of research on natural products of plant origin employed in the treatment of giardiasis are also discussed.

  19. Development of the conceptual models for chemical conditions and hydrology used in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the 40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on 28 March 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and, determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evaluating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation); development of a regional model for

  20. Development of the Conceptual Models for Chemical Conditions and Hydrology Used in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LARSON, KURT W.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the ''40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on March 28, 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evacuating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation), development of a regional model for

  1. [Signal transduction in plant development: Chemical and biochemical approaches to receptor identification]. Progress report, [May 15, 1993--May 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Progress is reported on studies concerning NAD(P)H-2,6-DMBQ oxidoreductase of Striga asiatica aimed at elucidating basic biochemical parameters of Striga. Reported studies include characterization of the enzyme, development of Striga molecular genetics, and development of a redox model for germination control.

  2. Recent developments in chemical decontamination technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Chemical decontamination of parts of reactor coolant systems is a mature technology, used routinely in many BWR plants, but less frequently in PWRs. This paper reviews recent developments in the technology - corrosion minimization, waste processing and full system decontamination, including the fuel. Earlier work was described in an extensive review published in 1990.

  3. Aquatic plants: Test species sensitivity and minimum data requirement evaluations for chemical risk assessments and aquatic life criteria development for the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytotoxicity results from the publicly-available ECOTOX database were summarized for 20 chemicals and 188 aquatic plants to determine species sensitivities and the ability of a species-limited toxicity data set to serve as a surrogate for a larger data set. The lowest effect con...

  4. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  6. Hyperspectral monitoring of chemically sensitive plant sentinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Danielle A.; Kerekes, John P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2009-08-01

    Automated detection of chemical threats is essential for an early warning of a potential attack. Harnessing plants as bio-sensors allows for distributed sensing without a power supply. Monitoring the bio-sensors requires a specifically tailored hyperspectral system. Tobacco plants have been genetically engineered to de-green when a material of interest (e.g. zinc, TNT) is introduced to their immediate vicinity. The reflectance spectra of the bio-sensors must be accurately characterized during the de-greening process for them to play a role in an effective warning system. Hyperspectral data have been collected under laboratory conditions to determine the key regions in the reflectance spectra associated with the degreening phenomenon. Bio-sensor plants and control (nongenetically engineered) plants were exposed to TNT over the course of two days and their spectra were measured every six hours. Rochester Institute of Technologys Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation Model (DIRSIG) was used to simulate detection of de-greened plants in the field. The simulated scene contains a brick school building, sidewalks, trees and the bio-sensors placed at the entrances to the buildings. Trade studies of the bio-sensor monitoring system were also conducted using DIRSIG simulations. System performance was studied as a function of field of view, pixel size, illumination conditions, radiometric noise, spectral waveband dependence and spectral resolution. Preliminary results show that the most significant change in reflectance during the degreening period occurs in the near infrared region.

  7. Genetics and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants. The story of developmental biology is different - while the development of plants has long been studied, the experimental and genetic approaches to developmental mechanism were developed via experiments on animals, and the importance of genes in development (e.g., Waddington, 1940) and their use for understanding developmental mechanisms came to botanical science much later - as late as the 1980s. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  9. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  10. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  11. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  12. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  13. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  14. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark A.; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  16. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  17. Prey, but not plant, chemical discrimination by the lizard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We experimentally studied responses to food chemicals by Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus, amember of a lizard genus endemic to subsaharan Africa. Gerrhosaur diets vary from insectivorous to omnivorous with a very large plant portion. The omnivorous G. validus responds strongly to chemical cues from prey and food plants.

  18. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  19. Improving Chemical Plant Safety Training Using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Nasios, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    The chemical engineering industry often requires people to work in hazardous environments and to operate complicated equipment which often limits the type of training that be carried out on site. The daily job of chemical plant operators is becoming more demanding due to the increasing plant complexity together with increasing requirements on plant safety, production capacity, product quality and cost effectiveness. The importance of designing systems and environments that are as safe as poss...

  20. Terpenoids in plant signaling, chemical ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Terpenoids constitute the largest class of secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom. Because of their immense structural diversity and the resulting diversity in physiochemical properties, these molecules are particularly important for plant communication with other organisms. In this article, we

  1. Chemical signaling involved in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Pessotti, Rita de Cassia; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2018-03-05

    Microorganisms are found everywhere, and they are closely associated with plants. Because the establishment of any plant-microbe association involves chemical communication, understanding crosstalk processes is fundamental to defining the type of relationship. Although several metabolites from plants and microbes have been fully characterized, their roles in the chemical interplay between these partners are not well understood in most cases, and they require further investigation. In this review, we describe different plant-microbe associations from colonization to microbial establishment processes in plants along with future prospects, including agricultural benefits.

  2. Chemical defence and toxins of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamane, H.; Konno, K.; Sabelis, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Sassa, T.; Oikawa, H.; Mander, L.; Lui, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants protect themselves by producing a variety of secondary metabolites and proteins that are involved in defense against herbivores as well as microbial pathogens. Concerning microbial pathogenesis in plants, in many cases, it is known that phytotoxins that are produced by plant pathogens

  3. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Sihang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-09-29

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  4. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents. PMID:28961188

  5. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  6. Does chemical aposematic (warning) signaling occur between host plants and their potential parasitic plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-07-01

    Aposematism (warning) signaling is a common defensive mechanism toward predatory or herbivorous animals, i.e., interactions between different trophic levels. I propose that it should be considered at least as a working hypothesis that chemical aposematism operates between certain host plants and their plant predators, parasitic plants, and that although they are also plants, they belong to a higher trophic level. Specific host plant genotypes emit known repelling chemical signals toward parasitic plants, which reduce the level of, slow the directional parasite growth (attack) toward the signaling hosts, or even cause parasitic plants to grow away from them in response to these chemicals. Chemical host aposematism toward parasitic plants may be a common but overlooked defense from parasitic plants.

  7. Plant signalling: the opportunities and dangers of chemical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Frederick R

    2011-04-23

    The notion of chemical communication between plants and other organisms has gone from being viewed as a fringe idea to an accepted ecological phenomenon only recently. An Organized Oral Session at the August 2010 Ecological Society of America meeting in Pittsburgh examined the role of plant signalling both within and between plants, with speakers addressing the remarkably wide array of effects that plant signals have on plant physiology, species interactions and entire communities. In addition to the familiar way that plants communicate with mutualists like pollinators and fruit dispersers through both chemical and visual cues, speakers at this session described how plants communicate with themselves, with each other, with herbivores and with predators of those herbivores. These plant signals create a complex odour web superimposed upon the more classical food web itself, with its own dynamics in the face of exotic species and rapid community assembly and disassembly.

  8. [Distribution of HCB discharged from a chemical plant in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-Ling; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Song-Hu; Liu, Xi-Xiang; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Qian; Mei, Ling-Fang

    2009-04-15

    The distribution characteristics of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in plant and rhizosphere soil in contamination conduit, a nearby river and a cropland were studied and the impact factors were also discussed. The results are summarized as follows: the range of the HCB concentration in plant and rhizosphere soil in investigation area were respectively from 4.45 microg x kg(-1) to 1,189.89 microg x kg(-1) (dw) and from 27.93 microg x kg(-1) to 3,480.71 microg x kg(-1) (dw). Higher enrichment of HCB in woodplant than herbs due to higher fat concentration in woodplant in the contamination conduit and the rich concentrtion factor of woodplant and herbs were 0.41-2.55 and 0.01-1.34. The range of HCB concentrations in plants in nearby croplands was significantly wide (4.45-333.1 microg x kg(-1)) while HCB concentrations in different parts of plant were various, e.g. HCB concentrations in fruit, root and shoot of taro were 318.77 microg x kg(-1), 281.02 microg x kg(-1) and 10.94 microg x kg(-1). There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant while no relativity between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils in the contamination conduit and cropland. The concentration levels of HCB in plant and rhizosphere soil in river were dramatically decreased with increasing distance from contaminated conduit. There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils but no relation between concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant in river. The distribution characteristics of HCB in plants were influenced by contaminated levels, fat concentration and Partition-transfer model.

  9. A corpus for plant-chemical relationships in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjun; Kim, Baeksoo; Cho, Hyejin; Lee, Doheon; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-09-20

    Plants are natural products that humans consume in various ways including food and medicine. They have a long empirical history of treating diseases with relatively few side effects. Based on these strengths, many studies have been performed to verify the effectiveness of plants in treating diseases. It is crucial to understand the chemicals contained in plants because these chemicals can regulate activities of proteins that are key factors in causing diseases. With the accumulation of a large volume of biomedical literature in various databases such as PubMed, it is possible to automatically extract relationships between plants and chemicals in a large-scale way if we apply a text mining approach. A cornerstone of achieving this task is a corpus of relationships between plants and chemicals. In this study, we first constructed a corpus for plant and chemical entities and for the relationships between them. The corpus contains 267 plant entities, 475 chemical entities, and 1,007 plant-chemical relationships (550 and 457 positive and negative relationships, respectively), which are drawn from 377 sentences in 245 PubMed abstracts. Inter-annotator agreement scores for the corpus among three annotators were measured. The simple percent agreement scores for entities and trigger words for the relationships were 99.6 and 94.8 %, respectively, and the overall kappa score for the classification of positive and negative relationships was 79.8 %. We also developed a rule-based model to automatically extract such plant-chemical relationships. When we evaluated the rule-based model using the corpus and randomly selected biomedical articles, overall F-scores of 68.0 and 61.8 % were achieved, respectively. We expect that the corpus for plant-chemical relationships will be a useful resource for enhancing plant research. The corpus is available at http://combio.gist.ac.kr/plantchemicalcorpus .

  10. Development of plant maintenance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Jinji; Ike, Masae; Nakayama, Kenji; Kato, Hisatomo

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba is making active efforts for the continuing improvement of reliability and maintainability of operating nuclear power plants. As a part of these efforts, the company has developed new maintenance administration systems, diagnostic monitoring facilities for plant equipments, computer-aided expert systems, and remote-controlled machines for maintenance work. The maintenance administration systems provide efficient work plans and data acquisition capabilities for the management of personnel and equipments involved in nuclear power plant maintenance. The plant diagnostic facilities monitor and diagnose plant conditions for preventive maintenance, as well as enabling rapid countermeasures to be carried out should they be required. Expert systems utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology are also employed. The newly developed remote-controlled machines are useful tools for the maintenance inspection of equipment which can not be easily accessed. (author)

  11. Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected districts of Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. I Hussain, R Ullah, J Khan, N Khan, M Zahoor, N Ullah, MuR Khattak, FA Khan, A Baseer, M Khurram ...

  12. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  13. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  14. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...

  15. Chemical Plant Accidents in a Nuclear Hydrogen Generation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) could be used to drive a steam reformation plant, a coal gasification facility, an electrolysis plant, or a thermochemical hydrogen production cycle. Most thermochemical cycles are purely thermodynamic, and thus achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. HTRs produce large amounts of heat at high temperature (1100 K). Helium-cooled HTRs have many passive, or inherent, safety characteristics. This inherent safety is due to the high design basis limit of the maximum fuel temperature. Due to the severity of a potential release, containment of fission products is the single most important safety issue in any nuclear reactor facility. A HTR coupled to a chemical plant presents a complex system, due primarily to the interactive nature of both plants. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, it important to understand the interaction and feedback between the two systems. Process heat plants and HTRs are generally very different. Some of the major differences include: time constants of plants, safety standards, failure probability, and transient response. While both the chemical plant and the HTR are at advanced stages of testing individually, no serious effort has been made to understand the operation of the integrated system, especially during accident events that are initiated in the chemical plant. There is a significant lack of knowledge base regarding scaling and system integration for large scale process heat plants coupled to HTRs. Consideration of feedback between the two plants during time-dependent scenarios is absent from literature. Additionally, no conceptual studies of the accidents that could occur in either plant and impact the entire coupled system are present in literature

  16. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlorination generating a water quality that does not present a source of human or environmental health concern. The chemical monitoring program was undertaken over 6 weeks during pilot plant operation and involved the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroidal hormones, industrial chemicals, pesticides, N-nitrosamines and halomethanes. The first phase consisted of baseline monitoring of target compounds to quantify influent concentrations in feed waters to the plant. This was followed by a period of validation monitoring utilising indicator chemicals and surrogate measures suitable to assess proper process performance at various stages of the AWTP. This effort was supported by challenge testing experiments to further validate removal of a series of indicator chemicals by reverse osmosis. This pilot-scale study demonstrated a simplified analytical approach that can be employed to assure proper operation of advanced water treatment processes and the absence of trace organic chemicals.

  17. Discovering Chemical Aromaticity Using Fragrant Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tanya L.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory organic chemistry is often perceived as inaccessible by students. This article describes a method used to link organic chemistry to everyday experience, asking students to explore whether fragrant molecules are also aromatic in the chemical sense. Students were engaged in this activity, excited about their results, and performed well…

  18. Improvements in or relating to chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, A.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    In a plant in which irradiated nuclear fuels are reprocessed or in which plutonium-containing fuels are fabricated, the atmosphere is circulated by the driving force obtained from the condensation of at least part of the atmosphere in a heat exchanger and the evaporation of condensate from another heat exchanger. (U.K.)

  19. Development of the heap leaching of low-grade uranium ores for conditions of OJSC Priargunsky Mining and Chemical plant (PPGKhO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Litvinenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of low-grade commercial uranium ores by heap leaching has been carried out at the enterprise since 1996. During the initial stage of development, the ore piles were formed of the raw ore having the run-of-mine coarseness with uranium content around 0.08%. Under such conditions, recovery of the metal to the solution is 60-65% in case of a pile treatment lasting 2 years. To intensify the process and to provide a stable concentration of uranium in the productive solutions transferred to sorption, the enterprise developed and implemented a method of percolation leaching of low-grade ores with re-circulation of productive solutions through the re-treated ore bulk (RF patent No. 2226564). The main peculiarity of such leaching is simultaneous moistening of the ore by productive solutions and by barren solutions that are sharpened with sulphuric acid; that gives the possibility to wet far bigger areas of piles under constant volume of productive solutions outputting to the sorption treatment. Such scheme enables to treat successively first the piles at the “re-treatment” (where the metal is mainly extracted), and then the piles at the “active leaching” stage (where the metal is mainly inside the ore bulk). The technical and economic indexes of the heap leaching of low-grade uranium ores were significantly increased in 2006, when the X-ray-radiometric treatment plant was commissioned. The technological scheme of ore treatment at the processing plant includes mould and grating of the raw material with delivery of undersized products enriched with uranium: -5 mm are transferred to the pulp process; fractions (-200+40) mm to the X-ray-radiometric separation; the material of size (-40+5) mm, washed-out from clayey and fine particles, are sent to the uranium heap leaching in piles. Delivery of the ore material having size (-40+5) mm to treatment by the acid leaching method excluded colmatage and creation of zones impermeable for water, and in combination

  20. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  1. Redox regulation of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-20

    We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. The redox signaling hub interfaces directly with the phytohormone network in the synergistic control of growth and its modulation in response to environmental stress, but a few components have been identified. Accumulating evidence points to a complex interplay of phytohormone and redox controls that operate at multiple levels. For simplicity, we focus here on redox-dependent processes that control root growth and development and bud burst. The multiple roles of reactive oxygen species in the control of plant growth and development have been identified, but increasing emphasis should now be placed on the functions of redox-regulated proteins, along with the central roles of reductants such as NAD(P)H, thioredoxins, glutathione, glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, ascorbate, and reduced ferredoxin in the regulation of the genetic and epigenetic factors that modulate the growth and vigor of crop plants, particularly within an agricultural context.

  2. Leaf spray: direct chemical analysis of plant material and living plants by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Wang, He; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-10-15

    The chemical constituents of intact plant material, including living plants, are examined by a simple spray method that provides real-time information on sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, lipids, and alkaloids. The experiment is applicable to various plant parts and is demonstrated for a wide variety of species. An electrical potential is applied to the plant and its natural sap, or an applied solvent generates an electrospray that carries endogenous chemicals into an adjacent benchtop or miniature mass spectrometer. The sharp tip needed to create a high electric field can be either natural (e.g., bean sprout) or a small nick can be cut in a leaf, fruit, bark, etc. Stress-induced changes in glucosinolates can be followed on the minute time scale in several plants, including potted vegetables. Differences in spatial distributions and the possibility of studying plant metabolism are demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. The Development of Chemical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. JIN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the chemical nanosensors (CNS for space and environmental applications, safety alert devices, etc. The high-resolution nanosensors are applied to detect the rocket fuel hydrazine leak. The CNS detects changes in the electrical conductivity response during the chemical species presence. When the hydrazine is leaked into air, it immediately dissociates into NO2. As a result, we are actually detecting the NO2 gas in the trace amount from the fuel leakage. In more detail, we will discuss the sensor chips preparation and process control in terms of the resistance range control while depositing the nanomaterials on the sensors. Furthermore, there will be detailed studies of the CNS response to the dry NO2 in the ambient conditions. The inter-digitized electrode sensors are characterized to the variables of NO2 concentration and nanomaterials.

  4. The chemical industry - a danger to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtsberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power stations could contaminate large areas with radioactivity when destroyed by strong external influences. In Germany, authorities try to cope with this danger firstly by making certain demands on the strength of the reactor shell and secondly by imposing strict safety regulations on dangerous industrial plants in the surroundings of the reactor. In the case of chemical industry, this means: If a chemical plant and a nuclear reactor lie closely together, special stress is given to explosion pretection measures in the form of primary explosion protection, e.g. strong sealing of inflammable gases and liquids handled in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor. (orig.) [de

  5. The impact of plant chemical diversity on plant-herbivore interactions at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the role of diversity in ecosystem processes and species interactions is a central goal of ecology. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been hypothesized that when plant species diversity is reduced, loss of plant biomass to herbivores increases. Although long-standing, this hypothesis has received mixed support. Increasing plant chemical diversity with increasing plant taxonomic diversity is likely to be important for plant-herbivore interactions at the community level, but the role of chemical diversity is unexplored. Here we assess the effect of volatile chemical diversity on patterns of herbivore damage in naturally occurring patches of Piper (Piperaceae) shrubs in a Costa Rican lowland wet forest. Volatile chemical diversity negatively affected total, specialist, and generalist herbivore damage. Furthermore, there were differences between the effects of high-volatility and low-volatility chemical diversity on herbivore damage. High-volatility diversity reduced specialist herbivory, while low-volatility diversity reduced generalist herbivory. Our data suggest that, although increased plant diversity is expected to reduce average herbivore damage, this pattern is likely mediated by the diversity of defensive compounds and general classes of anti-herbivore traits, as well as the degree of specialization of the herbivores attacking those plants.

  6. Herbivore specificity and the chemical basis of plant-plant communication in Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Nell, Colleen S; Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-09-06

    It is well known that plant damage by leaf-chewing herbivores can induce resistance in neighbouring plants. It is unknown whether such communication occurs in response to sap-feeding herbivores, whether communication is specific to herbivore identity, and the chemical basis of communication, including specificity. We carried out glasshouse experiments using the California-native shrub Baccharis salicifolia and two ecologically distinct aphid species (one a dietary generalist and the other a specialist) to test for specificity of plant-plant communication and to document the underlying volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We show specificity of plant-plant communication to herbivore identity, as each aphid-damaged plant only induced resistance in neighbours against the same aphid species. The amount and composition of induced VOCs were markedly different between plants attacked by the two aphid species, providing a putative chemical mechanism for this specificity. Furthermore, a synthetic blend of the five major aphid-induced VOCs (ethanone, limonene, methyl salicylate, myrcene, ocimene) triggered resistance in receiving plants of comparable magnitude to aphid damage of neighbours, and the effects of the blend exceeded those of individual compounds. This study significantly advances our understanding of plant-plant communication by demonstrating the importance of sap-feeding herbivores and herbivore identity, as well as the chemical basis for such effects. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Probabilistic risk criteria and their application to nuclear chemical plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, T.; Barnes, D.S.; Brown, M.L.; Taig, A.R.; Johnston, B.D.; Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear chemical plant safety strategy is presented. The use of risk criteria in design is demonstrated by reference to a particular area of the plant. This involves the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques. Computer programs developed by the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at its Safety and Reliability Directorate (SRD) are used toe valuate and analyze the resultant fault trees. the magnitude of releases are estimated and individual and societal risks determined. The paper concludes that the application of PRA to a nuclear chemical plant can be structured in such a way as to allow a designer to work to quantitative risk targets

  8. CANDU plant maintenance: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.

    2000-01-01

    CANDU units have long been recognized for their exceptional safety and reliability. Continuing development in the maintenance area has played a key role in achieving this performance level. For over two decades, safety system availability has been monitored closely and system maintenance programs adjusted accordingly to maintain high levels of performance. But as the plants approach mid life in a more competitive environment and component aging becomes a concern, new methods and techniques are necessary. As a result, recent developments are moving the maintenance program largely from a corrective and preventive approach to predictive and condition based maintenance. The application of these techniques is also being extended to safety related systems. These recent developments include use of reliability centred methods to define system maintenance requirements and strategies. This approach has been implemented on a number of systems at Canadian CANDU plants with positive results. The pilot projects demonstrated that the overall maintenance effort remained relatively constant while the system performance improved. It was also possible to schedule some of the redundant component maintenance during plant operation without adverse impact on system availability. The probabilistic safety assessment was found to be useful in determining the safety implications of component outages. These new maintenance strategies are now making use of predictive and condition based maintenance techniques to anticipate equipment breakdown and schedule preventive maintenance as the need arises rather than time based. Some of these techniques include valve diagnostics, vibration monitoring, oil analysis, thermography. Of course, these tools and techniques must form part of an overall maintenance management system to ensure that maintenance becomes a living program. To facilitate this process and contain costs, new information technology tools are being introduced to provide system engineers

  9. The thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield: three years of active operation in the chemical separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield site started operating in March 1994 with the shearing of its first irradiated fuel. In January 1995 the Chemical Separation part of the plant commenced processing the irradiated fuel feed solution that had been produced in the previous year by the Head End plant. By the Spring of 1998 over 1400 t of irradiated fuel has been reprocessed in Thorp, and the plant is being steadily and successfully ramped up to its normal operating throughput. The performance of the Thorp Chemical Separation Plant has been excellent, with the solvent extraction contactors performing as predicted by the extensive development programme. In particular the uranium-plutonium separation stage, which received intensive development to deal with the effects of the fission product technetium, has given an overall separation performance well in excess of the minimum flowsheet requirement. Decontamination of the uranium and plutonium products from fission products has in general been better than flowsheet requirements and the solvent extraction equipment has operated stably under the automatic controls developed during the R and D programme. Discharges of contaminants to waste streams have generally been in line with, or better than, expectation. This paper compares with flowsheet predictions a range of the key fission product and transuranic decontamination factors achieved in Thorp, shows how waste stream discharges are a small fraction of Sellafield Site discharge limits, demonstrates how uranium - plutonium separation performance has compared with expectation and summarises the overall performance of the Chemical Separation Plant. (author)

  10. Inventory of cassava plant protection and development projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 303 cassava protection and development projects were identified of which about half are plant protection-oriented. Most activities on cassava protection have been centred on biological control and host plant resistance. The least activity has been on chemical control. The applicability of the collected database is ...

  11. Plant exposure chambers for study of toxic chemical-plant interactions (journal version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.C.; Pfleeger, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chambers for the study of plant uptake and phytotoxicity of toxic, radio-labeled chemicals are described. The chambers are designed to meet the criteria of continuously stirred tank reactors while providing containment for toxic chemicals. They are computer managed and operated within a controlled-environment room. Besides providing controlled conditions within the contained spaces, continuous measurements are made of various environmental parameters and plant transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in up to 18 separate chambers

  12. Development of next BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Kumiaki; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Utena, Shunsuke

    1995-01-01

    It is expected that BWR power generation will be main nuclear power generation for long period hereafter, and in the ABWRs being constructed at present, the safety, reliability, operation performance, economical efficiency and so on are further heightend as compared with conventional BWRs. On the other hand, in order to cope with future social change, the move to develop the next reactor type following ABWRs was begun already by the cooperation of electirc power companies and plant manufacturers. Hitachi Ltd. has advanced eagerly the development of new light water reactors. Also the objective of BWR power generation hereafter is to heighten the safety, reliability, operation performance and economical efficiency, and the development has been advanced, aiming at bearing the main roles of nuclear power generation. At present, ABWRs are under construction as No. 6 and 7 plants in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. In order to let ABWRs take root, the further improvement of economy by the standardization, the rationalization by revising the specification and the improvement of machinery and equipment is necessary. As the needs of the development of next generation BWRs, the increase of power output, the heightening of safety and economical efficiency are discussed. The concept of the next generation BWR plant aiming at the start of operation around 2010 is shown. (K.I.)

  13. Development of next BWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Kumiaki; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Utena, Shunsuke [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works

    1995-04-01

    It is expected that BWR power generation will be main nuclear power generation for long period hereafter, and in the ABWRs being constructed at present, the safety, reliability, operation performance, economical efficiency and so on are further heightend as compared with conventional BWRs. On the other hand, in order to cope with future social change, the move to develop the next reactor type following ABWRs was begun already by the cooperation of electirc power companies and plant manufacturers. Hitachi Ltd. has advanced eagerly the development of new light water reactors. Also the objective of BWR power generation hereafter is to heighten the safety, reliability, operation performance and economical efficiency, and the development has been advanced, aiming at bearing the main roles of nuclear power generation. At present, ABWRs are under construction as No. 6 and 7 plants in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. In order to let ABWRs take root, the further improvement of economy by the standardization, the rationalization by revising the specification and the improvement of machinery and equipment is necessary. As the needs of the development of next generation BWRs, the increase of power output, the heightening of safety and economical efficiency are discussed. The concept of the next generation BWR plant aiming at the start of operation around 2010 is shown. (K.I.).

  14. Melter operation results in chemical test at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehira, Norio; Yoshioka, Masahiro; Muramoto, Hitoshi; Oba, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Chemical Test of the glass melter system of the Vitrification Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was performed. In this test, basic performance of heating-up of the melter, melting glass, pouring glass was confirmed using simulated materials. Through these tests and operation of all modes, good results were gained, and training of operators was completed. (author)

  15. Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate

  16. Chemical screening and development of novel gibberellin mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Luo, Ming; Otani, Masato; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Moselhy, Said Salama; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman Labeed; Kumosani, Taha Abduallah; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao

    2017-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) plays versatile roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and therefore is widely used as a regulator in agriculture. We performed a chemical library screening and identified a chemical, named 67D, as a stimulator of seed germination that was suppressed by paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. In vitro binding assays indicated that 67D binds to the GID1 receptor. Further studies on the structure-activity relationship identified a chemical, named chemical 6, that strongly promoted seed germination suppressed by PAC. Chemical 6 was further confirmed to promote the degradation of RGA (for repressor of ga1-3), a DELLA protein, and suppress the expression levels of GA3ox1 in the same manner as GA does. 67D and its analogs are supposed to be agonists of GID1 and are expected to be utilized in agriculture and basic research as an alternative to GA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel weapons testing: are invasive plants more chemically defended than native plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Lind

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores.In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits.Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species.

  18. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (HT) screening-level exposures developed under ExpoCast can be combined with HT screening (HTS) bioactivity data for the risk-based prioritization of chemicals for further evaluation. The functional role (e.g. solvent, plasticizer, fragrance) that a chemical performs can drive both the types of products in which it is found and the concentration in which it is present and therefore impacting exposure potential. However, critical chemical use information (including functional role) is lacking for the majority of commercial chemicals for which exposure estimates are needed. A suite of machine-learning based models for classifying chemicals in terms of their likely functional roles in products based on structure were developed. This effort required collection, curation, and harmonization of publically-available data sources of chemical functional use information from government and industry bodies. Physicochemical and structure descriptor data were generated for chemicals with function data. Machine-learning classifier models for function were then built in a cross-validated manner from the descriptor/function data using the method of random forests. The models were applied to: 1) predict chemi

  19. Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T.; Hamada, K.; Osada, K. [Showa Denko K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1967-06-15

    Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, {sup 32}P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using {sup 85}Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of

  20. Instrumentation for chemical and radiochemical monitoring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Ballard, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the instrumentation implemented in French nuclear power plants for the monitoring of chemical and radiochemical effluents with the aim of limiting their environmental impact. It describes the controls performed with chemical automata for the search for drifts, anomalies or pollution in a given circuit. The operation principles of the different types of chemical automata are explained as well as the manual controls performed on samples manually collected. Content: 1 - general considerations; 2 - objectives of the chemical monitoring: usefulness of continuous monitoring with automata, transmission to control rooms and related actions, redundancy of automata; 3 - instrumentation and explanations for the main circuits: principle of chemical automata monitoring, instrumentation of the main primary circuit, instrumentation of the main secondary circuit, instrumentation of the tertiary circuit, preparation of water makeup (demineralized water), other loops, instrumentation for effluents and environment monitoring, measurement principles of chemical automata, control and maintenance of chemical automata; 4 - manual controls after sampling; 5 - radiochemical monitoring: automatized radiochemical measurements, manual radiochemical measurements; 6 - conclusion

  1. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismic vulnerability assessment of chemical plants through probabilistic neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, T.; Ceravolo, R.; De Stefano, A.; Genovese, C.; Sabia, D.

