WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant control rooms

  1. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  2. A Business Case for Nuclear Plant Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lawrie, Sean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Niedermuller, Josef M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a generic business case for implementation of technology that supports Control Room Modernization (CRM). The analysis presented in two forms; 1) a standalone technology upgrade, and 2) a technology upgrade that is built upon and incremental to a prior business case created for Mobile Work Packages (MWP). The business case contends that advanced communication and networking and analytical technologies will allow NPP to conduct control room operations with improved focus by reducing human factors and redundant manpower, and therefore operate with fewer errors. While some labor savings can be harvested in terms of overtime, the majority of savings are demonstrated as reduced time to take the plant off line and bring back on line in support of outages. The benefits are quantified to a rough order of magnitude that provides directional guidance to NPPs that are interested in developing a similar business case. This business case focuses on modernization of the operator control room and does not consider a complete overhaul and modernization of a plants instrument and control systems. While operators may be considering such an investment at their plants, the sizable capital investment required is not likely supported by a cost/benefit analysis alone. More likely, it is driven by obsolescence and reliability issues, and requires consideration of mechanical condition of plant systems, capital depreciation, financing, relicensing and overall viability of the plant asset over a 20-year horizon in a competitive market. Prior studies [REF] have indicated that such a modernization of plant I&C systems, alone or as part of a larger modernization effort, can yield very significant reductions in O&M costs. However, the depth of research and analysis required to develop a meaningful business case for a plant modernization effort is well beyond the scope of this study. While CRM as considered in this study can be easily integrated as part of grander plant

  3. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  4. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  5. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  6. OVERVIEW OF A RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATOR FOR MAIN CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plant modernization in the U.S. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  7. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700.

  8. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  9. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  10. EARLY-STAGE DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew

    2015-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate operator performance with these systems as part of a verification and validation process. While there is regulatory and industry guidance for some modernization activities, there are no well defined standard processes or predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages. This paper proposes a framework defining the design process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The process and metrics are generalizable to other applications and serve as a guiding template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  11. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple “pathways,” or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  12. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  13. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  14. Analysis results for the stereotypes regarding colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is applied and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. Two hundred fifty college students participated in the experiment. The results suggest that we can use any color coding system in the conventional control room and the CRT in the control deck because most people have no special previous color-meaning association but red-emergency relation.

  15. Malfunction analysis response system (MARS) for nuclear power plants control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, F.; Rossmann, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Whenever the need for the safe and reliable operation of a complex system exists, a major requirement for success is the actions of the people involved. This is especially true when a time-critical response is required. In this context, the operation of a nuclear power plant is exemplary. Lessons from the Three Mile Island-2 incident show that insufficient attention was paid to the man/machine interface. Since that time, considerable effort has been directed by the nuclear industry toward the improvement of control room instrumentation, emergency operating procedures, and operator training. The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants through the reduction of operator errors is discussed. The nuclear power plant operator's diagnostic role is analogous to that of a flight controller for a manned space flight mission. Both must be able to quickly understand and integrate large quantities of information on current system operation with background data on system design and performance.

  16. Baseline Study Methodology for Future Phases of Research on Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide a basis for industry adoption of advanced technologies, the Control Room Upgrades Benefits Research Project will investigate the benefits of including advanced technologies as part of control room modernization This report describes the background, methodology, and research plan for the first in a series of full-scale studies to test the effects of advanced technology in NPP control rooms. This study will test the effect of Advanced Overview Displays in the partner Utility’s control room simulator

  17. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study.

  18. A HUMAN FACTORS META MODEL FOR U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.

  19. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLanc, Katya Le [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Powers, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  20. Digital Full-Scope Simulation of a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Control Room, Phase 2: Installation of a Reconfigurable Simulator to Support Nuclear Plant Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Kirk Fitzgerald; Jacques Hugo; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program has developed a control room simulator in support of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. This report highlights the recent completion of this reconfigurable, full-scale, full-scope control room simulator buildout at the Idaho National Laboratory. The simulator is fully reconfigurable, meaning it supports multiple plant models developed by different simulator vendors. The simulator is full-scale, using glasstop virtual panels to display the analog control boards found at current plants. The present installation features 15 glasstop panels, uniquely achieving a complete control room representation. The simulator is also full-scope, meaning it uses the same plant models used for training simulators at actual plants. Unlike in the plant training simulators, the deployment on glasstop panels allows a high degree of customization of the panels, allowing the simulator to be used for research on the design of new digital control systems for control room modernization. This report includes separate sections discussing the glasstop panels, their layout to mimic control rooms at actual plants, technical details on creating a multi-plant and multi-vendor reconfigurable simulator, and current efforts to support control room modernization at U.S. utilities. The glasstop simulator provides an ideal testbed for prototyping and validating new control room concepts. Equally importantly, it is helping create a standardized and vetted human factors engineering process that can be used across the nuclear industry to ensure control room upgrades maintain and even improve current reliability and safety.

  1. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe [Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung Li (China)

    2011-08-15

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner.

  2. Intelligent software system for the advanced control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Jin Kyun; Heo, Gyung Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Gon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The intelligent software system for nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been conceptually designed in this study. Its design goals are to operate NPPs in an improved manner and to support operators` cognitive takes. It consists of six major modules such as {sup I}nformation Processing,{sup {sup A}}larm Processing,{sup {sup P}}rocedure Tracking,{sup {sup P}}erformance Diagnosis,{sup a}nd {sup E}vent Diagnosis{sup m}odules for operators and {sup M}alfunction Diagnosis{sup m}odule for maintenance personnel. Most of the modules have been developed for several years and the others are under development. After the completion of development, they will be combined into one system that would be main parts of advanced control rooms in NPPs. 5 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  3. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  4. REVIEW Of COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURE GUIDELINES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring

    2011-09-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are recognized as an emerging alternative to paper-based procedures for supporting control room operators in nuclear power plants undergoing life extension and in the concept of operations for advanced reactor designs. CPs potentially reduce operator workload, yield increases in efficiency, and provide for greater resilience. Yet, CPs may also adversely impact human and plant performance if not designed and implemented properly. Therefore, it is important to ensure that existing guidance is sufficient to provide for proper implementation and monitoring of CPs. In this paper, human performance issues were identified based on a review of the behavioral science literature, research on computerized procedures in nuclear and other industries, and a review of industry experience with CPs. The review of human performance issues led to the identification of a number of technical gaps in available guidance sources. To address some of the gaps, we developed 13 supplemental guidelines to support design and safety. This paper presents these guidelines and the case for further research.

  5. Experiences in the computerized control rooms design for Nuclear Power Plants; Experiencias en el diseno de salas de control computarizadas para centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano de la Heras, N.; Fernandez Illobre, L.; Valdivia Martin, C.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents Tecnatom experiences obtained during the control rooms design for the Fuming and Fangjiasham Nuclear Power Plants (CPR type). These are two different locations where two pressurized water reactors, with three loops each one, will be installed.

  6. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Laurids Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  7. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: mag@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; adino@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; Varela, Thiago F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: phillips.rj@terra.com.br; Cunha, Gerson G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)]. E-mail: gerson@lance.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  8. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  9. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  10. Deployment of a Full-Scope Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulator at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Julius Persensky; Kenneth Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The INL operates the HSSL to conduct research in the design and evaluation of advanced reactor control rooms, integration of intelligent support systems to assist operators, development and assessment of advanced human performance models, and visualizations to assess advanced operational concepts across various infrastructures. This advanced facility consists of a reconfigurable simulator and a virtual reality capability (known as the Computer-Aided Virtual Environment (CAVE)) (Figure 2). It supports human factors research, including human-in-the-loop performance, HSI, and analog and digital hybrid control displays. It can be applied to the development and evaluation of control systems and displays for complex systems such as existing and advanced NPP control rooms, command and control systems, and advance emergency operations centers. The HSSL incorporates a reconfigurable control room simulator, which is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a joint venture of the DOE and the Idaho University System. The simulator is a platform- and plant-neutral environment intended for full-scope and part-task testing of operator performance in various control room configurations. The simulator is not limited to a particular plant or even simulator architecture. It can support engineering simulator platforms from multiple vendors using digital interfaces. Due to its ability to be reconfigured, it is possible to switch the HSI - not just to digital panels but also to different control modalities such as those using greater plant automation or intelligent alarm filtering. The simulator currently includes three operator workstations, each capable of driving up to eight 30-inch monitors. The size and number of monitors varies depending on the particular front-end simulator deployed for a simulator study. These operator workstations would typically be used for the shift supervisor or senior reactor operator, reactor operator, and assistant reactor

  11. Developing a taxonomy of coordination behaviours in nuclear power plant control rooms during emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunxing; Gao, Qin; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Ma, Liang

    2017-05-19

    This study aims to develop a taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We summarised basic coordination behaviours from literature in aviation, health care and nuclear field and identified coordination behaviours specific to the nuclear domain by interviewing and surveying control crew operators. The established taxonomy includes 7 workflow stages and 24 basic coordination behaviours. To evaluate the reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy, we analysed 12 videos of operators' training sessions by coding coordination behaviours with the taxonomy and the inter-rater reliability was acceptable. Further analysis of the frequency, the duration and the direction of the coordination behaviours revealed four coordination problems. This taxonomy provides a foundation of systematic observation of coordination behaviours among NPP crews, advances researchers' understanding of the coordination mechanism during emergencies in NPPs and facilitate the possibility to deepen the understanding of the relationships between coordination behaviours and team performance. Practitioner Summary: A taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants was developed. Reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy was verified through the analysis of 12 training sessions. The taxonomy can serve as an observation system for analysis of coordination behaviours and help to identify coordination problems of control crews.

  12. A study on associations of Korean sample group for colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon University, Whasung (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Colors are widely used to warn risk levels and to attract attention of the public. Korea Standard Nuclear Reactor Control Room (KSNRCR) also uses several colors to differentiate warnings, priorities, status, borders, and messages based on the HF010 guideline. However the previous studies showed that the general public not engaged in a specific job domain had different associations of colors as regulated in the standards or the guidelines. It is also expected that the general public not engaged in nuclear power plant industry will have different color association system from the color coding system applied to the KSNRCR. So, this study was performed to show whether there is any difference between color association of a sample Korean group and the color meanings specified in the HF010 guideline. The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is appled and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. A hundred college students participated in the experiment. 10 refs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  13. Investigation of the impact of main control room digitalization on operators cognitive reliability in nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Mu, Haiying; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a trend in nuclear power plants (NPPs) toward introducing digital and computer technologies into main control rooms (MCRs). Safe generation of electric power in NPPs requires reliable performance of cognitive tasks such as fault detection, diagnosis, and response planning. The digitalization of MCRs has dramatically changed the whole operating environment, and the ways operators interact with the plant systems. If the design and implementation of the digital technology is incompatible with operators' cognitive characteristics, it may have negative effects on operators' cognitive reliability. Firstly, on the basis of three essential prerequisites for successful cognitive tasks, a causal model is constructed to reveal the typical human performance issues arising from digitalization. The cognitive mechanisms which they impact cognitive reliability are analyzed in detail. Then, Bayesian inference is used to quantify and prioritize the influences of these factors. It suggests that interface management and unbalanced workload distribution have more significant impacts on operators' cognitive reliability.

  14. Investigation on the design of human-system interface for advanced nuclear plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C. F.; Chou, H. P. [Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Project (LMNPP), under construction in Taiwan, consists of two GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) units, each with 1350 MW electrical output. Major Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) of LMNPP are different from traditional ones. Video display units (VDUs) are the main human-system interface for operators to manipulate and to know the status of the equipment and plant information. Based upon NUREG-0711, the applicable human factors engineering (HFE) guideline in the design of HSIs has been adopted. An important aspect of the Lungmen HFE program has been the direct involvement of the end user, Taiwan Power Company (TPC), throughout the design development and implementation to ensure not only that the process for the design is compliant with the HFE principles, but also that the necessary displays, control, and alarms are provided to support the identified personnel tasks. This paper reviews the applicable HFE principles and verification and validation (V and V) processes in the design of HSIs for the advanced LMNPP. This paper also presents three investigated topics of the LMNPP HSI design development and implementation process. From the perspective of licensing concern and experience feedback, the focus of this paper is on the topics of validation with simulator, alarm auto reset, and VDU operational configuration strategy. The objectives of investigating the latter topic were to ensure the VDU operational configuration strategy, after appropriate V and V, achieves its goals of reinforcing operation discipline and distributing operator crew task assignments and workload during typical operations, and to confirm the need for an intensive training program that addresses the knowledge and skill requirements of the operators to meet the task characteristics and the responses of the plant processes. The results to date and implications for going forward from this process are also presented. (authors)

  15. An Investigation for Arranging the Video Display Unit Information in a Main Control Room of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chong Cheng; Yang, Chih Wei [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Current digital instrumentation and control and main control room (MCR) technology has extended the capability of integrating information from numerous plant systems and transmitting needed information to operations personnel in a timely manner that could not be envisioned when previous generation plants were designed and built. A MCR operator can complete all necessary operating actions on the video display unit (VDU). It is extremely flexible and convenient for operators to select and to control the system display on the screen. However, a high degree of digitalization has some risks. For example, in nuclear power plants, failures in the instrumentation and control devices could stop the operation of the plant. Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches would be a manner to solve this problem. Under HFE considerations, there exists 'population stereotype' for operation. That is, the operator is used to operating a specific display on the specific VDU for operation. Under emergency conditions, there is possibility that the operator will response with this habit population stereotype, and not be aware that the current situation has already changed. Accordingly, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the MCR VDU configuration plan to meet the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. On the other hand, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the human factors verification and validation plan of the MCR VDU configuration to verify and validate the configuration of the MCR VDUs, and to ensure that the MCR VDU configuration allows the operator shift to meet the HFE consideration and the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. This paper is one of the HF V V plans of the MCR VDU configuration of the advanced nuclear power plant. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the VDU configuration meets the human factors principles and the consistent

  16. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin [University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor.

  17. In the LEAR control room

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View into the control room of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Edgar Asseo (sitting) and Dieter Möhl and Georges Carron reflecting upon some beam dynamics (or hardware?) problem. Vassilis Agoritsas, in the background, leaning over a plan or a keyboard. LEAR in its early years (1982 to about 1990) was run from this local control room in building 363 close to the end of the PS South Hall, where the ring was installed. Later-on the operation was surveyed from the PS main control room.