    2002-01-01

    A chemical industrial plant represents a sensitive presence in a region and, in case of severe damage due to earthquake actions, its impact on social life and environment can be devastating. From the structural point of view, chemical plants count a number of recurrent elements, which are classifiable in a discrete set of typological families (towers, chimneys, cylindrical or spherical or prismatic tanks, pipes etc.). The final aim of this work is to outline a general procedure to be followed in order to assign a seismic vulnerability estimate to each element of the various typological families. In this paper, F.E. simulations allowed to create a training set, which has been used to train a probabilistic neural system. A sample application has concerned the seismic vulnerability of simple spherical tanks

  4. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  5. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  6. Plant uptake of americium, curium, and the chemical analog neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The plant uptake from several bulk soils has been determined for neodymium, a chemical analog to the transuranium elements americium and curium, and several other native rare earth elements as well. These investigations have demonstrated that neodymium, which has very similar chemical properties to amercium and curium and should have a similar environmental behavior, does behave indistinguishably under both laboratory and field conditions. The uptake of the weathered or mobile forms of these elements from soils is expected to be governed primarily by their identical oxidation states and nearly identical ionic radii. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the chondritic (primordial) normalized rare earth element patterns in several plants. In these samples, the entire series of rare earth elements behaves as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii, as is also seen in the contiguous soils. This behavior suggests that the plant uptake of other ions with similar chemical properties (i.e., americium and curium) would also be governed by ionic size and charge

  7. Chemical Plants Remain Vulnerable to Terrorists: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H.; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L.; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A.; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation’s security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

  8. Chemical sensing of plant stress at the ecosystem scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karl

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA, a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C. Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury. Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT flux and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget. If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions. Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.

  9. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  10. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burham, B O [Atomic Energy Researches Coordination Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-11-15

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R{sub f} values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  11. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  12. Potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on soil enzymes and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, A.; Bano, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers alone or in combination on urease, invertase and phosphatase activities of rhizospheric soil and also on general impact on growth of safflower cvv. Thori and Saif-32. The PGPR (Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) were applied at 10/sup 6/ cells/mL as seed inoculation prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied at full (Urea 60 Kg ha/sup -1/ and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 30 Kg ha/sup -1/), half (Urea 30 Kg ha/sup -1/ and DAP 15 Kg ha/sup -1/) and quarter doses (Urea 15 Kg ha-1 and DAP 7.5 Kg ha/sup -1/) during sowing. The chemical fertilizers and PGPR enhanced urease and invertase activities of soil. Presence of PGPR in combination with quarter and half doses of chemical fertilizers further augmented their effect on soil enzymes activities. The soil phosphatase activity was greater in Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. Maximum increase in leaf melondialdehyde content was recorded in full dose of chemical fertilizers whereas coinoculation treatment exhibited significant reduction in cv. Thori. Half and quarter dose of chemical fertilizers increased the shoot length of safflower whereas maximum increase in leaf protein was recorded in Azotobacter in combination with full dose of chemical fertilizers. Root length was improved by Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with quarter dose of chemical fertilizers. Leaf area and chlorophyll contents were significantly improved by Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. It is inferred that PGPR can supplement 50 % chemical fertilizers for better plant growth and soil health. (author)

  13. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO x , CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed

  14. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.T.; Kouloussis, N.A.; Katsoyannos, B.I.

    2006-01-01

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  15. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, N.T., E-mail: nikopap@uth.g [University of Thessaly (Greece). Dept. of Crop Production and Rural Environment. Lab. of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology; Kouloussis, N.A.; Katsoyannos, B.I. [University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  16. Chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions: ecological significance of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Ritsuo

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites as chemical barriers against herbivores. Many phytophagous insects are highly adapted to these allelochemicals and use such unique substances as the specific host-finding cues, defensive substances of their own, and even as sex pheromones or their precursors by selectively sensing, incorporating, and/or processing these phytochemicals. Insects also serve as pollinators often effectively guided by specific floral fragrances. This review demonstrates the ecological significance of such plant secondary metabolites in the highly diverse interactions between insects and plants.

  17. Interspecies chemical communication in bacterial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Paul D; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Our view of bacteria, from the earliest observations through the heyday of antibiotic discovery, has shifted dramatically. We recognize communities of bacteria as integral and functionally important components of diverse habitats, ranging from soil collectives to the human microbiome. To function as productive communities, bacteria coordinate metabolic functions, often requiring shifts in growth and development. The hallmark of cellular development, which we characterize as physiological change in response to environmental stimuli, is a defining feature of many bacterial interspecies interactions. Bacterial communities rely on chemical exchanges to provide the cues for developmental change. Traditional methods in microbiology focus on isolation and characterization of bacteria in monoculture, separating the organisms from the surroundings in which interspecies chemical communication has relevance. Developing multispecies experimental systems that incorporate knowledge of bacterial physiology and metabolism with insights from biodiversity and metagenomics shows great promise for understanding interspecies chemical communication in the microbial world.

  18. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  19. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Qiu, Sihang; Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-03-27

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker's parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker's observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  20. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants. PMID:29584679

  1. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  2. Development of Green and Sustainable Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben

    Abstract This thesis entitled Development of Green and Sustainable Chemical Reactions is divided into six chapters involving topics and projects related to green and sustainable chemistry. The chapters can be read independently, however a few concepts and some background information is introduced...... as well as the possibility for establishing a renewable chemical industry is discussed. The development of a procedure for using unsaturated aldehydes as olefin synthons in the Diels- Alder reaction is described in chapter three. This procedure affords good yields of the desired Diels- Alder adducts...... in chapter one and two which can be helpful to know when reading the subsequent chapters. The first chapter is an introduction into the fundamentals of green and sustainable chemistry. The second chapter gives an overview of some of the most promising methods to produce value added chemicals from biomass...

  3. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  4. The evolution of ethylene signaling in plant chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-07-01

    Ethylene is a key hormone in plant development, mediating plant responses to abiotic environmental stress, and interactions with attackers and mutualists. Here, we provide a synthesis of the role of ethylene in the context of plant ecology and evolution, and a prospectus for future research in this area. We focus on the regulatory function of ethylene in multi-organismal interactions. In general, plant interactions with different types of organisms lead to reduced or enhanced levels of ethylene. This in turn affects not only the plant's response to the interacting organism at hand, but also to other organisms in the community. These community-level effects become observable as enhanced or diminished relationships with future commensals, and systemic resistance or susceptibility to secondary attackers. Ongoing comparative genomic and phenotypic analyses continue to shed light on these interactions. These studies have revealed that plants and interacting organisms from separate kingdoms of life have independently evolved the ability to produce, perceive, and respond to ethylene. This signature of convergent evolution of ethylene signaling at the phenotypic level highlights the central role ethylene metabolism and signaling plays in plant interactions with microbes and animals.

  5. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Frajndlich, E.U. de.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F 6 to uranium dioxide (U O 2 ) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  6. Chemical sensors technology development planning workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A. [eds.

    1993-03-01

    The workshop participants were asked to: (1) Assess the current capabilities of chemical sensor technologies for addressing US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) needs; (2) Estimate potential near term (one to two years) and intermediate term (three to five years) capabilities for addressing those needs; and (3) Generate a ranked list of specific recommendations on what research and development (R&D) should be funded to provide the necessary capabilities. The needs were described in terms of two pervasive EM problems, the in situ determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and selected metals in various matrices at DOE sites. The R&D recommendations were to be ranked according to the estimated likelihood that the product technology will be ready for application within the time frame it is needed and the estimated return on investment. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are as follows: Chemical sensors capable of in situ determinations can significantly reduce analytical costs; Chemical sensors have been developed for certain VOCs in gases and water but none are currently capable of in situ determination of VOCs in soils; The DOE need for in situ determination of metals in soils cannot be addressed with existing chemical sensors and the prospects for their availability in three to five years are uncertain; Adaptation, if necessary, and field application of laboratory analytical instruments and those few chemical sensors that are already in field testing is the best approach for the near term; The chemical sensor technology development plan should include balanced support for near- and intermediate-term efforts.

  7. Chemical sensors technology development planning workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-03-01

    The workshop participants were asked to: (1) Assess the current capabilities of chemical sensor technologies for addressing US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) needs; (2) Estimate potential near term (one to two years) and intermediate term (three to five years) capabilities for addressing those needs; and (3) Generate a ranked list of specific recommendations on what research and development (R ampersand D) should be funded to provide the necessary capabilities. The needs were described in terms of two pervasive EM problems, the in situ determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and selected metals in various matrices at DOE sites. The R ampersand D recommendations were to be ranked according to the estimated likelihood that the product technology will be ready for application within the time frame it is needed and the estimated return on investment. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are as follows: Chemical sensors capable of in situ determinations can significantly reduce analytical costs; Chemical sensors have been developed for certain VOCs in gases and water but none are currently capable of in situ determination of VOCs in soils; The DOE need for in situ determination of metals in soils cannot be addressed with existing chemical sensors and the prospects for their availability in three to five years are uncertain; Adaptation, if necessary, and field application of laboratory analytical instruments and those few chemical sensors that are already in field testing is the best approach for the near term; The chemical sensor technology development plan should include balanced support for near- and intermediate-term efforts

  8. Selection of chemical markers for the quality control of medicinal plants of the genus Cecropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mondragón, Andrés; Ortíz, Orlando O; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Vlietinck, Arnold; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2017-12-01

    Several Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) species are traditionally used in Latin America for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes, arterial hypertension, asthma, bronchitis, anxiety, and inflammation. At present, a number of commercial products based on these plants have been introduced into the market with very little information on methods for guaranteeing their quality and safety. This work proposes potential chemical markers for the quality control of the raw materials of Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Cecropia peltata L., Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Cecropia pachystachya Trécul, and Cecropia hololeuca Miq. The Herbal Chemical Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) developed by the National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM) at the University of Western Sydney was used for selecting chemical markers for the quality control of selected medicinal species of Cecropia. This review covers the period from 1982 to 2016. Chlorogenic acid, flavonoidal glycosides (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and rutin), catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins (B2, B5, and C1), steroids (β-sitosterol), and triterpenoids (α-amyrin, pomolic, tormentic and ursolic acids) were selected as chemical markers for the quality control of the leaves. It is necessary to establish comprehensive standards for guaranteeing quality, safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The selection of adequate chemical markers for quality control purposes requires a good knowledge about the chemical composition of medicinal plants and their associated biological properties. To the best of our knowledge this review article is the first to address the identification and quantitative determination of the chemical markers for the genus Cecropia.

  9. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  10. The development of a cisgenic apple plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-07-20

    Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  12. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  13. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to influence this process. We aimed to discover novel compounds that are able to induce flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis. For this purpose we developed a plant-based screening platform that can be used in a chemical genomics study. Here we describe the set-up of the screening platform and various issues and pitfalls that need to be addressed in order to perform a chemical genomics screening on Arabidopsis plantlets. We describe the choice for a molecular marker, in combination with a sensitive reporter that's active in plants and is sufficiently sensitive for detection. In this particular screen, the firefly Luciferase marker was used, fused to the regulatory sequences of the floral meristem identity gene APETALA1 (AP1) , which is an early marker for flowering. Using this screening platform almost 9000 compounds were screened, in triplicate, in 96-well plates at a concentration of 25 µM. One of the identified potential flowering inducing compounds was studied in more detail and named Flowering1 (F1). F1 turned out to be an analogue of the plant hormone Salicylic acid (SA) and appeared to be more potent than SA in the induction of flowering. The effect could be confirmed by watering Arabidopsis plants with SA or F1, in which F1 gave a significant reduction in time to flowering in comparison to SA treatment or the control. In this study a chemical genomics screening platform was developed to discover compounds that can induce flowering in Arabidopsis. This platform was used successfully, to identify a compound that can speed-up flowering in Arabidopsis.

  14. Chemical mode control in nuclear power plant decommissioning during operation of technologies in individual radioactive waste processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.; Dugovic, L.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage treatment of nuclear power plant decommissioning is performed by system of sewage concentration in evaporator with formation of condensed rest, it means radioactive waste concentrate and breeding steam. During sewage treatment plant operation department of chemical mode performs chemical and radiochemical analysis of sewage set for treatment, chemical and radiochemical analysis of breeding steam condensate which is after final cleaning on ionization filter and fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment; chemical and radiochemical analysis of heating steam condensate which is also after fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment. Condensed radioactive concentrate is stored in stainless tanks and later converted into easy transportable and chemically stable matrix from the long term storage point of view in republic storage Mochovce. The article also refer to bituminous plant, vitrification plant, swimming pool decontamination plant of long term storage and operation of waste processing plant Bohunice

  15. Playing chemical plant environmental protection games with historical monitoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Zhang, L.; Qiu, S.; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such

  16. Development of Improved Chemicals and Plastics from Oilseeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Patricia A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2006-11-09

    The overall objective of this program was to develop technology that can be applied to the production of various chemicals and plastics from seed oils. This research and development program included activities in all four key barrier areas identified in the US DOE Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources, namely Plant Science, Production, Processing, and Utilization. Participants in the project included The Dow Chemical Company, Castor Oil, Inc., and the USDA Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). The objective of this production task was to evaluate and develop metathesis catalyst technology as a means of utilizing seed oils as feedstocks for the chemical industry. Specifically, ethenolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME’s, leads to functionalized derivatives. These serve as valuable starting points for materials which cascade into a variety of applications, many of which have a current market presence. The relatively recent discovery and commercial availability of a family of metathesis catalysts which are tolerant of polar functional groups and the acquisition and implementation of high throughput synthesis and screening infrastructure led to a prime opportunity to investigate this project area.

  17. Kuroshio power plant development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin

    2010-01-01

    As a country lacking energy reserves, Taiwan imports 99.2% of its energy, with only a small portion of indigenous energy, such as hydro, wind, and solar. In 2008, each Taiwanese spent 85,000 NTD dollars (1 USD ∝ 32 NTD) to purchase oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fuel from foreign countries, accounting for a total payment of 1.8 trillion NTD, more than the annual budget of the Taiwan government of 1.7 trillion NTD. In the same year, Taiwan emitted about 1% of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG), or 12 tons per person-year, ranking 18th globally. These situations in terms of energy security and carbon emission are very severe. To resolve these severe situations, harnessing the power of the Kuroshio in eastern Taiwan offers a great opportunity. The Kuroshio is a branch of the North Pacific Ocean current. Due to the westward-enhanced effect, this ocean current is strong and stable as it passes through eastern Taiwan. The flow rate is about 30 sverdrup (Sv) or 1000 times that of the Yangtze River, the average speed is 1 m/s, the flow direction is fixed to the north, and the flow path is close to the east coast of Taiwan. By precisely locating high-quality sites and implementing sequential works with careful planning, one can possibly generate exploitable power more than 30 GW. With 30 GW of clean energy, Taiwan could effectively enhance energy security, reduce GHG emission, and lower energy-purchasing cost. This paper proposes a feasibility study to explore the power of the Kuroshio. The content consists of four parts: (1) assessment of Kuroshio power reserves, (2) development of turbine generators, (3) development of turbine-anchor system, and (4) deep-sea marine engineering of turbine clusters. By integrating these technologies above, we propose a project to construct a 30 MW pilot plant. In this project, we also discuss the financial analysis and propose new regulations, environmental impact analysis, risk assessment, and other relevant issues. (author)

  18. Development of nuclear power plant Risk Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoming; Sun Jinlong; Ma Chao; Wang Lin; Gu Xiaohui; Bao Zhenli; Qu Yong; Zheng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Risk Monitor is a tool to monitor the real-time risk of a nuclear power plant for risk management and comprehensive decision-making, which has been widely used all over the world. The nuclear power plant Risk Monitor applies the real-time risk model with low-complicacy that could reflect the plant's actual configuration, automatically reads the plant's configuration information from the engineering system through the developed interface, and efficiently analyzes the plant's risk Dy the intelligent parallel-computing method in order to provide the risk basement for the safety management of nuclear power plant. This paper generally introduces the background, architecture, functions and key technical features of a nuclear power plant Risk Monitor, and validates the risk result, which could well reflect the plant's risk information and has a significant practical value. (authors)

  19. Homogalacturonan methyl-esterification and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Mouille, Grégory; Pelloux, Jérome

    2009-09-01

    The ability of a plant cell to expand is largely defined by the physical constraints imposed by its cell wall. Accordingly, cell wall properties have to be regulated during development. The pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan is a major component of the plant primary walls. Biosynthesis and in muro modification of homogalacturonan have recently emerged as key determinants of plant development, controlling cell adhesion, organ development, and phyllotactic patterning. This review will focus on recent findings regarding impact of homogalacturonan content and methyl-esterification status of this polymer on plant life. De-methyl-esterification of homogalacturonan occurs through the action of the ubiquitous enzyme 'pectin methyl-esterase'. We here describe various strategies developed by the plant to finely tune the methyl-esterification status of homogalacturonan along key events of the plant lifecycle.

  20. Chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions: ecological significance of plant secondary metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Ritsuo

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites as chemical barriers against herbivores. Many phytophagous insects are highly adapted to these allelochemicals and use such unique substances as the specific host-finding cues, defensive substances of their own, and even as sex pheromones or their precursors by selectively sensing, incorporating, and/or processing these phytochemicals. Insects also serve as pollinators often effectively guided by specific floral fragrances. This review d...

  1. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, T; Kutzner, C; Hauptmann, P; Kropp, M; Lang, W; Brokmann, G; Steinke, A; Kienle, A

    2010-01-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected

  2. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  3. Chemical plant personnel training, Rocky Flats Division, Dow Chemical U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugum, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Described are training techniques used to prepare personnel for handling radioactive materials and specialized equipment. A plutonium recovery plant utilizes procedures, equipment, and facilities not normally found in other types of processing. New Chemical Process Operators require a high school degree or equivalent with no training or testing requirements, so training provides a basis for operators to work with various kinds of equipment. A Safety and Work Indoctrination Check Sheet is completed, and 12 major job assignments are studied in depth before new personnel are assigned to production shifts. The training techniques used are audio-visual intermixed with equipment displays, lectures, tours, and on-the-job training. The final goal is to advance operators in a three-year program, to prepare them for job assignments in a new plutonium recovery plant under construction, and for future environmental and energy programs which are being established

  4. Development of A Plant Navigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Tomihiko; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Kubota, Ryuji; Ikeda, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    A 'Plant Navigation System (PNS)' is under development to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators by automatically displaying the plant situation and plant operational procedures on a CRT screen when abnormalities occur. The operation procedures given in a symptom-oriented manual are expressed in a tree - type flowchart (modified PAD). The optimum operation procedure for an NPP is selected automatically using built-in diagnostic logics based on the current status of the NPP. Concerning the plant situation, the PNS displays important information only on the current status of the NPP. A prototype PNS system is being constructed. (authors)

  5. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced technology for high-speed interactive nuclear power plant simulations is of great value for timely resolution of safety issues, for plant monitoring, and for computer-aided emergency responses to an accident. Presented is the methodology employed at BNL to develop a BWR plant analyzer capable of simulating severe plant transients at much faster than real-time process speeds. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is given for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computers to achieve the very high simulation speeds. Typical results are shown to demonstrate the modeling fidelity of the BWR plant analyzer

  6. High Throughput In vivo Analysis of Plant Leaf Chemical Properties Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Pandey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping in greenhouse has the potential to relieve the bottleneck currently presented by phenotypic scoring which limits the throughput of gene discovery and crop improvement efforts. Numerous studies have employed automated RGB imaging to characterize biomass and growth of agronomically important crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of hyperspectral imaging for quantifying chemical properties of maize and soybean plants in vivo. These properties included leaf water content, as well as concentrations of macronutrients nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, and sulfur (S, and micronutrients sodium (Na, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, boron (B, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn. Hyperspectral images were collected from 60 maize and 60 soybean plants, each subjected to varying levels of either water deficit or nutrient limitation stress with the goal of creating a wide range of variation in the chemical properties of plant leaves. Plants were imaged on an automated conveyor belt system using a hyperspectral imager with a spectral range from 550 to 1,700 nm. Images were processed to extract reflectance spectrum from each plant and partial least squares regression models were developed to correlate spectral data with chemical data. Among all the chemical properties investigated, water content was predicted with the highest accuracy [R2 = 0.93 and RPD (Ratio of Performance to Deviation = 3.8]. All macronutrients were also quantified satisfactorily (R2 from 0.69 to 0.92, RPD from 1.62 to 3.62, with N predicted best followed by P, K, and S. The micronutrients group showed lower prediction accuracy (R2 from 0.19 to 0.86, RPD from 1.09 to 2.69 than the macronutrient groups. Cu and Zn were best predicted, followed by Fe and Mn. Na and B were the only two properties that hyperspectral imaging was not able to quantify satisfactorily (R2 < 0.3 and RPD < 1.2. This study suggested

  7. High Throughput In vivo Analysis of Plant Leaf Chemical Properties Using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Piyush; Ge, Yufeng; Stoerger, Vincent; Schnable, James C

    2017-01-01

    Image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping in greenhouse has the potential to relieve the bottleneck currently presented by phenotypic scoring which limits the throughput of gene discovery and crop improvement efforts. Numerous studies have employed automated RGB imaging to characterize biomass and growth of agronomically important crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of hyperspectral imaging for quantifying chemical properties of maize and soybean plants in vivo . These properties included leaf water content, as well as concentrations of macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and sulfur (S), and micronutrients sodium (Na), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Hyperspectral images were collected from 60 maize and 60 soybean plants, each subjected to varying levels of either water deficit or nutrient limitation stress with the goal of creating a wide range of variation in the chemical properties of plant leaves. Plants were imaged on an automated conveyor belt system using a hyperspectral imager with a spectral range from 550 to 1,700 nm. Images were processed to extract reflectance spectrum from each plant and partial least squares regression models were developed to correlate spectral data with chemical data. Among all the chemical properties investigated, water content was predicted with the highest accuracy [ R 2 = 0.93 and RPD (Ratio of Performance to Deviation) = 3.8]. All macronutrients were also quantified satisfactorily ( R 2 from 0.69 to 0.92, RPD from 1.62 to 3.62), with N predicted best followed by P, K, and S. The micronutrients group showed lower prediction accuracy ( R 2 from 0.19 to 0.86, RPD from 1.09 to 2.69) than the macronutrient groups. Cu and Zn were best predicted, followed by Fe and Mn. Na and B were the only two properties that hyperspectral imaging was not able to quantify satisfactorily ( R 2 plant chemical traits. Future

  8. The biochemical basis of plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, D.

    2013-01-01

    Plants develop highly elaborate structures, ranging from small mosses to large trees. All these structures are made by stem cells and consist of a few basic types of tissue. The field of Biochemistry of Plant Development studies the mechanisms by which regulatory proteins control the formation of

  9. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  10. The development of chemical speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Santana, J.L.; Lima, L.; De La Rosa, D.; Melchor, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of many metals species on the environmental, its bioaccumulation, quantification and its effect in human body has been studied by a wide researchers groups in the last two decades. The development of speciation analysis has an vertiginous advance close to the developing of novel analytical techniques. Separation and quantification at low level is a problem that's has been afford by a coupling of high resolution chromatographic techniques like HPLC and HRGC with a specific method of detection (ICP-MS or CV-AAS). This methodological approach make possible the success in chemical speciation nowadays

  11. Laser chemical analysis: the recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauchien, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview and describes the principles of the main laser-based techniques for physical and chemical analysis, and of their recent developments. Analytical techniques using laser radiations were actually developed at the end of the 1970's. The recent evolutions concern the 3 principal techniques of laser spectroscopy currently used: Raman, fluorescence (atomic and molecular) and ablation (ICP laser ablation-plasma coupling, optical emission spectroscopy on laser-induced plasma). The description of these different techniques is illustrated with some examples of applications. (J.S.)

  12. Development of chemistry management for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Kazuaki; Sato, Junichi; Maeda, Katsuji; Nagasawa Katsumi; Hashiura, Sintaro

    2000-01-01

    Onagawa nuclear power plant developed a system for chemistry management of prevention and preservation of power plant. It is able to early detection of data change for prevention of plant. The system supports management of chemical custodian and consists of four parts such as management of water quality of plant , management of liquid waste, management of vapor waste and estimation of performance of chemical equipment. The system has three functions: management of operation, estimation of omen and examination of origin. The function of management of operation supports the routine inspection of chemical custodian by increasing efficiency of analytical and process data collection, practical use of data,, accuracy of data and rapid analysis. Estimation function of omen observes data fetched via online during 24 hr, indicates the small primary change and determines the origins. Examination function of origin supports their quick correspondences at accident and certificates the detailed origins. Histories of development of the system, business systemization, system construction, system functions are explained.The diagram of background of system development, system construction, management functions, verification of analytical data, automatic continuos monitoring diagram, screen of detection of abnormal phenomena, classified diagram of origins for change of water quality in reactor were developed. (S.Y.)

  13. Developing ecotoxicological testing procedures for chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Doerfler, U.; Quast, I.; Schroll, R.; Topp, E.; Wolf, E.; Korte, F.

    1989-01-01

    The work deals with the determination of adsorption coefficients of volatile environmental chemicals, of volatilization rates (example: Lindane), biomineralization rates, total balances, and uptake into higher plants, further with the correlation of the uptake of chemicals by plants with physico-chemical and structural mass characteristics, and field experiments with lysimeters using labelled carbon 14 compounds for validation of the results obtained under laboratory conditions. - The devices for determination of adsorption coefficients and of volatilization rates of chemicals from soil and plant surfaces, as well as the closed experimental setup with controlled air throughput for billing labelled carbon 14 chemicals in the soil/plant system are described. The mass balance of the adsorption of volatile labelled carbon 14 chemicals in an alfisol, the volatilization of Lindane from the surface of a sandy soil, the concentration of hexachlorbenzene in different parts of plants, the uptake pathways of organic chemicals in higher plants and their corelation with mass properties, as well as the correlation between bioconcentration factors of chemicals in barley after application into the soil and physico-chemical and structural mass parameters are investigated and indicated in the form of tables and diagrams. (HK) [de

  14. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoylman, Anne M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived 14C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

  15. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  17. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Chemicals on Nervous System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thousands of chemicals that lack data on their potential effects on neurodevelopment. EPA is developing New Approach Methods to evaluate these chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity hazard.

  19. Chemicals on plant surfaces as a heretofore unrecognized, but ecologically informative, class for investigations into plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Eric F

    2016-11-01

    Plants produce and utilize a great diversity of chemicals for a variety of physiological and ecological purposes. Many of these chemicals defend plants against herbivores, pathogens and competitors. The location of these chemicals varies within the plant, some are located entirely within plant tissues, others exist in the air- (or water-) space around plants, and still others are secreted onto plant surfaces as exudates. I argue herein that the location of a given defensive chemical has profound implications for its ecological function; specifically, I focus on the characteristics of chemical defences secreted onto plant surfaces. Drawing from a broad literature encompassing ecology, evolution, taxonomy and physiology, I found that these external chemical defences (ECDs) are common and widespread in plants and algae; hundreds of examples have been detailed, yet they are not delineated as a separate class from internal chemical defences (ICDs). I propose a novel typology for ECDs and, using existing literature, explore the ecological consequences of the hypothesized unique characteristics of ECDs. The axis of total or proportional investment in ECDs versus ICDs should be considered as one axis of investment by a plant, in the same way as quantitative versus qualitative chemical defences or induced versus constitutive defences is considered. The ease of manipulating ECDs in many plant systems presents a powerful tool to help test plant defence theory (e.g. optimal defence). The framework outlined here integrates various disciplines of botany and ecology and suggests a need for further examinations of exudates in a variety of contexts, as well as recognition of the effects of within-plant localization of defences. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of Amaryllidaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, Nina; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Birkholm, Trine

    2012-01-01

    a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results: We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis......Background: During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer...... for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae) based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated...

  1. Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shuichiro

    2006-08-01

    'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, Σν i μ i =0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and Σν i μ i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ν i and μ i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

  2. In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Parker, David; Lind, Rob; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-05-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  4. New developments in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Specific examples of construction activities are presented which demonstrate that excellent results have been achieved in the areas of cost, schedule and quality. Examples of innovation and development are given that would be particularly applicable to future work either for new plants or for plants not yet completed. (author)

  5. Development of HTGR plant dynamics simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Kazutaka; Tazawa, Yujiro; Mitake, Susumu; Suzuki, Katsuo.

    1987-01-01

    Plant dynamics simulation analysis plays an important role in the design work of nuclear power plant especially in the plant safety analysis, control system analysis, and transient condition analysis. The authors have developed the plant dynamics simulation code named VESPER, which is applicable to the design work of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, and have been improving the code corresponding to the design changes made in the subsequent design works. This paper describes the outline of VESPER code and shows its sample calculation results selected from the recent design work. (author)

  6. Plant Science View on Biohybrid Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Skrzypczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biohybrid consists of a living organism or cell and at least one engineered component. Designing robot–plant biohybrids is a great challenge: it requires interdisciplinary reconsideration of capabilities intimate specific to the biology of plants. Envisioned advances should improve agricultural/horticultural/social practice and could open new directions in utilization of plants by humans. Proper biohybrid cooperation depends upon effective communication. During evolution, plants developed many ways to communicate with each other, with animals, and with microorganisms. The most notable examples are: the use of phytohormones, rapid long-distance signaling, gravity, and light perception. These processes can now be intentionally re-shaped to establish plant–robot communication. In this article, we focus on plants physiological and molecular processes that could be used in bio-hybrids. We show phototropism and biomechanics as promising ways of effective communication, resulting in an alteration in plant architecture, and discuss the specifics of plants anatomy, physiology and development with regards to the bio-hybrids. Moreover, we discuss ways how robots could influence plants growth and development and present aims, ideas, and realized projects of plant–robot biohybrids.