  18. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  19. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  20. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  1. Modification and updating of documentation in equipment of panels of control room in nuclear power plant operation; Modificacion y actualizacion de documentacion en aparatos de paneles de sala de control en una central nuclear en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo Montero, L.

    2013-07-01

    The present paper describes a case very unique specific design of interactive 2D-CAD application, that has been developed by Empresarios Agrupados as engineering support to the nuclear power plants, aware of the problem that exists with the documentation of the instruments and devices that are on the panels of Control room, and that only have the documentation generated in its day by the manufacturers of these panels. To this end, an application (application DOPAB) has been developed to help solve the problem of management, design and modification of wiring and wiring devices existing in the Control room control panels.

  2. A preliminary user-friendly, digital console for the control room parameters supervision in old-generation Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmi, F.; Falconi, L.; Cappelli, M.; Palomba, M.; Santoro, E.; Bove, R.; Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Improvements in the awareness of a system status is an essential requirement to achieve safety in every kind of plant. In particular, in the case of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), a progress is crucial to enhance the Human Machine Interface (HMI) in order to optimize monitoring and analyzing processes of NPP operational states. Firstly, as old-fashioned plants are concerned, an upgrading of the whole console instrumentation is desirable in order to replace an analog visualization with a full-digital system. In this work, we present a novel instrument able to interface the control console of a nuclear reactor, developed by using CompactRio, a National Instruments embedded architecture and its dedicated programming language. This real-time industrial controller composed by a real-time processor and FPGA modules has been programmed to visualize the parameters coming from the reactor, and to storage and reproduce significant conditions anytime. This choice has been made on the basis of the FPGA properties: high reliability, determinism, true parallelism and re-configurability, achieved by a simple programming method, based on LabVIEW real-time environment. The system architecture exploits the FPGA capabilities of implementing custom timing and triggering, hardware-based analysis and co-processing, and highest performance control algorithms. Data stored during the supervisory phase can be reproduced by loading data from a measurement file, re-enacting worthwhile operations or conditions. The system has been thought to be used in three different modes, namely Log File Mode, Supervisory Mode and Simulation Mode. The proposed system can be considered as a first step to develop a more complete Decision Support System (DSS): indeed this work is part of a wider project that includes the elaboration of intelligent agents and meta-theory approaches. A synoptic has been created to monitor every kind of action on the plant through an intuitive sight. Furthermore, another important

  3. Study and Development of a Simulation System for Dynamic Evaluation on Man-machine Interface Design of Advanced Main Control Rooms of Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangXiaojing; ZhouZhiwei; ChenXiaoming; MaYuanle; LiFu; DongYujie; WuWei; OhiTadashi

    2005-01-01

    Since the man-machine interfaces (MMI) of a main control room provide the control platform of a nuclear power plant (NPP),the development of the design quality of MMIs plays a very important role in the operation of a NPP. With the development of digital technology, the development of the advanced main control rooms (AMCRs) has become an inexorable trend. Therefore, the positive and the negative effects of AMCRs on human factors engineering need to be evaluated. For this p~, a simulation system has been studied and developed to quantitatively evaluate a MMI design from the viewpoint of human factors. The simulation system takes advantage of computer simulation technology to simulate an operating process of an interaction between operators and a MMI design under an instruction of an operation procedure of the AMCR of a NPP. Meanwhile, the necessary data are recorded for evaluation. It integrates two editors and one simulator. In the paper, the simulation system is presented in detail. Furthermore, one sample is given to show the results of each of these three subsystems.

  4. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, L.J. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden).Dept. of Man-Technology Organization; Svenson, O. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    1997-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator`s appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance, as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality, and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. (Author).

  5. Evaluation of training programs and entry-level qualifications for nuclear-power-plant control-room personnel based on the systems approach to training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Hanley, M J; Mercer, R T

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. Variables (performance shaping factors) of potential importance to personnel selection and training are identified, and research to more rigorously define an operationally useful taxonomy of those variables is recommended. A high-level model of the Systems Approach to Training for use in the nuclear industry, which could serve as a model for NRC evaluation of industry programs, is presented. The model is consistent with current publically stated NRC policy, with the approach being followed by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, and with current training technology. Checklists to be used by NRC evaluators to assess training programs for NPP control-room personnel are proposed which are based on this model.

  6. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena Jacobsson; Svenson, Ola

    1997-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. The decreased level of satisfaction with work result during outage is a fact despite the lowering of aspiration level for work performance quality during outage. In order to decrease relative frequencies for minor errors, special attention should be given to reduce work demands, such as time pressure and memory demands. In order to decrease misinterpretation errors special attention should be given to organizational factors such as planning and shift turnovers in addition to training. In summary, the outage period seems to be a significantly more vulnerable window in the management of a nuclear power plant than the normal power production state. Thus, an increased focus on the outage period and human factors issues, addressing the synergetic effects or work demands, organizational factors and coping resources is an important area for improvement

  7. Requirements for Control Room Computer-Based Procedures for use in Hybrid Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Many plants in the U.S. are currently undergoing control room modernization. The main drivers for modernization are the aging and obsolescence of existing equipment, which typically results in a like-for-like replacement of analogue equipment with digital systems. However, the modernization efforts present an opportunity to employ advanced technology that would not only extend the life, but enhance the efficiency and cost competitiveness of nuclear power. Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are one example of near-term advanced technology that may provide enhanced efficiencies above and beyond like for like replacements of analog systems. Researchers in the LWRS program are investigating the benefits of advanced technologies such as CBPs, with the goal of assisting utilities in decision making during modernization projects. This report will describe the existing research on CBPs, discuss the unique issues related to using CBPs in hybrid control rooms (i.e., partially modernized analog control rooms), and define the requirements of CBPs for hybrid control rooms.

  8. A Development Method of Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Cooperation among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators in Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Seong, No Kyu; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP ,Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of steam generator, safety injection system and other various systems and devices in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors can be improved by the human error prevention techniques such as self-check, peer-check, concurrent verification and etc. Another important technique is to share work information among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. It is expected that the proposed mobile CPS can enhance the reduction of human errors by supporting human error prevention techniques and information sharing. This paper describes the technical issues of the mobile CPS (mobile CPS) in the initial development stage. Based on the design of APR1400, CRI CPS has been developed and operated for SKN 3 and 4 HFE V and V and license test for the MCR operating staff. Therefore the mobile CPS will be developed by upgrading the CRI CPS with improved features.

  9. Development of an evaluation methodology for operator`s moving distance workload for the assessment of the layout and arrangement of nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Un; Seo, Sang Moon; Lee, Yong Hee; Cheon, Se Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this report, link analysis is discussed for the assessment of control room layout and arrangement, among the workload assessment methodologies using SACOM. A methodology developed for estimating operator`s moving distances based on modified link analysis is described, including its detail algorithm. This methodology was developed with the type and content of SACOM input information in consideration of not only software aspects but also easiness when the designer use this for control room layout and arrangement. 1 tab., 7 figs., 8 refs. (Author) .new.

  10. Noise control considerations for patient rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenny, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The patient room envelope is a path between outside noise sources and the patient receiver. Within the patient room there are several sources including televisions, clinical monitor alarms, medical pumps, etc. Noise control in patient rooms relies on a combination of the sound transmission loss of the patient room envelope and the level of background sound at the patient's head. Guidelines published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), American Institute of Architects (AIA), and the U.S. Department of Defense for background noise and sound transmission loss in patient rooms will be discussed. Appropriate levels, spectra, and temporal characteristics of background sound at the patient head location may be helpful in raising the threshold of annoying sounds. Various means of personal hearing protection for patients will be discussed. Sound-pressure levels in patient rooms reported in previous literature will also be discussed.

  11. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  12. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural...

  13. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2012-05-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

  14. Development of digital device based work verification system for cooperation between main control room operators and field workers in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min, E-mail: jewellee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul, E-mail: leehc@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su, E-mail: junsu.ha@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788 (United Arab Emirates); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A digital device-based work verification and cooperation support system was developed. • Requirements were derived by interviewing field operators having experiences with mobile-based work support systems. • The usability of the proposed system was validated by conducting questionnaire surveys. • The proposed system will be useful if the manual or the set of guidelines is well constructed. - Abstract: Digital technologies have been applied in the nuclear field to check task results, monitor events and accidents, and transmit/receive data. The results of using digital devices have proven that these devices can provide high accuracy and convenience for workers, allowing them to obtain obvious positive effects by reducing their workloads. In this study, as one step forward, a digital device-based cooperation support system, the nuclear cooperation support and mobile documentation system (Nu-COSMOS), is proposed to support communication between main control room (MCR) operators and field workers by verifying field workers’ work results in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The proposed system consists of a mobile based information storage system to support field workers by providing various functions to make workers more trusted by MCR operators; also to improve the efficiency of meeting, and a large screen based information sharing system supports meetings by allowing both sides to share one medium. The usability of this system was estimated by interviewing field operators working in nuclear power plants and experts who have experience working as operators. A survey to estimate the usability of the suggested system and the suitability of the functions of the system for field working was conducted for 35 subjects who have experience in field works or with support system development-related research. The usability test was conducted using the system usability scale (SUS), which is widely used in industrial usability evaluation. Using questionnaires

  15. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  16. Software Support during a Control Room Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele Joyce; Michael Spata; Thomas Oren; Anthony Cuffe; Theo McGuckin; Isadoro Carlino; C. Higgins; Harry Fanning; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins

    2005-09-21

    In 2004, after 14 years of accelerator operations and commissioning, Jefferson Lab renovated its main control room. Changes in technology and lessons learned during those 14 years drove the control room redesign in a new direction, one that optimizes workflow and makes critical information and controls available to everyone in the control room. Fundamental changes in a variety of software applications were required to facilitate the new operating paradigm. A critical component of the new control room design is a large-format video wall that is used to make a variety of operating information available to everyone in the room. Analog devices such as oscilloscopes and function generators are now displayed on the video wall through two crosspoint switchers: one for analog signals and another for video signals. A new software GUI replaces manual configuration of the oscilloscopes and function generators and helps automate setup. Monitoring screens, customized for the video wall, now make important operating information visible to everyone, not just a single operator. New alarm handler software gives any operator, on any workstation, access to all alarm handler functionality, and multiple users can now contribute to a single electronic logbook entry. To further support the shift to distributed access and control, many applications have been redesigned to run on servers instead of on individual workstations.

  17. Controllability of room air temperature. Huonelaempoetilan saeaetoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, P.; Katajisto, K.; Karjalainen, S.; Lassila, K. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). LVI-tekniikan Laboratorio)

    1991-01-15

    At first, the control loop of room air temperature was studied as a unit process to find out the characteristic controllability factors of the process as well as possible. Step-response tests were made to the process. Furthermore, the choice of the control law, the adjustment of the controller parameters and the applicability of the controller parameters were analyzed. The results are based mainly on the simulation studies of the office building using the TRNSYS, HVACSIM{sup +} and PIPNET simulation programs. When making a step-change, e.g. to inlet air temperature, it takes a long time before the room air temperature achieves its final steady state. In addition, the gain of the process is slow. The time constant of the process is 30 min - 100 min. The steady state in terms of controllability is achieved in approximately four hours. The control difficulty of the process is significant below 0,1 independently of a heating or air conditioning system of the room space. The centralized and the distributed control of the room air temperature was studied as well. When the loads in different spaces differed greatly from one another, temperature conditions could not be controlled using centralized control. In that case the distributed temperature control based on room or zone space should be used. The integrated control of the air conditioning and heating systems proved to be quite difficult on the basis of the simulation studies especially when external loads vary a lot. The measurements made in a building in prevailing conditions did not support the integrated control of the air conditioning and heating systems. However, the heating system was under-dimensioned compared to the air conditioning system.

  18. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  19. Dedication instrumentation control rooms; Dedicacion instrumentacion salas de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M. I.; Vilas, J. L.; Bravo, J. L.; Rejas, L.; Corrales, C.

    2013-07-01

    Tecnatom has participated since 2010 in the project, led by IOM (USA), design and supply of Control rooms of NPPS Chinese with CPR-1000 design. Among the various activities, the dedication of the components of the Control rooms (BUP - Back - up Panel and ECP - Emergency Control Panel) is joining the American requirements with the criteria of the French regulations.

  20. Integrated open loop control and design of a food storage room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Usually, control design in a food storage room takes place after the plant has been designed. However, the performance of the plant connected to the controller might be improved by simultaneous design of the plant and the controller. In the case of open loop control, expressions that describe the dy

  1. PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier (turning buttons) and Bertran Frammery (telephoning) on shift. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster; LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated on the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  2. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  3. Recent Development in the ATLAS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    Armen Vartapetian

    Only recently the name ATLAS Control Room (ACR) was more associated with the building at Point 1 (SCX1) than with the real thing. But just within the last several months, with the installation of the ACR hardware, that perception has changed significantly. The recently furnished ATLAS control room. But first of all, if you are not familiar with the ATLAS experimental site and are interested in visiting the ATLAS control room to see the place that in the near future will become the brain of the detector operations, it is quite easy to do so. You don't even need safety helmet or shoes! The ACR is located on the ground floor of a not so typical, glass-covered building in Point 1. The building number on the CERN map is 3162, or SCX1 as we call it. It is also easy to recognize that building by its shiny appearance within the cluster of Point 1 buildings if you are driving from Geneva. Final design and prototyping of the ACR hardware started at the beginning of 2006. Evaluation of the chosen hardware confi...

  4. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.; Brown, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Granda, T.; Baker, C. (Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...... system operation as well as experiences and results from other European projects. On the other hand, it analyses what requirements for future control rooms arise from the ELECTRA proposed control solutions. Hence, different points of view are taken into account. The ELECTRA Use Cases (UCs...... requirements for the future control centres discussed within this report. The analysis of what happened before the European system disturbance occurred on 4th November 2006 and of the existing trends by vendors helped T8.1 in the definition of the requirements for the future control centres. Volunteer...