  7. The Microphenotron: a robotic miniaturized plant phenotyping platform with diverse applications in chemical biology

    KAUST Repository

    Burrell, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Background Chemical genetics provides a powerful alternative to conventional genetics for understanding gene function. However, its application to plants has been limited by the lack of a technology that allows detailed phenotyping of whole-seedling development in the context of a high-throughput chemical screen. We have therefore sought to develop an automated micro-phenotyping platform that would allow both root and shoot development to be monitored under conditions where the phenotypic effects of large numbers of small molecules can be assessed. Results The ‘Microphenotron’ platform uses 96-well microtitre plates to deliver chemical treatments to seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and is based around four components: (a) the ‘Phytostrip’, a novel seedling growth device that enables chemical treatments to be combined with the automated capture of images of developing roots and shoots; (b) an illuminated robotic platform that uses a commercially available robotic manipulator to capture images of developing shoots and roots; (c) software to control the sequence of robotic movements and integrate these with the image capture process; (d) purpose-made image analysis software for automated extraction of quantitative phenotypic data. Imaging of each plate (representing 80 separate assays) takes 4 min and can easily be performed daily for time-course studies. As currently configured, the Microphenotron has a capacity of 54 microtitre plates in a growth room footprint of 2.1 m2, giving a potential throughput of up to 4320 chemical treatments in a typical 10 days experiment. The Microphenotron has been validated by using it to screen a collection of 800 natural compounds for qualitative effects on root development and to perform a quantitative analysis of the effects of a range of concentrations of nitrate and ammonium on seedling development. Conclusions The Microphenotron is an automated screening platform that for the first time is able to combine large

  8. High Throughput In vivo Analysis of Plant Leaf Chemical Properties Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Piyush; Ge, Yufeng; Stoerger, Vincent; Schnable, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping in greenhouse has the potential to relieve the bottleneck currently presented by phenotypic scoring which limits the throughput of gene discovery and crop improvement efforts. Numerous studies have employed automated RGB imaging to characterize biomass and growth of agronomically important crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of hyperspectral imaging for quantifying chemical properties of maize and soybean plants in vivo. These properties included leaf water content, as well as concentrations of macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and sulfur (S), and micronutrients sodium (Na), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Hyperspectral images were collected from 60 maize and 60 soybean plants, each subjected to varying levels of either water deficit or nutrient limitation stress with the goal of creating a wide range of variation in the chemical properties of plant leaves. Plants were imaged on an automated conveyor belt system using a hyperspectral imager with a spectral range from 550 to 1,700 nm. Images were processed to extract reflectance spectrum from each plant and partial least squares regression models were developed to correlate spectral data with chemical data. Among all the chemical properties investigated, water content was predicted with the highest accuracy [R2 = 0.93 and RPD (Ratio of Performance to Deviation) = 3.8]. All macronutrients were also quantified satisfactorily (R2 from 0.69 to 0.92, RPD from 1.62 to 3.62), with N predicted best followed by P, K, and S. The micronutrients group showed lower prediction accuracy (R2 from 0.19 to 0.86, RPD from 1.09 to 2.69) than the macronutrient groups. Cu and Zn were best predicted, followed by Fe and Mn. Na and B were the only two properties that hyperspectral imaging was not able to quantify satisfactorily (R2 designing experiments to vary plant nutrients

  9. Preventive acid chemical cleaning operation (PACCO) on steam generator in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traino, Jules; Ruiz Martinez, Jose Thomas; Rottner, Bernard; Vedova, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Steam Generators (SG) usually present important deposit loading and Tube Support Blockage, resulting from Secondary Side corrosion products. These phenomena modify SG behavior which can lead to safety, heat exchange performance and lifetime problems. In this context, a Chemical Cleaning Process (PACCO) was designed to solve the issue. After almost two years of intensive lab tests, pilot simulation and mock-ups, the chemical process was finally qualified by EDF. The aim of the work was firstly the development in laboratory of a chemical process that could eliminate partially the deposit loading, respecting the integrity of materials and gas emission limits. Secondly, the objective was the design and the implementation of the process on-site. The process has been applied successfully in 3 SG in Dampierre nuclear power plant in France on July 2013. The main results were: - Corrosion < 100 μm. - 40% of the initial deposit loading, removed by SG. (authors)

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, J.; McCurry, M.; Hackett, W.; Welhan, J.

    1994-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  11. An extended risk assessment approach for chemical plants applied to a study related to pipe ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessments and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) in particular have been used in the chemical industry for many years to support decision-making on the choice of arrangements and measures associated with chemical processes, transportation and storage of dangerous substances. The assessments have been founded on a risk perspective seeing risk as a function of frequency of events (probability) and associated consequences. In this paper we point to the need for extending this approach to place a stronger emphasis on uncertainties. A recently developed risk framework designed to better reflect such uncertainties is presented and applied to a chemical plant and specifically the analysis of accidental events related to the rupture of pipes. Two different ways of implementing the framework are presented, one based on the introduction of probability models and one without. The differences between the standard approach and the extended approaches are discussed from a theoretical point of view as well as from a practical risk analyst perspective.

  12. Some Sensitivity Studies of Chemical Transport Simulated in Models of the Soil-Plant-Litter System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.

    2002-10-28

    Fifteen parameters in a set of five coupled models describing carbon, water, and chemical dynamics in the soil-plant-litter system were varied in a sensitivity analysis of model response. Results are presented for chemical distribution in the components of soil, plants, and litter along with selected responses of biomass, internal chemical transport (xylem and phloem pathways), and chemical uptake. Response and sensitivity coefficients are presented for up to 102 model outputs in an appendix. Two soil properties (chemical distribution coefficient and chemical solubility) and three plant properties (leaf chemical permeability, cuticle thickness, and root chemical conductivity) had the greatest influence on chemical transport in the soil-plant-litter system under the conditions examined. Pollutant gas uptake (SO{sub 2}) increased with change in plant properties that increased plant growth. Heavy metal dynamics in litter responded to plant properties (phloem resistance, respiration characteristics) which induced changes in the chemical cycling to the litter system. Some of the SO{sub 2} and heavy metal responses were not expected but became apparent through the modeling analysis.

  13. Development of the nuclear plant analyzer for Korean standard Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Heon; Song, In Ho; Hong, Eon Yeong; Oh, Yeong Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop an NPA for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4, the first KSNP type plant. In this study, the process model simulating the overall plant systems, GUI and simulation executive which provide the functions of an engineering simulator were developed, and the NPA was completed by integrating them. The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : main feedwater system, auxiliary feedwater system, Chemical and Volume Control System(CVCS), Safety Injection System(SIS), Shutdown Cooling System(SCS), electric power supply system, Core Protection Calculator(CPC), various plant control system, development of the graphics screens for each system, real-time simulation, simulation control for the enhancement of functional capabilities, user friendly GUI, collection of the design and operating data, establishment of the NPA database, integration of the GUI and simulation control program with process model, collection of the data for the verification and validation of the developed NPA, collection of the plant test data, collection and review of the results of other computer codes, verification of the simulation accuracy by comparing the NPA results with the actual plant data, validation of the simulation capability of the NPA, comparison against available data from other analysis suing different computer codes.

  14. Chemical-looping combustion - status of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngfelt, Anders; Johansson, Marcus; Mattisson, Tobias

    2008-05-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide is reduced by the reaction with the fuel and in the air reactor; the reduced metal oxide is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and almost pure stream of CO{sub 2} is obtained when water is condensed. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last years with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. In 2002 the process was a paper concept, albeit with some important but limited laboratory work on oxygen carrier particles. Today more than 600 materials have been tested and the technique has been successfully demonstrated in chemical-looping combustors in the size range 0.3 - 50 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. The total time of operational experience is more than a thousand hours. From these tests it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO{sub 2} capture is possible. Most work so far has been focused on gaseous fuels, but the direct application to solid fuels is also being studied. Moreover, the same principle of oxygen transfer is used in chemical-looping reforming (CLR), which involves technologies to produce hydrogen with inherent CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents an overview of the research performed on CLC and CLR highlights the current status of the technology

  15. Materials control and accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, G.E.; Britschgi, J.J.; Spraktes, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The ICPP high enriched uranium recovery process has historically been operated as a single Material Balance Area (MBA), with input and output measurement capabilities. Safeguards initiated changes in the last five years have resulted in significant materials control and accountability improvements. Those changes include semi-automation of process accountability measurement, data collection and recording; definition of Sub-MBAs; standard plant cleanouts; and, bimonthly inventory estimates. Process monitoring capabilities are also being installed to provide independent operational procedural compliance verification, process anomaly detection, and enhanced materials traceability. Development of a sensitivity analysis approach to defining process measurement requirements is in progress

  16. Development of construction technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellenbach, G.

    1975-01-01

    Stringent safety requirements for nuclear power plants create new technological problems in their construction. The development is influenced by the mode of operation of the respective reactors which leads to different construction styles of the reactor buildings. Accomodation of extraordinary load cases such as earthquake, airplane crash, and blast due to chemical explosions, requires additional treatment. Significant new problems arise for the prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels and concrete containments, prestressed or reinforced. (orig.) [de

  17. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body- An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Internal Organization of the Plant Body...

  18. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  19. Chemical Decontamination of Metallic Waste from Uranium Conversion Plant Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Byun, J. I.; Jang, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant. Pre-work was carried as follows; installation of the access control facility, installation of a changing room and shower room, designation of an emergency exit way and indicating signs, installation of a radiation management facility, preparation of a storage area for tools and equipments, inspection and load test of crane, distribution and packaging of existing waste, and pre-decontamination of the equipment surface and the interior. First, decommissioning work was performed in kiln room, which will be used for temporary radioactive waste storage room. Kiln room housed hydro fluorination rotary kiln for production of uranium tetra-fluoride. The kiln is about 0.8 m in diameter and 5.5 m long. The total dismantled waste was 6,690 kg, 73 % of which was metallic waste and 27 % the others such as cable, asbestos, concrete, secondary waste, etc. And effluent treatment room and filtration room were dismantled for installation of decontamination equipment and lagoon sludge treatment equipment. There were tanks and square mixer in these rooms. The total dismantled waste was 17,250 kg, 67% of which was metallic waste and 33% the others. These dismantled metallic wastes consist of stainless and carbon steel. In this paper, the stainless steel plate and pipe were decontaminated by the chemical decontamination with ultrasonic

  20. New developments in online plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laipple, Bernd; Langenstein, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The large quantities of information produced within plant processes nearly make the plausibility of data impossible without the help of additional tools. For this reason, a variety of plant monitoring tools has been developed in the past which promise a sensible compression of data. The main problem with the offered tools lies with the omission of procedural plausibility. The newly developed plant monitoring system BTB ProcessPlus is based on the VDI 2048 methodology of process data reconciliation. Plausibility and quality control therefore serve as a basis for the system. With this procedural process image, significant diagnosis and monitoring tools have been developed and now offer a fast and economically optimal support in process optimization. This paper describes the methodology according to VDI 2048. The benefits of the online plant monitoring system are demonstrated by means of examples from day-to-day operations. (author)

  1. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio I Arroyo

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain. Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the

  2. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Antonio I; Pueyo, Yolanda; Giner, M Luz; Foronda, Ana; Sanchez-Navarrete, Pedro; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain). Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community) beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC) to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic) and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the significance of

  3. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY: PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H 2 S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol R sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. Biological and Chemical Aspects of Natural Biflavonoids from Plants: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Vanessa Silva; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Viegas, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Biflavonoids belong to a subclass of the plant flavonoids family and are limited to several species in the plant kingdom. In the literature, biflavonoids are extensively reported for their pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and antiprotozoal activity. These activities have been discovered from the small number of biflavonoid structures that have been investigated, although the natural biflavonoids library is likely to be large. In addition, many medicinal properties and traditional use of plants are attributed to the presence of bioflavonoids among their secondary metabolites. Structurally, biflavonoids are polyphenol compounds comprising of two identical or non-identical flavonflavonoid units joined in a symmetrical or unsymmetrical manner through an alkyl or an alkoxy-based linker of varying length. Due to their chemical and biological importance, several bioprospective phytochemical studies and chemical approaches using coupling and molecular rearrangement strategies have been developed to identify and synthesize new bioactive biflavonoids. In this brief review, we present some basic structural aspects for classification and nomenclature of bioflavonoids and a compilation of the literature data published in the last 7 years, concerning the discovery of new natural biflavonoids of plant origin and their pharmacological and biological properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfremmer, R.D.; Openshaw, F.L.

    1982-05-01

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design

  7. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (St. Charles, Missouri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Of the 27 lines flown over the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant drainage basins, five lines directly over the Plant site show uranium and thorium contamination probably due to Plant operations. Because the survey was done at an altitude of 152m, with a 300-meter line spacing, identification of individual radiation sources on the site is not possible from present data. One additional survey line over a quarry south of the Plant shows uranium contamination due to Plant wastes deposited there

  9. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction...

  10. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  11. Developments in power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    A number of cooling systems are used in the power plants. The condenser cooling water system is one of the most important cooling systems in the plant. The system comprises a number of equipment. Plants using sea water for cooling are designed for the very high corrosion effects due to sea water. Developments are taking place in the design, materials of construction as well as protection philosophies for the various equipment. Power optimisation of the cycle needs to be done in order to design an economical system. Environmental (Protection) Act places certain limitations on the effluents from the plant. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline the developing trends in the various equipment in the condenser cooling water systems used at the inland as well as coastal locations. (author). 5 refs., 6 refs

  12. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  13. Family matters: effect of host plant variation in chemical and mechanical defenses on a sequestering specialist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarco, Romina D; Nice, Chris C; Fordyce, James A

    2012-11-01

    foraging behavior and development compared to plant chemical defenses.

  14. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  15. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  16. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønsted Nina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated with phylogeny and found evidence for a significant phylogenetic signal in these traits, although the effect is not strong. Conclusions Several genera are non-monophyletic emphasizing the importance of using phylogeny for interpretation of character distribution. Alkaloid diversity and in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and binding to the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT are significantly correlated with phylogeny. This has implications for the use of phylogenies to interpret chemical evolution and biosynthetic pathways, to select candidate taxa for lead discovery, and to make recommendations for policies regarding traditional use and conservation priorities.

  17. Concept of a HTR modular plant for generation of process heat in a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This final report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on behalf of Buna AG and Leunawerke AG. With regard to the individual situations the study investigated the conditions for modular HTR-2 reactors to cover on-site process heat and electric power demands. HTR-2 reactor erection and operation were analyzed for their economic efficiency compared with fossil-fuel power plants. Considering the prospective product lines, the technical and economic conditions were developed in close cooperation with Buna AG and Leunawerke AG. The study focused on the technical integration of modular HTR reactors into plants with regard to safety concepts, on planning, acceptance and erection concepts which largely exclude uncalculable scheduling and financial risks, and on comparative economic analyses with regard to fossil-fuel power plants. (orig.) [de

  18. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  19. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  20. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence: plant β-glucosidases as the main target for herbivore adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Fred; Bak, Søren

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and specialists, and can act on different classes of defence compounds. We discuss how generalist and specialist insects appear to differ in their ability to use these different types of adaptations: in generalists, adaptations are often inducible, whereas in specialists they are often constitutive. Future studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions.

  1. Biological effects of plant residues with constrasting chemical compositions on plant and soil under humid tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, G.

    1992-01-01

    A study on plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions was conducted under laboratory, growth chamber and humid tropical field conditions to understand the function of the soil fauna in the breakdown of plant residues, the cycling of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, and the

  2. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1990-01-01

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  3. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical

  4. Chemical Analysis of Plants that Poison Livestock: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Pfister, James A

    2018-04-04

    Poisonous plants have a devastating impact on the livestock industry as well as human health. To fully understand the effects of poisonous plants, multiple scientific disciplines are required. Chemical analysis of plant secondary compounds is key to identifying the responsible toxins, characterizing their metabolism, and understanding their effects on animals and humans. In this review, we highlight some of the successes in studying poisonous plants and mitigating their toxic effects. We also highlight some of the remaining challenges and opportunities with regards to the chemical analysis of poisonous plants.

  5. Chemical analysis of plants that poison livestock: Successes, challenges, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants have a devastating impact on the livestock industry, as well as human health. In order to fully understand the effects of poisonous plants, multiple scientific disciplines are required. Chemical analysis of plant secondary compounds is key to identifying the responsible toxins, char...

  6. Design of a chemical batch plant : a study of dedicated parallel lines with intermediate storage and the plant performance

    OpenAIRE

    Verbiest, Floor; Cornelissens, Trijntje; Springael, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Production plants worldwide face huge challenges in satisfying high service levels and outperforming competition. These challenges require appropriate strategic decisions on plant design and production strategies. In this paper, we focus on multiproduct chemical batch plants, which are typically equipped with multiple production lines and intermediate storage tanks. First we extend the existing MI(N) LP design models with the concept of parallel production lines, and optimise the as...

  7. Nuclear plant analyzer development at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Russell, K.D.; Stewart, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored development of a software-hardware system called the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). This paper describes the status of the NPA project at the INEL after one year of development. When completed, the NPA will be an integrated network of analytical tools for performing reactor plant analyses. Development of the NPA in FY-1983 progressed along two parallel pathways; namely, conceptual planning and software development. Regarding NPA planning, and extensive effort was conducted to define the function requirements of the NPA, conceptual design, and hardware needs. Regarding software development conducted in FY-1983, all development was aimed toward demonstrating the basic concept and feasibility of the NPA. Nearly all software was developed and resides on the INEL twin Control Data Corporation 176 mainframe computers

  8. Three-dimensional chemical structure of the INEL aquifer system near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, M.; Estes, M.; Fromm, J.; Welhan, J.; Barrash, W.

    1994-01-01

    Sampling and analysis from the Snake River Plain aquifer using a stainless-steel and teflon constructed straddle-packer system has established detailed vertical profiles of aquifer chemistry from three wells near a major source of low-level waste injection at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Multiple intervals, varying from 4.6 to 6.1 m in length, were sampled between the water table (140.5 mbls - meters below land surface), and approximately 200 mbls to obtain a wide spectrum of metals, anions, radiological and organic components analyses. Measurements were also made at the well sites of important transient parameters (T, Eh, Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , DO and SC). The principal purpose of this ongoing work is to improve our understanding of the third (i.e. vertical) dimension of aquifer chemistry at the INEL as a basis for critically evaluating site-wide monitoring procedures, and, ultimately, for improving fate and transport models for aquifer contaminants within basalt-hosted aquifers. Chemical and radiological data indicates that substantial systematic vertical and lateral variations occur in the aquifer hydrochemistry - in particular for conservative radiological nuclide concentrations. Radiological data define a three-layered zonation. Ground water within upper and lower zones contain up to 10 times higher concentrations of H-3 and I-129 than in the middle zone. Sr-90 activity is decoupled from H-3 and I-129-relatively high activity was detected within the upper zone nearest the ICPP, but activities elsewhere are very low. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. A fugacity approach for modeling the transport of airborne organic chemicals in an air/plant/soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; McKone, T.E.

    1991-05-01

    An important issue facing both public and private agencies is the identification and quantification of exposures by indirect pathways to toxic chemicals released to the atmosphere. With recent public concerns over pesticides such as malathion and alar in foods, greater attention is being given to the process of chemical uptake by plants. Whether chemicals taken up by plants can accumulate and ultimately enter the human food chain are important questions for determining health risks and safe levels of toxic air-pollutant emissions and pesticide application. A number of plant-toxicokinetic, or ''botanicokinetic,'' models have been developed to give estimates of how chemicals are partitioned and transported within plants. In this paper, we provide a brief review of these models, describing their main features and listing some of their advantages and disadvantages. We then describe and demonstrate a five-compartment air/plant/soil model, which builds on and extends the features included in previous models. We apply this model to the steady-state chemical partitioning of perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in grass as test cases. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the model

  10. Intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants correlates positively with plant size and herbivore load but negatively with herbivore damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Segura, Carlos; Poelman, Erik H; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gols, Rieta

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific plant diversity can modify the properties of associated arthropod communities and plant fitness. However, it is not well understood which plant traits determine these ecological effects. We explored the effect of intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants on the associated invertebrate community and plant traits. In a common garden experiment, intraspecific diversity among neighbouring plants was manipulated using three plant populations of wild cabbage that differ in foliar glucosinolates. Plants were larger, harboured more herbivores, but were less damaged when plant diversity was increased. Glucosinolate concentration differentially correlated with generalist and specialist herbivore abundance. Glucosinolate composition correlated with plant damage, while in polycultures, variation in glucosinolate concentrations among neighbouring plants correlated positively with herbivore diversity and negatively with plant damage levels. The results suggest that intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry among neighbouring plants is important in determining the structure of the associated insect community and positively affects plant performance. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Scientific and technical development and the chemical weapon convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was drafted with the recognition that it is impossible to envision every way in which toxic chemicals might be used for aggressive purposes. As terrorist organizations and rogue states replace the major powers as the most likely candidates to employ chemical weapons, the agents of choice may differ from those developed for battlefield use. Twenty- first century chemical warfare may target civilians or agricultural production, and clandestine production-facilities may manufacture toxic agents from chemical precursors, not monitored under the CWC control regime. The effects (on CWC implementation) of changing industrial technologies, including ongoing developments in chemical process technology, dual-use industrial chemicals, and rapid methods for discovering biologically active chemicals, are considerable Also considered is how commercial technologies could be misused for the development of novel chemical weapons, and how such abuses might be detected and monitored. (author)

  12. Towards development of new ornamental plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Müller, Renate

    2016-01-01

    is one of the oldest breeding techniques that contributed enormously to the development of modern plant cultivars. Within ornamental breeding, it represents the main source of genetic variation. During the long history of wide hybridization, a number of methods were implemented allowing the evolution...... from a conventional breeding tool into a modern methodology. Nowadays, the research on model plants and crop species increases our understanding of reproductive isolation among distant species and partly explains the background of the traditional approaches previously used for overcoming hybridization...... barriers. Characterization of parental plants and hybrids is performed using molecular and cytological techniques that strongly facilitate breeding processes. Molecular markers and sequencing technologies are used for the assessment of genetic relationships among plants, as the genetic distance...

  13. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RODRIGUEZ, C.; GOLOSKOKOV, I.; FISHBONE, L.; GOODEY, K.; LOOMIS, M.; CRAIN, B. JR.; LARSEN, R.

    2003-01-01

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC and A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC and A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC and D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical

  14. Chemical forms and discharge ratios to stack and sea of tritium from Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Satoshi; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Miyabe, Kenjiro

    2002-03-01

    Chemical forms and discharge ratios to stack and sea of tritium form Tokai Reprocessing Plant of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) were investigated by analyzing monitoring data. It was ascertained that approximately 70-80% of tritium discharged from the main stack was tritiated water vapor (HTO) and approximately 20-30% was tritiated hydrogen (HT) as a result of analyzing the data taken from reprocessing campaign's in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000 and 2001, and also that the amount of tritium released from the stack was less than 1% of tritium inventory in spent fuel and the amount of tritium released into sea was approximately 20-40% of inventory. (author)

  15. Chemical reactor development : from laboratory synthesis to industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Development is written primarily for chemists and chemical engineers who are concerned with the development of a chemical synthesis from the laboratory bench scale, where the first successful experiments are performed, to the design desk, where the first commercial reactor is

  16. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  17. Transformation of highly toxic chemicals factory for Fuqing nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongkai; Gao Yuan; Li Hua

    2014-01-01

    For the iodine adsorption tests of current M310 nuclear power plant, dimethyl sulfate is one of highly toxic chemical of national strict standard management, and the nation make strict control over toxic chemicals procurement, transportation, storage, management requirements. Since the appropriate toxic chemicals storage place was not considered in the design of M310 nuclear power plant, Fuqing nuclear power sites for storage of dimethyl sulfate implement technical transformation to meet and regulate the storage requirements for highly toxic chemical. This will lay the foundation for carrying out smoothly the relevant tests of nuclear power plant, and provide the reference for the use and construction of toxic chemicals reactor in the same type nuclear power plant. (authors)

  18. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  20. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  1. Research and development in power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedle, K.; Taud, R.

    2001-01-01

    Research and development are a bridge for visions that are escorted to a successful market introduction. Also in power plant engineering, research and development are a lever with which the product power plant, its technology and processes can be adapted to the quickly changing future market. In the overview given by this paper, therefore at first the development boosters and targets are outlined from the viewpoint of the market; then the available technology portfolio is addressed in a concise way. Targets for the development can be seen from the support programmes of the governments. Before a preview is given, some development topics from the point of view of the manufacturer are introduced. (orig.) [de

  2. Chemosensory basis of behavioural plasticity in response to deterrent plant chemicals in the larva of the Small Cabbage White butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.S.; Wang, C.Z.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responsiveness to three chemically different secondary plant substances was studied in larvae of Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Three groups of caterpillars were studied that during their larval development were exposed to different rearing diets: an

  3. [The recent development of fiber-optic chemical sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wei, Jian-ping; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yang, Xue-feng

    2014-08-01

    The present article provides a brief review of recent research on fiber-optic chemical sensor technology and the future development trends. Especially, fiber-optic pH chemical sensor, fiber-optic ion chemicl sensor, and fiber-optic gas chemical sensor are introduced respectively. Sensing film preparation methods such as chemical bonding method and sol-gel method were briefly reviewed. The emergence of new type fiber-microstructured optical fiber opened up a new development direction for fiber-optic chemical sensor. Because of its large inner surface area, flexible design of structure, having internal sensing places in fibers, it has rapidly become an important development direction and research focus of the fiber-optic chemical sensors. The fiber-optic chemical sensor derived from microstructured optical fiber is also discussed in detail. Finally, we look to the future of the fiber-optic chemical sensor.

  4. Role of knowledge based engineering in Heavy Water Plants and its relevance to chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonde, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    The development of heavy water technology under the Department of Atomic Energy in India is carried out based on a mission oriented programme and this was backed up by a committed and highly trained manpower with a single minded pursuit to achieve the goal of making India self-sufficient in this challenging area. The paper gives step by step methodology followed in completion of the above mission which has become a benchmark in the chemical industry. A large sized chemical industry (Heavy Water plant being once such industry) has many features which are similar. The process design typically includes design of reactors, distillation columns, heat exchange networks, fluid transfer machinery, support utility systems etc. Besides, there are other issues like safety engineering, selection of materials, commissioning strategies and operating philosophies which are quite common to almost all chemical industries. Heavy water board has engineered and set up large scale heavy water plants and the technology for production of heavy water is completely assimilated in India and this paper tries to bring about some of the strategies which were instrumental in achieving this. The story of success in this technology can most certainly be followed in development of any other process technology. The important factors in the development of this technology is based on integration of R and D, process design, engineering backup, safety features, role of good construction and project management and good operating practices. One more important fact in this technology development is continuous improvement in operation and use of knowledge based engineering for debottlenecking. (author)

  5. Observations on the development of plants

    OpenAIRE

    A. Listowski; A. Jaśmianowicz; M. Iwanejko

    2015-01-01

    The influence of light intensity and daylength on four short-day species of Chenopodium was analysed. The following species were tested: Ch. ficifolium, Ch. glaucum, Ch. rubrum and Ch. hybridum. Under short day, generative initiation was accelerated, the abundance of flowering, and growth and leaf differentiation processes were reduced. Under light of low intensity, the rhythm of development of the plants growing under long day is similar to that under short day. The development of axillary b...

  6. An endothermic chemical process facility coupled to a high temperature reactor. Part I: Proposed accident scenarios within the chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Seker, Volkan; Revankar, Shripad T.; Downar, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper identifies possible transient and accident scenarios in a coupled PBMR and thermochemical sulfur cycle based hydrogen plant. ► Key accidents scenarios were investigated through qualitative reasoning. ► The accidents were found to constitute loss of heat sink event for the nuclear reactor. - Abstract: Hydrogen generation using a high temperature nuclear reactor as a thermal driving vector is a promising future option for energy carrier production. In this scheme, the heat from the nuclear reactor drives an endothermic water-splitting plant, via coupling, through an intermediate heat exchanger. Quantitative study of the possible operational or accident events within the coupled plant is largely absent from the literature. In this paper, seven unique case studies are proposed based on a thorough review of possible events. The case studies are: (1) feed flow failure from one section of the chemical plant to another with an accompanying parametric study of the temperature in an individual reaction chamber, (2) product flow failure (recycle) within the chemical plant, (3) rupture or explosion within the chemical plant, (4) nuclear reactor helium inlet overcooling due to a process holding tank failure, (5) helium inlet overcooling as an anticipated transient without emergency nuclear reactor shutdown, (6) total failure of the chemical plant, (7) control rod insertion in the nuclear reactor. The qualitative parameters of each case study are outlined as well as the basis in literature. A previously published modeling scheme is described and adapted for application as a simulation platform for these transient events. The results of the quantitative case studies are described within part II of this paper.