  6. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  7. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  8. Discussion on Noise and Control Technology of the Main Control Room in Nuclear Power Plant%浅谈核电站主控室噪声及其控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富喜; 刘海成; 龚凤海

    2013-01-01

    针对国内核电站的主控制室,通过噪声测试与声源识别,研究分析影响其环境噪声的室内外噪声源及其特性,在此基础上提出降低主控室环境噪声的噪声控制技术,并提出对噪声控制设计的多个限制性因素。本研究成果为低噪声主控室设计提供理论指导和工程经验。%Sound source influencing on interior noise of the main control room in nuclear power plant is researched by noise testing and sound source identification , and sound characteristic are analysised. Control technology about reduce the MCR interior noise is investigated. The limiting factors for noise reduction design are presented. Research result will instruct the acoustic design of the low noise MCR, and been referenced by engineering.

  9. Indoor Thermal Comfort Analysis of Centralized Control Room in Thermal Power Plant%火力发电厂集中控制室室内热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪明龙; 张英俊; 刘明涛; 盛帮明; 黄艺

    2014-01-01

    There are some deficiencies about staff comfort on air conditioning design of the centralized control room in China thermal power plants .Combined thermal comfort with the actual situation in power plant ,the influence of indoor temperature ,in-door humidity and wind speed of working area on the thermal comfort of centralized control room has been studied by the PMV -PPD evaluation indicators .Found that the electric power industry standard DL/T 5035-2004 provisions on the centralized control room indoor winter and summer air conditioning system design parameters failed to fully consider the indoor thermal comfort .Rea-sonable suggestions were given and provided the reference for the design personnel .%目前我国火力发电厂集中控制室空调设计在人员舒适性方面考虑不足。从热舒适角度出发,结合电厂实际情况,采用PMV-PPD评价指标探讨温度、湿度及工作区风速3个因素对集控室内热舒适性的影响。发现现行电力行业标准DL/T 5035-2004中关于集控室室内冬、夏季空调系统设计参数的规定未能充分考虑室内人员的热舒适性,并给出合理建议,为设计人员提供参考。

  10. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Wachtel, J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs.

  11. Visualizing the characteristics of a work process being observed from the main control room of nuclear power plants - identifying underlying requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of the disseminated approaches is to identify and manage vulnerable tasks (i.e., error-prone tasks) by applying many kinds of human reliability assessment (HRA) techniques. That is, if HRA practitioners are able to identify plausible error forcing factors (e.g., performance shaping factors; PSFs) under a given task context, effective countermeasures that are helpful for reducing the possibility of human error can be drawn by deducing how to eliminate the associated PSFs. In order to reduce the variability of HRA results, the development of an objective criterion for determining the level of each PSF could be the most plausible countermeasure. In order to address this issue, this paper applied a process mining technique to the analysis of communication logs gathered from main control room (MCR) crews in NPPs, which could be useful for visualizing their characteristics in terms of the Work process. In this study, before providing additional information that is helpful for HRA practitioners in determining the quality of the Work process, three kinds of underlying requirements are identified. They are: (1) an ability to describe the flow of a work, (2) an ability to incorporate time and spatial information into the flow of a work, and (3) an ability to identify the flow of symptoms and/or knowledge being employed by an MCR crew. In order to satisfy these requirements, a couple of techniques can be used. This might allow partial pooling of log information according to how the information can be clustered.' In other words, the process mining technique is very useful for discovering the flow of a work being involved in a given situation, it is strongly expected that the analysis of communication logs that allow us to understand what and how they did in order to cope with a situation at hand. If so, it is possible to visualize necessary information that is essential for minimizing the variability of HRA practitioners who have to determine the quality of the Work

  12. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control room management. 192.631 Section 192.631... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.631 Control room management. (a... operator must have and follow written control room management procedures that implement the requirements...

  13. First-of-A-Kind Control Room Modernization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This project plan describes a comprehensive approach to the design of an end-state concept for a modernized control room for Palo Verde. It describes the collaboration arrangement between the DOE LWRS Program Control Room Modernization Project and the APS Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. It further describes the role of other collaborators, including the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It combines advanced tools, methodologies, and facilities to enable a science-based approach to the validation of applicable engineering and human factors principles for nuclear plant control rooms. It addresses the required project results and documentation to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. It describes the project tasks that will be conducted in the project, and the deliverable reports that will be developed through these tasks. This project plan will be updated as new tasks are added and as project milestones are completed. It will serve as an ongoing description on the project both for project participants and for industry stakeholders.

  14. Gamma Radiation Monitoring Alarm Threshold Determination for Nuclear Plant Main Control Room Intake Air%核电厂主控制室进风γ监测报警阈值确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾君; 罗润; 周诗情; 张凌燕

    2016-01-01

    从不同的角度分析了正常工况和事故工况下核电厂主控室进风γ辐射水平报警阈值方案。采用MCNP程序模拟测量点的γ剂量率,针对两种布置方案,对S3、DBA-LOCA和LOCA 3类典型事故进行了计算。结果表明,改进后主控室内的探测器报警阈值维持原报警阈值是合适的。%The intake air gamma radiation monitoring alarm threshold of nuclear plant main control room was studied for both normal and accidental conditions . For two different layout schemes ,gamma radiation dose rates of measuring points was calculated with the MCNP code for three typical accidents including S 3 ,DBA-LOCA and LOCA .The results show that it is proper to keep original value of the detector alarm threshold for the main control room after improvement ,which could provide effective radiation protection for indoor staff .

  15. Emergency control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Farias, Larissa P. de; Ponte, Luana T.L.; Goncalves, Gabriel L.; Castro, Heraclito M.; Farias, Marcos S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Vianna Filho, Alfredo M.V., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Emergency control room acts as an alternative control room for the purpose of shutting down or maintaining the facility in a safe shutdown state when the main control room is uninhabitable. The mission of emergency control room is to provide the resources to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition after an evacuation of the main control room. An evacuation of the main control room is assumed when there is no possibility to accomplish tasks involved in the shutdown except reactor trip. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the emergency control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the development phase of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team a 3D Sketch and a 3D printing of the emergency control room were created. (author)

  16. Human Factor Engineering Considerations for the Control Room of Nuclear Power Plant with Multiple Small Modular Reactors%多模块小型反应堆核电站控制室的人因工程考虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾倩倩; 刘鹏; 陈凡

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear system with multiple small modular reactors is a promising solution to realize the economics as well as maintain the safety features. The control room of the nuclear power plant with multiple SMRs is different with current pressured water reactors, these differences may have potential to impact human performance. These differences include the function analysis and function allocation, the staffing level and the staffing responsibilities, human machine interface design, situation awareness support, etc. This paper makes a review of the human factor engineering issues associated with the control room design of the plant with multiple SMRs. Some strategies are presented based on the experiences of the two-modular design of the high temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed modules (HTR-PM).%发展多模块式的小型堆核能系统,是保持小型模块式反应堆安全性的同时实现规模经济性的重要途径.多模块小型堆核能系统的控制室与目前压水堆核电站的控制室有很大区别,这些区别对控制室的人因工程可能存在潜在影响,具体包括:功能分析与功能分配、人员规模及分工、人机界面设计、操纵员的注意力等.本文综述了多模块小型堆核能系统的控制室设计中可能潜在的人因问题,并根据两模块高温气冷堆的初步设计经验,提出了对策.

  17. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lau, Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  18. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O' Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  19. Preparedness of Operation Teams' Non-technical Skills in a Main Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants to Manage Emergency Situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Ho Bin; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Human reliability is one of the important determinants for the system safety. Nuclear Energy Agency reported that approximately half of events reported by foreign nuclear industry were related with inappropriate human actions. The human error problems can be viewed in two ways: the person approach and the system approach. Other terms to represent each approach are active failures and latent conditions. Active failures are unsafe acts committed by people who are in direct contact with systems whereas latent conditions are the inevitable 'resident pathogens' within the system. To identify what kinds of non-technical skills were needed to cope with emergency conditions, a method to evaluate preparedness of task management in emergency conditions based on monitoring patterns was presented. Five characteristics were suggested to evaluate emergency task management and communication: latent mistake resistibility, latent violation resistibility, thoroughness, communication, and assertiveness. Case study was done by analyzing emergency training of 9 different real operation teams in the reference plant. The result showed that the 9 teams had their own emergency task management skills which resulted in good and bad performances

  20. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  2. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  3. Testing Efficiency Improved by Addition of Remote Access Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's Remote Access Control Room (RACR) uses off-the-shelf video conferencing software integrated with existing facility data systems to provide access to the test data by networking from virtually anywhere in the country. The system allows research engineers in remote locations to participate in tests and monitor data in real time just as if they were present in the control room.

  4. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  5. Engineering of data base application to control room in operation plant; Reingemieria de la aplicacion de la base de datos del conexionado de los aparatos de los paneles de mando de la sala de control de una central en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallier Pino, J.; Fernandez Garcia, N. C.; Tielas Reina, M.

    2004-07-01

    The large number of Setpoints and associated allowable values that have to be determined in a nuclear power plant prompted EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS to develop the AVACO program to computerise and optimise the calculation process. This application has been developed based on Microsoft Access 97 database and Mathsoft Mathcad 8 calculation program. The calculation methodology used by AVACO complies with the procedures and criteria established in Regulatory Guide 1.105, issue 3, dated December 1999, Setpoints for Safety-Related Instrumentation, and in standard ISA-S67.04.01-2000. The computerised calculation of nominal trip points and allowable values for trip functions saves time, prevents possible errors which are more likely to occur in manual calculation, and allows adequate control of input data and results. The database contains all input data and associated references required for calculation, as well as the calculation results. This integration enables the quick and efficient handling, storage and updating of large volumes of data required for calculation. Mathcad 8 performs the calculations using templates created for different measuring channel configurations. Said templates define in text form the formulae used. Following the manual introduction of input data into the database, these data are automatically transferred to the corresponding spreadsheet template; the calculation results are then automatically incorporated back into the database. EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS and TECNATOM are currently using this application the Calculation of Setpoints for the Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant project.

  6. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system must have a written alarm management plan to provide for effective controller response to alarms...; (iv) Procedures; (v) SCADA system configuration; and (vi) SCADA system performance. (2) Include... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control room management. 195.446 Section 195.446...

  7. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  8. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE has

  9. Team of the Technical Control Room, TCR, at work

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    0202037_06 transmit of the instruction from a team TCR to the changing .0202037_01 Kenneth Olesen brings a solution to a user of the CERN, while Mark Harvey checks its monitors .0202037_02 Laurent Randot and Eric Lienard (with the phone) work in the control room .0202037_08 Mr Jean-Pierre Hernández, shift leader TCR , stay near the order console for the electric wire of the CERN .0202037_09 The order console with all the diode on .0202037_10 View of the control room .

  10. MSFC Director James R. Thompson in Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Marshall's fifth Center Director, James R. Thompson (1986-1989), in the control room of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)automated thermal protection system (TPS) removal facility. Under Dr. Thompson's leadership, the shuttle program was rekindled after the Challenger explosion. Return to Flight kept NASA 's future programs alive.

  11. Inside the LEP control room at start-up

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    Physicists grouped around a screen in the LEP control room at the strat-up of LEP on 14 July 1989. The emotion of the moment is clear. Carlo Rubbia, Director-General of CERN at the time, is in the centre and on his left, Herwig Schopper, former Director-General of the Organization.

  12. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Roediger; P.Pomatto; 等

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook(CRL)is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room.Its features benefit the on-line coordinator,the shift operators,and the remote observers,This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles.The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration,a large variety of entry types operator can add by simply clicking and dragging,and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities.The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files,which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future.The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database,making queries on dates,keyworks,entry type and other criteria feasible and fast .The CRL is used in the D0 control room.This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment,platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of logbook.

  13. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Grot, R.A. [Lagus Applied Technology, Olney, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard

    2006-01-01

    . The experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, ‘real-world’ environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room...... the curtains and prevents its spread from the cages into the aisle. The present study shows that the use of curtains in front of the cage racks is an efficient way to prevent spread of allergens from rodent cages to the entire animal room....

  15. Look into the PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier at work. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster, LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated at the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  16. Feasibility of touch-less control of operating room lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Florian; Schlaefer, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Today's highly technical operating rooms lead to fairly complex surgical workflows where the surgeon has to interact with a number of devices, including the operating room light. Hence, ideally, the surgeon could direct the light without major disruption of his work. We studied whether a gesture tracking-based control of an automated operating room light is feasible. So far, there has been little research on control approaches for operating lights. We have implemented an exemplary setup to mimic an automated light controlled by a gesture tracking system. The setup includes a articulated arm to position the light source and an off-the-shelf RGBD camera to detect the user interaction. We assessed the tracking performance using a robot-mounted hand phantom and ran a number of tests with 18 volunteers to evaluate the potential of touch-less light control. All test persons were comfortable with using the gesture-based system and quickly learned how to move a light spot on flat surface. The hand tracking error is direction-dependent and in the range of several centimeters, with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm and up to 3.5 mm orthogonal and parallel to the finger orientation, respectively. However, the subjects had no problems following even more complex paths with a width of less than 10 cm. The average speed was 0.15 m/s, and even initially slow subjects improved over time. Gestures to initiate control can be performed in approximately 2 s. Two-thirds of the subjects considered gesture control to be simple, and a majority considered it to be rather efficient. Implementation of an automated operating room light and touch-less control using an RGBD camera for gesture tracking is feasible. The remaining tracking error does not affect smooth control, and the use of the system is intuitive even for inexperienced users.

  17. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  18. CERN opens up its control rooms to youngsters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN is inviting 13 to 18 year-olds to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms of the LHC and its experiments. Registration is now open.   Is your neighbour's kid eager to come and see what's going on in the CERN control rooms for himself? Is your niece from Germany fascinated by the famous accelerator near Geneva that she's heard about and asking to know more? Then Researchers Night is for them! From 6.00 p.m. on Friday 23 September until 1.00 a.m. the following morning, the LHC and its experiments will open their doors to 13 to 18 year-olds. They are invited to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms watching the physicists and taking part in various activities. ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, TOTEM, and the CERN Control Centre (CCC) will all be welcoming visitors. For this second year of CERN's involvement in European Researchers Night, the CERN exhibitions will be open late and special activities will be organised in Microcosm....

  19. MULTI - TRACER CONTROL ROOM AIR INLEAKAGE PROTOCOL AND SIMULATED PRIMARY AND EXTENDED MULTI - ZONE RESULTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIETZ,R.N.

    2002-01-01

    The perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be applied simultaneously to the wide range in zonal flowrates (from tens of cfms in some Control Rooms to almost 1,000,000 cfm in Turbine Buildings), to achieve the necessary uniform tagging for subsequent determination of the desired air inleakage and outleakage from all zones surrounding a plant's Control Room (CR). New types of PFT sources (Mega sources) were devised and tested to handle the unusually large flowrates in a number of HVAC zones in power stations. A review of the plans of a particular nuclear power plant and subsequent simulations of the tagging and sampling results confirm that the technology can provide the necessary concentration measurement data to allow the important ventilation pathways involving the Control Room and its air flow communications with all adjacent zones to be quantitatively determined with minimal uncertainty. Depending on need, a simple single or 3-zone scheme (involving the Control Room alone or along with the Aux. Bldg. and Turbine Bldg.) or a more complex test involving up to 7 zones simultaneously can be accommodated with the current revisions to the technology; to test all the possible flow pathways, several different combinations of up to 7 zones would need to be run. The potential exists that for an appropriate investment, in about 2 years, it would be possible to completely evaluate an entire power plant in a single extended multizone test with up to 12 to 13 separate HVAC zones. With multiple samplers in the Control Room near each of the contiguous zones, not only will the prevalent inleakage or outleakage zones be documented, but the particular location of the pathway's room of ingress can be identified. The suggested protocol is to perform a 3-zone test involving the Control Room, Aux. Bldg., and Turbine Bldg. to (1) verify CR total inleakage and (2) proportion that inleakage to distinguish that from the other 2 major buildings and any remaining untagged

  20. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques; Clefton, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  1. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, J.; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night ...... response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times....

  2. The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989.

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world.

  3. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Room D was an in-situ ,isothermal,undergroundexperimentconductedattheWasteIsola- tion Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under predicted the vertical closure by 4 . 5 - , causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through aseriesofadjustmentstomodelparameters,whichwereopenlyacknowledgedinpublished reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and bench- mark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today's computational standards by rectifying sev- eral numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two di %7C erent ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under predict Room D vertical closure by 3 . 1 - .A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  4. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under-predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under-predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  5. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at theWaste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  6. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, S Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U Mohanan; Chelvane, J Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between "open" (zero conductance) and "closed" (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature.

  7. Aquatic plant control research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  8. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  9. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...

  10. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  11. Simon van der Meer in the AA Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1984-01-01

    Simon van der Meer, spiritus rector of the Antiproton Accumulator, in the AA Control Room. Inventor of stochastic cooling, on which the AA was based, and of the magnetic horn, with which the antiprotons were focused, he also wrote most of the software with which the AA was controlled, and spent uncountable numbers of hours in this chair to tickle the AA to top performance. 8 months after this picture was taken, he received, in October 1984, the Nobel prize, together with Carlo Rubbia, the moving force behind the whole Proton-Antiproton Collider project that led to the discovery, in 1983, of the W and Z intermediate bosons.

  12. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    . As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  13. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  14. Integrated Control of air distribution system noise-- A nuclear power plant control room HVAC system%空气输配系统噪声综合控制研究--某核电厂主控室暖通空调系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海成

    2016-01-01

    China has built nuclear power plant main control room noise value agreed to 56dB (A) or so, after the noise control noise is 53dB (A) or so. However, according to relevant national standards, environmental noise limits for new projects main control room to achieve 45dB (A). Accordingly, the monitoring of operating nuclear power plants in the main control room noise, room sound field simulation and identify sound sources, found that: air HVAC system noise of the air distribution system to produce secondary duct itself radiated noise excitation is sound and solid the main source of indoor master acoustic environment. Studies have shown that: the main factors vent excessive noise muffler system design is unreasonable, the system calculation inaccurate flow noise, noise reduction equipment and system performance is not reasonable match and the lack of relevant engineering experience. In this paper, the problems identified, the system describes the different mechanisms produce noise with different noise reduction measures should be analyzed wind pipe itself radiated noise excitation and solid sound excessivecountermeasures, and from the HVAC system controls air distribution system starting noise, it made a similar noise reduction reference integrated HVAC systems solutions.%我国已建成的核电厂主控室内噪声值约定为56dB(A)左右,经噪声控制后噪声值为53dB(A)左右。但是根据有关国家标准的要求,新建项目主控室的环境噪声限值要达到45dB (A)。据此,监测在运行核电厂主控室内噪声,识别室内声场模拟及声源,发现:暖通空调系统之空气输配系统产生的风口噪声、风管本身辐射的二次激发噪声及固体声是主控室内声环境的最主要声源。研究表明:风口噪声超标主要因素有系统消声设计不合理,系统气流再生噪声计算不精确,消声设备性能与系统未合理匹配及缺乏相关工程经验等。本文针对问题

  15. Capturing Control Room Simulator Data with the HERA Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; April Whaley; Bruce Hallbert; Karin Laumann; Per Oivind Braarud; Andreas Bye; Erasmia Lois; Yung Hsien James Chang

    2007-08-01

    The Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA) system has been developed as a tool for classifying and recording human performance data extracted from primary data sources. This paper reviews the process of extracting data from simulator studies for use in HERA. Simulator studies pose unique data collection challenges, both in types and quality of data measures, but such studies are ideally suited to gather operator performance data, including the full spectrum of performance shaping factors used in a HERA analysis. This paper provides suggestions for obtaining relevant human performance data for a HERA analysis from a control room simulator study and for inputting those data in a format suitable for HERA.

  16. CERN's Technical Control Room (TCR) A Central Service for Everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  17. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  18. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  19. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  20. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  1. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  2. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRALSERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  3. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  4. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  5. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wal...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....... is possible at modal frequencies. For that reason the modal frequencies in the source room will also have big impact on the transmission to neighbour rooms. These low frequency resonance frequencies are very audible in the source room but also in neighbour rooms as a booming bass. CABS (Controlled Acoustic...

  6. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety..., 2010, PHMSA published a Control Room Management/Human Factors notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... to expedite the program implementation deadlines of the Control Room Management/Human Factors rule...

  7. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  8. [Quality control of plant extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  9. Room temperature coherent control of coupled single spins in solid

    CERN Document Server

    Gaebel, T; Popa, I; Wittmann, C; Neumann, P; Jelezko, F; Rabeau, J R; Stavrias, N; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S; Meijer, J; Twamley, J; Hemmer, P R; Wrachtrup, J

    2006-01-01

    Coherent coupling between single quantum objects is at the heart of modern quantum physics. When coupling is strong enough to prevail over decoherence, it can be used for the engineering of correlated quantum states. Especially for solid-state systems, control of quantum correlations has attracted widespread attention because of applications in quantum computing. Such coherent coupling has been demonstrated in a variety of systems at low temperature1, 2. Of all quantum systems, spins are potentially the most important, because they offer very long phase memories, sometimes even at room temperature. Although precise control of spins is well established in conventional magnetic resonance3, 4, existing techniques usually do not allow the readout of single spins because of limited sensitivity. In this paper, we explore dipolar magnetic coupling between two single defects in diamond (nitrogen-vacancy and nitrogen) using optical readout of the single nitrogen-vacancy spin states. Long phase memory combined with a d...

  10. Human factor engineering based design and modernization of control rooms with new I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz, J.; Rejas, L. [New Control Room Design Dept., Av. Montes de Oca, 1, 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes-Madrid (Spain); Ortega, F. [Control Room and Simulation Dept., Av. Montes de Oca, 1, 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes-Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems of the latest nuclear power plants are based on the use of digital technology, distributed control systems and the integration of information in data networks (Distributed Control and Instrumentation Systems). This has a repercussion on Control Rooms (CRs), where the operations and monitoring interfaces correspond to these systems. These technologies are also used in modernizing I and C systems in currently operative nuclear power plants. The new interfaces provide additional capabilities for operation and supervision, as well as a high degree of flexibility, versatility and reliability. An example of this is the implementation of solutions such as compact stations, high level supervision screens, overview displays, computerized procedures, new operational support systems or intelligent alarms processing systems in the modernized Man-Machine Interface (MMI). These changes in the MMI are accompanied by newly added Software (SW) controls and new solutions in automation. Tecnatom has been leading various projects in this area for several years, both in Asian countries and in the United States, using in all cases international standards from which Tecnatom own methodologies have been developed and optimized. The experience acquired in applying this methodology to the design of new control rooms is to a large extent applicable also to the modernization of current control rooms. An adequate design of the interface between the operator and the systems will facilitate safe operation, contribute to the prompt identification of problems and help in the distribution of tasks and communications between the different members of the operating shift. Based on Tecnatom experience in the field, this article presents the methodological approach used as well as the most relevant aspects of this kind of project. (authors)

  11. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  12. Development of DMC controllers for temperature control of a room deploying the displacement ventilation HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Li, Ramesh K. Agarwal, Huijun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by developing a new Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC method, we develop a controller for temperature control of a room cooled by a displacement ventilation HVAC system. The fluid flow and heat transfer inside the room are calculated by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations including the effects of buoyancy in conjunction with a two-equation realizable k - epsilon turbulence model. Thus the physical environment is represented by a nonlinear system of partial differential equations. The system also has a large time delay because of the slowness of the heat exchange. The goal of the paper is to develop a controller that will maintain the temperature at three points near three different walls in a room within the specified upper and lower bounds. In order to solve this temperature control problem at three different points in the room, we develop a special DMC method. The results show that the newly developed DMC controller is an effective controller to maintain temperature within desired bounds at multiple points in the room and also saves energy when compared to other controllers. This DMC method can also be employed to develop controllers for other HVAC systems such as the overhead VAV (Variable Air Volume system and the radiant cooling hydronic system.

  13. Development of DMC controllers for temperature control of a room deploying the displacement ventilation HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhicheng; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in Saint Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Gao, Huijun [Research Institute of Intelligent Control and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, by developing a new Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) method, we develop a controller for temperature control of a room cooled by a displacement ventilation HVAC system. The fluid flow and heat transfer inside the room are calculated by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations including the effects of buoyancy in conjunction with a two-equation realizable k - epsilon turbulence model. Thus the physical environment is represented by a nonlinear system of partial differential equations. The system also has a large time delay because of the slowness of the heat exchange. The goal of the paper is to develop a controller that will maintain the temperature at three points near three different walls in a room within the specified upper and lower bounds. In order to solve this temperature control problem at three different points in the room, we develop a special DMC method. The results show that the newly developed DMC controller is an effective controller to maintain temperature within desired bounds at multiple points in the room and also saves energy when compared to other controllers. This DMC method can also be employed to develop controllers for other HVAC systems such as the overhead VAV (Variable Air Volume) system and the radiant cooling hydronic system.

  14. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    In emission studies reported in literature little effort has been made to investigate the emission from building materials in ventilated enclosures from a fluid dynamics point of view. Furthermore, most of the existing emission models are empirical relations that are based on specific pollutants...... change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence intensity as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The experimental results moreover exhibit the behaviour of a diffusion-controlled emission process at the end of the experiments. A simplified version of the model...... and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...

  15. Review of advanced control rooms: Methodological considerations for the use of HFE guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    Control rooms for advanced nuclear power plants use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews HSIs to ensure that they are designed to accepted human factors engineering (HFE) principles. The principal review guidance, however, is more than ten-years old (US NRC, 1981). Accordingly, an Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) was developed to provide criteria for these reviews. The DRG contains seven major sections: Information Display, User-System Interaction, Process Control and Input Devices, Alarms, Analysis and Decision Aids, Inter-Personnel Communication, and Workplace Design (see O`Hara & Brown, 1993). The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology for DRG use.

  16. Application of FMEA-DEA (Failure Modes and Effect Analysis - Data Envelopment Analysis) to the air conditioning system of the control room a nuclear power plant; Aplicacao de FMEA-DEA ao sistema de ar condicionado da sala de controle de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Junior, Gilberto Varanda

    2007-03-15

    This dissertation presents the FMEA-DEA analysis application to the air conditioning system of the control room of a nuclear power plant. After obtaining the failure modes, the index associated to the occurrence probability, the severity of the effects and the potential of detention, a priority order is established for the failure modes or deviations. This number is obtained by multiplying the three mentioned index that vary in a natural scale from 1 to 10, where the higher the index, the more critical the situation will be. In this work, it is intended to use a model based on the data envelopment analysis, DEA jointly with the FMEA, to identify the current efficiency of the system and which failure modes or deviations are considered more critical, and by means of the weights attributed for the mathematical modeling to identify which index are contributing more for these deviations. From this identification, improvements can be set, which may consider administrative changes, operator training and so on, thus adding value to the final product. (author)

  17. Silicon in plant disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ampélio Pozza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All essential nutrients can affect the incidence and severity of plant diseases. Although silicon (Si is not considered as an essential nutrient for plants, it stands out for its potential to decrease disease intensity in many crops. The mechanism of Si action in plant resistance is still unclear. Si deposition in plant cell walls raised the hypothesis of a possible physical barrier to pathogen penetration. However, the increased activity of phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases in plants treated with Si demonstrates the involvement of this element in the induction of plant defense responses. The studies examined in this review address the role of Si in disease control and the possible mechanisms involved in the mode of Si action in disease resistance in plants.

  18. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. Overall view of the MOCR in the Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. At far right is Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations. At the flight director console in front of Kranz's FOD console are Flight Directors M.P. Frank, Neil B. Hutchinson and Donald R. Puddy as well as others (39506); Wide-angle view of flight controllers in the MOCR. Clifford E. Charlesworth, JSC Deputy Director, huddles with several flight directors for STS-2 at the flight director console. Kranz, is at far right of frame (39507); Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, center, celebrates successful flight and landing of STS-2 with a cigar in the MOCR. He is flanked by Dr. Maxime A Faget, left, Director of Engineering and Development, and Thomas L. Moser, of the Structures and Mechanics Division (39508); Flight Director Donald R. Puddy, near right, holds replica of the STS-2 insignia. Insignias on the opposite wall

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  20. Design and modernization of control rooms according to new I and C systems based on HFE principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejas, Luis; Larraz, Javier, E-mail: lrejas@tecnatom.e, E-mail: jlarraz@tecnatom.e [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain). New Control Room Design Dept.; Ortega, Fernando, E-mail: fortega@tecnatom.e [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain). Control Room and Simulation Dept.