  7. Phyto chemical and biological studies of certain plants with potential radioprotective activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, N.H.M.I

    2008-01-01

    One of the promising directions of radiation protection development is the search for natural radioprotective agents.The present work includes: I- Screening of certain edible and medicinal plants growing in Egypt for their radioprotective activities. II- Detailed phyto chemical and biolo-activity studies of the dried leaves of brassaia actinophylla endl. comprising: A-Phyto chemical screening and proximate analysis. B-Investigation of lipoidal matter. C- Isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of phenolic constituents. D- Isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of saponin constituents. E- Evaluation of radioprotective and antitumor activities. I- Evaluation of potential radioprotective activities of certain herbs: In vivo biological screening designed to investigate the radioprotective role of 70% ethanol extract of 11 different herbals was carried out by measuring the lipid peroxide content, as well as the activities of two antioxidant enzymes; viz glutathione, and superoxide dismutase in blood and liver tissues 1 and 7 days after radiation exposure. II : Phyto chemical and biolo-activity studies of the dried leaves of brassaia actinophylla Endl A : preliminary phyto chemical screening, determination and TLC examination of successive extractives. B : Investigation of lipoidal matter. GLC of unsaponifiable matter (USM)

  8. Plant Sterols: Chemical and Enzymatic Structural Modifications and Effects on Their Cholesterol-Lowering Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Sen; Zhu, Hanyue; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2018-03-28

    Plant sterols have attracted increasing attention due to their excellent cholesterol-lowering activity. However, free plant sterols have some characteristics of low oil solubility, water insolubility, high melting point, and low bioavailability, which greatly limit their application in foods. Numerous studies have been undertaken to modify their chemical structures to improve their chemical and physical properties in meeting the needs of various applications. The present review is to summarize the literature and update the progress on structural modifications of plant sterols in the following aspects: (i) synthesis of plant sterol esters by esterification and transesterification with hydrophobic fatty acids and triacylglycerols to improve their oil solubility, (ii) synthesis of plant sterol derivatives by coupling with various hydrophilic moieties to enhance their water solubility, and (iii) mechanisms by which plant sterols reduce plasma cholesterol and the effect of structural modifications on plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols.

  9. Effects of Chemical Applications to Metal Polluted Soils on Cadmium Uptake by Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment using metal polluted soils was conducted to investigate the effects of lime, iron and sulfur on changes in Cd availability and uptake by rice plant. Drainage and irrigation of water were performed to develop redox changes like field cultivation. Iron chloride and sodium sulfate solutions were applied to the pots in the middle of growth period of rice plant. Reactive metal pool in heavily polluted soils was slightly decreased after treatments with lime, iron chloride, sodium sulfate and combination of these chemicals. However, cadmium uptake by rice plant was significantly different across the treatments and the extent of Cd pollution. For highly polluted soils, more Cd reduction was observed in iron chloride treatments. Cd content in polished rice for iron chloride and (iron chloride+organic matter treatments was only 16-23% and 25-37% compared to control and liming, respectively. Treatment of (iron chloride+sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice. For moderately polluted soils, Cd reduction rate was the order of (OM+iron chloride > iron chloride > lime. Other treatments including sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice maximum 3 times than control. It was proposed to determine the optimum application rate of iron for minimizing hazardous effect on rice plant.

  10. Development of a nuclear plant analyzer (NPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vlaminck, M.; Mampaey, L.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Bastenaire, F.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Plant Analyzer has been developed by TRACTABEL. Three distinct functional units make up the Nuclear Plant Analyser, a model builder, a run time unit and an analysis unit. The model builder is intended to build simulation models which describe on the one hand the geometric structure and initial conditions of a given plant and on the other hand command control logics and reactor protection systems. The run time unit carries out dialog between the user and the thermal-hydraulic code. The analysis unit is aimed at deep analyzing of the transient results. The model builder is being tested in the framework of the International Standard Problem ISP-26, which is the simulation of a LOCA on the Japanese ROSA facility

  11. Customer benefit and power plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drenckhahn, W.; Riedle, K.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many aspects of the power market and customer needs in plant operation have been changing more rapidly than manufacturers could launch new products on the market. As a result, flexibility is required not only in the operation of power plants, but also in drawing up product specifications and in the ensuing engineering. The familiar major objectives of development work, such as low specific investment cost and high efficiency, remain important. Also in the context of reducing CO 2 emissions and trading with CO 2 certificates, improving the efficiency of power plants is a measure that, over and above today's cost optimum, represents the 'action of least regret' with a view to sustainably meeting the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Planting Date and Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Phenology and Physiological Indices of Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an annual herbaceous plant in Fabaceae which grown in tropical to temperate regions worldwide for extracting its seed oil and nut consumption. Select the optimum planting date is one of the most important agricultural techniques that comply with the seed yield is maximized . For instance, delay planting date can reduce the number of fertile nodes and the number of pods per plant. The delay in planting date reduces total dry matter (TDM, leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR and yield in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Daneshian et al., (2008 reported that the delay in planting date reduced sunflower (Helianthus annuus yield due to high temperatures in early growth which shortened flowering time and reduced solar radiation. On the other hand, due to increase importance of environmental issues has been attending biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers has formed by beneficial bacteria and fungi that each of them are produced for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate, potassium and iron ions of insoluble compound. The use of nitrogen fertilizer with slow-releasing ability stimulated shoot growth in soybean (Glycine max and be created more LAI in the reproductive process, particularly during grain filling stage and finally increased seed yield . Therefore, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the interaction of biological and chemical fertilizers in the purpose of achieving sustainable agriculture with emphasis of the effects of various planting dates on physiological parameters and growth of peanut in Hamadan. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of planting date on important physiological indices of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. under the influence of biological and chemical fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted in the research farm of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan during 2013 growing season. This study was

  13. Administrative Record Index for SMA 4 - Former Chemical Plant and SMA 5 - Former Pig Iron Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Record Index lists the documents, data and other technical information that the EPA - Region 4 considered in preparing the Statement of Basis for the Former Chemical Plant and the Former Pig Iron Foundry at ERP Compliant Coke.

  14. Development of ultra supercritical (USC) power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sung Ho; Kim, Bum Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Taek Ki [Chung Nat' l Univ., Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    For environmental reasons and because of our limited energy resources, high efficiency power generation technology will be necessary in the future. Ultra supercritical (USC) power generation technology is the key to managing the greenhouse gas problems and energy resource problems discussed in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Other countries and manufacturers are trying to build commercial power plants. In this paper, an efficient method of achieving near zero emission operation of a high efficiency fossil power plant using USC power generation is discussed. Development of USC power generation in Korea has been supported by the Korean government in two phases: Phase I was USC key technology development from 2002 to 2008, and Phase II is USC development and technology optimization from 2010 to 2017.

  15. Groundwater Interim Measures Work Plan for the Former Chemical Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    May 2012 Groundwater IMWP, revised per EPA's approval, focuses on the installation of a groundwater containment system to mitigate groundwater migration from the former plant. A prior 2002 work plan is included in its entirety in Appendix B.

  16. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Sevigny, J.H. [Komex Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H{sub 2}S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol{sup R} sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  18. Soft Sensors: Chemoinformatic Model for Efficient Control and Operation in Chemical Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Kimito

    2016-12-01

    Soft sensor is statistical model as an essential tool for controlling pharmaceutical, chemical and industrial plants. I introduce soft sensor, the roles, the applications, the problems and the research examples such as adaptive soft sensor, database monitoring and efficient process control. The use of soft sensor enables chemical industrial plants to be operated more effectively and stably. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Unsuspected Roles of Chemistry in Nuclear Power Plants: Special Chemical Technologies for Enhanced Safety and Increased Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempere Belda, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The plant's chemists main responsibility is the establishment and monitoring of an adequate water chemistry to minimize corrosion and in PWRs, to control the neutron flux. But this is by no means the only way in which chemical applications contribute to the performance and safety of a NPP during its entire life: The use of special coatings and treatment protects the plant's components from aggressive environmental conditions. The chemical scale removal in steam generators improves the power output of aging plants, helping even to achieve permissions for NPP life extension. The use of special adhesives can replace welding in complicated or high-dose areas, even underwater. And chemical decontamination is used to remove activity from the components of the primary circuit prior to maintenance or replacement works in order to decrease the radiation exposure of the plant's personnel, employing revolutionary methods of waste minimization to limit the amount of generated radioactive waste to a minimum. The AREVA Group, in its pursue of excellence in all stages of the nuclear cycle, has devoted years of research and development to be able to provide the most advanced technological solutions in this field. The awareness of the existing possibilities will help present and future nuclear professionals, chemists and non-chemists alike, to benefit from the years of experience and continuous development in chemical technologies at the service of the nuclear industry. (authors)

  20. The Unsuspected Roles of Chemistry in Nuclear Power Plants: Special Chemical Technologies for Enhanced Safety and Increased Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempere Belda, Luis [AREVA NP GmbH, An AREVA and SIEMENS Company, P.O. Box 1109, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The plant's chemists main responsibility is the establishment and monitoring of an adequate water chemistry to minimize corrosion and in PWRs, to control the neutron flux. But this is by no means the only way in which chemical applications contribute to the performance and safety of a NPP during its entire life: The use of special coatings and treatment protects the plant's components from aggressive environmental conditions. The chemical scale removal in steam generators improves the power output of aging plants, helping even to achieve permissions for NPP life extension. The use of special adhesives can replace welding in complicated or high-dose areas, even underwater. And chemical decontamination is used to remove activity from the components of the primary circuit prior to maintenance or replacement works in order to decrease the radiation exposure of the plant's personnel, employing revolutionary methods of waste minimization to limit the amount of generated radioactive waste to a minimum. The AREVA Group, in its pursue of excellence in all stages of the nuclear cycle, has devoted years of research and development to be able to provide the most advanced technological solutions in this field. The awareness of the existing possibilities will help present and future nuclear professionals, chemists and non-chemists alike, to benefit from the years of experience and continuous development in chemical technologies at the service of the nuclear industry. (authors)

  1. Development of a purification system at Dhruva to treat oil contaminated and chemically impure heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttraway, S.K.; Mishra, V.; Bitla, S.V.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW (thermal) Research reactor uses Heavy Water as moderator, reflector and coolant. Normally during plant operation, the Heavy water from the system gets removed during operational and maintenance activities and this collected heavy water gets degraded and contaminated in the process. The degraded heavy water meeting the chemical specification requirement of the up gradation plant is sent for up gradation. Part of the Heavy water collected is contaminated with various organic and inorganic impurities and therefore cannot be sent for IP up gradation as it does not meet the chemical specification of the up gradation plant. This contaminated Heavy water was being stored in SS drums. Over the years of Reactor operation reasonable amount of contaminated Heavy water got collected in the plant. This Heavy water collected from leakages, during routine maintenance, operational activities and fuelling operation had tritium activity and variety of contamination including oil, chlorides, turbidity due to which the specific conductivity was very high. It was decided to purify this Heavy water in house to bring it up to up gradation plant chemical specification requirement. There were number of challenges in formulating a scheme to purify this Heavy water. The scheme needed to be simple and compact in design which could be set up in the plant itself. It should not pose radiological hazards due to radioactive Heavy water during its purification and handling. The contaminated Heavy water collected in drums had varying chemistry and IP. The purification plant should be able to do batch processing so that the different IP and chemical quality of Heavy water stored in different drums are not mixed during purification. It should be capable of removing the oil, chlorides, turbidity and decrease the conductivity to acceptable limits of the Up gradation plant. A purification plant was developed and commissioned after detail laboratory studies and trials. This paper explains

  2. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Ghazi, S.

    2008-01-01

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  3. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeong Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korean nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot system, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  4. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeong Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korean nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot system, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  5. Plant management in natural areas: balancing chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  6. Chemical and physical analyses of selected plants and soils from Puerto Rico (1981-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Sanchez; E. Lopez; A.E. Lugo

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the results of analyses conducted at the chemistry laboratory of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico from 1981 to 2000. The data set includes 109,177 plant analyses and 70,729 soil analyses. We report vegetation chemical data by plant part, species, life zone, soil order, geology, or parent material. Soil data are...

  7. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  8. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  9. Engineering development in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.

    1979-01-01

    Proceeding from the up-to-now experience in the erection of nuclear power stations, especially of the first and second unit of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, the following essential aspects of the development of constructional engineering are discussed: (1) constructional features and criteria, (2) organizational management, (3) current status and problems in prelimary operations, and (4) possibilities of further expenditure reductions in constructing nuclear power stations

  10. Discussion on the Development of Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    Chemical industry plays a vital role in the development process of national economy. However, in view of the special nature of the chemical industry, a large number of poisonous and harmful substances pose a great threat to the ecological environment and human health in the entire process of raw material acquisition, production, transportation, product manufacturing, and the final practical application. Therefore, it is a general trend to promote the development of chemistry and chemical engineering towards a greener environment. This article will focus on some basic problems occurred in the development process of green chemistry and chemical engineering.

  11. Development of robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masayoshi

    1982-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, the reduction of maintenance time, the reduction of radiation exposure and man-power saving are increasingly required. To achieve these purposes, various remote-controlled devices, such as robots in a broad sense, have been earnestly developed. Of these, three machines for replacing, four devices for inspection, two systems for cleaning, and two equipment for processing are tabulated in this paper. Typical eight machines or equipment are briefly introduced, mainly describing their features or characteristics. Those are: a remotely handling machine for control rod drive mechanism, an automatic refueling machine, an automatic ultrasonic flaw detection system replacing for a manually operated testing system for the welded parts of primary cooling system, an automatic cask washing machine for decontamination, a floor-type remote inspection vehicle for various devices operating inside power plants, a monorail-type remote inspection vehicle for inspection in spaces where floor space is short, and a remote-controlled automatic pipe welding machine for welding operations in a radioactive environment such as replacing the piping of primary cooling system. Most of these devices serves for radiation exposure reduction at the same time. Existing nuclear power plant design assumes direct manual maintenance, which limits the introduction of robots. Future nuclear power plants should be designed on the assumption of automatic remote-controlled tools and devices being used in maintenance work. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  13. Circumventing Graphical User Interfaces in Chemical Engineering Plant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romey, Noel; Schwartz, Rachel M.; Behrend, Douglas; Miao, Peter; Cheung, H. Michael; Beitle, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are pervasive elements of most modern technical software and represent a convenient tool for student instruction. For example, GUIs are used for [chemical] process design software (e.g., CHEMCAD, PRO/II and ASPEN) typically encountered in the senior capstone course. Drag and drop aspects of GUIs are challenging for…

  14. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  15. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  16. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  17. Development of JOYO Plant Operation Management Expert Tool (JOYPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michino, Masanobu; Terano, Toshihiro; Hanawa, Mikio; Aoki, Hiroshi; Okubo, Toshiyuki

    2000-03-01

    The Operation and Maintenance Support Systems for JOYO are being developed, with the aim of ensuring the stable and safe operation of JOYO and improving operational reliability of future FBR plants. Plant Operation Management Expert Tool named JOYPET had been developed as one of the Operation and Maintenance Support Systems, which helps plant operation management. The following functions were developed and applied. (1) Papers management (Plant status management) function for maintenance activities, (2) Isolation management support function for plant operation, (3) Automatically drawing function of plant operation schedule, (4) Isolation judgment function for plant operation. By use this system, the plant management of JOYO was able to improved reliability and reduced manpower. (author)

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  19. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  20. Developments in nuclear power plant water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzetti, K.; Wood, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the changing role of water chemistry in current operation of nuclear power plants. Water chemistry was sometimes perceived as the cause of materials problems, such as denting in PWR steam generators and intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. However, starting in the last decade, new chemistry options have been introduced to mitigate stress corrosion cracking and reduce fuel performance concerns. In BWRs and PWRs alike, water chemistry has evolved to successfully mitigate many problems as they have developed. The increasing complexity of the chemistry alternatives, coupled with the pressures to increase output and reduce costs, have demonstrated the need for new approaches to managing plant chemistry, which are addressed in the final part of this paper. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  2. Neste in 1996: Oil integration and new Chemicals plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1997-01-01

    Neste's net sales in 1996 continued at the previous year's level. Although trading losses weakened the Group's performance, the debt burden decreased substantially and there was a fundamental improvement in the equity-to-assets ratio. Neste's integrated downstream oil business began operations, oil production in Norway and Oman increased, and Chemicals commissioned several production units. In addition, a number of interesting oil and natural gas pipeline projects were moving forward. (orig.)

  3. Chemical Investigations of the Castor Bean Plant Ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This technical report documents the progress made against the chemistry milestones contained in the NSST grant. This report will inform the clients ...of this work program (AFP, Chemical Warfare Agent Laboratory Network (CWALN) members, other national security clients ) of some of the capability...Umetrics AB, Umëa, Sweden) and subjected to Pareto UNCLASSIFIED 40 UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2786 scaling. Data matrices were subjected to both OPLS

  4. Speciation analysis of I-127,129 in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident with newly developed chemical separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takumi; Nagai, Hisao

    2014-05-01

    In previous study, we investigated the depth profile of the accident derived I-129 and downward migration speed in soils of near-field of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, including crop fields and man-made fields. I-129 in soil was measured by AMS and stable iodine (I-127) was measured by ICP-MS at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University of Tokyo. It was found that I-129 was concentrated near surface but distributed deeper compared with Cs-137. It was also found that I-129 seems to move downward more quickly than Cs-137. To investigate the adsorption mechanism and the elemental process of migration of the accident derived I-129 in soil, it is important to know what kind of component the I-129 combines with. Recent studies on the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), especially near edge structure (XANES), reported that the stable iodine (I-127) in soil existed as an organic component. However, it had not yet been proved that it was also the case with the accident derived I-129 because it had been incorporated in the soil system only recently and the abundance of I-129 in soil was more than 8 orders of magnitude smaller than sub-ppm level stable iodine (I-127). In this study a progressive sequential extraction method including the dialysis and the dynamic headspace method was newly developed to obtain only the iodine sticking to the soil organic component. The stable iodine can be quantified by direct analysis of the fraction and I-129 can be quantified by AMS method of the fraction added with carrier. The fraction of the organic component for I-127 and I-129 can be evaluated respectively by comparing with the other fraction and/or with the total concentration obtained by the bulk analysis (e.g. by the pyrohydrolysis).

  5. Characterizing aquifer hydrogeology and anthropogenic chemical influences on groundwater near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual model of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of monitoring well USGS-44, downgradient of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was developed by synthesis and comparison of previous work (40 years) and new investigations into local natural hydrogeological conditions and anthropogenic influences. Quantitative tests of the model, and other recommendations are suggested. The ICPP recovered fissionable uranium from spent nuclear fuel rods and disposed of waste fluids by release to the regional aquifer and lithosphere. Environmental impacts were assessed by a monitoring well network. The conceptual model identifies multiple, highly variable, interacting, and transient components, including INEL facilities multiple operations and liquid waste handling, systems; the anisotropic, in homogeneous aquifer; the network of monitoring and production wells, and the intermittent flow of the Big Lost River. Pre anthropogenic natural conditions and early records of anthropogenic activities were sparsely or unreliably documented making reconstruction of natural conditions or early hydrologic impacts impossible or very broad characterizations

  6. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-03-05

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs(+)) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs(+) uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs(+), chemical library screening was performed using Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs(+) tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs(+) concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs(+). Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs(+) tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs(+) by inhibiting Cs(+) entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for instance, providing a basis for phytostabilisation of radiocesium-contaminated farmland.

  7. Host plant invests in growth rather than chemical defense when attacked by a specialist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.

  8. The influence of the chemical form of technetium on its uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. van; Desmet, G.M.; Cremers, A.

    1986-01-01

    Spinach plants, grown on a Steiner nutrient solution containing TcO 4 - at different concentrations, show a linear relationship between the concentration in the nutrient solution and the amount of Tc in the plant (concentration range O Bq/ml-58 Bq/ml). When Tc is added to the plants as a Tc-cysteine complex, less amounts of Tc are present in the plants. The Tc present in the plants is mainly due to the uptake of TcO 4 - , formed by reoxidation of the Tc-cysteine complex in the nutrient solution. Plant tissue analysis together with a mathematical analysis of the uptake, show some evidences for TcO 4 - as the most important chemical form of Tc taken up by the plants. (author)

  9. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Syrkin Wurtele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less

  10. Improvement of the safety regulations in the management of radioactive waste accumulated in the liquid radioactive waste water basins of the PO 'Majak' (Ozersk), the Siberian Chemical Plant (Seversk) and the Mining-Chemical Plant (Zheleznogorsk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevski, Y.G.; Kislov, A.I.; Irushkin, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important problems of radiation safety in Russia is the decommissioning of the liquid radioactive waste water basins of the PO 'Majak' (Ozersk), Siberian Chemical Plant (Seversk) and Mining-Chemical Plant (Zheleznogorsk). The liquid radioactive waste water basins were constructed in 1950-1960 for the collection and storage of liquid waste from the radiochemical plants. The potential hazards of the liquid in the radioactive waste water basins are: migration of radionuclides into the soil of the liquid radioactive waste water basin floors; wind-induced carry-over of radionuclides from the liquid radioactive waste water basins; hazards (radiation included) to the environment and population arising in case physical barriers and hydraulic structures are damaged; and criticality hazards. The classification of the liquid radioactive waste water basins were developed based on the collection and analyzes of the information on liquid radioactive waste water basin characteristics and the method of multicriterion expert assessment of potential hazards. Three main directions for the improvement of safety regulation in the management of radioactive waste accumulated in the liquid radioactive waste water basins were defined: 1. Common directions for the improvement of safety regulation in the area of rehabilitation of the territories contaminated with radioactive substances. 2. Common directions for the improvement of safety regulation in the area of rehabilitation of the territories, such as the liquid radioactive waste water basins. 3. Special directions for the regulatory activities in the area of operation and decommissioning of the liquid radioactive waste water basins of the PO 'Majak' (Ozersk), Siberian Chemical Plant (Seversk) and Mining-Chemical Plant (Zheleznogorsk). As a result, concrete recommendations on safety regulation for the management of radioactive waste accumulated in the water basins were developed. (author)

  11. Tratamento químico de sementes sobre o desenvolvimento de mancha marrom em plantas de trigo Chemical treatment in seeds on the development of the spot blotch in wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Suemy Ishikawa

    2012-08-01

    the source of inoculum. The evaluations were the number of lesions in the basal leaf of five plants per pot at 22, 25, 29, 31, 35 and 38 days after sowing (DAS, and at 41DAS were evaluated the length (cm, fresh weight (g and dry weight (g of shoot and root. From the evaluations of the number of lesions was also calculated the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The datas were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The 'CD 104' cultivar was more susceptible to the pathogen than 'OR Mirante'; difenoconazole was efficient to control the disease as carboxin + thiram equaled the witness; both fungicides interfered negatively on plant development, since the average length, fresh weight and dry shoot and root obtained from treated seed is lower than the untreated seeds.

  12. Development of GaN-based micro chemical sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Prokopuk, Nicholas; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based on III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  13. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Several Indonesian Plants Typically Used in Jamu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyowati, Retno; Agil, Mangestuti

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the chemical constituents and bioactivities of several Indonesian plants typically used in Jamu prescriptions in Indonesia. Jamu is Indonesia traditional medicine: it consists of either a single ingredient or a mixture of several medicinal plants. One plant family always used in Jamu is Zingiberaceae (ginger), such as Curcuma domestica/C. longa, C. xanthorrhizae, C. heyneana, C. zedoaria, C. aeruginosa, Zingiber aromaticum, Alpinia galanga. We also report other commonly used plant families such as Justicia gendarussa and Cassia siamea, whose activities have been extensively explored by our department.

  14. Strategy of plant concept development in Hitachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumiaki, Moriya

    2007-01-01

    Hitachi contributes to the society in various fields of nuclear power such as the Light Water Reactor field, the Fast Breeder Reactor, the fuel cycle, and the medical treatment. Since the beginning of a first commercial operation of a BWR in Japan, Hitachi has constructed 20 units of BWR. Hitachi continues its efforts in achieving high reliability and large-scale output, and in 1996, it completed Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) in cooperation with various BWR utilities, General Electric Company, and Toshiba Corporation. Hitachi has enhanced the ABWR technology further based on the above enough experience. The latest technologies were reflected in Hamaoka unit 5 and Shika unit 2 as the latest ABWR plants. The further upgrade technologies would been reflected in Shimane-3, Ohma-1 and Higashidori-1 as ABWR plants under planning. Hitachi obtains the chance to construct the nuclear power plant continuously. For the next generation, Hitachi is working on developing nuclear power plants that take diversified needs and global characteristics into account. As one of the approaches, the output series formation of BWR is extended as the following. ABWR-II and ESBWR (Economic and Simplified BWR) as a large-scale centralized power supply emphasizing cost efficiency, Medium size ABWR and natural circulation type BWR as medium and small-scale distributed power supply that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. As another approach, Hitachi tries to extend the Light Water Reactor technology. RBWR (Resource-Renewable BWR ) that achieves a high conversion ratio over 1.0 based on the BWR technology will make the fuel cycle flexible. Hitachi will continue the challenge for the next ABWR and the future with the enough experience of BWR construction. (author)

  15. Development of a Plant Health Index Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; An, Sang Ha; Seo, Ho Joon; Kim, Cho

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008, BNF Technology Inc. and Kyung Hee University have developed the 'Plant Health Index (PHI)' which is a software package to detect 'unhealthy conditions' of plant equipment in advance. While the difference between a setpoint and an operational condition is called 'process margin', the residual between an anticipated normal condition and an operational condition is called 'process uncertainty' or 'healthiness' in this study. It is obvious that the anomalies in process uncertainty can be observed earlier than those in process margin, which is the concept of 'early-warning' proposed in the recent condition-based maintenance (CBM) studies. One of the key factors for implementing the early warning capability should be how to expect the anticipated normal conditions using available information. The PHI was developed on the basis of empirical models, and we have published a few papers with regarding to the core technologies of the PHI. However, the overall architecture and features of the PHI have not been introduced to academic area so far. This paper delineates the overview of the PHI, and focuses on the recently developed module, which is the health index generator

  16. Development of a Plant Health Index Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Ha [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ho Joon [BNF Technology Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cho [Korea South-East Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Since 2008, BNF Technology Inc. and Kyung Hee University have developed the 'Plant Health Index (PHI)' which is a software package to detect 'unhealthy conditions' of plant equipment in advance. While the difference between a setpoint and an operational condition is called 'process margin', the residual between an anticipated normal condition and an operational condition is called 'process uncertainty' or 'healthiness' in this study. It is obvious that the anomalies in process uncertainty can be observed earlier than those in process margin, which is the concept of 'early-warning' proposed in the recent condition-based maintenance (CBM) studies. One of the key factors for implementing the early warning capability should be how to expect the anticipated normal conditions using available information. The PHI was developed on the basis of empirical models, and we have published a few papers with regarding to the core technologies of the PHI. However, the overall architecture and features of the PHI have not been introduced to academic area so far. This paper delineates the overview of the PHI, and focuses on the recently developed module, which is the health index generator

  17. Mediator: A key regulator of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía-Monreal, Manuel; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2016-11-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that regulates transcription at the level of RNA pol II assembly, as well as through regulation of chromatin architecture, RNA processing and recruitment of epigenetic marks. Though its modular structure is conserved in eukaryotes, its subunit composition has diverged during evolution and varies in response to environmental and tissue-specific inputs, suggesting different functions for each subunit and/or Mediator conformation. In animals, Mediator has been implicated in the control of differentiation and morphogenesis through modulation of numerous signaling pathways. In plants, studies have revealed roles for Mediator in regulation of cell division, cell fate and organogenesis, as well as developmental timing and hormone responses. We begin this review with an overview of biochemical mechanisms of yeast and animal Mediator that are likely to be conserved in all eukaryotes, as well as a brief discussion of the role of Mediator in animal development. We then present a comprehensive review of studies of the role of Mediator in plant development. Finally, we point to important questions for future research on the role of Mediator as a master coordinator of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A review on pilot plant development models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan

    2005-01-01

    After more than 30 years, MINT has been able to produce many new findings, products and processes. Some of these have been able to penetrate local and international markets. This was achieved through a systematic commercialisation program practiced in MINT with its technological chain and MINT Technology Park program. This paper will review the development process of MINT pilot plants and compare them with a few other models from other institutions in Malaysia and abroad. The advantages and disadvantages of each model are reviewed and a discussion against MINT's model is presented. (Author)

  19. The Importance of State and Plant Characteristics in Determining the Environmental Compliance Costs of Chemical Manufacturing Plants: Evidence from the PACE Survey, 1979-1990 Summary (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of the author's dissertation: links the U.S. Census Bureau's Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures data on a plant-by-plant basis with the data in their Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) to examine chemical industry compliance costs.

  20. Pyrochemical treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-level waste calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, T.A.; DelDebbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Sharpsten, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1951 to recover uranium, krypton-85, and isolated fission products for interim treatment and immobilization. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then, since 1963, calcined to form a dry granular solid. The resulting high-level waste (HLW) calcine is stored in seismically hardened stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. A research and development program has been established to determine the feasibility of treating ICPP HLW calcine using pyrochemical technology.This technology is described

  1. Management of radioactive liquid waste at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Highly radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) are routinely produced during spent nuclear fuel processing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper discusses the processes and safe practices for management of the radioactive process waste streams, which processes include collection, concentration, interim storage, calcination to granular solids, and long-term intermediate storage. Over four million gallons of HLLW have been converted to a recoverable granular solid form through waste liquid injection into a high-temperature, fluidized bed wherein the wastes are converted to their respective solid oxides. The development of a glass ceramic solid for the long-term permanent disposal of the high level waste (HLW) solids is also described

  2. The enhanced variance propagation code for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, E.A.; Zack, N.R.; Britschgi, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Variance Propagation (VP) Code was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguard's Systems Group to provide off-line variance propagation and systems analysis for nuclear material processing facilities. The code can also be used as a tool in the design and evaluation of material accounting systems. In this regard , the VP code was enhanced to incorporate a model of the material accountability measurements used in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant operated by the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Inputs to the code were structured to account for the dissolves/headend process, the waste streams, process performed to determine the sensitivity of measurement and sampling errors to the overall material balance error. We determined that the material balance error is very sensitive to changes in the sampling errors. 3 refs

  3. Chemical development Separations Technology Unit. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, F.W.

    1952-07-31

    The Redox Plant operated at a 76.7% time efficiency (IAF basis) and averaged 3.16 tons of uranium per operating day during the month. During the period from July 4 through July 13, 38,000 gallons of 72% ANN from Tygon-lined storage tank SS-112 were used in aqueous salt solution make-ups with some emulsion difficulty and fission-product carry-over resulting. New ANN, from stainless-steel tanks, was used for the balance of the month. An extensive (thermally) hot 60% HNO{sub 3} cleanout was given to the IA, IB, 2D, 3D, 2A, and 3A columns and associated salt solution head tanks to prepare the solvent-extraction battery for operation using 90-day `cooled` uranium. Continuous cross-over oxidation to improve 2A Column waste losses, and employment of KOH (vice NaOH) in 2DS, ICU, and 2EU butt additions to minimize Na in 3EU, were begun concurrently on July 20. Aged (90-day) uranium in head-end treated feed batches, was started to the IA Column on July 21, with early data indicating adequate two-cycle decontamination for both uranium and plutonium.