    2011-07-01

    The use of new digital I and C systems in the design of new nuclear power plants, as well as the modernization of existing facilities, implies relevant changes in the control room design. New I and C systems provide new features that affect the control room operating concept. Therefore, a detailed analysis is required to take into consideration all the operating and human factors aspects. Based on Tecnatom experience in the field, this article presents the methodological approach used as well as the most relevant aspects of this kind of project. (author)

  1. Using virtual reality to support multi-participant human-centered design processes for control room design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louka, M. N.; Gustavsen, M. A.; Edvardsen, S. T. [OECD Halden Reactor Project, Inst. for Energy Technology, PO Box 173, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)

    2006-07-01

    We present an overview of a method of applying interactive 3D visualization techniques to support control room design activities, and summarize studies that supports it. In particular, we describe the software tools that we have developed and how these support a human-centered design (HCD) work-flow. We present some lessons learnt from using our tools in control room design projects, and outline our plans for extending the scope of our approach to support concurrent design and later phases of a plant's life-cycle. (authors)

  2. Design and implementation of new control room system in Damavand tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H.; Zamanian, H.; Gheidi, M.; Kheiri-Fard, M.; Kouhi, A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is design and implementation of an up-to-date control room. The previous control room had a lot of constraints and it was not apposite to the sophisticated diagnostic systems as well as to the modern control and multivariable systems. Although it provided the best output for the considered experiments and implementing offline algorithms among all similar plants, it needed to be developed to provide more capability for complex algorithm mechanisms and this work introduces our efforts in this area. Accordingly, four leading systems were designed and implemented, including real-time control system, online Data Acquisition System (DAS), offline DAS, monitoring and data transmission system. In the control system, three real-time control modules were established based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Thanks to them, implementation of the classic and linear and nonlinear intelligent controllers was possible to control the plasma position and its elongation. Also, online DAS was constructed in two modules. Using them, voltages and currents of charge for the capacitor banks and pressure of different parts in vacuum vessel were measured and monitored. Likewise, by real-time processing of the online data, the safety protocol of plant performance was accomplished. In addition, the offline DAS was organized in 13 modules based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system can be used for gathering all diagnostic, control, and performance data in 156 channels. Data transmission system and storing mechanism in the server was provided by data transmitting network and MDSplus standard protocol. Moreover, monitoring software was designed so that it could display the required plots for physical analyses. Taking everything into account, this new platform can improve the quality and quantity of research activities in plasma physics for Damavand tokamak.

  3. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Voltage-controlled spintronics is of particular importance to continue progress in information technology through reduced power consumption, enhanced processing speed, integration density, and functionality in comparison with present day CMOS electronics. Almost all existing and prototypical solid-state spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism, enabling spin-selective transmission or scattering of electrons. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is a key challenge to better spintronics. Currently, most attempts to electrically control magnetism focus on potentially large magnetoelectric effects of multiferroics. We report on our interest in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O3 (chromia). Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias is achieved at room temperature in perpendicular anisotropic Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd exchange bias heterostructures. This discovery promises significant implications for potential spintronics. From the perspective of basic science, our finding serves as macroscopic evidence for roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable equilibrium boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. The latter evolves at chromia (0001) surfaces and interfaces when chromia is in one of its two degenerate antiferromagnetic single domain states selected via magnetoelectric annealing. Theoretical insight into the boundary magnetization and its role in electrically controlled exchange bias is gained from first-principles calculations and general symmetry arguments. Measurements of spin-resolved ultraviolet photoemission, magnetometry at Cr 2 O3 (0001) surfaces, and detailed investigations of the unique exchange bias properties of Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd including its electric controllability provide macroscopically averaged information about the boundary magnetization of chromia. Laterally resolved X-ray PEEM and temperature dependent MFM reveal detailed microscopic information of the chromia

  4. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    loudspeakers well positioned at the end of the room a virtual array is formed propagating plane waves along the length of the room in one direction. This will correct the sound field distribution in the room. When plane wave arrives to the end wall two more loudspeakers have to be placed connected......Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency...... with the same signal in counter phase and with a delay corresponding to approximately the length of the room. This is to cancel the reflection and maintain the plane wave propagating along the room. Real life rooms are not necessary rectangular and can be of different shapes. In this paper simulations...

  5. 23rd June 2011 . US NASA Administrator General C. Bolden visiting the AMS control room with Collaboration Spokesperson S. Ting and CERN Director-General R. Heuer; Tree planting ceremony in front of building 946, Prevessin site, hosting the AMS control room (CERN-HI-1106159 01 -87)

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    88-115: visiting CMS control centre in Meyrin with Collaboration Spokesperson-elect J. Incandela and on-shift scientists accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss; 116-119: signature of photographs at the main building steps 120-136: with First Swiss Astronaut C. Nicollier at the main building steps.

  6. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Vescovo, E.; Wang, Y.; Caruso, A.N.; Belashchenko, K.D.; Dowben, P.A.; Binek, C.

    2010-06-20

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Neel temperature.

  7. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ning; Caruso, Anthony N; Vescovo, Elio; Belashchenko, Kirill D; Dowben, Peter A; Binek, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3) has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr(2)O(3) single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Néel temperature.

  8. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency l...

  9. The design of an embedded system for controlling humidity and temperature room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Teguh, R.; Didik Eko, S.; Laksono, Pringgo D.; Jamaluddin, Anif

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the system is to design an embedded system for maintenance confortable room. The confortable room was design by controlling temperature (on range 18 - 34 °C) and humidity (on range 40% - 70%.) of room condition. Temperature and humidity of room were maintained using four variable such as lamp for warm, water pump for distributing water vapour, a fan for air circullation and an exhaust-fan for air cleaner. The system was constucted both hardware (humidity sensor, microcontroller, pump, lamp, fan) and software (arduino IDE). The result shows that the system was perfectly performed to control room condition.

  10. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...... and the understanding of why and how it works will also be discussed. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system....

  11. Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kataria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew-centered design case-study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room that helps the crew co-ordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ship environment (e.g., the roll of the ship. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with seafarers of diverse ranks to get a better idea of what communication does, or should, take place and any problems or challenges existing in current operations, as seen from both the bridge and ECR operators’ perspectives. Included in the interview were both the standard communications and information shared during planning and executing a voyage, as well as special situations such as safety/casualty tasks or heavy weather. The results were analyzed in terms of the goals of the communication, the primary situations of interest for communication and collaboration, the communication media used, the information that is shared, and the problems experienced. The results of seafarer interviews are presented in the paper to explore on-board inter-departmental communication.

  12. INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuvashlova Marina Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze theoretical and practical basis of controlling and to provide implementation guidelines for enterprise controlling. The problem of controlling implementation was considered by two criteria: sphere of application and time of validity. Taking into account sphere of application criterion the objectives can be achieved by certain tools, namely: management accounting in the form of profit and loss statement; information flow in the form of workflow system and mapping of business processes; planning which includes budgeting and monitoring that could in turn allow to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans or objectives; responsibility accounting. The second criterion that is time of validity is considered as strategic.

  13. INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Владимировна Чувашлова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze theoretical and practical basis of controlling and to provide implementation guidelines for enterprise controlling. The problem of controlling implementation was considered by two criteria: sphere of application and time of validity.Taking into account sphere of application criterion the objectives can be achieved by certain tools, namely: management accounting in the form of profit and loss statement; information flow in the form of workflow system and mapping of business processes; planning which includes budgeting and monitoring that could in turn allow to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans or objectives; responsibility accounting.The second criterion that is time of validity is considered as strategic.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-39

  14. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  15. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  16. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle......Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...

  17. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Vita, Corinne [Vigilent, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  18. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  19. Development of human performance evaluation battery for integrated system validation of the HSI for an advanced control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S. H. [National Chiao Tung Univ., 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan (China); Wu, T. M.; Lee, J. Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Taiwan Power Company, 242 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 100 Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    The human-system interface (HSI) plays a vital role in the operation of a nuclear power plant. To ensure a human factors engineered advanced control room HSI design in support of reliable and safe operation of the plant, Taiwan Power Company has incorporated elements of the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM), prescribed in NUREG-0711 [1], into the HFE program for its Lungmen Nuclear Power Project. At present, the control room HSI design is undergoing verification and validation. Although NUREG/CR-6393[2] has introduced review criteria and methodology for integrated system validation, these criteria and methodology need to be elaborated for proper implementation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of suitable performance evaluation tools to be used to collect objective task performance measures, cognitive measures, as well as physical measures for HFE validation for the Lungmen project. (authors)

  20. A HUMAN AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONCEPT FOR A SMALL MODULAR REACTOR CONTROL ROOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Spielman, Zach; Hill, Rachael

    2017-06-01

    Many advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) designs incorporate higher degrees of automation than the existing fleet of NPPs. Automation is being introduced or proposed in NPPs through a wide variety of systems and technologies, such as advanced displays, computer-based procedures, advanced alarm systems, and computerized operator support systems. Additionally, many new reactor concepts, both full scale and small modular reactors, are proposing increased automation and reduced staffing as part of their concept of operations. However, research consistently finds that there is a fundamental tradeoff between system performance with increased automation and reduced human performance. There is a need to address the question of how to achieve high performance and efficiency of high levels of automation without degrading human performance. One example of a new NPP concept that will utilize greater degrees of automation is the SMR concept from NuScale Power. The NuScale Power design requires 12 modular units to be operated in one single control room, which leads to a need for higher degrees of automation in the control room. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers and NuScale Power human factors and operations staff are working on a collaborative project to address the human performance challenges of increased automation and to determine the principles that lead to optimal performance in highly automated systems. This paper will describe this concept in detail and will describe an experimental test of the concept. The benefits and challenges of the approach will be discussed.

  1. Procedure and information displays in advanced nuclear control rooms: experimental evaluation of an integrated design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Qin; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Wang, Yufan

    2017-08-01

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records. A laboratory experiment, with 42 students performing a simulated procedure to deal with unexpected high pressuriser level, was conducted to compare this design against an action-based integrated design and the existing separated-displays design. The results indicate that our operation-unit-based integrated design yields the best performance in terms of time and completion rate and helped more participants to detect unexpected system failures. Practitioner Summary: In current nuclear control rooms, operators frequently have to switch between procedure and system information displays. We developed an integrated design that incorporates procedure information into system displays. A laboratory study showed that the proposed design significantly improved participants' performance and increased the probability of detecting unexpected system failures.

  2. Control of the Environment in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan D

    2016-09-23

    There is a direct relationship between the quality of the environment of a workplace and the productivity and efficiency of the work accomplished. Components such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, drafts, lighting, and noise each contribute to the quality of the overall environment and the sense of well-being of those who work there.The modern operating room is a unique workplace with specific, and frequently conflicting, environmental requirements for each of the inhabitants. Even minor disturbances in the internal environment of the operating room can have serious ramifications on the comfort, effectiveness, and safety of each of the inhabitants. A cool, well-ventilated, and dry climate is optimal for many members of the surgical team. Any significant deviation from these objectives raises the risk of decreased efficiency and productivity and adverse surgical outcomes. A warmer, more humid, and quieter environment is necessary for the patient. If these requirements are not met, the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality is increased. An important task for the surgical team is to find the correct balance between these 2 opposed requirements. Several of the components of the operating room environment, especially room temperature and airflow patterns, are easily manipulated by the members of the surgical team. In the following discussion, we will examine these elements to better understand the clinical ramifications of adjustments and accommodations that are frequently made to meet the requirements of both the surgical staff and the patient.

  3. Implementation of Software Tools for Hybrid Control Rooms in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Berntsson, Olof [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); McDonald, Robert [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and Idaho National Laboratory have designed, implemented, tested and installed a functioning prototype of a set of large screen overview and procedure support displays for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human Systems Simulation Laboratory. The overview display is based on IFE’s extensive experiences with large screen overview displays in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), and presents the main control room indicators on a combined three-screen display. The procedure support displays are designed and implemented to provide a compact but still comprehensive overview of the relevant process measurements and indicators to support operators' good situational awareness during the performance of various types of procedures and plant conditions.

  4. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  5. PHYSICAL FIDELITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR NRC ADVANCED REACTOR CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATORS USED FOR INSPECTOR/EXAMINER TRAINING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Kristi M.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Miller, Mark; Cochrum, Steven

    2010-11-07

    This paper describes research into the physical fidelity requirements of control room simulators to train U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff for their duties as inspectors and license examiners for next-generation nuclear power plants. The control rooms of these power plants are expected to utilize digital instrumentation and controls to a much greater extent than do current plants. The NRC is assessing training facility needs, particularly for control room simulators, which play a central role in NRC training. Simulator fidelity affects both training effectiveness and cost. Research has shown high simulation fidelity sometimes positively affects transfer to the operational environment but sometimes makes no significant difference or actually impedes learning. The conditions in which these different effects occur are often unclear, especially for regulators (as opposed to operators) about whom research is particularly sparse. This project developed an inventory of the tasks and knowledges, skills, and abilities that NRC regulators need to fulfill job duties and used expert panels to characterize the inventory items by type and level of cognitive/behavioral capability needed, difficulty to perform, importance to safety, frequency of performance, and the importance of simulator training for learning these capabilities. A survey of current NRC staff provides information about the physical fidelity of the simulator on which the student trained to the control room to which the student was assigned and the effect lack of fidelity had on learning and job performance. The study concludes that a high level of physical fidelity is not required for effective training of NRC staff.

  6. Development of Alarm System link Drawing for Operation Support for APR1400 Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.

  7. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  8. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  9. Methodology for the identification of the factors that can influence the performance of operators of nuclear power plants control room under emergency situations; Metodologia para identificacao dos fatores que afetam o desempenho dos operadores de salas de controle de plantas nucleares, em situacoes de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Bernardo Spitz; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti, E-mail: bernardo_spitz@hotmail.co, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to minimize the human errors of the operators in a nuclear power plan control room, during emergency situations, it has to be considered the factors which affect the human performance. Work situations adequately projected, compatible with the necessities, capacities and human limitations, taking into consideration the factors which affect the operator performance . This paper aims to develop a methodology for identification of the factors affecting the operator performance under emergency situation, using the aspects defined by the human reliability analysis focusing the judgment done by specialists

  10. The advanced main control console for next japanese PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, A. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Ito, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan); Yokoyama, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Energy and Industrial Systems Center, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the improvement of main control room designing in a nuclear power plant is to reduce operators' workload and potential human errors by offering a better working environment where operators can maximize their abilities. In order to satisfy such requirements, the design of main control board applied to Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type nuclear power plant has been continuously modified and improved. the Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Utilities (Electric Power Companies) and Mitsubishi Group have developed an advanced main control board (console) reflecting on the study of human factors, as well as using a state of the art electronics technology. In this report, we would like to introduce the configuration and features of the Advanced Main Control Console for the practical application to the next generation PWR type nuclear power plants including TOMARI No.3 Unit of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. (author)

  11. Virtual control room, the REMOT project, networking pilot studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, H. M. A.; Habets, J.; Koopmans, M.; Kooijman, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Korten, M.; de Laat, C. T. A. M.; Lourens, W.; van der Meer, E. A.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Venema, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Remote Experiment Monitoring and Control (REMOT) project objective is to develop a system architecture to allow remote control of scientific experiments and facilities that require real time operation and multimedia information feedback, using available or deploying communications infrastructure

  12. Advanced Coordinating Control System for Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.

  13. Software Development for Remote Control and Firing Room Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano Pena, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The Launch Control System (LCS) developed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will be used to launch future spacecraft. Two of the many components of this system are the Application Control Language (ACL) and remote displays. ACL is a high level domain specific language that is used to write remote control applications for LCS. Remote displays are graphical user interfaces (GUIs) developed to display vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) data, they also provide the ability to send commands to control GSE and the vehicle. The remote displays and the control applications have many facets and this internship experience dealt with several of them.

  14. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1990-12-31

    This paper concludes that a 70/30 wt % salt/bentonite mixture is preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, near Carlsbad, NM, is designed to be the first mined geologic repository for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by DOE defense programs since 1970. The repository is located about 655 m below the land surface in an extensive bedded salt formation. This report examines the performance of two backfill materials with regard to various selection criteria, such as the need for low permeability after closure, chemical stability, strength, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a state of permeability {le} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} that is adequate for satisfying regulations for nuclear repositories. The results of finite-element calculations that were used to arrive at this conclusion will be described. The real advantage of the salt/bentonite. backfill depends, therefore, on bentonite`s potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates of the impact of these properties on backfill performance are presented.

  15. The scenario-based approach adopted in the ELECTRA project for deriving innovate control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Heussen, Kai; Prostejovsky, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    . The paper intends to outline the methodology adopted, which is based on the cognitive work analysis framework, to provide an overview of the most interesting scenarios and to summarize the requirements analysis results. In order to derive required control room functionality, a set of relevant control room...... scenarios have been identified based on the Web-of-Cells control concept. We considered scenarios that challenge traditional control schemes, scenarios that caused major failures (i.e., blackouts) and scenarios that can be expected to appear in the future. For each scenario, information concerning network...

  16. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  17. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  18. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jercinovic, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Temperature distribution in Risø Flexhouse Room 3 with different heating control principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    in winter and spring 2009 to study the distribution of local temperatures in the room – particularly with the purpose to compare with the temperature measured and logged by the heating control sensor which was already installed in the room. The measured data shall be used together with mathematical models...... to predict the overall dynamic thermal properties of the building. The project is part of a wider complex of projects on predicting the electricity and heating energy consumption in dwellings....

  20. Design of the control room of the N4-type PWR: main features and feedback operating experience; La salle de commande du palier N4: principales caracteristiques et retour d'experience d'exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrouton, J.M.; Guillas, J.; Nougaret, Ch. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN/CAPE), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the design, specificities and innovating features of the control room of the N4-type PWR. A brief description of control rooms of previous 900 MW and 1300 MW -type PWR allows us to assess the change. The design of the first control room dates back to 1972, at that time 2 considerations were taken into account: first the design has to be similar to that of control rooms for thermal plants because plant operators were satisfied with it and secondly the normal operating situation has to be privileged to the prejudice of accidental situations just as it was in a thermal plant. The turning point was the TMI accident that showed the weight of human factor in accidental situations in terms of pilot team, training, procedures and the ergonomics of the work station. The impact of TMI can be seen in the design of 1300 MW-type PWR. In the beginning of the eighties EDF decided to launch a study for a complete overhaul of the control room concept, the aim was to continue reducing the human factor risk and to provide a better quality of piloting the plant in any situation. The result is the control room of the N4-type PWR. Today the cumulated feedback experience of N4 control rooms represents more than 20 years over a wide range of situations from normal to incidental, a survey shows that the N4 design has fulfilled its aims. (A.C.)

  1. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a

  2. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  3. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  4. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in-situ room closure in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in-situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. (author).

  5. 75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... associated with fatigue management and maximum hours of service, alarm management, and adequate information... Specifics. (3) Fatigue and Maximum Hours of Service (panel). (4) Alarm Management (panel). (5) Roles and... risk associated with controller fatigue. In addition, certain operators must define the roles and...

  6. A methodology for Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) based on Advanced Control Room Operator Support System (ACROSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Muhammad, E-mail: zubairheu@gmail.com [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Zhang Zhijian, E-mail: zhangzhijian@hrbeu.edu.cn [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Khan, Salah Ud-din, E-mail: khanheu@gmail.com [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > In this study we have introduced a methodology for Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). > Now the paper is focus on LPSA methodology for this purpose we introduced Advanced Control Room Operator Support System (ACROSS). > The ACROSS concept is new technique in LPSA and it's a part of our research project. > Detail is present in Section of paper. > We have also added to provide more detail about methodology. > We have remove Risk monitor portion from our paper and give more attention to LPSA methodology. - Abstract: In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) all attention is paid to analyze a system which is a time consuming effort so there is a need to develop a system network to support the analyst and to reduce manpower. To handle the physical, operational and organizational changes and to utilize the PSA information effectively the development of living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) is essential. This paper presents a detailed methodology for LPSA. One part of this methodology is Advanced Control Room Operator Support System (ACROSS) which is helpful for updating the LPSA model. This methodology also provides help to make the control rooms in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) more advanced and user friendly. The study also makes recommendations for further use and development of this technique in the present and future NPPs.

  7. Closed-Loop Acoustic Control of Reverberant Room for Satellite Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Karl; Bianciardi, Fabio; Sabbatini, Danilo; Debille, Jan; Carrella, Alex

    2012-07-01

    The full satellite acoustic test is an important milestone in a satellite launch survivability verification campaign. This test is required to verify the satellite’s mechanical design against the high-level acoustic loads induced by the launch vehicle during the atmospheric flight. During the test, the satellite is subjected to a broadband diffuse acoustic field, reproducing the pressure levels observed during launch. The excitation is in most cases provided by a combination of horns for the low frequencies and noise generators for the higher frequencies. Acoustic control tests are commonly performed in reverberant rooms, controlling the sound pressure levels in third octave bands over the specified target spectrum. This paper discusses an automatic feedback control system for acoustic control of large reverberation rooms for satellite environmental testing. The acoustic control system consists of parallel third octave PI (Proportional Integral) feedback controllers that take the reverberation characteristics of the room into consideration. The drive output of the control system is shaped at every control step based on the comparison of the average third octave noise spectrum, measured from a number of microphones in the test room, with the target spectrum. Cross-over filters split the output drive into band- limited signals to feed each of the horns. The control system is realized in several steps. In the first phase, a dynamic process model is developed, including the non-linear characteristics of the horns and the reverberant properties of the room. The model is identified from dynamic experiments using system identification techniques. In the next phase, an adequate control strategy is designed which is capable of reaching the target spectrum in the required time period without overshoots. This control strategy is obtained from model-in-the-loop (MIL) simulations, evaluating the performance of various potential strategies. Finally, the proposed strategy is

  8. A Distributed Control System Prototyping Environment to Support Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Operators of critical processes, such as nuclear power production, must contend with highly complex systems, procedures, and regulations. Developing human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that better support operators is a high priority for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of critical processes. Human factors engineering (HFE) provides a rich and mature set of tools for evaluating the performance of HMIs, however the set of tools for developing and designing HMIs is still in its infancy. Here we propose a rapid prototyping approach for integrating proposed HMIs into their native environments before a design is finalized. This approach allows researchers and developers to test design ideas and eliminate design flaws prior to fully developing the new system. We illustrate this approach with four prototype designs developed using Microsoft’s Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF). One example is integrated into a microworld environment to test the functionality of the design and identify the optimal level of automation for a new system in a nuclear power plant. The other three examples are integrated into a full-scale, glasstop digital simulator of a nuclear power plant. One example demonstrates the capabilities of next generation control concepts; another aims to expand the current state of the art; lastly, an HMI prototype was developed as a test platform for a new control system currently in development at U.S. nuclear power plants. WPF possesses several characteristics that make it well suited to HMI design. It provides a tremendous amount of flexibility, agility, robustness, and extensibility. Distributed control system (DCS) specific environments tend to focus on the safety and reliability requirements for real-world interfaces and consequently have less emphasis on providing functionality to support novel interaction paradigms. Because of WPF’s large user-base, Microsoft can provide an extremely mature tool. Within process control applications,WPF is

  9. 75 FR 56972 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., except for certain provisions regarding adequate information and alarm management, which would have a... must implement methods to reduce the risk associated with controller fatigue. In addition, certain... also manage alarms, assure control room considerations are taken into account when changing pipeline...

  10. Demonstration of visualization techniques for the control room engineer in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Heussen, Kai; Strasser, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Deliverable 8.1 reports results on analytics and visualizations of real time flexibility in support of voltage and frequency control in 2030+ power system. The investigation is carried out by means of relevant control room scenarios in order to derive the appropriate analytics needed for each...

  11. Room temperature zeolitization of boiler slag from a Bulgarian thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascova Radost D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost-effective method was applied for the synthesis of zeolite composites utilising wet bottom boiler slag from the Bulgarian coal-fired thermal power plant “Sviloza”, near the town of Svishtov. The method consisted of a prolonged alkali treatment at room temperature of this waste. Experimental techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses, are employed to characterize the initial slag and the final products with respect to their morphology, and elemental and mineral compositions. The composites synthesized in this way contained two Na-type zeolite phases: zeolite X (type FAU and zeolite Linde F (type EDI. The zeolited products and the starting slag were tested as adsorbents for a textile dye (Malachite Green from aqueous solutions. In comparison with the initial slag, the zeolite composite possessed substantially better adsorption properties: it almost completely adsorbs the dye in much shorter times. The results of this investigations revealed a new, easy and low cost route for recycling boiler slag into a material with good adsorption characteristics, which could find different applications, e.g., for purifying polluted waters, including those from the textile industry.

  12. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Yu, Seon Jae; Choi, Eui Sun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    This year we plan to survey information in order to have basic understanding of digital information display and control at the advanced MCR. At first we collect different ways of presenting information at the advanced MCR. Secondly, we conduct literature survey on studies that have investigated information representation techniques and their effects. Then, we need compare differences between conventional NPPs and advanced NPPs. Thirdly, we need to check HMI styles and evaluation techniques that are used currently at foreign NPPs. Indeed, HMI at the advanced MCR is quite different from that at a conventional MCR. It is not desirable to apply the same evaluation technique that has veen used at the conventional MCR. We need to develop an evaluation technique that is valid in theory and applicable in practice. Finally, we identify the requirements for a support system for an HMI evaluator, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though one has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences.

  13. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators.

  14. Acceptability of Low Level White Lighting in the Control Room at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    LIGHTING IN THE CONTROL ROOM AT SEA by S. M. Luria and D. A. Kobus Naval Medical Research and Development Command Research Work Unit M0100.001...release; distribution unlimited. ACCEPTABILITY OF LOW LEVEL WHITE LIGHTING " IN THE CONTROL ROOM AT SEA by S. M. Luria , Ph.D. David A. Kobus, LT...ltr 9330 Ser 51/434 to CO, NSMRL of 18 Nov 1984. 3 Luria , S. M. and David A. Kobus. The relative effectiveness of red and white light for

  15. Plant actin controls membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, Petra; Eing, Christian; Straessner, Ralf; Durst, Steffen; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The biological effects of electric pulses with low rise time, high field strength, and durations in the nanosecond range (nsPEFs) have attracted considerable biotechnological and medical interest. However, the cellular mechanisms causing membrane permeabilization by nanosecond pulsed electric fields are still far from being understood. We investigated the role of actin filaments for membrane permeability in plant cells using cell lines where different degrees of actin bundling had been introduced by genetic engineering. We demonstrate that stabilization of actin increases the stability of the plasma membrane against electric permeabilization recorded by penetration of Trypan Blue into the cytoplasm. By use of a cell line expressing the actin bundling WLIM domain under control of an inducible promotor we can activate membrane stabilization by the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone. By total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we can visualize a subset of the cytoskeleton that is directly adjacent to the plasma membrane. We conclude that this submembrane cytoskeleton stabilizes the plasma membrane against permeabilization through electric pulses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Control console for the X-ray room; Consola de control para la sala de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A.; Torres B, M.A

    1998-07-01

    It is presented the design and construction of Control console for the X-ray room of Metrology Center for ionizing radiations at National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This system controls the positioning of 6 different filters for an X-ray beam. Also it controls a shutter which blockades the beam during periods established by user, these periods can be fixed from hours until tenth of second. The shutter opening periods, as well as the X-ray beam filter are establish and monitoring from a Personal computer outside of room. (Author)

  17. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  18. CMS Control Room during early morning collisions at 2.36 TeV.

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon (CMS)

    2009-01-01

    CMS recorded around 15000 collisions at 2.36 TeV with the whole detector operational, including the inner silicon systems (strips and pixels). A relatively quiet control room was still witness to excitement during the first online event displays of the collisions.

  19. Gargamelle in the West Area - control room for the external electronic detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Four electronic detectors complementing Gargamelle were installed in 1977, among them the external muon identifier (EMI), consisting of two arrays of multiwire proportional chambers separated by an iron wall (see Annual Report 1977 p. 84). The photo shows the control room close to the West Gargamelle Hall (Bld. 185).