  4. Gamma-ray scanning for troubleshooting and optimisation of distillation columns in petroleum refineries and chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah

    2001-01-01

    The technique and facilities for gamma-ray scanning have been developed by the Plant Assessment Technology (PAT) Group at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). The technology has been successfully used for on-line troubleshooting and investigation of various types of distillation columns in petroleum refineries, gas processing installations and chemical plants in the country and the region. This paper outlines the basic principle of the technology and describes the inspection procedures, and in addition, a few case studies are presented. (Author)

  5. Chemical Reactions: What Understanding Do Students with Blindness Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy L. Micklos; Bodner, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of chemical equations developed by three students with blindness who were enrolled in the same secondary-school chemistry class. The students were interviewed while interpreting and balancing chemical equations. During the course of these interviews, the students produced diagrams using Braille symbols that…

  6. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals-endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-has been shown to cause almost...

  7. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  8. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. The NPA integrates the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-BWR, both of which are well-developed computer graphics programs, and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. Utilizing the complex reactor behavior codes as well as the experiment data repositories enables simulation applications of the NPA that are generally not possible with more simplistic, less mechanistic reactor behavior codes. These latter codes are used in training simulators or with other NPA-type software packages and are limited to displaying calculated data only. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  9. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Baldwin, D.L.; Keough, R.F.; Van der Cook, B.P.

    1985-04-01

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  10. Macroevolutionary chemical escalation in an ancient plant-herbivore arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X; Noge, Koji; Venable, D Lawrence

    2009-10-27

    A central paradigm in the field of plant-herbivore interactions is that the diversity and complexity of secondary compounds in plants have intensified over evolutionary time, resulting in the great variety of secondary products that currently exists. Unfortunately, testing of this proposal has been very limited. We analyzed the volatile chemistry of 70 species of the tropical plant genus Bursera and used a molecular phylogeny to test whether the species' chemical diversity or complexity have escalated. The results confirm that as new species diverged over time they tended to be armed not only with more compounds/species, but also with compounds that could potentially be more difficult for herbivores to adapt to because they belong to an increasing variety of chemical pathways. Overall chemical diversity in the genus also increased, but not as fast as species diversity, possibly because of allopatric species gaining improved defense with compounds that are new locally, but already in existence elsewhere.

  11. Observations on the development of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Listowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of light intensity and daylength on four short-day species of Chenopodium was analysed. The following species were tested: Ch. ficifolium, Ch. glaucum, Ch. rubrum and Ch. hybridum. Under short day, generative initiation was accelerated, the abundance of flowering, and growth and leaf differentiation processes were reduced. Under light of low intensity, the rhythm of development of the plants growing under long day is similar to that under short day. The development of axillary buds indicates a decrease in the intensity of vegetative differentiation and elongation growth, with an enhancement of the generative tonus; the buds in the axils of the highest growing leaves form directly inflorescences without preceding leaf differentiation. Inversion of the shape of leaves on lateral shoots was noted.

  12. Chemical inducible promotor used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Nam-Hai; Aoyama, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    A chemically inducible promoter is described which may be used to transform plants with genes which are easily regulatable by adding plants or plant cells to a medium containing an inducer of the promoter or by removing the plants or plant cells from such medium. The promoter described is one which is inducible by a glucocorticoid which is not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with a variety of genes such as ipt or knotted1 to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid. The promoter may also be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes which are then regulatable by the presence or absence of inducer rather than being constitutive. Other examples of genes which may be placed under the control of the inducible promoter are also presented.

  13. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Zuo, Jianru; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2004-08-31

    A chemically inducible promoter is described that may be used to transform plants, including tobacco and lettuce, with genes which are easily regulatable by adding the plants or plant cells to a medium containing an inducer of the promoter or by removing the plants or plant cells from such medium. The promoter described is one that is inducible by a glucocorticoid which is not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with a variety of genes such as ipt or knotted1 to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid. The promoter may also be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes which are then regulatable by the presence or absence of inducer rather than being constitutive. Other examples of genes which may be placed under the control of the inducible promoter are also presented.

  14. Developing new chemical tools for solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F.; Burns, J.H.; Case, G.N.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bryan, S.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; McDowell, W.J.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects for innovation and for greater technological impact in the field of solvent extraction (SX) seem as bright as ever, despite the maturation of SX as an economically significant separation method and as an important technique in the laboratory. New industrial, environmental, and analytical problems provide compelling motivation for diversifying the application of SX, developing new solvent systems, and seeking improved properties. Toward this end, basic research must be dedicated to enhancing the tools of SX: physical tools for probing the basis of extraction and molecular tools for developing new SX chemistries. In this paper, the authors describe their progress in developing and applying the general tools of equilibrium analysis and of ion recognition in SX. Nearly half a century after the field of SX began in earnest, coordination chemistry continues to provide the impetus for important advancements in understanding SX systems and in controlling SX chemistry. In particular, the physical tools of equilibrium analysis, X-ray crystallography, and spectroscopy are elucidating the molecular basis of SX in unprecedented detail. Moreover, the principles of ion recognition are providing the molecular tools with which to achieve new selectivities and new applications

  15. Qualification test of chemical cleaning for secondary side of steam generator in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Zhang Shufeng; Yu Jinghua; Hou Shufeng

    1997-07-01

    The chemical cleaning technique for removing sludge on the secondary side in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant has been qualified. The chemical cleaning process will carry out during shutdown refuelling. The qualification test has studied the effect of chemical cleaning agent component, cleaning time on dissolution effectiveness of sludge (Fe 3 O 4 ) and to evaluate corrosion situation of main materials of SG in the cleaning process. The main component of cleaning agent is EDTA. The cleaning temperature is 20∼30 degree C. It is determined that allowable remains amount of cleaning agent (EDTA). The technique of cleaning, rinse, passivation for the chemical cleaning in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant has been made. The qualification test shown that the technique can dissolve Fe 3 O 4 >1 g/L, the corrosion of materials is in allowable value, the allowable remains of EDTA is <0.01%. The technique character is static, ambient temperature. (9 refs., 12 tabs.)

  16. The strategy on rehabilitation of the former uranium facilities at the 'Pridneprovsky chemical plant' in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovich, O.; Lavrova, T.; Skalskiy, A.S.; Ryazantsev, V.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes current status of the former Uranium Facilities at the Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant in Ukraine, which are currently under development of action plan for its territory rehabilitation. The monitoring data carried out during recent several years show its impact to the Environment and gives a basis for justification of the number of measures aiming to reduce radiological and ecological risks of the Uranium tailings situated at the territory of PChP. The monitoring data and strategy for its remediation are considered in the presentation. Uranium mining has been intensively conducted in Ukraine since the end of the 40-s. Most of the uranium deposits have been explored in the Dnieper river basin, while some smaller deposits can be found within the basins of the Southern Bug and Severskiy Donets rivers. There also several large Uranium Milling facilities were in operation since the end of the 40-s till 1991, when due to disintegration of the former Soviet Union system the own uranium production has been significantly declined. The Milling Plant and Uranium extraction Facilities in ZhevtiVody is still in operation with UkrAtomprom Industrial Consortium. Therefore rehabilitation programme for all Uranium facilities in this site are in duty of the East Mining Combine and the Consortium. The most difficult case is to provide rehabilitation Action Plan for Uranium tailings and number of other facilities situated in Dnieprodzerzhinsk town and which were in operation by the former State Industrial Enterprise Pridneprovskiy Chemical Plant (PChP). In past PChP was one of the largest Uranium Milling facilities of the Former Soviet Union and has been in operation since 1948 till 1991. During Soviet time the Uranium extraction at this legacy site has been carried out using the ore raw products delivered also from Central Asia, Germany and Checz Republic. After extraction the uranium residue has been putting to the nearest landscape depressions at the vicinity of

  17. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to

  19. Potential influence of plant chemicals on infectivity of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Elizabeth W; Larsen, Andrew; Meins Palmer, Crystal

    2012-11-08

    We explored whether extracts of trees frequently found associated with amphibian habitats in Australia and Arizona, USA, may be inhibitory to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has been associated with global amphibian declines. We used salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum as the model system. Salamanders acquired significantly lower loads of Bd when exposed on leaves and extracts from the river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and loads were also low in some animals exposed on extracts of 2 oak species, Quercus emoryi and Q. turbinella. Some previously infected salamanders had their pathogen loads reduced, and some were fully cured, by placing them in leaf extracts, although some animals also self cured when housed in water alone. A significant number of animals cured of Bd infections 6 mo earlier were found to be resistant to reinfection. These results suggest that plants associated with amphibian habitats should be taken into consideration when explaining the prevalence of Bd in these habitats and that some amphibians may acquire resistance to the fungus if previously cured.

  20. [Chemical constituents from whole plants of Aconitum tanguticum (III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Chun; Wang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Li-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Nineteen compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Aconitum tanguticum by various of chromatographic techniques and their structures were determined through spectral analysis (1D, 2D-NMR and MS) and comparison with the literature data. These compounds were identified as 5-hydroxymethy furfural (1), 5-acetoxymethyl furfural (2), pyrrolezanthine [5-hydroxymethyl-1-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) -ethyl] -1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde] (3), lichiol B (4), phthalic acid dibutyl ester (5), 3, 4-dihydroxy phenylethanol (6), 3, 4-dihydroxy phenylethanol glucoside (7), salidroside (8), p-hydroxy phenylethanol (9), p-hydroxybenzoie acid glucoside (10), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (11), gastrodin (12), 1-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl) -1, 2-ethanediol (13), p-hydroxy benzaldehyde (14), p-hydroxy acetophenone (15), 3, 4-dihydroxy phenyl ethyl acetate (16), syringic aldehyde (17), ethyl beta-D-fructopyranoside (18), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (19). Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from the Ranunculaceae family for the first time, and compounds 2, 6 and 9-19 were isolated from the Aconitum genus for the first time, and compounds 1 and 5 were isolated from the species for the first time.

  1. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  2. Exudate Chemical Profiles Derived from Lespedeza and Other Tallgrass Prairie Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Chemical Profiles Derived from Lespedeza and Other Tall- grass Prairie Plant Species. ERDC TN-17-1. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Re- search and...200-1-52. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Headquarters, Civil Works. https://www.wbdg.org/ffc/army-coe/public-works-technical-bulletins...ERDC TN-17-1 May 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Exudate Chemical Profiles Derived from Lespedeza and Other

  3. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  4. Development of bioeffect sensor for environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochitate, Katsumi; Furuyama, Akiko; Aoki, Yasunobu; Toyama, Chiharu

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to reconstruct on an equivalent body with alveolus epithelium texture by combining alveolus epithelium cell and fibroblast taken out from lung easiest to suffer effect of air pollutants on an artificial membrane. And, development of a bioeffect sensor detectable precisely and in high sensitivity to damages of alveolus epithelium cell due to air pollutants by using RI and improved on its equivalent one, was investigated. Furthermore, it was already succeeded to develop a culture system capable of forming a characteristic base membrane on an epithelium texture by cocultivation of 2 type alveolus epithelium and lung fibroblast and diverging from 2 type alveolus epithelium cell with strong durability to air pollutants to 1 type cell with high sensitivity. In this study, it was examined to construct a culture system capable of forming 1 type alveolus epithelium texture only through 2 type cell, by advancing this result and by adding a glowing factor or an extracellular stroma to a culturing solution instead of lung fibroblast. (G.K.)

  5. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, M.L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  6. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  7. Development of bitumization plant of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Chun, K.S.; Song, H.Y.; Park, S.H.; Park, W.J.; Ryoo, R.; Cho, W.J.; Wee, K.S.; Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This study is to develop the bitumization techniques of radioactive waste concentrates from nuclear power plants (PWR), Cold-run and hot-run bitumization pilot plant were designed and constructed, and testing was carried out. The results show that the range of pH 7 to 8, in which a soluble product could form, is suitable for feeding in the waste and for its incorporation into asphalt, domestic blown asphalt is suitable up to an exposure of 10 8 rad. The estimated viscosity of the asphalt/waste product is about 14 poises at 175 0 C and the asphalt/wastes products in simulated sea-water for three weeks showed no evidence of swelling. The leaching rate from the spent resin/asphalt products in distilled water less than 1/1000 of that from the cement-products. It is considered that the resin content which is suitable for the incorporation of spent resin into asphalt is less than 50 wt%

  8. Production of Plant Phthalate and its Hydrogenated Derivative from Bio-Based Platform Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Lu, Fang; Si, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Huifang; Huang, Qianqian; Yu, Weiqiang; Kong, Xiangtao; Xu, Jie

    2018-04-06

    Direct transformation of bio-based platform chemicals into aromatic dicarboxylic acids and their derivatives, which are widely used for the manufacture of polymers, is of significant importance for the sustainable development of the plastics industry. However, limited successful chemical processes have been reported. This study concerns a sustainable route for the production of phthalate and its hydrogenated derivative from bio-based malic acid and erythritol. The key Diels-Alder reaction is applied to build a substituted cyclohexene structure. The dehydration reaction of malic acid affords fumaric acid with 96.6 % yield, which could be used as the dienophile, and 1,3-butadiene generated in situ through erythritol deoxydehydration serves as the diene. Starting from erythritol and dibutyl fumarate, a 74.3 % yield of dibutyl trans-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate is obtained. The palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation of the cycloadduct gives a 77.8 % yield of dibutyl phthalate. Dibutyl trans-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate could be formed in nearly 100 % yield under mild conditions by hydrogenation of the cycloadduct. Furthermore, fumaric acid and fumarate, with trans configurations, were found to be better dienophiles for this Diels-Alder reaction than maleic acid and maleate, with cis configuration, based on the experimental and computational results. This new route will pave the way for the production of environmental friendly plastic materials from plants. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mortality among flavour and fragrance chemical plant workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T L

    1987-01-01

    Vital status on 1 January 1981 was determined for a cohort of 1412 white men employed in a flavour and fragrance chemical plant between 1945 and 1965 in order to investigate the risks from fatal diseases among men exposed to multiple chemicals in the manufacture of fragrances, flavours, aroma chemicals, and other organic substances. Cause specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire study population and for several subsets by likelihood of exposure to chemicals, duration of employment, and year of hire. SMRs for rectal cancer and ischaemic heart disease were raised among white male employees whose jobs were in production, maintenance, laboratory, or other jobs that would involve exposure to multiple chemicals used and produced in the plant. The excess of rectal cancer was confined to employees who had worked as chemical operators and mortality was significantly raised among men who worked for ten or more years. Traces of dioxin were recently found in and around plant buildings that used trichlorophenol in the production of hexachlorophene. The study group was small and had limited power to detect excess risk of rare causes of death; however, no soft tissue sarcomas were observed during the study period. PMID:3689704

  10. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  11. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  12. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  13. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  14. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  15. The importance of the reliability study for the safety operation of chemical plants. Application in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Maria; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Preda, Irina Aida; Stefanescu, Ioan

    1999-01-01

    Heavy water production in Romania is based on H 2 O-H 2 S isotopic exchange process followed by vacuum isotopic distillation. The heavy water plant are complex chemical systems, characterized by an ensemble of static and dynamic equipment, AMC components, enclosures. Such equipment must have a high degree of reliability, a maximum safety in technological operation and a high availability index. Safety, reliable and economical operation heavy water plants need to maintain the systems and the components at adequate levels of reliability. The paper is a synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative assessment reliability studies for heavy water plants. The operation analysis on subsystems, each subsystems being a well-defined unit, is required by the plant complexity. For each component the reliability indicators were estimated by parametric and non-parametric methods based on the plant operation data. Also, the reliability qualitative and quantitative assessment was done using the fault tree technique. For the dual temperature isotopic exchange plants the results indicate an increase of the MTBF after the first years of operation, illustrating both the operation experience increasing and maintenance improvement. Also a high degree of availability was illustrated by the reliability studies of the vacuum distillation plant. The establishment of the reliability characteristics for heavy water plant represents an important step, a guide for highlighting the elements and process liable to failure being at the same time a planning modality to correlate the control times with the maintenance operations. This is the way to minimise maintenance, control and costs. The main purpose of the reliability study was the safety increase of the plant operation and the support for decision making. (authors)

  16. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-05-06

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance.

  17. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  18. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  19. Analysis of the alternatives for the chemical treatment of the secondary circuit of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.; Silva Neto, A.J. da; Braganca Junior, A.; Dominguez, D.

    1990-01-01

    The operational experiences within PWR power plants shows that the major problems which affect the plant availability occurs in the secondary side, mainly in the steam generators and condenser. The aim of this report is to perform an evaluation of the main chemical treatment processes, which are applied to the secondary side of PWR power plants in order to reduce the corrosion problems to which are exposed the system equipment, minimizing in this way the shut down and maintenance cost for repairs and replacement of damaged components. (author)

  20. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on growth and development of the plants - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk-Golaszewska, K.

    2003-01-01

    Paper presents a review of the recent literature dealing with the UV-B radiation, its effect on physiological processes of plant growth and development, cellular changes, concentration of chemical compounds and changes in morphological plant traits. The reasons of increasing UV-B radiation level are rapidly developing civilization and decreasing of ozone layer. It was stated that the plant reaction to UV-B irradiation depends on plant species and environmental conditions. Destructive effects of UV-B radiation to plants may be - to some extent - neutralized by defence mechanisms, a form of specific plant adaptation to stress, however, under conditions of strong UV-B irradiation such mechanisms are not sufficient

  1. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic Medicinal Plant (Allium sativum L. under the Conditions of Different Organic and Chemical Fertilizers Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Esmaeilian

    2018-03-01

    % compared to single application of nitroxin. Biophosphorous plus vermicompost, cow manure and chemical fertilizer increased biological yield, respectively, by 25, 18 and 15% compared to single application of these fertilizers. The highest economic yield obtained in treatment of nitroxin plus cow manure. Organic and biological fertilizers are among the most significant resources for improvement of agricultural soil quality and increase in the yield of different medicinal plants. It has been reported that these ecological inputs provide favorable conditions for plant growth and development through improvement of physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil (10, 39, therefore, it can be concluded that improvement in most studied traits in the present study was due to the use of organic fertilizers. Fallahi et al. (22 reported the positive effects of organic and biological fertilizers on the improvement of quantitative and qualitative characteristics in chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. Conclusion: In general, the results of this research showed that combined use of organic and biological inputs can improve quantitative characteristics of plant, and thus decrease the environmental risks of chemical inpus.

  2. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepek Gillian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock.

  3. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  4. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  5. Developing native plant nurseries in emerging market areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Duemler

    2012-01-01

    The importance of developing a market for quality native plant materials in a region prior to the establishment of a nursery is crucial to ensure its success. Certain tactics can be applied to help develop a demand for native plant materials in a region. Using these tactics will help create a new market for native plant materials.

  6. A Combined Heuristic and Indicator-based Methodology for Design of Sustainable Chemical Process Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Iskandar; Carvalho, Ana; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan

    2011-01-01

    The current emphasis on sustainable production has prompted chemical plants to minimize raw material and energy usage without compromising on economics. While computer tools are available to assistin sustainability assessment, their applications are constrained to a specific domain of the design...

  7. Chemical Basis of Host Plant Selection by Eastern Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Michael Montgomery; [Tech. Coords

    1983-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes from four host plants of the eastern spruce budworm are examined with respect to their influence on the feeding behavior of the sixth-instar larva. Both current and one-year old needles contain stimulating chemicals in their epicuticular wax layer. Some pure fatty acids known to occur in balsam fir wax are stimulatory, and may serve to enhance...

  8. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to

  9. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  10. EDF's approach to determine specifications for nuclear power plant bulk chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, Alix; Dijoux, Michel; Le-Calvar, Marc; Gressier, Frederic; Mole, Didier

    2012-09-01

    Chemical impurities in the primary, secondary and auxiliary nuclear power plants circuits generate risks of corrosion of the fuel cladding, steel and nickel based alloys. The PMUC (Products and Materials Used in plants) organization established by EDF intends to limit this risk by specifying maximum levels of impurities in products and materials used for the operation and maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Bulk chemicals specifications, applied on primary and secondary circuit chemicals and hydrogen and nitrogen gases, are particularly important to prevent chemical species to be involved in the corrosion of the NPPs materials. The application of EDF specifications should lead to reasonably exclude any risk of degradation of the first and second containment barriers and auxiliary circuits Important to Safety (IPS) by limiting the concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, sulfates... The risk of metal embrittlement by elements with low melting point (mercury, lead...) is also included. For the primary circuit, the specifications intend to exclude the risk of activation of impurities introduced by the bulk chemicals. For the first containment barrier, to reduce the risk of deposits like zeolites, PMUC products specifications set limit values for calcium, magnesium, aluminum and silica. EDF's approach for establishing specifications for bulk chemicals is taking also into account the capacity of industrial production, as well as costs, limitations of analytical control methods (detection limits) and environmental releases issues. This paper aims to explain EDF's approach relative to specifications of impurities in bulk chemicals. Also presented are the various parameters taken into account to determine the maximum pollution levels in the chemicals, the theoretical hypothesis to set the specifications and the calculation method used to verify that the specifications are suitable. (authors)

  11. Inventory of chemicals used at Hanford Site production plants and support operations (1944-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M. J.

    1990-04-01

    A complete list of chemicals used in the production facilities and support operations of the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is presented to aid development of plans for characterizing the radioactive liquid chemical wastes stored in the 149 single-shell tanks. The complete chemical list is compared to the list provided by the regulatory agencies to identify hazardous chemicals stored in the single-shell tanks. A reduced list has been developed by others and is used to identify the chemical constituents for analysis in the Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks. The chemical list is based on chemical process flowsheets, essential material consumption records, letters, reports, and other historical data. 14 refs., 36 tabs.

  12. Process of liquid radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plant and development trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiean; Wang Xin; Liu Dan; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin

    2014-01-01

    The popular liquid radioactive waste treatment methods in nuclear power plants (NPP) are Chemical precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, membrane treatment, chemical coagulation and activated carbon absorption and so on. 'Filter + activated carbon absorption (Chemical coagulation) + ion exchange' has a good prospect for development, as its simple process, high decontamination factor, low energy consumption and smaller secondary wastes. Also the process is used in Sanmen and Haiyang Projects. The severe incident in NPP set an even higher demand on liquid radioactive waste treatment. The new type treatment materials, optimization of the existed treatment, combination of treatment and the mobile treatment facility is the development trend in liquid radioactive waste treatment in NPP. (authors)

  13. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åase Krogh; Main, Katharina; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals—endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—has been shown to cause almost constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal neurodevelopment. This paper focuses on thyroid hormone influence on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected of thyroid disrupting properties with possible interactions with maternal thyroid homeostasis. Knowledge of the effects is expected to impact the general debate on the use of these chemicals. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the issue, since human studies are scarce. PMID:21918727

  14. Thyroid-disrupting chemicals and brain development: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal B Mughal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers recent findings on the main categories of thyroid hormone–disrupting chemicals and their effects on brain development. We draw mostly on epidemiological and experimental data published in the last decade. For each chemical class considered, we deal with not only the thyroid hormone–disrupting effects but also briefly mention the main mechanisms by which the same chemicals could modify estrogen and/or androgen signalling, thereby exacerbating adverse effects on endocrine-dependent developmental programmes. Further, we emphasize recent data showing how maternal thyroid hormone signalling during early pregnancy affects not only offspring IQ, but also neurodevelopmental disease risk. These recent findings add to established knowledge on the crucial importance of iodine and thyroid hormone for optimal brain development. We propose that prenatal exposure to mixtures of thyroid hormone–disrupting chemicals provides a plausible biological mechanism contributing to current increases in the incidence of neurodevelopmental disease and IQ loss.

  15. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  16. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals-endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-has been shown to cause almost...... constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal...

  17. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moemen, A.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl 2 and Mg SO 4 ), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  18. Development of chemical process for synthesis of polyunsaturated esters

    OpenAIRE

    Vera LÃcia Viana do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to develop refining processes, chemical alcoholysis followed by separation of fatty acids using the complexation with urea technique for the synthesis of poly-unsaturated esters from waste of fish oils. The special crude fish oil was purchased from Company Campestre - SÃo Paulo. Initially this oil has undergone a process of physical and chemical refining. From the refined oil, an alcoholysis process was carried out to obtain the mixture of free fatty acids. From the hydrolyzed...

  19. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  20. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich

    2001-01-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN 3 ). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  1. Case examples of chemical plant accidents. What we learn from them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    Lessons learned from the JCO Nuclear Criticality Accident of 30 September 1999 in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura, Japan, are reviewed by referring some pertinent matters from the official report of this accident to remind of the universal characteristics among possible accidents of chemical plants. The paper discusses the responsibility of the establishment or institution to the demand alternation or request change from the client, how to respond to the proposal arising from the factory floor, and the safety control system of every-day maintenance of the factory which are important to prevent accidents in chemical plants. After explaining a background leading to the JCO accident, the author summarizes the lessons as follows: (1) changeable control system, (2) perfect provision of the manual considering the actual condition, and (3) clarification of the roles each played by the managers and the workers are most necessary and important. (S. Ohno)

  2. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix

  3. Model of physico-chemical effect on flow accelerated corrosion in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Domae, Masafumi; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Model of chemical effect on FAC was developed. → Equation to evaluate the dissolved oxygen concentration for FAC suppression was derived. → The model explains the qualitatively the effect of parameters on FAC rate. → Diffusion of soluble species well reproduces the unique FAC behavior. - Abstract: Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is caused by the accelerated dissolution of protective oxide film under the condition of high flow rate and has been one of the most important subjects in fossil and nuclear power plants. The dominant factors of FAC are water chemistry, material, and fluid dynamics. Understanding of the thinning mechanism is very important to estimate the quantitative effects of the dominant factors on FAC. In this study, a novel model of chemical effect on FAC under the steady-state condition was developed in consideration of the diffusion of soluble iron and chromium species, dissolved hydrogen, and dissolved oxygen. The formula to evaluate the critical concentration of dissolved oxygen for FAC suppression was derived. The present model reproduced qualitatively the effect of major environmental parameters on FAC rate. The model could explain the following facts. (1) The FAC rate shows a peak around 413 K. (2) The FAC rate decreases with an increase in Cr content. (3) The FAC rate decreases with an increase in pH. (4) The FAC rate decreases with an increase in dissolved oxygen concentration. (5) The maximum of critical dissolved oxygen concentration is observed around 353 K. (6) The critical dissolved oxygen concentration decreases with an increase in pH. We conclude that the diffusion of soluble species from the saturated layer under the steady-state condition well reproduces the unique FAC behavior with variation of water chemistry parameters.

  4. An external domino effects investment approach to improve cross-plant safety within chemical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, Genserik

    2010-01-01

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces the risk of being struck by an escalating accident at one of its neighbouring plants (the so-called external domino effect risks). These cross-plant risks can be reduced or eliminated if neighbouring companies are willing to invest in systems and measures to prevent them. However, since reducing such multi-plant risks does not lead to direct economic benefits, enterprises tend to be reluctant to invest more than needed for meeting minimal legal requirements and they tend to invest without collaborating. The suggested approach in this article indicates what information is required to evaluate the available investment options in external domino effects prevention. To this end, game theory is used as a promising scientific technique to investigate the decision-making process on investments in prevention measures simultaneously involving several plants. The game between two neighbouring chemical plants and their strategic investment behaviour regarding the prevention of external domino effects is described and an illustrative example is provided. Recommendations are formulated to advance cross-plant prevention investments in a two-company cluster.