  20. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by various towns in Uruguay

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Anilla Cultural Latinoamérica – Europa in Uruguay is a venture between ANEP, CES and UDELAR. In its line of action of scientific and technological culture they contact CERN for an open dialogue to divulge science, led to its teachers and students. The virtual "visit" of Uruguay at CERN is done from multiple video conferencing rooms in the country through the Uruguayan Academic Network. On 28th May six towns in Uruguay will be connected to the ATLAS Control Room: Montevideo, Maldonado, Rocha, Tacuarembó, Salto and Rivera.

  1. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  2. The Design and Research of the Operation Status Detector for Marine Engine Room Power Plant Based on Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in this paper, based on the noise of ship engine room power plant running status of detector, is mainly used in the operation of the power plant of acoustic shell size to determine when the machine running state, this device is composed of signal disposal and alarm display adjustment part of two parts. Detector that can show the size of the voice, if exceed the set limit alarm value, the detector can sound an alarm, to remind staff equipment fails, it shall timely inspection maintenance, improve the safety of the operation of the ship.

  3. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  4. Room transfers and the risk of delirium incidence amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Amanda; Sharon E Straus; Hamid, Jemila S; Wong, Camilla L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Room transfers are suspected to promote the development of delirium in hospitalized elderly patients, but no studies have systematically examined the relationship between room transfers and delirium incidence. We used a case?control study to determine if the number of room transfers per patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients, controlling for baseline risk factors. Methods We included patients 70?years of age ...

  5. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the Frankfurt Book Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The Frankfurt book fair is the largest of its kind in Germany, attracting about 300,000 visitors during five days. CERN will be present with a large stand, incorporating a virtual LHC control centre, a table featuring books on CERN for the general public, an interactive LHC tunnel and a presentation stage. Every 2 hours, a CERN physicist will give a short presentation on CERN and LHC physics, which includes a live link to the control rooms of ATLAS or CMS, or the CERN control room. This will give visitors of the book fair the opportunity to ask questions about the LHC, the LHC experiments, Higgs particles or anything else they would like to know. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Frankfurt-2012.html

  6. Multichannel active control of random noise in a small reverberant room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren; Elliott, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for multichannel adaptive IIR (infinite impulse response) filtering is presented and applied to the active control of broadband random noise in a small reverberant room. Assuming complete knowledge of the primary noise, the theoretically optimal reductions of acoustic energy...... multichannel FIR (finite impulse response) and IIR filters are then compared for a four-secondary-source, eight-error microphone active control system, and it is found that for the present application FIR filters are sufficient when the primary noise source is a loudspeaker. Some experiments are then presented...... with the primary noise field generated by a panel excited by a loudspeaker in an adjoining room. These results show that far better performances are provided by IIR and FIR filters when the primary source has a lightly damped dynamic behavior which the active controller must model...

  7. Room acoustic analysis of blower unit and noise control plan in the typical steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the steel industry,air blowers used to supply compressed air are considered as sources of annoying noise. This study aims to acoustics analysis of theairblower workroomand sound source characteristics in order to present noise controlmeasuresinthe steel industry. .Material and Method: Measurement of noiselevel and its frequency analysis was performed usingsound levelmetermodelof CASELLA-Cell.450. Distribution of noise level in the investigated workroom in form of noise map was provided using Surfer software. In addition, acoustic analysis of workroom and control room was performed in view point of soundabsorption andinsulation. Redesignofdoor and window of controlroom and installation of soundabsorbing materialson theceiling of the workroom were proposed and the efficiency of these interventionswasestimated. .Result: The totalsound pressurelevelin the blower workroom was 95.4 dB(L and the dominant frequency was 2000Hz. Sound pressure level inside the room control was 80.1dB(A. The average absorption coefficient and reverberation time in the blower workroom was estimated equal to 0.082 Sab.m2 and 3.9 seconds respectively. These value in control room was 0.04 Sab.m2 and 3/4 seconds respectively. In control room, sound transmission loss between the two parts of the wall dividing was 13.7 dB(A. The average of noise dose in blower operators was 230%. With the installation of sound absorber on ceiling of workroom, average of absorption coefficient can increase to 0.33 Sab.m2 and sound transmission loss of the new designed door and window was estimated equal to 20dB. . Conclusion: The main cause of noise leakage in the control room was insufficient insulation properties of door and windows. By replacing the door and window and installation of sound absorbing on ceiling of workroom, the noise dose can reduce to 49.6%. New Improved door and window of control room can reduce noise dose to 69.65% solely.

  8. Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeindra Myint Lwin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research presents the microcontroller controlled smart living room system using Bluetooth wireless technology from mobile phone.An android apk is created in mobile for controlling the living room system. A 16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a bluetooth module transceiver. It is used for controlling fan speed control dim light control lighting ONOFF and window angle control. An arduino controller is used for keypad control door security. It is connected to DC motor control circuit and switching circuit for opening and closing of the door keypad for entering password and serial LCD for displaying the update status of the door.User can control the home appliances by using bluetooth connection from mobile phone in its range. User can adjust the dim light fan speed window angle and light bulbs from android apk. An internal EEPROM is built in 16F877A microcontroller and it stores the last requested data of the appliances. If userwants to recover the former conditions of the appliances he can recall them from android apk.

  9. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Köhl, J

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  10. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  11. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studies the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study is conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it is found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  12. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studied the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study was conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16,000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it was found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  13. Climate control based on temperature measurement in the animal-occupied zone of a pig room with ground channel ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Aerts, J.M.; Brecht, van A.; Vranken, E.; Leroy, T.; Berckmans, D.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that there can be a significant temperature difference between the position of the climate controller sensor (room temperature) and the animal-occupied zone (AOZ) in a pig room. This study explores the advantages of using AOZ temperature in climate control. The objectives were: (1) to ev

  14. Control of Single-room Ventilation with Regenerative Heat Recovery for Indoor Climate and Energy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    exchanger. Available literature suggests that uncoated rotary heat exchangers transfer this condensate to the supply air, so the drying capacity of the ventilation system may be severely limited. This could raise indoor relative humidities to unsafe levels, which could promote the growth of dust......-mites and mould. Controls may increase drying capacity by increasing ventilation airflow, but this may not be sufficient to limit moisture-related risks. This research investigated the added demand-control measure of reducing variable heat recovery to increase drying capacity when using an uncoated rotary heat...... in these rooms, and the overall average reduction in heat recovery was less than 3%. The combined measures only succeeded in living rooms and bedrooms, and the results confirmed that rotary heat exchangers should not be used in kitchens or bathrooms, where moisture risks may be unavoidable....

  15. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the University of Bern

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    Fresher's day for potential future bachelor students Infotage für Studieninteressierte Bachelor Once a year the University of Bern organizes two information days for young potential future bachelor students. Young aspiring candidates interested in a career in physics will be shown the forefront of physics research, where a trip around the university physics laboratories, and a direct video link to the ATLAS Control room at CERN's Large Hadron Collider is part of the program. A physicist from Bern will present directly from the ATLAS control room for a direct and personal view into the physics at the LHC, the Higgs particle, the generation of mass, antimatter, the origin of the universe and the involvement of the Bern high-energy physics team in the ATLAS experiment. This also allows for fruitful discussions about their own perspectives of perhaps becoming a CERN physicist one day. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Bern-2012.html

  16. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...... is also provided by an analysis of the relations between levels of abstraction. It is also described how MFM supparts reazsonin about control actions by defining levels of intervention and by modal distinctions between function enablement and initiation....

  17. An artificial solar spectrum substantially alters plant development compared with usual climate room irradiance spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Douwstra, P.; Trouwborst, G.; Ieperen, van W.; Harbinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses to the light spectrum under which plants are grown affect their developmental characteristics in a complicated manner. Lamps widely used to provide growth irradiance emit spectra which are very different from natural daylight spectra. Whereas specific responses of plants to a

  18. Green synthesis of Au nanostructures at room temperature using biodegradable plant surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-step green synthesis of gold (Au) nanostructures is described using naturally occurring biodegradable plant surfactants such as VeruSOL-3™ (mixture of d-limonene and plant-based surfactants), VeruSOL-10™, VeruSOL-11™ and VeruSOL-12™ (individual plant-based surfactants deri...

  19. Shrub control by browsing: Targeting adult plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling the well known benefits of shrubs for forage with environmental goals, whilst preventing their dominance, is a major challenge in rangeland management. Browsing may be an economical solution for shrubby rangelands as herbivore browsing has been shown to control juvenile shrub growth. Less convincing results have been obtained for adult plants, and long-term experiments are required to investigate the cumulative effects on adult plants. We therefore assessed the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on key demographic parameters for a major dominant shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius), focusing on adult plants. We assigned individual broom plants to one of three age classes: 3-5 years (young adults); 5-7 years (adults); and 7-9 years (mature adults). These plants were then left untouched or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed in simulated low-intensity and high-intensity browsing treatments, respectively. Morphological, survival and fecundity data were collected over a period of four years. Browsing affected the morphology of individual plants, promoting changes in subsequent regrowth, and decreasing seed production. The heavily browsed plants were 17% shorter, 32% narrower, and their twigs were 28% shorter. Light browsing seemed to control the growth of young adult plants more effectively than that of older plants. Reproductive output was considerably lower than for control plants after light browsing, and almost 100% lower after heavy browsing. High-intensity browsing had a major effect on survival causing high levels of plant mortality. We conclude that suitable browsing practices could be used to modify adult shrub demography in the management of shrub dominance and forage value.

  20. Infrared thermography evaluation from the back region of healthy horses in controlled temperature room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pavelski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The infrared thermography is a diagnostic imaging tool, which measures the surface temperature of an object through its heat emission. It is a non-invasive method, painless, with no involvement of radiation. Horses have elevated incidence of back injuries which causes decrease in their performance. A rapid and accurate diagnostic is essential to start the treatment. The aim of this paper was to establish the ideal time to the animal stay e inside a controlled room to balance their temperature and in the second time verify the thermographic temperature of specific back regions. It was studied fifteen healthy horses, being performed thermography of thoracic, lumbar and pelvic regions in four different times. There was a significant difference between the thermography performed outside and inside of the controlled temperature room. It was concluded that the ideal time to the horse stay into the controlled temperature room was thirty minutes and the mean thermographic temperatures of back regions, were obtained and can be used as parameters to identify injuries in other horses.

  1. Microbiological air pollution of production room of the meat processing plant as a potential threat to the workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Breza-Boruta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Production rooms of the meat plants are the specific environment that require constant monitoring of microbiological air purity. Bioaerosols pose a threat to the safety of produced food and a considerable risk to health of exposed workers. The aim of this study was to estimate the air microbiological pollution in production rooms of the meat processing plant and exposure of the workers to biological aerosol. Material and methods. Air samples were collected at 3 stands in production rooms during winter, with the compaction method using the impactor MAS-100. The total number of bacteria and moulds, Staphylococci and bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were determined in the studied bioaerosol. The concentration of microorganisms was presented in the form of colony forming units in 1m3 of air. Results. The highest concentration of mesophylic bacteria was found at stand 1 – at the freezing tunnel; whereas the highest contamination with staphylococci and fungal aerosol was found in the room where several workers were employed at packing frozen food. Among determined fungi predominated moulds of the genera: Penicillium, Alternaria and Cladosporium. Also species of potentially pathogenic fungi which produce toxins and have allergizing properties were detected in the studied bioaerosol. Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which also may cause many infavourable health effects in exposed people, occurred at all stands. Conclusion. The concentration level and microbial composition in the inhaled air make valuable information for determination of occupational risk and a potential threat to workers of their workstations. Potentially pathogenic microorganisms present in the studied air (staphylococci, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and some moulds according to the Directive 2000/54/EC l belong to the 2nd group of risk and threat of harmful biological agents. Identification of biological threats makes it easier for the

  2. ITER prototype fast plant system controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, B., E-mail: bruno@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Correia, M.; Batista, A. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vega, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Lopez, J.M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Castro, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Wallander, A.; Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.; Simrock, S. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Neto, A.; Alves, D.; Valcarcel, D.F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lousa, P.; Piedade, F.; Fernandes, L. [INOV, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    ITER CODAC Design identified the need for slow and fast control plant systems, based respectively on industrial automation technology with maximum sampling rates below 100 Hz, and on embedded technology with higher sampling rates and more stringent real-time requirements. The fast system is applicable to diagnostics and plant systems in closed-control loops whose cycle times are below 1 ms. Fast controllers will be dedicated industrial controllers with the ability to supervise other fast and/or slow controllers, interface to actuators and sensors and high performance networks (HPN). This contribution presents the engineering design of two prototypes of a fast plant system controller (FPSC), specialized for data acquisition, constrained by ITER technological choices. This prototyping activity contributes to the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) effort of standardization, specifically regarding fast controller characteristics. The prototypes will be built using two different form factors, PXIe and ATCA, with the aim of comparing the implementations. The presented solution took into consideration channel density, synchronization, resolution, sampling rates and the needs for signal conditioning such as filtering and galvanic isolation. The integration of the two controllers in the standard CODAC environment is also presented and discussed. Both controllers contain an EPICS IOC providing the interface to the mini-CODAC which will be used for all testing activities. The alpha version of the FPSC is also presented.

  3. Controlled Evolution of Silicon Nanocone Arrays Induced by Ar+ Sputtering at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qin-Tao; LI Zhi-Gang; XIE Qiao-Ling; GONG Jin-Long; ZHU De-Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Controlled evolution of silicon nanocone arrays induced by Ar+ sputtering at room temperature, using the coating carbon as a mask, is demonstrated. The investigation of scanning electron microscopy indicates that the morphology of silicon nanostructures can be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the coating carbon film.Increasing the thickness of the coating carbon film from 50-6Onm, 250-300nm and 750-800nm to 150Onm, the morphologies of silicon nanostructures are transformed from smooth surface ripple, coarse surface ripple and surface ripple with densely distributed nanocones to nanocone arrays with a high density of about 1 × 109-2 × 109 cm-2.