  5. An external domino effects investment approach to improve cross-plant safety within chemical clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik

    2010-05-15

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces the risk of being struck by an escalating accident at one of its neighbouring plants (the so-called external domino effect risks). These cross-plant risks can be reduced or eliminated if neighbouring companies are willing to invest in systems and measures to prevent them. However, since reducing such multi-plant risks does not lead to direct economic benefits, enterprises tend to be reluctant to invest more than needed for meeting minimal legal requirements and they tend to invest without collaborating. The suggested approach in this article indicates what information is required to evaluate the available investment options in external domino effects prevention. To this end, game theory is used as a promising scientific technique to investigate the decision-making process on investments in prevention measures simultaneously involving several plants. The game between two neighbouring chemical plants and their strategic investment behaviour regarding the prevention of external domino effects is described and an illustrative example is provided. Recommendations are formulated to advance cross-plant prevention investments in a two-company cluster. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proposed chemical plant initiated accident scenarios in a sulphur-iodine cycle plant coupled to a pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.R.; Revankar, S.T.; Seker, V.; Downar, Th.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the sulphur-iodine (S-I) cycle nuclear hydrogen generation scheme the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). Thus, any accident which occurs in the chemical plant must feedback to the nuclear reactor. There are many different types of accidents which can occur in a chemical plant. These accidents include intra-reactor piping failure, inter-reactor piping failure, reaction chamber failure and heat exchanger failure. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, any of these accidents induce a loss-of-heat-sink accident in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, several chemical plant initiated accident scenarios are presented. The following accident scenarios are proposed: i) failure of the Bunsen chemical reactor; ii) product flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iii) reactant flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iv) rupture of a reaction chamber. Qualitative analysis of these accident scenarios indicates that each result in either partial or total loss of heat sink accidents for the nuclear reactor. These scenarios are reduced to two types: i) discharge rate limited accidents; ii) discontinuous reaction chamber accidents. A discharge rate limited rupture of the SO 3 decomposition section of the SI cycle is proposed and modelled. Since SO 3 decomposition occurs in the gaseous phase, critical flow out of the rupture is calculated assuming ideal gas behaviour. The accident scenario is modelled using a fully transient control volume model of the S-I cycle coupled to a THERMIX model of a 268 MW pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR-268) and a point kinetics model. The Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot source model for choked gas flows from a pressurised chamber was utilised as a discharge rate model. A discharge coefficient of 0.62 was assumed. Feedback due to the rupture is observed in the nuclear

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  8. Native plant development and deployment [Section VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Wright; Kas Dumroese; Amy Symstad; Theresa Pitts-Singer; Jim Cane; Gary Krupnick; Peggy Olwell; Byron Love; Elizabeth Sellers; John Englert; Troy Wood

    2015-01-01

    Native plant materials are needed to create, enhance, or restore pollinator habitat. They provide critical foraging and breeding areas for wild and managed pollinator species, including transnational migratory species such as hummingbirds and monarch butterflies. Although many pollinators and plants are generalists, some have limited, obligate relationships (i.e., one...

  9. Development of high power chemical oxygen lodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, C. M.; Kim, M. S.; Baik, S. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Park, S. K.; Kim, T. S

    2001-10-01

    This project is directed to construct 10kW Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) for decommissioning of old nuclear facilities, and to get the key technology that can be used for the development of high energy laser weapon. COIL is possible up to MW class in proportion to the amount of chemical reaction. For this reason, high energy laser weapon including Airborne Laser (ABL) and Airborne Tactical Laser (ATL) has been developed as a military use in USA. Recently, many research group have been doing a development study of COIL for nuclear and industrial use in material processing such as cutting and decommissioning by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser of 6 kW output power has been developed in this project. The main technologies of chemical reaction and supersonic fluid control were developed. This technology can be applied for construction of 10 kW laser system. This laser can be used for old nuclear facilities and heavy industry by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The development of High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon is necessary as a military use, and we conclude that Airborne Tactical Laser should be developed in our country.

  10. Rehabilitation of radioactive objects of Kirovo-Chepetsky chemical plant preliminary program of works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, F.V.; Ivanov, O.P.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkov, V.G.; Volkovich, A.G.; Zverkov, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the specialists of RRC Kurchatov Institute, jointly with MosNPO Radon, launched works on the radiation survey of radiation-contaminated objects and areas on the site of Kirovo-Chetetsky Chemical Plant (KCCP). This survey was launched with the object of subsequent development of the rehabilitation program and concept for buildings and storage sites left from shutdown uranium-processing facilities, as well as for sludge storage facilities and repositories of radioactive waste produced as a result of these facilities operation. Besides, radioactive contamination caused by the preceding operations involving radwaste and equipment contaminated at early stages of uranium hexafluoride (UHF) and tetrafluoride (UTF) processing technology mastering was detected in some spots at KCCP site. The radiation survey was performed in order to assess the amount of rehabilitation works, to identify the most critical objects and areas at KCCP site, and to develop the sequence of measures to be implemented in order to enhance the radiation safety of people living in the Kirov Region. (author)

  11. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal

  12. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, C.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Marrocchelli, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Troiani, F.

    1989-11-01

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  13. Chemical speciation of technetium in soil and plants: impact on soil-plant-animal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Bruwaene, R. van; Janssens, J.; Kirchmann, R.; Myttenaere, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable uncertainties are associated with the environmental behaviour of technetium-99 and its transfer from soil to plants and then to animals and man. For this reason, most of the mathematical models built to simulate the environmental transport of Tc and to calculate the dose to man are associated with conservative simplifications and produce overestimates of the calculated dose. In order to follow the new ICRP recommendations, transfer models are needed that estimate as accurately as possible the dose to the population; this implies a better knowledge of the behaviour of Tc in the environment, especially concerning its long-term behaviour. At this time, most of the available data deal with the short-term and only scanty results have been obtained regarding the plant-animal transfer, especially in the case of polygastric mammals. (author)

  14. Chemical speciation of technetium in soil and plants: Impact on soil-plant-animal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Van Bruwaene, R.; Janssens, J.; Kirchmann, R.; Myttenaere, C.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable uncertainties are associated with the environmental behaviour of technetium-99 and its transfer from soil to plants and then to animals and man. For this reason, most of the mathematical models built to simulate the environmental transport of Tc and to calculate the dose to man are associated with conservative simplifications and produce overestimates of the calculated dose. In order to follow the new ICRP recommendations, transfer models are needed that estimate as accurately as possible the dose to the population; this implies a better knowledge of the behaviour of Tc in the environment, especially concerning its long-term behaviour. At this time, most of the available data deals with the short-term and only scanty results have been obtained regarding the plant-animal transfer, especially in the case of polygastric mammals

  15. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value

  16. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  17. Development and application of the plant condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the stable operation of nuclear power plants, we developed the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. In this system, it is a significant feature to adopt the sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data to find the symptoms of anomalies in the turbine system from heat balance changes. (author)

  18. Influence of antioxidants synthesized by plants on physico-chemical and microbiological evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian clay material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubersfeld, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This study is a part of the deep disposal site development for radioactive waste in Meuse-Haute Marne (France), most specifically on the bio-physico-chemical conversion of sedimentary clay rocks (Callovo- Oxfordian, COx), excavated and stored on surface in the form of heap. During the experimental and operational phases, several million cubic meters of argillite will be excavated. Argillite stored in the open air will be exposed to meteoritic alterations, oxidizing conditions of surface and colonized biologically (plants, bacteria, fungi). The aim of the thesis is to study the impact of naturally derived antioxidants from revegetation of heap with antioxidant-producing plants on the physical, chemical or microbial weathering processes of argillite. This work was designed to (i) identify suitable naturally derived antioxidants and the plants to produce them (ii) assess the antioxidant inhibitory effects on weathering and leaching COx metals in the laboratory, (iv) field test selected plants on the heap, (iii) follow in situ physicochemical and microbiological evolution of the argillite heap planted with antioxidant producing plants. In the laboratory, percolating model antioxidants of Lamiaceae (linalool, thymol, carvacrol) through a packed column of argillite showed variable water weathering/leaching rate depending on the metal elements present; very low for aluminum (<1 o/oo), between 1-3% for other metals (Ca, Mg, Fe...) and reach more than 60% for sodium. With thymol at 20 mg/l for 3 months, it was found that there are a decrease in sulfur leached amount and the metal elements from the sulfides (Fe, As) and carbonates (Ca, Sr) and inhibition of bacterial and fungal microflora growths. However, intake of artificial root exudates in columns stimulates microbial growth, improves the availability of aluminum, iron and provides sequestration of calcium. Among the tested plants, lavender and lavandin were selected. Two successive plantation tests were carried out in

  19. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation through lance permeation (ISCO-LP) is an emerging remediation technology in which chemical oxidants (such as potassium or sodium permanganate) are delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors. It is applicable to sites with oxidizable contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. Because vertical lance injections can be deployed at relatively close spacing, ISCO-LP potentially can be used to clean-up contamination in low-permeability media. This document provides information that can help potential users determine whether ISCO-LP would apply to a particular environmental management problem. It contains a general description of the technology (Section 2), performance data from a field demonstration (Section 3), an assessment of technology applicability (Section 4), a summary of cost elements (Section 5), and a list of regulatory, environmental safety and health issues (Section 6). It is patterned after the Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSR) published by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology under the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA). As in the previously published ITSRs, the technology described in this report was developed through funding from SCFA. Most of the information contained in this report was obtained from a field demonstration of ISCO-LP conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The field test was not completed due to an accident that caused a field worker serious injuries. Although performance assessment data are very limited, the field test highlighted important health and safety issues that must be considered by site managers and technology vendors interested in implementing ISCO-LP

  20. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  1. Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Hartung, Thomas; Hollert, Henner; Mathes, Björn; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Studer, Christoph; Krug, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

  2. Development of Chemical Technology in Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.

    2007-06-01

    This project mainly concentrates on the development of technologies related to elemental analysis for the mass balance of pyro-chemical process, on the development of in-line measurement system for high temperature molten salt, and on the development of radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD system to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel. Chemical analysis methods for the quantitative determination of fissile elements, minor actinide elements, fission products, chemical additive and corrosion products in Uranium Metal Ingots are established. It will be applied to the evaluation of mass balance in electrolytic reduction process for the optimization of the process. Optical fiber based UV-VIS spectrophotometer combined with reaction cell was developed for the measurement of reactions in high temperature molten salt. This system is applicable to in-line monitoring of electro-refining process and contribute to clarify the chemical reactions. Radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems are planned to be used for the analysis of isotopic distribution and structural changes from core to rim of spent nuclear fuel pellet, respectively. The developed techniques can contribute to produce database needed for authorization and practical use of ultra high burn-up fuel. In addition, it can be applicable to the other industries such as microelectronics, nano material science and semiconductor to analyze micro region

  3. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses on protecting existing trees, planting trees in storm water treatment practices, and planting trees in other open spaces at the development site. This manual introduces conceptual designs for storm...

  4. Development of hydraulic analysis code for optimizing thermo-chemical is process reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Hirayama, Toshio; Nakajima, Norihiro; Sugiyama, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting study on thermochemical IS process for water splitting hydrogen production. Based on the test results and know-how obtained through the bench-scale test, a pilot test plant, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /h, is being designed conceptually as the next step of the IS process development. In design of the IS pilot plant, it is important to make chemical reactors compact with high performance from the viewpoint of plant cost reduction. A new hydraulic analytical code has been developed for optimizing mixing performance of multi-phase flow involving chemical reactions especially in the Bunsen reactor. Complex flow pattern with gas-liquid chemical interaction involving flow instability will be characterized in the Bunsen reactor. Preliminary analytical results obtained with above mentioned code, especially flow patterns induced by swirling flow agreed well with that measured by water experiments, which showed vortex breakdown pattern in a simplified Bunsen reactor. (author)

  5. Developing chemical information system; Henbosuru kagaku joho -intanetto no sekai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihara, H.

    1999-12-01

    With the internet's popularization, the chemical information system greatly changes. In this paper, recent development of a chemical information system using the internet is summarized. To begin with, the kinds of online information systems using WWW and how to use them are described. Next, features of the electronic journals and how to use them are described. Next, CAS and STN as internet editions of the secondary information are introduced. Next, the Scifinder and the SciFinder Scholar which CAS developed as information retrieval tools for researcher are explained well. Next, ISI and DIALOG are introduced as information retrieval services of the other web editions. Finally, realization of retrieval and display of the English database by Japanese and preparation of a fact database such as density, boiling point, spectra, etc. and the offer of them by the internet are mentioned as a future image of chemical information systems. (NEDO)

  6. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Lynne A; Abdul-Sada, Ali; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hodge, Angela; Hartley, Sue E

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.

  8. In-can melting demonstration of wastes from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; Chick, L.A.; Hollis, H.H.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nelson, T.A.; Petkus, L.L.

    1980-07-01

    The immobilization of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) zirconia calcine using Idaho glass composition (ICPP-127) was evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in two engineering-scale in-can melter tests. The glass was initially characterized in the laboratory to verify processing parameters. Glass was then produced in a pilot-scale melter and then in a full-scale melter to evaluate the processing and the resultant product. Potential corrosion problems were identified with the glass and some processing problems were encountered, but neither is insurmountable. The product is a durable leach-resistant glass. The glass appears to be nonhomogeneous, but chemically it is quite uniform

  9. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  10. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook

    1994-06-01

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author)

  11. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords

  12. Chemical cleaning the service water system at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, T.O.; Glover, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical cleaning a large cooling water system in a nuclear power plant presented many unique problems. The selection, qualification, and performance of the cleaning process were done using a phased approach. The piping was inspected to determine the extent of the problem. Deposit samples were removed from the service water system pipe and tested in the laboratory to determine the most effective cleaning solvent for deposit removal. An engineering study was performed to define the design parameters required to implement the system-wide chemical cleaning

  13. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  14. Testing in power plant construction as well as in the petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, N.; Schittko, H.

    1978-01-01

    In general, the upgrading of requirements for the most different fields of engineering is also characterized by a corresponding effort in testing. In this context especially nondestructive tests of materials are of outstanding importance. In the fields of power plant construction (among others, components for nuclear power plants) as well as petrochemical and chemical industry considered here, almost all nondestructive test methods are applied. This paper discusses not so much theoretical testing problems, but rather test objects as well as specifications and testing equipment. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Chemical Synthesis of Oligosaccharides related to the Cell Walls of Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnaert, Christine; Daugaard, Mathilde; Nami, Faranak

    2017-01-01

    in good quantities and with high purity. This review contains an overview of those plant and algal polysaccharides, which have been elucidated to date. The majority of the content is devoted to detailed summaries of the chemical syntheses of oligosaccharide fragments of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin......Plant cell walls are composed of an intricate network of polysaccharides and proteins that varies during the developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the functions of individual wall components in cells, especially for highly complex glycans. Fortunately...

  16. Plant dermatitis-isolation and chemical investigation of the major vesicant principle of Smodingium argutum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorst-Allman, C.P.; Steyn, P.S.; Wells, M.J.; Fourie, D.M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Dermatitis precipitated by contact with sensitizing or irritating plants can be a persistent and disabling condition. Although presenting a characteristic clinical appearance, its infrequent occurrence oftenresults in difficulty in diagnosis to those unfamiliar with its effects. The most common cause of plant dermatitis in the Southern Transvaal is Smodingium argutum, an indigenous member of the family Anacardiaceae. The major vesicant principle of Smodingium argutum has been isolated for the first time, and its structure determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. 13 C n.m.r. and 1 H n.m.r. data for compounds are given

  17. Plant dermatitis-isolation and chemical investigation of the major vesicant principle of Smodingium argutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorst-Allman, C P; Steyn, P S; Heyl, T; Wells, M J; Fourie, D M.C.

    1987-03-01

    Dermatitis precipitated by contact with sensitizing or irritating plants can be a persistent and disabling condition. Although presenting a characteristic clinical appearance, its infrequent occurrence oftenresults in difficulty in diagnosis to those unfamiliar with its effects. The most common cause of plant dermatitis in the Southern Transvaal is Smodingium argutum, an indigenous member of the family Anacardiaceae. The major vesicant principle of Smodingium argutum has been isolated for the first time, and its structure determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. /sup 13/C n.m.r. and /sup 1/H n.m.r. data for compounds are given.

  18. Technology for the long-term management of defense HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Knecht, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Management Plan of June 1983 includes a reference plan for the long-term management of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) high-level waste (HLW), with a goal of disposing of the annual output in 500 canisters a year by FY-2008. Based on the current vitrification technology, the ICPP base-glass case would produce 1700 canisters per year after FY-2007. Thus, to meet the DWMP goal processing steps including fuel dissolution, waste treatment, and waste immobilization are being studied as areas where potential modifications could result in HLW volume reductions for repository disposal. It has been demonstrated that ICPP calcined wastes can be densified by hot isostatic pressing to multiphase ceramic forms of high loading and density. Conversion of waste by hot isostatic pressing to these forms has the potential of reducing the annual ICPP waste production to volumes near those of the goal of the DWMP. This report summarizes the laboratory-scale information currently available on the development of these forms

  19. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  20. Modeling groundwater flow at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater flow in the shallow unconfined aquifer at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles County, Missouri, was modeled with the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) groundwater flow and contaminant transport computer code. The modeling was performed in support of a hydrogeological characterization effort that is part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement process being carried out by the US Department of Energy at the site. This report presents the results of model development and calibration. In the calibration procedure, the range of field-measured hydrogeological parameters was tested to obtain the best match between model-predicted and measured groundwater elevations. After calibration, the model was used to evaluate whether the presence of an on-site disposal cell would impact the ability to remediate contaminated groundwater beneath the cell. The results of the numerical modeling, which were based on an evaluation of steady-state groundwater flow velocity plots, indicated that groundwater would flow beneath the disposal cell along natural gradients. The presence of a disposal cell would not significantly affect remediation capability for groundwater contamination

  1. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  2. A mathematical basis for plant patterning derived from physico-chemical phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleyur, Thejasvi; Abdul Kareem, Valiya Kadavu; Shaji, Anil; Prasad, Kalika

    2013-04-01

    The position of leaves and flowers along the stem axis generates a specific pattern, known as phyllotaxis. A growing body of evidence emerging from recent computational modeling and experimental studies suggests that regulators controlling phyllotaxis are chemical, e.g. the plant growth hormone auxin and its dynamic accumulation pattern by polar auxin transport, and physical, e.g. mechanical properties of the cell. Here we present comprehensive views on how chemical and physical properties of cells regulate the pattern of leaf initiation. We further compare different computational modeling studies to understand their scope in reproducing the observed patterns. Despite a plethora of experimental studies on phyllotaxis, understanding of molecular mechanisms of pattern initiation in plants remains fragmentary. Live imaging of growth dynamics and physicochemical properties at the shoot apex of mutants displaying stable changes from one pattern to another should provide mechanistic insights into organ initiation patterns. Copyright © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dynamic chemical communication between plants and bacteria through airborne signals: induced resistance by bacterial volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Zhang, Huiming; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-07-01

    Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant growth promotion in the absence of physical contact with plants via volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this article, we review the recent progess made by research into the interactions between PGPR VOCs and plants, focusing on VOC emission by PGPR strains in plants. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms by which these bacterial VOCs elicit ISR. We provide an overview of recent progress in the elucidation of PGPR VOC interactions from studies utilizing transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses. By monitoring defense gene expression patterns, performing 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and studying defense signaling null mutants, salicylic acid and ethylene have been found to be key players in plant signaling pathways involved in the ISR response. Bacterial VOCs also confer induced systemic tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought and heavy metals. A review of current analytical approaches for PGPR volatile profiling is also provided with needed future developments emphasized. To assess potential utilization of PGPR VOCs for crop plants, volatile suspensions have been applied to pepper and cucumber roots and found to be effective at protecting plants against plant pathogens and insect pests in the field. Taken together, these studies provide further insight into the biological and ecological potential of PGPR VOCs for enhancing plant self-immunity and/or adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses in modern agriculture.

  4. Induction of somatic mutations in ornamental plants by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.M.; Abraham, V.

    1980-01-01

    Improvement in some ornamental plants through induction of somatic mutations by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens viz. colchicine, EMS and DS has been attempted. Mutants of high ornamental value have been evolved, isolated and multiplied in canna, perennial portulaca, tuberose, bougainvillea, hibiscus, daisy, lilies. These pertain to changes in colour, shape and size of flower and foliage. Procedural details on induction, isolation, stabilisation of the mutants and description of the new characteristics are presented. (author)

  5. BIOACTIVITIES AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF A VIETNAMESE MEDICINAL PLANT JASMINUM SUBTRIPLINERVE BLUME (CHE VANG )

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hue Ngan

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis encompasses two parts. The first part deals with general introduction to isolation, characterization, and bioactivities of natural products, with emphasis on Jasminum Subtriplinerve Blume spp., and its genus. The second is experimental study of J.subtriplinerve Bl. about its bioactivities and chemical constituents. In first part (from chapter 1 to 6), the botanical of two varieties of J.subtriplinerve Bl., a medicinal plant widely distributed in Middle area of Vietnam that has ju...

  6. Optical methods for creating delivery systems of chemical compounds to plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Arefeva, Oksana A.; Minin, Dmitryi V.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.

    2004-08-01

    Spectrophotometric and fluorescence methods have been used for creation and investigation of various systems of target delivery of chemical compounds to roots of plants. The possibility of using liposomes, incrusted by polysaccharides of the external surface of nitrogen-fixing rizospheric bacteria Azospirillum brasilense SP 245, and nanoparticles incrusted by polysaccharides of wheat roots, as the named systems has been shown. The important role of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the adsorption processes of bacteria on wheat roots has been demonstrated.

  7. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid) and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic) fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were ...

  8. Chemical reactor for a PUREX reprocessing plant of 200Kg U/day capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveria Lopes, M.J. de.

    1974-03-01

    Dissolution of spent reactor fuels in Purex process is studied. Design of a chemical reactor for PWR elements, 3% enriched uranium dioxide with zircaloy cladding, for a 200Kg/day uranium plant is the main objective. Chop-leach process is employed and 7.5M nitric acid is used. Non-criticality was obtained by safe geometry and checked by spectrum homogeneous calculus and diffusion codes. Fuel cycle is considered and decladding and dissolution are treated more accurately

  9. The plant expert system (PLEXSYS) development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Patterson, L.; Jeffery, M.; Delashmutt, L.

    1989-06-01

    The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab

  10. Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitsune eIshizaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs, called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create intercellular spaces. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation.

  11. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  12. Development of a coppice planting machine to commercial standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, J.S.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of the development work carried out on the Turton Engineering Coppice Planting machine in order to commercially market it. The background to the machine which plants single rows of cuttings from rods is traced,, and previous development work, design work, production of sub-assemblies and the assembly of modules, inspection and assembly, static trials, and commercial planting are examined. Further machine developments, proving trials, and recommendations for further work are discussed. Appendices address relationships applicable to vertical planting, the Turton short rotation cultivation machine rod format, estimated prices and charges, and a list of main suppliers. (UK)

  13. Development of second-generation PFB combustion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called an Advanced or Second-generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot-plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant and discusses a proposed design that should reduce demonstration-plant risks and costs.

  14. Engineered nanomaterials for plant growth and development: A perspective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Ashok Kumar; Patel, Manoj Kumar; Shah, Ashish; Kumar, Vinay; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-07-15

    With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding. Herein, we are presenting a comprehensive and critical account of different types of ENMs, their applications and their positive, negative and null impacts on physiological and molecular aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Recent reports revealed mixed effects on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield, epi/genetic alterations, and phytotoxicity, resulting from the ENMs' exposure. Creditable research in recent years has revealed that the effects of ENMs on plants are species specific and are variable among plant species. ENM exposures are reported to trigger free radical formation, responsive scavenging, and antioxidant armories in the exposed plants. The ENMs are also reported to induce aberrant expressions of microRNAs, the key post-transcriptional regulators of plant growth, development and stress-responses of plants. However, these modulations, if judiciously done, may lead to improved plant growth and yield. A better understanding of the interactions between ENMs and plant responses, including their uptake transport, internalization, and activity, could revolutionize crop production through increased disease resistance, nutrient utilization, and crop yield. Therefore, in this review, we are presenting a critical account of the different selected ENMs, their uptake by the plants, their positive/negative impacts on plant growth and development, along with the resultant ENM-responsive post

  15. Conceptual design of SO3 decomposer for thermo-chemical iodine-sulfur process pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Kanagawa; Seiji Kasahara; Atsuhiko Terada; Shinji Kubo; Ryutaro Hino; Yoshiyuki Kawahara; Masaharu Watabe; Hiroshi Fukui; Kazuo Ishino; Toshio Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Thermo-chemical water-splitting cycle is a method to make an effective use of the high temperature nuclear heat for hydrogen production. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting R and D on HTGR and also on thermo-chemical hydrogen production by using a thermo-chemical iodine-sulfur cycle (IS process). Based on the test results and know-how obtained through a bench-scale tests of hydrogen production of about 30 NL/hr, JAERI has a plan to construct a pilot test plant heated by high temperature helium gas, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /hr and will be operated under the high pressure up to 2 MPa. One of the key components of the pilot test plant is a SO 3 decomposer under high temperature conditions up to 850 degree C and high pressure up to 2 MPa. In this paper, a concept of the SO 3 decomposer for the pilot test plant fabricated with SiC ceramics, a corrosion-resistant material is investigated. Preliminary analyses on temperature and flow-rate distributions in the SO 3 decomposer and on thermal stress were carried out. A SO 3 decomposer model was experimentally manufactured. (authors)

  16. Chemical and physical analyses of selected plants and soils from Puerto Rico (1981-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Sanchez; E. Lopez; A. E. Lugo

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the result of many analyses conducted at the laboratory of the IITF of Puerto Rico between 1981 and 1990. our objective was to make available the chemical and physical data developed for tropical forest ecosystems.

  17. Do indoor chemicals promote development of airway allergy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Larsen, S T; Olsen, O

    2007-01-01

    in animal studies and allergy-promoting effects in humans. Quaternary ammonium compounds may possess adjuvant effects in animal studies and promoted sensitization in humans in occupational settings. The use of cleaning agents, anionic and non-ionic surfactants are not considered to possess an important...... products, the important question may be would it be profitable to look for lifestyle factors and non-chemical indoor exposures in order to abate airway allergy? PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Indoor chemicals (pollutants) have been accused to promote development of airway allergy by adjuvant effects......Allergic asthma has increased worldwide in the industrialized countries. This review evaluates whether the major groups of indoor chemical exposures possess allergy-promoting (adjuvant) effects; formaldehyde was excluded, because of the size of the literature. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs...

  18. Influence of plants on the chemical extractability and biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucard, Tatiana K.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the fate and behaviour of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in planted (Lolium perenne L.) and unplanted soils over 57 days. Extractability of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was measured using calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), acetonitrile-water and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions. Biodegradability of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was assessed through measurement of 14 CO 2 production by a degrader inoculum (Burkholderia sp.). Although extractability and mineralisation of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity decreased significantly in both planted and unplanted soils, plants appeared to enhance the sequestration process. After 57 days, in unplanted soil, 27% of the remaining [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was mineralised by Burkholderia sp., and 13%, 48%, and 38% of 14 C-activity were extracted by CaCl 2 , acetonitrile-water and DCM, respectively. However, after 57 days, in planted soils, only 10% of the [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was available for mineralisation, whilst extractability was reduced to 2% by CaCl 2 , 17% by acetonitrile-water and 11% by DCM. This may be due to the effect of plants on soil moisture conditions, which leads to modification of the soil structure and trapping of the compound. However, the influence of plants on soil biological and chemical properties may also play a role in the ageing process

  19. Development of a decommissioning plan for nuclear power plant 'Krsko'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankosic, Djurica; Fink, Kresimir

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant 'Krsko' (NEK), is the only nuclear power plant in Yugoslavia, is a two-loop, Westinghouse-design, pressurized water reactor rated at 632 MWe. When NEK applied for an operating license in 1981, it did not have to explain how the plant would be decommissioned and decommissioning provisions were not part of the licensing process. Faced with mounting opposition to nuclear power and a real threat that the plant would be shut down, the plant management developed a Mission Plan for resolving the decommissioning problem. The Mission Plan calls for a preliminary decommissioning plan to be prepared and submitted to the local regulatory body before the end of 1992

  20. Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Scheel, D.; von der Trenck, T.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of the following environmental chemicals has been studied in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.):2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, diethylhexylphthalate , benzo [alpha] pyrene, and DDT. All chemicals tested, including the persistent ones, were partially metabolized. Polar conjugates predominated in all cases. A covalent incorporation into lignin could be demonstrated for 2,4-D and pentachlorophenol. A specific deposition in the cellular vacuole could be demonstrated for the beta-D-glucopyranoside conjugates derived from 2,4-D. A rapid assay procedure to evaluate the metabolism of a given 14 C-labeled chemical in plant cell suspension cultures is described. This procedure requires about 1 week, and the reproducibility of the results obtained has been assessed

  1. Soft X-ray induced chemical modification of polysaccharides in vascular plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, George D.; Brandes, Jay; Jacobsen, Chris; Wirick, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and micro carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (C-XANES) can provide quantitative information regarding the distribution of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in vascular plant cell walls. In the case of angiosperms, flowering plants, C-XANES may also be able to distinguish variations in lignin monomer distributions throughout the cell wall. Polysaccharides are susceptible to soft X-ray irradiation induced chemical transformations that may complicate spectral analysis. The stability of a model polysaccharide, cellulose acetate, to variable doses of soft X-rays under conditions optimized for high quality C-XANES spectroscopy was investigated. The primary chemical effect of soft X-ray irradiation on cellulose acetate involves mass loss coincident with de-acetylation. A lesser amount of vinyl ketone formation also occurs. Reduction in irradiation dose via defocusing does enable high quality pristine spectra to be obtained. Radiation induced chemical modification studies of oak cell wall reveals that cellulose and hemicellulose are less labile to chemical modification than cellulose acetate. Strategies for obtaining pristine C-XANES spectra of polysaccharides are presented.

  2. Molybdenum and technetium cycle in the environment. Physical chemical evolution and mobility in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Denardi, J.L.; Colle, C.; Quinault, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Molybdenum 99 and technetium 99 from liquid discharges of base nuclear installations (reactors, reprocessing plants, UF 6 treatment, etc.) can reach the environment via irrigation waters and atmospheric deposits. The contribution to the soil by irrigation results in a physical-chemical transformation, the results of which, in the case of technetium 99, could be volatilization via microbes. The changes in the physical-chemical forms of technetium in different soils reveals the preponderant effect of the initial amount deposited. The determination of the rate of technetium and molybdenum assimilation shows a certain similarity in behaviour; yet the localization of these isotopes is not the same. The transfer of molybdenum and technetium via the root system is different in its intensity; this is mainly due to different physical-chemical forms. Finally, each isotope has an optimum assimilation threshold and a toxicity threshold. The study of the physical-chemical evolution and the mobility in the soil-plant-water table system of these two isotopes shows a new aspect with respect to certain transfer channels to the human being [fr

  3. Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Sanjog T; Srivastava, Ankit K; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical diversity. For genetic fingerprint investigation, selected 10 ISSR primers generating reproducible banding patterns were used. Among the total of 63 amplicons, 62 were recorded as polymorphic, genetic similarity index deduced from ISSR profiles ranged from 12 to 51%. Based on similarity index, S. acuta and S. rhombifolia found to be most similar (51%). High number of species-specific bands played pivotal role to delineate species at genetic level. Investigation based on HPTLC fingerprints analysis revealed 23 bands representing to characteristic chemicals and similarity index ranged from 73 to 91%. Prominent distinguishable bands were observed only in S. acuta, while S. cordifolia and S. rhombifolia shared most bands making them difficult to identify on chemical fingerprint basis. This report summarizes the genotypic and chemotypic diversity and the use of profiles for authentication of species of Sida complex.

  4. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Extracts from Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushiken, Lucas F; Beserra, Fernando P; Rozza, Ariane L; Bérgamo, Patrícia L; Bérgamo, Danilo A; Pellizzon, Cláudia H

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plant species have been used in ethnopharmacology or to treat experimentally symptoms of this disease. When evaluated pharmacologically, most of the plants employed as antidiabetic substances have been shown to exhibit hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities, and to contain chemical constituents that may be used as new antidiabetic agents. There are many substances extracted from plants that offer antidiabetic potential, whereas others may result in hypoglycemia as a side effect due to their toxicity, particularly their hepatotoxicity. In this article we present an updated overview of the studies on extracts from medicinal plants, relating the mechanisms of action by which these substances act and the natural principles of antidiabetic activity.

  5. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  6. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  7. Bioaccumulation and chemical forms of cadmium, copper and lead in aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinZhao Hu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium(Cd, copper(Cu and lead(Pb accumulation, as well as their relative content of different chemical forms in Sagittaria sagittifolia L. and Potamogeton crispus L. were determined. The results showed that both the plants had the ability to accumulate large amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb, and they absorbed metals in dose-dependent manners. The roots of S. sagittifolia appeared more sensitive to Cd and Pb than the leaves of P. crispus. The potential of Cu uptake by these two plant tissues was similar. Under the same concentration, the uptake of Cu for both the plants was higher than Pb and Cd, while that of Pb was lowest. The Cd, Cu and Pb existed with various forms in the plants. Cd and Pb were mainly in the NaCl extractable form in S. sagittifolia and P. crispus. The HAc and ethanol extractable Cu were the main forms in the root, whereas the ethanol extractable form was the dominant chemical form in the caulis and bulb of the S. sagittifolia L.

  8. Strategy for seismic upgrading of chemical plant taking productivity as criterion of judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, M.; Kase, T.; Yashiro, H.; Fukushima, S.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic upgrading and modification of existing chemical plant facilities have been performed by means of a procedure of the Seismic Design Code and Guidelines of High-pressure Gas Facilities in Japan. Main purpose of this seismic design code is to ensure public safety at seismic events. From the viewpoints of seismic risk of corporate management, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) and productivity of the plants are also important for seismic assessment. In this paper, authors proposed strategy for seismic assessment to select appropriate pre-earthquake upgrading and modification considering productivity of plants based on fault tree analysis. This assessment will enable to select weak damage modes and to allocate countermeasure cost optimally to the selected damage modes. (authors)

  9. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-01-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  10. Preliminary analyses on hydrogen diffusion through small break of thermo-chemical IS process hydrogen plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somolova, Marketa; Terada, Atsuhiko; Takegami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Jin

    2008-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a conceptual design study of nuclear hydrogen demonstration plant, that is, a thermal-chemical IS process hydrogen plant coupled with the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR-IS), which will be planed to produce a large amount of hydrogen up to 1000m 3 /h. As part of the conceptual design work of the HTTR-IS system, preliminary analyses on small break of a hydrogen pipeline in the IS process hydrogen plant was carried out as a first step of the safety analyses. This report presents analytical results of hydrogen diffusion behaviors predicted with a CFD code, in which a diffusion model focused on the turbulent Schmidt number was incorporated. By modifying diffusion model, especially a constant accompanying the turbulent Schmidt number in the diffusion term, analytical results was made agreed well with the experimental results. (author)

  11. Design criteria for the new waste calcining facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, F.H.; Bingham, G.E.; Buckham, J.A.; Dickey, B.R.; Slansky, C.M.; Wheeler, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is being built to replace the existing fluidized-bed, high-level waste calcining facility (WCF). Performance of the WCF is reviewed, equipment failures in WCF operation are examined, and pilot-plant studies on calciner improvements are given in relation to NWCF design. Design features of the NWCF are given with emphasis on process and equipment improvements. A major feature of the NWCF is the use of remote maintenance facilities for equipment with high maintenance requirements, thereby reducing personnel exposures during maintenance and reducing downtime resulting from plant decontamination. The NWCF will have a design net processing rate of 11.36 m 3 of high-level waste per day, and will incorporate in-bed combustion of kerosene for heating the fluidized bed calciner. The off-gas cleaning system will be similar to that for the WCF

  12. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  13. Development of Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation evaluates the present situation of the Dukovany nuclear power plant operation. It analyses the present at the plant, and also in both the near and distant localities. Based on these analyses the conclusions and targets that are necessary for keeping the plant's safe operation are made. From the current situation the report about the results of the year 1999 in the operation and financial field, stress on the safety index, is presented. Further, there is a list of finished and semi-finished activities that are taking place within the harmonization of the Dukovany NPP. At the same time the report presents the terms of licensing and the going of implementation of the 'KAPA' project - the complex application of the Atomic Energy Act. In the part, comparison to the environment, there is an example of a comparison with the results of a plant in the EU. Further the report compares the advantages and disadvantages of the WWER reactors with other light water reactors. In the last part of the presentation there is a brief opinion of the author on the steps that are awaiting us in the future. First, the 'Harmonization program' of Dukovany NPP is explained, its philosophy and principles. The basic idea is to take the right steps and strategic decisions, with the vision for the operation till the year 2025 at least. There is also a list of the most important events that are planned to increase the safety. Further the report goes briefly over the current situation in the filed of nuclear energy in the period of joining the European Union and also mentions the risks that result from this process. It concludes with the prognosis for the further position of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. (author)

  14. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  15. Development of JOYO plant operation management expert tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michino, Masanobu; Sawada, Makoto [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1995-03-01

    Operation and maintenance support systems for JOYO are being developed in order to keep the stable and safe operation of JOYO and to improve operational reliability of future FBR plants. As one of the systems, an operation support system named JOYPET has been developing and applied. The system supports the plant management works of JOYO which are necessary for much manpower and knowledge of the plant. The plant management of JOYO was able to improve its reliability and reduce manpower by using this system. As a final step, a judgment function based on the accumulated plant management rule of JOYO will be developed and applied. The function judges the plant condition which allows to start the maintenance works or not. (author).

  16. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: Geismar, Louisiana refinery/chemical complex application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMain, A.T. Jr.; Stanley, J.D.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to an industrial complex at Geismar, Louisiana. This study compares the HTGR with coal and oil as process plant fuels. This study uses a previous broad energy alternative study by the Stone and Webster Corporation on refinery and chemical plant needs in the Gulf States Utilities service area. The HTGR-PS/C was developed by General Atomic (GA) specifically for industries which require both steam and electric energy. The GA 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PC/C design is particularly well suited to industrial applications and is expected to have excellent cost benefits over other energy sources

  18. The influence of the chemical form of technetium on its uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Desmet, G.M.; Cremers, A.

    1985-01-01

    Spinach plants, grown on a Steiner nutrient solution containing TcO/sup -//sub 4/ at different concentrations, show a linear relationship between the concentration in the nutrient solution and the amount of Tc in the plant (concentration range O Bq/ml-58 Bq/ml). When Tc is added to the plants as a Tc-cysteine complex, less amounts of Tc are present in the plants. The Tc present in the plants is mainly due to the uptake of TcO/sup -//sub 4/, formed by reoxidation of the Tc-cysteine complex in the nutrient solution. Plant tissue analysis together with a mathematical analysis of the uptake, show some evidences for for TcO/sup -//sub 4/ as the most important chemical form of Tc taken up by the plants. In the case of anionic complexes, it's impossible to study only the uptake of the complex. Due to rexodization of the complexed Tc, a mixture of TcO/sup -//sub 4/ and the complex is present in the nutrient solution. In the case of cationic complexes, the TcO/sup -//sub 4/ can be removed from the nutrient solution by an anion exchange resin, so that only the complexed form of Tc is present in the nutrient solution. Its uptake by plants can be studied without interference of TcO/sup -//sub 4/. Uptake of Tc-complexes is possible, but the uptake rate (or transfer factor) is lower by two order of magnitude as compared with TcO/sup -//sub 4/

  19. Advancements in Development of Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of greenhouse CO2. Extensive research has been performed on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reaction kinetics, reactor design, system efficiencies, and prototype testing. Transition metal oxides, such as Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn oxides, were reported as reactive species in the oxygen carrier particles. Ni-based oxygen carriers exhibited the best reactivity and stability during multiredox cycles. The performance of the oxygen carriers can be improved by changing preparation method or by making mixedoxides. The CLC has been demonstrated successfully in continuously operated prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized-bed system in the size range of 0.3–50 kW. High fuel conversion rates and almost 100%  CO2 capture efficiencies were obtained. The CLC system with two interconnected fluidized-bed reactors was considered the most suitable reactor design. Development of oxygen carriers with excellent reactivity and stability is still one of the challenges for CLC in the near future. Experiences of building and operating the large-scale CLC systems are needed before this technology is used commercially. Chemical-looping reforming (CLR and chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH are novel chemical-looping techniques to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen deserving more attention and research.

  20. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H. [MCFC Research Association, Mie (Japan); Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  1. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  2. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  3. Development of nuclear power plant diagnosis technique using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Masahiro; Fukawa, Naohiro; Nishimura, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear power plant diagnosis technique has been developed, called transient phenomena analysis, which employs neural network. The neural networks identify malfunctioning equipment by recognizing the pattern of main plant parameters, making it possible to locate the cause of an abnormality when a plant is in a transient state. In a case where some piece of equipment shows abnormal behavior, many plant parameters either directly or indirectly related to that equipment change simultaneously. When an abrupt change in a plant parameter is detected, changes in the 49 main plant parameters are classified into three types and a characteristic change pattern consisting of 49 data is defined. The neural networks then judge the cause of the abnormality from this pattern. This neural-network-based technique can recognize 100 patterns that are characterized by the causes of plant abnormality. (author)

  4. The chemical monitoring and control during temporary turbine trip or reactor scram of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heng

    2012-01-01

    During normal operation, a malfunction of equipment or improper operation sometimes results in a turbine trip or reactor scram or even cold shutdown. Because present chemical control strategy and programs aimed at the situation of normal operation and planed refueling outage, no integrate emergency program of radiochemical and chemical control had been developed to focus on this urgent and unexpected situation. After many years of practice and experience feedback, chemists have created an emergency collaborative program of radiochemical and chemical control which aims at these unexpected situations such as unplanned unit down power, turbine trip, or reactor scram. The program defines different radiochemical and chemical control measures and steps during different status to monitor primary loop dose rate variation, fuel assembly integrity and water chemical excursion to prevent components from corrosion. (author)

  5. The Planning of a Small Pilot Plant for Development Work on Aqueous Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeborg, T U; Haeffner, E; Hultgren, Aa

    1963-10-15

    A shielded volume (42 m{sup 3}) in the hot laboratory at Kjeller, Norway, has been used for the installation of a small pilot plant intended for studies on nuclear fuel reprocessing. During the first period of operation (1963) a plutonium separation method (the Silex process) developed at AB Atomenergi will be studied. This document is a description of the project during the stage of technical planning and chemical process development.

  6. Development of the Chinshan plant analyzer and its assessment with plant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihjen Wang; Chunsheng Chien; Jungyuh Jang; Shawcuang Lee

    1993-01-01

    To apply fast and accurate simulation techniques to Taiwanese nuclear power plants, plant analyzer technology was transferred to Taiwan from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) through a cooperative program. The Chinshan plant analyzer is developed on the AD100 peripheral processor systems, based on the BNL boiling water reactor plant analyzer. The BNL plant analyzer was first converted from MPS10 programming for AD10 to ADSIM programming for AD100. It was then modified for the Taiwan Power Company's Chinshan power station. The simulation speed of the Chinshan plant analyzer is eight times faster than real time. A load rejection transient performed at 100% of full power during startup tests was simulated with the Chinshan plant analyzer, and the results were benchmarked against test data. The comparison shows good agreement between calculated results and test data

  7. Identification of Methylosome Components as Negative Regulators of Plant Immunity Using Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Balgi, Aruna; Pan, Yaping; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaoran; Du, Lilin; Zhou, Ming; Roberge, Michel; Li, Xin

    2016-12-05

    Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins serve as immune receptors in both plants and animals. To identify components required for NLR-mediated immunity, we designed and carried out a chemical genetics screen to search for small molecules that can alter immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. From 13 600 compounds, we identified Ro 8-4304 that was able to specifically suppress the severe autoimmune phenotypes of chs3-2D (chilling sensitive 3, 2D), including the arrested growth morphology and heightened PR (Pathogenesis Related) gene expression. Further, six Ro 8-4304 insensitive mutants were uncovered from the Ro 8-4304-insensitive mutant (rim) screen using a mutagenized chs3-2D population. Positional cloning revealed that rim1 encodes an allele of AtICln (I, currents; Cl, chloride; n, nucleotide). Genetic and biochemical analysis demonstrated that AtICln is in the same protein complex with the methylosome components small nuclear ribonucleoprotein D3b (SmD3b) and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), which are required for the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) involved in mRNA splicing. Double mutant analysis revealed that SmD3b is also involved in the sensitivity to Ro 8-4304, and the prmt5-1 chs3-2D double mutant is lethal. Loss of AtICln, SmD3b, or PRMT5 function results in enhanced disease resistance against the virulent oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2, suggesting that mRNA splicing plays a previously unknown negative role in plant immunity. The successful implementation of a high-throughput chemical genetic screen and the identification of a small-molecule compound affecting plant immunity indicate that chemical genetics is a powerful tool to study whole-organism plant defense pathways. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  9. Development of Rotational Smart Lighting Control System for Plant Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Sub Lee; Sung-Gaun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control system was developed. The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the numbe...

  10. Defesas químicas de plantas: fitoalexinas Chemical defense of plants: phytoalexins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas ao ataque de microorganismos causadores de doenças relaciona-se à presença de barreiras físicas e (juímicas de defesa. Dentre as barreiras químicas destacam-se as fitoalexinas, substâncias fungitoxicas sintetizadas de novo pelas plantas principalmente após a invasão ou o contato de seus tecidos com microorganismos, Essas substâncias englobam vários grupos compostos naturais tais como terpenos, isoflavonóides e poliacetilenos e seu acúmulo pode ser induzido por organismos vivos, seus produtos (elíciadores ou ainda agentes químicos, como sais de metais pesados, ou físicos (congelamento, luz U.U.. Alguns aspectos abordados nesta revisão são: a ocorrência de fitoalexinas em angiospermas, a relação entre sua natureza química e o grupo taxonômico das plantas que as produzem, a sua ação sobre organismos pró e eucarióticos. São descritas também os fatores que interferem nas respostas das plantas aos agentes indutores e as técnicas usuais para a indução e detecção de fitoalexinas. O papel dos eliciadores na indução da sâitese de fitoalexinas e o mecanismo pelo qual exercem sua função indutora são discutidos. Nesse contexto está incluída a teoria das oligossacarinas, fragmentos de parede celular que parecem controlar não só a resposta de defesa em plantas mas também outros fenômenos fisiológicos em plantas.Chemical defense of plants: phytoalexins - This review describes the concept of phytoalexins as a chemical defense of plants against microorganisms as well as a response of plants to chemical or physical agents. The current information on phytoalexins is presented, regarding the following aspects: occurrence in angiosperms; relation-snips between chemical composition and taxonomy; toxicity; factors affecting plant response; techniques for induction and detection of phytoalexins; role of elicitors and mechanisms of action. The latter includes the oligosaccharins-fragments of cell

  11. Recent developments in chemical treatment of roughages and their relevance to animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research in developed regions, at laboratory level, has investigated acids, amines and the oxidizing agents sulphur dioxide, ozone and alkaline hydrogen peroxide as reagents for upgrading roughages. In vivo experiments with sheep show improvements in digestibility from treating with 40 g SO 2 per kg wheat straw DM for 3 d at 70 deg. C, comparable to responses normally gained by treating with NaOH. Alkaline H 2 O 2 (pH11.5) treatment in one study increased wheat straw DM digestibility in sheep fed ad libitum, from 467 to 659 g/kg. However this treatment used large inputs (260 g H 2 O 2 and 180 g NaOH/kg straw DM in 26 L solution for 16 h, followed by drying); subsequent studies showed possible input reductions. The techniques are not relevant for use in developing countries except possibly at centralized processing plants, but greater commercial viability will need to be demonstrated before then. The NaOH dip method is the most effective current, low technology upgrading technique and is capable of further development to produce treated roughage of improved digestibility and optimum content of N and required minerals. There are no major new developments in urea ammonia treatment. The recent 'AGRI-AM' method produces NH 3 by hydrating a mixture of CaO and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fertilizers, but the method requires much chemical input. 'Ensiling' barley straw for 60 d with 60 g Ca(OH) 2 and 30 g urea per kg straw DM improves intake and digestibility in sheep, with little loss of N from the system. This is due to reduced urea hydrolysis caused by high pH. Other research shows that the quantity of straw needing to be treated can be halved by allowing goats (or sheep) to 'graze' untreated straw (to allow 50% refusals) followed by treatment and refeeding. 92 refs, 11 tabs

  12. An endothermic chemical process facility coupled to a high temperature reactor. Part II: Transient simulation of accident scenarios within the chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Seven quantitative transient case studies were analyzed in a coupled PBMR and thermochemical sulfur cycle based hydrogen plant. ► Positive power excursion in the nuclear reactor were found for helium-inlet overcoolings. ► In all cases studied the maximum fuel temperatures in the nuclear reactor were 200 K below the design basis limit. - Abstract: Hydrogen generation using a high temperature nuclear reactor as a thermal driving vector is a promising future option for energy carrier production. In this scheme, the heat from the nuclear reactor drives an endothermic water-splitting plant, via coupling, through an intermediate heat exchanger. Transient study of the operational or accident events within the coupled plant is largely absent from the literature. In this paper, seven quantitative transient case studies are analyzed. The case studies consist of: (1) feed flow failure from one section of the chemical plant to another with an accompanying parametric study of the temperature in an individual reaction chamber, (2) product flow failure (recycle) within the chemical plant, (3) rupture or explosion within the chemical plant, (4) nuclear reactor helium inlet overcooling due to a process holding tank failure, (5) helium inlet overcooling as an anticipated transient without emergency nuclear reactor shutdown, (6) total failure of the chemical plant, (7) control rod insertion in the nuclear reactor. Various parametric studies based on the magnitude of the events were also performed. The only chemical plant initiated events that caused a positive power excursion in the nuclear reactor were helium-inlet overcoolings due to process holding tank failures or reaction chamber ruptures. Even for a severe sustained overcooling, the calculated maximum fuel temperatures in the nuclear reactor were 200 K below the design basis limit. The qualitative basis for the case studies and the analysis models are summarized in part I of this paper.

  13. Shifts in Plant Chemical Defenses of Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Due to Domestication in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Luna-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that comparisons of wild and domesticated Capsicum species can serve as a model system for elucidating how crop domestication influences biotic and abiotic interactions mediated by plant chemical defenses. Perhaps no set of secondary metabolites (SMs used for plant defenses and human health have been better studied in the wild and in milpa agro-habitats than those found in Capsicum species. However, very few scientific studies on SM variation have been conducted in both the domesticated landraces of chile peppers and in their wild relatives in the Neotropics. In particular, capsaicinoids in Capsicum fruits and on their seeds differ in the specificity of their ecological effects from broad-spectrum toxins in other members of the Solanaceae. They do so in a manner that mediates specific ecological interactions with a variety of sympatric Neotropical vertebrates, invertebrates, nurse plants and microbes. Specifically, capsaicin is a secondary metabolite (SM in the placental tissues of the chile fruit that mediates interactions with seed dispersers such as birds, and with seed predators, ranging from fungi to insects and rodents. As with other Solanaceae, a wide range of SMs in Capsicum spp. function to ecologically mediate the effects of a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses on wild chile peppers in certain tropical and subtropical habitats. However, species in the genus Capsicum are the only ones found within any solanaceous genus that utilize capsaicinoids as their primary means of chemical defense. We demonstrate how exploring in tandem the evolutionary ecology and the ethnobotany of human-chile interactions can generate and test novel hypotheses with regard to how the domestication process shifts plant chemical defense strategies in a variety of tropical crops. To do so, we draw upon recent advances regarding the chemical ecology of a number of wild Capsicum species found in the Neotropics. We articulate three hypotheses regarding

  14. Transient simulation of an endothermic chemical process facility coupled to a high temperature reactor: Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Seker, Volkan; Revankar, Shripad T.; Downar, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Models for PBMR and thermochemical sulfur cycle based hydrogen plant are developed. ► Models are validated against available data in literature. ► Transient in coupled reactor and hydrogen plant system is studied. ► For loss-of-heat sink accident, temperature feedback within the reactor core enables shut down of the reactor. - Abstract: A high temperature reactor (HTR) is a candidate to drive high temperature water-splitting using process heat. While both high temperature nuclear reactors and hydrogen generation plants have high individual degrees of development, study of the coupled plant is lacking. Particularly absent are considerations of the transient behavior of the coupled plant, as well as studies of the safety of the overall plant. The aim of this document is to contribute knowledge to the effort of nuclear hydrogen generation. In particular, this study regards identification of safety issues in the coupled plant and the transient modeling of some leading candidates for implementation in the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Sulfur Iodine (SI) and Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycles are considered as candidate hydrogen generation schemes. Three thermodynamically derived chemical reaction chamber models are coupled to a well-known reference design of a high temperature nuclear reactor. These chemical reaction chamber models have several dimensions of validation, including detailed steady state flowsheets, integrated loop test data, and bench scale chemical kinetics. The models and coupling scheme are presented here, as well as a transient test case initiated within the chemical plant. The 50% feed flow failure within the chemical plant results in a slow loss-of-heat sink (LOHS) accident in the nuclear reactor. Due to the temperature feedback within the reactor core the nuclear reactor partially shuts down over 1500 s. Two distinct regions are identified within the coupled plant response: (1) immediate LOHS due to the loss of the sulfuric

  15. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  16. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO 2 emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO 2 emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO 2 . Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO 2 can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  17. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26 Al, 49 V, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 93 Nb, and 94 Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  18. Viability of fuel switching of a gas-fired power plant operating in chemical looping combustion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraja, R.J.; Jayanti, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLC (chemical looping combustion) promises to be a more efficient way of CO 2 capture than conventional oxy-fuel combustion or post-combustion absorption. While much work has been done on CLC in the past two decades, the issue of multi-fuel compatibility has not been addressed sufficiently, especially with regard to plant layout and reactor design. In the present work, it is shown that this is non-trivial in the case of a CLC-based power plant. The underlying factors have been examined in depth and design criteria for fuel compatibility have been formulated. Based on these, a layout has been developed for a power plant which can run with either natural gas or syngas without requiring equipment changes either on the steam side or on the furnace side. The layout accounts for the higher CO 2 compression costs associated with the use of syngas in place of natural gas. The ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiency, after accounting for the energy penalty of CO 2 compression, is 43.11% and 41.08%, when a supercritical steam cycle is used with natural gas and syngas, respectively. It is shown that fuel switching can be enabled by incorporating the compatibility conditions at the design stage itself. - Highlights: • Concept of fuel sensitivity of plant layout with carbon capture and sequestration. • Power plant layout for natural gas and syngas as fuels. • Criteria for compatibility of air and fuel reactors for dual fuel mode operation. • Layout of a plant for carbon-neutral or carbon negative power generation

  19. EUROPEAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS: HISTORICAL TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Gladkykh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze historical trends and development prospects of the European chemical industry competitiveness. It is concluded that the chemical industry is one of the EU’s most successful spheres, boasting €527 billion in sales in 2013, making it the second-largest global manufacture. Methodology. To explain the competitiveness of the EU chemical branch in the global market, it is proposed the constant-market share methodology to chemical exports coupled with econometric analysis. Results. The constant market share (CMS approach to assessing competitiveness, developed in the 1970 s for analysis of trade, is based on the principle that changes in the geographic and product structures of exports will affect a country’s export growth relative to that of the world, and that is way its global export market share. There were analyzed the EU biggest exporters (Germany, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, the USA, Japan; China, India, Saudi Arabia, Brazil. Practical implication. The analysis presents the results of competitiveness assessment in a different way, showing the average annual growth rate of EU and world chemical exports in the top section and then decomposing the gap between the two into that thanks to growth dynamics (structure effect and competitive effect. It is defined a lot of factors that are important to industrial competitiveness. On the cost side, in many industries labor is a large enough share of overall production costs that international differences in salaries can have a large bearing on competitiveness. Costs are also affected by a variety of government policies. It is also defined that innovation is one of the most important factors, which opens up new opportunities both in terms of new products and more efficient processes for manufacturing existing products. Value/originality. Given analysis helps to understand the causes and factors that have an impact on the European

  20. A plant control system development approach for IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Brittain, C.R.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.

    2003-01-01

    The plant control system concept for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) will make use of integrated control, diagnostic, and decision modules to provide a highly automated intelligent control capability. The plant control system development approach established for IRIS involves determination and verification of control strategies based on whole-plant simulation; identification of measurement, control, and diagnostic needs; development of an architectural framework in which to integrate an intelligent plant control system; and design of the necessary control and diagnostic elements for implementation and validation. This paper describes key elements of the plant control system development approach established for IRIS and presents some of the strategies and methods investigated to support the desired control capabilities. (author)

  1. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision

  2. Coronary artery atherosclerosis associated with shift work in chemical plant workers by using coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WonYang; Park, Won-Ju; Jang, Keun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Gwon, Do-Hyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sung; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work is related to elevated risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by determining the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the presence of coronary artery stenosis by using coronary artery CT angiography (CCTA). In this study, 110 male workers participated and underwent a CCTA examination for CAC scoring, which represents coronary artery plaque, and were evaluated for luminal stenosis. All of the participants were working in the same chemical plant, of whom 70 worked day shifts and 40 worked rotating shifts. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise and waist circumference, shift work was associated with a 2.89-fold increase in the odds of developing coronary plaque compared with day work (OR, 2.89; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.82). The association between shift work and coronary plaque was strong after adjustment for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.92; 95% CI 1.02 to 8.33). In addition, the number of years of shift work employment was associated with coronary plaque. However, no association was found between shift work and coronary artery stenosis. Shift work could induce CAD onset via the atherosclerotic process, and shift work employment duration was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis in male workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Exploration of the antibacterial and chemical potential of some Beninese pharmacopoiea traditional plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Lègba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial and chemical properties of some medicinal plants used in the fight against enteropathogens in Benin. Methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna siamea, Uvaria chamae, Lantana camara and Phyllantus amarus were tested on 10 bacterial strains. Well diffusion technique, coupled with the microdilution determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CMB was used for antibacterial testing. The larval cytotoxicity was evaluated by using Artemia salina crustacean larvae. flavonoids and polyphenols were also assayed by the method using aluminum trichloride (AlCl3 and the method using the folin-Ciocalteu reagent, respectively. Results. The results of the study revealed that extracts had an effective antibacterial activity at 100 mg/mL, with MIC between 100 and 25 mg/mL and CMB between 100 and 50 mg/mL. The inhibition diameters of the extracts varied between 7.5 and 21 mm. The ethanolic extract of Phyllantus amarus leaves showed the best antibacterial activity. None of the extracts tested was found to be cytotoxic at the dose of 20 mg/mL. The aqueous Uvaria chamae root extract has the highest polyphenol content (231.896552±0.27586207 in μg EAG/100 mg extract, whereas the aqueous leaf extract of Uvaria chamae is the richest in flavonoids (41.061082 0.43180737 in μg ER/100 mg of extract. Conclusions. These interesting results can be used in the development of improved traditional medicines against enteropathogens.

  4. Role of proline in cell wall synthesis and plant development and its implications in plant ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLAVARAPU BILHAN KAVI KISHOR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline is a proteogenic amino acid and accumulates both under stress and non-stress conditions as a beneficial solute in plants. Recent discoveries point out that proline plays an important role in plant growth and differentiation across life cycle. It is a key determinant of many cell wall proteins that plays important roles in plant development. The role of extensins (EXTs, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs and hydroxyproline- and proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs as important components of cell wall proteins that play pivotal roles in cell wall signal transduction cascades, plant development and stress tolerance is discussed in this review. Molecular insights are also provided here into the plausible roles of proline transporters modulating key events in plant development. In addition, the roles of proline during seed developmental transitions including storage protein synthesis are discussed.

  5. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.

    To investigate the role of

  6. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  7. The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and fecundity of Zonocerus variegatus (L) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The performance of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) fed on different food plants namely cassava (Manihot esculenta), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and acalypha ...

  8. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Lucas; Andrew Groover; Raffael Lichtenberger; Kaori Furuta; Shri-Ram Yadav; Yka Helariutta; Xin-Qiang He; Hiroo Fukuda; Julie Kang; Siobhan M. Brady; John W. Patrick; John Sperry; Akiko Yoshida; Ana-Flor Lopez-Millan; Michael A. Grusak; Pradeep Kachroo

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made...

  9. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Rodriguez; D. Carl Freeman; E. Durant McArthur; Yong Ok Kim; Regina S. Redman

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at...

  10. Use of anthocyanin extracted from natural plant materials to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the optimal conditions for anthocyanin extraction from natural plant materials in order to develop a pH test kit. The plant materials used were butterfly pea flower (BPF), roselle red flower (RRF) and dragon fruit peel (DFP). The solvents used in this study were distilled water, 1% HCl/95% ...

  11. Auxin-BR Interaction Regulates Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huiyu; Lv, Bingsheng; Ding, Tingting; Bai, Mingyi; Ding, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Plants develop a high flexibility to alter growth, development, and metabolism to adapt to the ever-changing environments. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in these processes and the molecular pathways to transduce various developmental signals are not linear but are interconnected by a complex network and even feedback mutually to achieve the final outcome. This review will focus on two important plant hormones, auxin and brassinosteroid (BR), based on the most recent progresses about these two hormone regulated plant growth and development in Arabidopsis, and highlight the cross-talks between these two phytohormones. PMID:29403511

  12. Antifoaming materials studies in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water plants. Chemical and thermical stability. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Rojo, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    In Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants hydrogen sulfide-water systems are inherentely foaming, so the adding of antifoaming materials is of great importance. These may be of high volatility, pyrolizable or chemically unstable in plant operation conditions (water and hydrogen sulfide at 2 MPa, up to 230 deg C). Five commercial surfactants were studied from the point of view of their chemical and thermical stability in order to select the most suitable. (Author) [es

  13. Impacts of fire, fire-fighting chemicals and post-fire stabilization techniques on the soil-plant system

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, María

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires, as well as fire-fighting chemicals, greatly affect the soil-plant system causing vegetation loss, alterations of soil properties and nutrient losses through volatilization, leaching and erosion. Soil recovery after fires depends on the regeneration of the vegetation cover, which protects the soil and prevents erosion. Fire-fighting chemicals contain compounds potentially toxic for plants and soil organisms, and thus their use might hamper the regeneration of burnt ecosystems. In...

  14. Successful Training Development and Implementation in Plant Modernization Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, A.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2012-01-01

    In plant modernization projects, for life extension or power update, the competence development (in particular, job and needs oriented training) of the plant staff plays an important role for ensuring the highest standard of nuclear safety, and for facilitating an economic operation of the plant. This paper describes challenges, methodology, activities, and results obtained so far from an on-going project in Sweden. - - As conclusion, critical factors for a successful staff training in plant modernization projects include a systematic approach to training, a dedicated training management team, and good interfaces between supplier's engineering teams, experienced training providers, and equipment suppliers.

  15. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  16. Automated Physico-Chemical Cell Model Development through Information Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Ortoleva

    2005-11-29

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive models of the chemical responses of microbial cells to variations in their surroundings. The application of these models is optimization of environmental remediation and energy-producing biotechnical processes.The principles on which our project is based are as follows: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; automation of calibration through information theory; integration of multiplex data (e.g. cDNA microarrays, NMR, proteomics), cell modeling, and bifurcation theory to overcome cellular complexity; and the use of multiplex data and information theory to calibrate and run an incomplete model. In this report we review four papers summarizing key findings and a web-enabled, multiple module workflow we have implemented that consists of a set of interoperable systems biology computational modules.

  17. Application and further development of diffusion based 2D chemical imaging techniques in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Two dimensional chemical imaging of root processes refers to novel in situ methods to investigate and map solutes at a high spatial resolution (sub-mm). The visualization of these solutes reveals new insights in soil biogeochemistry and root processes. We derive chemical images by using data from DGT-LA-ICP-MS (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and POS (Planar Optode Sensors). Both technologies have shown promising results when applied in aqueous environment but need to be refined and improved for imaging at the soil-plant interface. Co-localized mapping using combined DGT and POS technologies and the development of new gel combinations are in our focus. DGTs are smart and thin (hydrogels; containing a binding resin for the targeted analytes (e.g. trace metals, phosphate, sulphide or radionuclides). The measurement principle is passive and diffusion based. The present analytes are diffusing into the gel and are bound by the resin. Thereby, the resin acts as zero sink. After application, DGTs are retrieved, dried, and analysed using LA-ICP-MS. The data is then normalized by an internal standard (e.g. 13C), calibrated using in-house standards and chemical images of the target area are plotted using imaging software. POS are, similar to DGT, thin sensor foils containing a fluorophore coating depending on the target analyte. The measurement principle is based on excitation of the flourophore by a specific wavelength and emission of the fluorophore depending on the presence of the analyte. The emitted signal is captured using optical filters and a DSLR camera. While DGT analysis is destructive, POS measurements can be performed continuously during the application. Both semi-quantitative techniques allow an in situ application to visualize chemical processes directly at the soil-plant interface. Here, we present a summary of results from rhizotron experiments with different plants in metal contaminated and

  18. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-03-02

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions.

  19. Plant analyzer development for high-speed interactive simulation of BWR plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced modeling techniques have been combined with modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology to develop a plant analyzer which provides realistic and accurate predictions of plant transients and severe off-normal events in nuclear power plants through on-line simulations at speeds of approximately 10 times faster than actual process speeds. The new simulation technology serves not only for carrying out routinely and efficiently safety analyses, optimizations of emergency procedures and design changes, parametric studies for obtaining safety margins and for generic training but also for assisting plant operations. Five modeling principles are presented which serve to achieve high-speed simulation of neutron kinetics, thermal conduction, nonhomogeneous and nonequilibrium two-phase flow coolant dynamics, steam line acoustical effects, and the dynamics of the balance of plant and containment systems, control systems and plant protection systems. 21 refs

  20. Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevenell, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO 2 near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area

  1. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker and organisms and cells and methods of using same for screening for mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianru [New York, NY; Chua, Nam-Hai [Scarsdale, NY

    2007-06-12

    Disclosed is a chemically inducible promoter for transforming plants or plant cells with genes which are regulatable by adding the plants or cells to a medium containing an inducer or by removing them from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with any plant genes that can promote shoot regeneration and development to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer. The promoter may be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes or other genes which are regulatable by the presence or absence of a given inducer. Also presented are organisms or cells comprising a gene wherein the natural promoter of the gene is disrupted and the gene is placed under the control of a transgenic inducible promoter. These organisms and cells and their progeny are useful for screening for conditional gain of function and loss of function mutations.

  2. Hydrologic testing in wells near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.S.; Olsen, J.H.; Ralston, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the INEL is often viewed as a 2-dimensional system, but may actually possess 3-dimensional properties of concern. A straddle-packer system is being used by the State's INEL Oversight Program to isolate specific aquifer intervals and define the 3-dimensional chemical and hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer. The hydrologic test results from wells USGS 44, 45, and 46 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant indicate that: (1) Vertical variation in static head is less than 0.3 feed, (2) barometric efficiencies are between 25 and 55 percent, and (3) the system responds to distant pumping as a multi-layered, but interconnected system. 3 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  4. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  5. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  7. HEPA filter leaching concept validation trials at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, A.C.

    1995-04-01

    The enclosed report documents six New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) HEPA filter leaching trials conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant using a filter leaching system to validate the filter leaching treatment concept. The test results show that a modified filter leaching system will be able to successfully remove both hazardous and radiological constituents to RCRA disposal levels. Based on the success of the filter leach trials, the existing leaching system will be modified to provide a safe, simple, effective, and operationally flexible filter leaching system

  8. Seismic scoping evaluation of high level liquid waste tank vaults at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Uldrich, E.D.; McGee, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic scoping evaluation of buried vaults enclosing high level liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been performed. The objective of this evaluation was to scope out which of the vaults could be demonstrated to be seismically adequate against the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Using approximate analytical methods, earthquake experience data, and engineering judgement, this study determined that one vault configuration would be expected to meet ICPP seismic design criteria, one would not be considered seismically adequate against the SSE, and one could be shown to be seismically adequate against the SSE using nonlinear analysis

  9. Plant genotypes affect aboveground and belowground herbivore interactions by changing chemical defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Wenfeng; Siemann, Evan; Wen, Yuanguang; Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-12-01

    Spatially separated aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) herbivores are closely linked through shared host plants, and both patterns of AG-BG interactions and plant responses may vary among plant genotypes. We subjected invasive (USA) and native (China) genotypes of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) to herbivory by the AG specialist leaf-rolling weevil Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis and/or the root-feeding larvae of flea beetle Bikasha collaris. We measured leaf damage and leaves rolled by weevils, quantified beetle survival, and analyzed flavonoid and tannin concentrations in leaves and roots. AG and BG herbivores formed negative feedbacks on both native and invasive genotypes. Leaf damage by weevils and the number of beetle larvae emerging as adults were higher on invasive genotypes. Beetles reduced weevil damage and weevils reduced beetle larval emergence more strongly for invasive genotypes. Invasive genotypes had lower leaf and root tannins than native genotypes. BG beetles decreased leaf tannins of native genotypes but increased root tannins of invasive genotypes. AG herbivory increased root flavonoids of invasive genotypes while BG herbivory decreased leaf flavonoids. Invasive genotypes had lower AG and BG herbivore resistance, and negative AG-BG herbivore feedbacks were much stronger for invasive genotypes. Lower tannin concentrations explained overall better AG and BG herbivore performances on invasive genotypes. However, changes in tannins and flavonoids affected AG and BG herbivores differently. These results suggest that divergent selection on chemical production in invasive plants may be critical in regulating herbivore performances and novel AG and BG herbivore communities in new environments.

  10. Self-organizing periodicity in development: organ positioning in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Neha; Heisler, Marcus G

    2018-02-08

    Periodic patterns during development often occur spontaneously through a process of self-organization. While reaction-diffusion mechanisms are often invoked, other types of mechanisms that involve cell-cell interactions and mechanical buckling have also been identified. Phyllotaxis, or the positioning of plant organs, has emerged as an excellent model system to study the self-organization of periodic patterns. At the macro scale, the regular spacing of organs on the growing plant shoot gives rise to the typical spiral and whorled arrangements of plant organs found in nature. In turn, this spacing relies on complex patterns of cell polarity that involve feedback between a signaling molecule - the plant hormone auxin - and its polar, cell-to-cell transport. Here, we review recent progress in understanding phyllotaxis and plant cell polarity and highlight the development of new tools that can help address the remaining gaps in our understanding. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Radiological and chemical characterization report for the planned Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant (QCSA) will be used in the support of the bulk waste removal of the Weldon Spring Quarry. Radiological and chemical characterization was performed on a 12 acre site where the QCSA will be constructed. The characterization revealed approximately .5 acres of radiologically contaminated land. No chemical contamination was found. 8 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Case study on chemical plant accidents for flow-sheet design of the HTTR-IS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Hara, Teruo; Kato, Ryoma; Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2007-02-01

    At the present time, we are alarmed by depletion of fossil energy and adverse effect of rapid increase in fossil fuel burning on environment such as climate changes and acid rain, because our lives depend still heavily upon fossil energy. It is thus widely recognized that hydrogen is one of important future energy carriers in which it is used without emission of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutants and that hydrogen demand will increase greatly as fuel cells are developed and applied widely in the near future. To meet massive demand of hydrogen, hydrogen production from water utilizing nuclear, especially by thermochemical water-splitting Iodine-Sulphur (IS) process utilizing heat from High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), offers one of the most attractive zero-emission energy strategies and the only one practical on a substantial scale. However, to establish a technology based for the HTGR hydrogen production by the IS process, we should close several technology gaps through R and D with the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is the only Japanese HTGR built and operated at the Oarai Research and Development Centre of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We have launched design studies of the IS process hydrogen production system coupled with the HTTR (HTTR-IS system) to demonstrate HTGR hydrogen production. In designing the HTTR-IS system, it is necessary to consider preventive and breakdown maintenance against accidents occurred in the IS process as a chemical plant. This report describes case study on chemical plant accidents relating to the IS process plant and shows a proposal of accident protection measures based on above case study, which is necessary for flow-sheet design of the HTTR-IS system. (author)

  13. Study of the influence of central nuclear power plants at Valdaliga (Civitavecchia) on the chemical composition of local rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagli, A.; Morabito, R.; Basili, N.; Tidei, F.

    1989-05-01

    Data from a wet deposition sampling over the area collocated nearby Civitavecchia power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emission on the chemical composition of the rain collected, the experimental data have been correlated with synoptic and local meteorological conditions. (author)

  14. Development of chemical technology in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop the technology for both chemical analysis of fissile materials and fission products and chemical characterization in dry process, and also to compose LA/ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems. Chemical techniques for quantitative analysis of Cs, Tc, Np, Am, Cm in LiCl molten salts and Am, Cm, Tc, 3 H, 14 C in oxidized PWR spent fuel powders were developed for the evaluation of its material balance in the dry process. In particular, the rate of uranium oxide reduction was measured by the determination of concentrations of lithium metal and lithium oxide in LiCl molten salts. The solubility data of the reactants in LiCl molten salt were acquired, the oxide ion selective electrode to determine the oxide contents in the medium being fabricated, and a chronoamperometric technique applicable to in-line and real time monitoring of lithium metal reduction process was developed. On the other side, the electrochemical reduction of uranium oxides was studied, which has contributed to better understand the reduction behavior and thus lead to modify processes involved. Laser ablation ICP-MS system was developed by coupling laser ablation system with ICP-MS system, which was supposed to measure the isotope distribution from core to rim of irradiated fuel. The micro-XRD was developed with a micro beam, two hundreds times as narrow as conventional XRD, to measure structural changes of solid samples by 50μm interval in the radial direction. The performance of the two systems developed was confirmed by means of the examinations on precision, spatial resolution, and reproducibility. The development of LA/ICP-MS and micro-XRD system led to an establishment of techniques for the evaluation of its long-term integrity of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel and these techniques will be applied to the development of new nuclear fuels. Especially, the micro-XRD system will be useful to develop new materials and to control the quality in the various industrial

  15. Development of assessment methodology for plant configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Yu, Yeong Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Yeol; Kim, Yun Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Gang Min; Hur, Byeong Gil [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The purpose of this study is the development of effective and overall assessment methodology which reflects the characteristics of plants for the surveillance, maintenance, repair and operation of Nuclear Power Plant. The development of this methodology can contribute to enhance safety. In the first year of this study, recent researches are surveyed and concept definition, procedures, current PSA methodologies, implementation of various models are evaluated. Through this survey, systematic assessment methodology is suggested.

  16. Recent Developments in Chemical Synthesis with Biocatalysts in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K. Potdar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a variety of ionic liquids have emerged as greener solvents for use in the chemical manufacturing industries. Their unique properties have attracted the interest of chemists worldwide to employ them as replacement for conventional solvents in a diverse range of chemical transformations including biotransformations. Biocatalysts are often regarded as green catalysts compared to conventional chemical catalysts in organic synthesis owing to their properties of low toxicity, biodegradability, excellent selectivity and good catalytic performance under mild reaction conditions. Similarly, a selected number of specific ionic liquids can be considered as greener solvents superior to organic solvents owing to their negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, low toxicity and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and biological substances, including proteins. A combination of biocatalysts and ionic liquids thus appears to be a logical and promising opportunity for industrial use as an alternative to conventional organic chemistry processes employing organic solvents. This article provides an overview of recent developments in this field with special emphasis on the application of more sustainable enzyme-catalyzed reactions and separation processes employing ionic liquids, driven by advances in fundamental knowledge, process optimization and industrial deployment.

  17. Diversification of Root Hair Development Genes in Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Shi, Xinhui; Wang, Wenjia; Ryu, Kook Hui; Schiefelbein, John

    2017-07-01

    The molecular genetic program for root hair development has been studied intensively in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). To understand the extent to which this program might operate in other plants, we conducted a large-scale comparative analysis of root hair development genes from diverse vascular plants, including eudicots, monocots, and a lycophyte. Combining phylogenetics and transcriptomics, we discovered conservation of a core set of root hair genes across all vascular plants, which may derive from an ancient program for unidirectional cell growth coopted for root hair development during vascular plant evolution. Interestingly, we also discovered preferential diversification in the structure and expression of root hair development genes, relative to other root hair- and root-expressed genes, among these species. These differences enabled the definition of sets of genes and gene functions that were acquired or lost in specific lineages during vascular plant evolution. In particular, we found substantial divergence in the structure and expression of genes used for root hair patterning, suggesting that the Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory mechanism is not shared by other species. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive view of gene expression in a single plant cell type across multiple species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Development of hydrogeological modelling approaches for assessment of consequences of hazardous accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pereverzeva, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper introduces some modeling approaches for predicting the influence of hazardous accidents at nuclear reactors on groundwater quality. Possible pathways for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants were considered to conceptualize boundary conditions for solving the subsurface radionuclides transport problems. Some approaches to incorporate physical-and-chemical interactions into transport simulators have been developed. The hydrogeological forecasts were based on numerical and semi-analytical scale-dependent models. They have been applied to assess the possible impact of the nuclear power plants designed in Russia on groundwater reservoirs

  19. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  20. Development of salt tolerant plants through genetic engineering (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, Z.; Khan, S.A.; Zafar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. Genetic engineering provides a useful tool for tailoring plants with enhanced salt tolerance characteristics. Many organisms have evolved mechanisms to survive and grow under such extreme environments. These organisms provide us with a useful source of genes which can be used to improve salt tolerance in plants. The present study aims at identification and cloning of useful halo tolerance conferring genes from fungi and plants and to develop salt tolerant transgenic plants. Here we describe the cloning and use of HSR1 gene (a yeast transcription factor known to confer salt tolerance) and Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter gene AtNHX1 (3016 bp) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and transformation of tobacco with HSR1 and AtNHX1 genes through Agrobacterium method. A number of transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated from leaf explants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) having HSR1 and AtNHX1 genes by leaf disc method. The putative transgenic plants were analyzed by PCR and dot blot analysis. Screening of these transgenic plants at different salinity levels is in progress which will help identify the suitable plant lines and thus the promising genes which can be further exploited to engineer salt tolerant crop plants. (author)

  1. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  2. The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

  3. Development and new applications of quantum chemical simulation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A. K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Division of Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Innsbruck is focused on the study of chemical compounds in aqueous solution, in terms of mainly hybrid quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations (QM/MM MD). Besides the standard means of data analysis employed for such simulations, this study presents several advanced and capable algorithms for the description of structural and dynamic properties of the simulated species and its hydration. The first part of this thesis further presents selected exemplary simulations, in particular a comparative study of Formamide and N-methylformamide, Guanidinium, and Urea. An included review article further summarizes the major advances of these studies. The computer programs developed in the course of this thesis are by now well established in the research field. The second part of this study presents the theory and a development guide for a quantum chemical program, QuMuLuS, that is by now used as a QM program for recent QM/MM simulations at the division. In its course, this part presents newly developed algorithms for electron integral evaluation and point charge embedding. This program is validated in terms of benchmark computations. The associated theory is presented on a detailed level, to serve as a source for contemporary and future studies in the division. In the third and final part, further investigations of related topics are addressed. This covers additional schemes of molecular simulation analysis, new software, as well as a mathematical investigation of a non-standard two-electron integral. (author)

  4. An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process.

  5. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  6. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Research of evaluation technology for nuclear power plant -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    For development of next generation reactor, a project for evaluation technology for nuclear power plant is performed. Evaluation technology is essential to next generation reactor for reactor safety and system analysis. For design concept, detailed evaluation technologies are studied as follows: evaluation of safety margin, evaluation of safety facilities, evaluation of measurement and control technology; man-machine interface. Especially for thermal efficiency, thermal properties and chemical composition of inconel 690 tube, instead of inconel 600 tube, are measured for steam generator. (Author).

  7. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang Ryol; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Seok Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    - tSOD1, cytosolic CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from tobacco cDNA library by PCR. To develop the under-producing the transgenic plants, the vectors were constructed using by antisense and co-supressing technology. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed that over 60% of kanamycin-resistant plants were introduced the foreign gene by PCR and transformed one copy through Southern blot analysis. - In an attempt to identify marker genes for gamma irradiation of plants, expression patterns of diverse genes upon gamma irradiation of young tobacco plants were investigated. With the knowledge of distinctive expression patterns of diverse genes, irradiation-indicating marker plants could be developed by engineering and monitoring multiple radiation-responsive genes. Additionally, a gamma irradiation-responsive NtTMK1 receptor-like kinase gene was molecular biologically characterized. -Uranium reductase gene (Cytochrome C3) and radiation resistance gene (recA) have been cloned from Desulfovibrio and Deinococcus radiodurans. -Two plant transformation vectors (pCYC3 and pDrecA) have been constructed. - Tobacco transgenic plants of have been obtained. 52 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  8. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  9. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  10. Process integration of chemical looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, Maurizio; Peltola, Petteri; Bischi, Aldo; Ritvanen, Jouni; Hyppänen, Timo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature solid looping processes for CCS (carbon capture and storage) represent a class of promising technologies that enables CO2 capture with relatively low net efficiency penalties. The novel concept of the CLOU (Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling) process is based on a system of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors that operate at atmospheric pressure. In the fuel reactor, the capability of certain metal oxides to spontaneously release molecular oxygen at high temperatures is exploited to promote the direct conversion of coal in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. As a novel CO_2 capture concept, the CLOU process requires the optimization of design and operation parameters, which may substantially influence the total power plant performance. This study approaches this issue by performing joint simulations of CLOU reactors using a 1.5D model and a steam cycle power plant. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the performance and main technical issues that are related to the integration of a CLOU island in a state-of-the-art USC (ultra-supercritical) power plant. In particular, the effect of the key process parameters has been evaluated. Superior performance has been estimated for the power plant, with electrical efficiencies of approximately 42% and more than 95% CO2 avoided. - Highlights: • Process modeling and simulation of CLOU integrated in USC coal power plant carried out. • Comprehensive sensitivity analysis on Cu-based CLOU process performed. • Electrical efficiencies of 42% and more than 95% CO_2 avoided obtained. • Reactor size and operating conditions suitable for industrial applications.

  11. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. D. [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K. J. [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    This research focuses on development of reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, and is divided into two parts, development of life evaluation systems for pressurized components and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered: development of expert systems for integrity assessment of pressurized components, development of integrity evaluation systems of steam generator tubes, prediction of failure probability for NPP components based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, development of fatigue damage evaluation technique for plant life extension, domestic round robin analysis for pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, domestic round robin analysis of constructing P--T limit curves for reactor vessels, and development of data base for integrity assessment. For evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants, on the other hand, the following eight topics are covered: applicability of the Leak-Before-Break analysis to Cast S/S piping, collection of aged material tensile and toughness data for aged Cast S/S piping, finite element analyses for load carrying capacity of corroded pipes, development of Risk-based ISI methodology for nuclear piping, collection of toughness data for integrity assessment of bi-metallic joints, applicability of the Master curve concept to reactor vessel integrity assessment, measurement of dynamic fracture toughness, and provision of information related to regulation and plant life extension issues.

  12. SCREENING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tangaza

    losses of cowpea yields and if not controlled, they limit the yields to less than 300kg/ha (Singh et al., 1990). A considerable progress has been made during the past decade in cowpea breeding and a range of varieties have been developed with resistance to several diseases, insect pests and parasitic weeds. Much time ...

  13. Auxin transport routes in plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Friml, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 16 (2009), s. 2675-2688 ISSN 0950-1991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ROOT- HAIR DEVELOPMENT * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LATERAL ROOT Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.194, year: 2009

  14. Computer code development plant for SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, S.; Cho, B.H.; Kim, K.K.; Lee, J.C.; Kim, J.P.; Kim, J.H.; Chung, M.; Kang, D.J.; Chang, M.H.

    1999-03-01

    In accordance with the localization plan for the nuclear reactor design driven since the middle of 1980s, various computer codes have been transferred into the korea nuclear industry through the technical transfer program from the worldwide major pressurized water reactor supplier or through the international code development program. These computer codes have been successfully utilized in reactor and reload core design works. As the results, design- related technologies have been satisfactorily accumulated. However, the activities for the native code development activities to substitute the some important computer codes of which usages are limited by the original technique owners have been carried out rather poorly. Thus, it is most preferentially required to secure the native techniques on the computer code package and analysis methodology in order to establish the capability required for the independent design of our own model of reactor. Moreover, differently from the large capacity loop-type commercial reactors, SMART (SYSTEM-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) design adopts a single reactor pressure vessel containing the major primary components and has peculiar design characteristics such as self-controlled gas pressurizer, helical steam generator, passive residual heat removal system, etc. Considering those peculiar design characteristics for SMART, part of design can be performed with the computer codes used for the loop-type commercial reactor design. However, most of those computer codes are not directly applicable to the design of an integral reactor such as SMART. Thus, they should be modified to deal with the peculiar design characteristics of SMART. In addition to the modification efforts, various codes should be developed in several design area. Furthermore, modified or newly developed codes should be verified their reliability through the benchmarking or the test for the object design. Thus, it is necessary to proceed the design according to the

  15. Computer code development plant for SMART design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, S.; Cho, B.H.; Kim, K.K.; Lee, J.C.; Kim, J.P.; Kim, J.H.; Chung, M.; Kang, D.J.; Chang, M.H

    1999-03-01

    In accordance with the localization plan for the nuclear reactor design driven since the middle of 1980s, various computer codes have been transferred into the korea nuclear industry through the technical transfer program from the worldwide major pressurized water reactor supplier or through the international code development program. These computer codes have been successfully utilized in reactor and reload core design works. As the results, design- related technologies have been satisfactorily accumulated. However, the activities for the native code development activities to substitute the some important computer codes of which usages are limited by the original technique owners have been carried out rather poorly. Thus, it is most preferentially required to secure the native techniques on the computer code package and analysis methodology in order to establish the capability required for the independent design of our own model of reactor. Moreover, differently from the large capacity loop-type commercial reactors, SMART (SYSTEM-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) design adopts a single reactor pressure vessel containing the major primary components and has peculiar design characteristics such as self-controlled gas pressurizer, helical steam generator, passive residual heat removal system, etc. Considering those peculiar design characteristics for SMART, part of design can be performed with the computer codes used for the loop-type commercial reactor design. However, most of those computer codes are not directly applicable to the design of an integral reactor such as SMART. Thus, they should be modified to deal with the peculiar design characteristics of SMART. In addition to the modification efforts, various codes should be developed in several design area. Furthermore, modified or newly developed codes should be verified their reliability through the benchmarking or the test for the object design. Thus, it is necessary to proceed the design according to the

  16. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  18. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical composition and digestibility of some browse plant species collected from Algerian arid rangelands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boufennara, S.; Lopez, S.; Boussebouna, H.; Bodas, R.; Bouazza, L.

    2012-11-01

    Many wild browse and bush species are undervalued mainly because of insufficient knowledge about their potential feeding value. The objective was to evaluate some nutritional attributes of various Algerian browse and shub species (Atriplex halimus, Artemisia campestris, Artemisia herba-alba, Astragalus gombiformis, Calobota saharae, Retama raetam, Stipagrostis pungens, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima). Chemical composition, phenols and tannins concentration, in vitro digestibility, in vitro gas production kinetics and in vitro bio-assay for assessment of tannins using buffered rumen fluid, and in situ disappearence of the edible parts of the plants (leaves, thin twigs and flowers) were determined. In general, protein content in dicotyledon species was always greater than in monocotyledon grasses, these showing higher neutral and acid detergent fibre and lower lignin contents than dicots. The tannin concentrations varied considerably between species, but in general the plants investigated in this study had low tannin contents (except for Artemisia spp. and S. tenacissima). Monocots showed lower in vitro and in situ digestibilities, fermentation rate, cumulative gas production and extent of degradation than dicot species. The plants were clustered by principal components analysis in two groups: poor-quality grasses and the most digestible dicot species. Chemical composition (neutral detergent fibre and protein) and digestibility were the main influential variables determining the ranking. In conclusion, A. halimus, A. campestris, A. herba-alba and A. gombiformis can be considered of greater nutritional value than the highly fibrous and low digestible grasses (S. pungens, L. spartum and S. tenacissima) that should be considered emergency roughages. (Author) 46 refs.

  20. Open Source Power Plant Simulator Development Under Matlab Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratemi, W.M.; Fadilah, S.M.; Abonoor, N

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an open source programming approach is targeted for the development of power plant simulator under Matlab environment. With this approach many individuals can contribute to the development of the simulator by developing different orders of complexities of the power plant components. Such modules can be modeled based on physical principles, or using neural networks or other methods. All of these modules are categorized in Matlab library, of which the user can select and build up his simulator. Many international companies developed its own authoring tool for the development of its simulators, and hence it became its own property available for high costs. Matlab is a general software developed by mathworks that can be used with its toolkits as the authoring tool for the development of components by different individuals, and through the appropriate coordination, different plant simulators, nuclear, traditional , or even research reactors can be computerly assembled. In this paper, power plant components such as a pressurizer, a reactor, a steam generator, a turbine, a condenser, a feedwater heater, a valve, a pump are modeled based on physical principles. Also a prototype modeling of a reactor ( a scram case) based on neural networks is developed. These modules are inserted in two different Matlab libraries one called physical and the other is called neural. Furthermore, during the simulation one can pause and shuffle the modules selected from the two libraries and then proceed the simulation. Also, under the Matlab environment a PID controller is developed for multi-loop plant which can be integrated for the control of the appropriate developed simulator. This paper is an attempt to base the open source approach for the development of power plant simulators or even research reactor simulators. It then requires the coordination among interested individuals or institutions to set it to professionalism. (author)