  4. Control console of the gamma calibration room; Consola de control de la Sala de Calibracion Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilchis P, A.E.; Romero G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ingenieria Electronica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Centre of Mexico has a Ionizing Radiation Metrology Center (CMRI). This is in charge of the calibration in Mexico and Latin America of equipment dedicated to radiation measurement as industrial, medical as other fields. The importance to ensure that the equipment stay justly calibrated, it is imposed the necessity of automating the different rooms which the CMRI has. in this case it will be exposed the Calibration room for gamma radiation type. The operation of this application was carried out with the LabVIEW development platform and also in C language. The hardware associated is: personal computer with two cards using the 8255 device, 16 channels with optical isolation to manage input/output TTL type, 16 channels with optical isolation to management of charges to 127 V a.c., and 2 channels for 90V d.c. motors. (Author)

  5. Manufacturing plant control challenges and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Gérard; Valckenaers, Paul; Faure, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Diedrich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Enterprise control system integration between business systems, manufacturing execution systems and shop-floor process-control systems remains a key issue for facilitating the deployment of plant-wide information control systems for practical e-business-to-manufacturing industry-led issues. Achievement of the integration-in-manufacturing paradigm based on centralized/distributed hardware/software automation architectures is evolving using the intelligence-in-manufactur...

  6. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  7. Airborne Contamination Control through Directed Airflow in the Exam Room: A Pilot Study Using a Membrane Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Pati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne infections have been documented as a major source of hospital acquired infection - one of the major concerns in healthcare delivery. An important factor contributing to airborne infection is cross contamination through air particulate dispersion as affected by the ventilation system design. Clean room technology (with membrane ceiling has been successfully used in technology and pharmaceutical industries to control airborne contamination. This study examined the performance of membrane ceiling technology in controlling air particulate dispersion in a mock-up exam room. It included both performance tests in a mock-up room and a simulation study of six different ventilation system designs using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis. Findings suggest that a membrane diffuser directed airflow ventilation strategy occupying approximately 20% to 30% of the ceiling surface and placed over the patient in a contemporary sized exam room provides a less turbulent airflow pattern and less mixing of the air between the patient and others in the room.

  8. Injuries to plants from controlled environment contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    The use of controlled environments is subject to problems from contaminants emitted from materials of the system and from plants. Many contaminants are difficult to identify because injurious dosages are very low, there is a lack of information on what compounds injure plants, because species and cultivars differ greatly in their sensitivity to injury and injury symptoms often are not distinctive. Plastics have been shown to emit many different volatile compounds. The compound, di-butyl phthalate, contained in certain flexible plastics, has been shown to be very toxic to plants. Other injuries have been produced by caulking compounds and bonded screening. Paints have been shown to release xylene that is toxic to plants. Steam for humidification can cause problems because of hydroxylamines and other compounds added to steam used for heating to control fungal growth in return lines. Mercury, from broken thermometers is a particular problem in growth chambers because small quantities can collect in cracks and slowly volatilize to slow growth of plants. Plants themselves release large quantities of volatile hydrocarbons, with ethylene being the commonly recognized chemical that can be damaging when allowed to accumulate. People release large quantities of carbon dioxide which can cause variations in the rate of growth of plants. Contaminant problems can be controlled through filtering of the air or ventilation with make-up air, however the potential for problems is always present and careful testing should be undertaken with the particular species and cultivars being grown to insure that there are no toxic agents altering growth in each particular controlled environment being utilized.

  9. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  10. Copper Selenide Nanosnakes: Bovine Serum Albumin-Assisted Room Temperature Controllable Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Peng; Kong Yifei; Li Zhiming; Gao Feng; Cui Daxiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Herein we firstly reported a simple, environment-friendly, controllable synthetic method of CuSe nanosnakes at room temperature using copper salts and sodium selenosulfate as the reactants, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as foaming agent. As the amounts of selenide ions (Se2−) released from Na2SeSO3 in the solution increased, the cubic and snake-like CuSe nanostructures were formed gradually, the cubic nanostructures were captured by the CuSe nanosnakes, the CuSe nanosnakes gre...

  11. Report for Task 8.4: Development of Control Room Layout Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has contracted Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) to support in the development of an end state vision for the US Nuclear industry and in particular for a utility that is currently moving forward with a control room modernization project. This support includes the development of an Overview display and technical support in conducting an operational study. Development of operational scenarios to be conducted using a full scope simulator at the INL HSSL. Additionally IFE will use the CREATE modelling tool to provide 3-D views of the potential and possible end state view after the completion of digital upgrade project.

  12. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by leading universities of Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    Science Festival in Russian Federation is a programme of events which take place at the leading scientific centres and museums in Russia. At the Science Festival scientists, engineers and students show to visitors the advances of modern science and technology in all scopes of life. Today the leading universities of Russia will feature a multipoint video conference with the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors of the Science Festival the opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Russia-2012.html

  13. Coherent control in room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers using shaped pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gadi; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability to control quantum coherent Rabi-oscillations in a room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) by shaping the light pulses that trigger them. The experiments described here show that when the excitation is resonant with the short wavelength slope of the SOA gain spectrum, a linear frequency chirp affects its ability to trigger Rabi-oscillations within the SOA: A negative chirp inhibits Rabi-oscillations whereas a positive chirp can enhance them, relative to the interaction of a transform limited pulse. The experiments are confirmed by a numerical calculation that models the propagation of the experimentally shaped pulses through the SOA.

  14. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during the "Nuit des deux infinis", Grenoble

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    October 9, 2012 will be held the first "Night of two infinities", organized by the Laboratories of Excellence P2IO and ENIGMASS on two sites: Massy and Grenoble. This general public event will be held each year in a similar way to other "Nights" that became famous as the "Night of Museums, the "White Night "and the "Night of the Stars." During this event a short virtual visit of the ATLAS Control Room will be organized. The ACR will be briefly presented to the audience (~2000 people). A few questions will be taken from Massy and Grenoble.

  15. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by High schools of Argos prefecture

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Continuing the subatomic journey that started last year in Argos, Greece, 45 students from 14 high schools of the prefecture will take part in a dedicated ATLAS Masterclass organized by the University of Athens in the framework of the Go-Lab and Inspiring Science Education European projects. Students will learn how to analyse real events from the ATLAS experiment with the use of HYPATIA online applet. They will also have the opportunity to visit the ATLAS control room to learn what it takes for scientists to keep on pushing the boundaries of our understanding of the origins of the universe.

  16. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by 5th Lyceum in Volos

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The city of Volos, situated at the centre of the Greek mainland, will be hosting the 7th International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics this summer. In this context, and with support of PATHWAY and Discover the COSMOS projects, Volos` science education community is organising several pre-events aimed at bringing the world`s biggest experiments in science closer to students - the scientists of tomorrow. Senior high school students from the 5th Lyceum will have the unique opportunity to visit the ATLAS control room on the 28th March, about three months before their educational trip to CERN.

  17. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by 3rd Gymnasium in Volos

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The city of Volos, situated at the centre of the Greek mainland, will be hosting the 7th International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics this summer. In this context, and with support of PATHWAY and Discover the COSMOS projects, Volos` science education community is organising several pre-events aimed at bringing the world`s biggest experiments in science closer to students - the scientists of tomorrow. Junior high school students from the 3rd Gymnasium in Volos will have the unique opportunity to visit the ATLAS control room on 29th of March.

  18. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Al-Quds University

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS virtual visit features Al-Quds University, a Palestinian university with campuses in Abu Dis and Beit Hanina-Jerusalem. As part of the "Physics Without Frontiers" project, funded by ICTP, Al-Quds is hosting a one day particle physics masterclass. During the day the students are given an introduction to particle physics, the LHC and the ATLAS Experiment, before having the chance to analyse real LHC data. This virtual visit comprises of a live tour around the ATLAS control room and the opportunity to ask questions to the ATLAS physicists.

  19. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  20. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  1. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Physiological Assessment For Next Generation Control Room Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P Hallbert; M. David Keller; Tessa M. Anderson

    2007-08-01

    Abstract - We propose using non-obtrusive physiological assessment (e.g., eye tracking,) to assess human information processing errors (e.g., loss of vigilance) and limitations (e.g., workload) for advanced energy systems early in the design process. This physiological approach for assessing risk will circumvent many limitations of current risk methodologies such as subjective rating (e.g., rater’s biases) and performance modeling (e.g., risk assessment is scripted and is based upon the individual modeler’s judgment). Key uses will be to evaluate (early in the design process) novel control room equipment and configurations as well as newly developed automated systems that will inevitably place a high information load on operators. The physiological risk assessment tool will allow better precision in pinpointing problematic design issues and will provide a “real-time” assessment of risk. Furthermore, this physiological approach would extend the state-of-the-art of human reliability methods from a “static” measure to more “dynamic.” This paper will discuss a broad range of the current popular online performance gauges as well as its advantages and disadvantages for use in next generation control room.

  3. Requirements for future control room and visualization features in the Web-of-Cells framework defined in the ELECTRA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines an overview of the general requirements for the control rooms of the future power systems (2030+). The roles and activities in the future control centres will evolve with respect to the switching, dispatching and restoration functions currently active. The control centre...... operators will supervise on the power system and intervene - when necessary - thanks to the maturation and wide scale deployment of flexible controls. For the identification of control room requirements, general trends in power system evolution are considered and mainly the outcomes of the ELECTRA IRP...... project, that proposes a new Web-of-Cell (WoC) power system control architecture. Dedicated visualization features are proposed, aimed to support the control room operators activities in a WoC oriented approach. Furthermore, the work takes into account the point of view of network operators about future...

  4. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde.

  5. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eGijzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

  6. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Festival of Science "Theory-knowledge-experience...". Fest will be located on the traditional Main Square, which is visited by thousands of citizens and tourists. Institute of Nuclear Physics as usual participates in this annual event. Our visitors will learn the secrets of the CERN experiments on the Large Hadron Collider - ATLAS, LHCb, ALICE, CMS, find out more about the Higgs particles, antimatter quark-gluon plasma (beeing guided by our scientists and PhD students). One of the attractions will be ATLAS Control Room Virtual Visit. Visiting people will have an opportunity to see how ATLAS is controlled and operated to collect its exciting data and ask questions to scientists and engineers involved in LHC program at CERN. Institute of Nuclear Physics has prepared also several interactive demonstrations of Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Resonance, Hadron Therapy and Crystal Physics. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences carries out basic and applied research in physics, ...

  7. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  8. Determination of the PSI/PSII ratio in living plant cells at room temperature by spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgass, Kirstin; Zell, Martina; Maurino, Veronica G.; Schleifenbaum, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Leaf cells of living plants exhibit strong fluorescence from chloroplasts, the reaction centers of photosynthesis. Mutations in the photosystems change their structure and can, thus, be monitored by recording the fluorescence spectra of the emitted chlorophyll light. These measurements have, up to now, mostly been carried out at low temperatures (77 K), as these conditions enable the differentiation between the fluorescence of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII). In contrast, at room temperature, energy transfer processes between the various photosynthetic complexes result in very similar fluorescence emissions, which mainly consist of fluorescence photons emitted by PSII hindering a discrimination based on spectral ROIs (regions of interest). However, by statistical analysis of high resolution fluorescence spectra recorded at room temperature, it is possible to draw conclusions about the relative PSI/PSII ratio. Here, the possibility of determining the relative PSI/PSII ratio by fluorescence spectroscopy is demonstrated in living maize plants. Bundle-sheath chloroplasts of mature maize plants have a special morphologic characteristic; they are agranal, or exhibit only rudimentary grana, respectively. These chloroplasts are depleted in PSII activity and it could be shown that PSII is progressively reduced during leaf differentiation. A direct comparison of PSII activity in isolated chloroplasts is nearly impossible, since the activity of PSII in both mesophyll- and bundle-sheath chloroplasts decays with time after isolation and it takes significantly longer to isolate bundle-sheath chloroplasts. Considering this fact the measurement of PSI/PSII ratios with the 77K method, which includes taking fluorescence spectra from a diluted suspension of isolated chloroplasts at 77K, is questionable. These spectra are then used to analyze the distribution of energy between PSI and PSII. After rapid cooling to 77K secondary biochemical influences, which attenuate the

  9. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS......), is introduced. The system utilizes front loudspeakers and extra loudspeakers on the opposite wall of the room processed to cancel out the rear-wall reflections, which effectively conveys a more uniform sound field. The system works in the time domain and presents good performance over the loudspeaker low...

  10. Development of nuclear power plant online monitoring system using statistical quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang Ha

    2006-02-15

    Statistical Quality Control techniques have been applied to many aspects of industrial engineering. An application to nuclear power plant maintenance and control is also presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCP) and the fouling resistance of heat exchanger. This research uses Shewart X-bar, R charts, Cumulative Sum charts (CUSUM), and Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. And we made Control Chart Analyzer (CCA) to support these analyses that can make a decision of error in process. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators. Such a system would provide operators with enough time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability.

  11. Control effect of lanthanum against plant disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yajia; WANG Yan; WANG Fubin; LIU Yuming; CUI Jianyu; HU Lin; MU Kangguo

    2008-01-01

    Effect of La on emergence, growth and development of Isatis indigotica Fort and Festuca arundinacea seedlings was researched by pot experiments of inoculating Rhizoctonia solani and with the mixture of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in disinfected soil after the seeds were soaked in the solution with different concentrations of La3+. The results indicated that infection rate decreased and there were significant disease controlling effects on seed rot, bud rot and root rot caused by pathogenic fungi when the seeds were soaked by La3+. Thus, the rates of emergence of Isatis indigotica Fort. And turfgrass Festuca arundinacea were increased. When La3+ concentration was in a proper range, the growth and development of plant seedlings were promoted. Spraying La on rice plants showed a significant controling effect on Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the EC50 of La3+ performed 128.7 and 128.1 mg/L at 1 and 7 d after spraying La in rice plants, respectively. The EC50ofLa3+ performed in vivo (in rice plant) was lower than that in vitro (171.9 mg/L).

  12. A metamorphic controller for plant control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klopot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in the design of industrial control systems is the selection and parameterization of the control algorithm. In practice, the most common solution is the PI (proportional-integral controller, which is simple to implement, but is not always the best control strategy. The use of more advanced controllers may result in a better efficiency of the control system. However, the implementation of advanced control algorithms is more time-consuming and requires specialized knowledge from control engineers. To overcome these problems and to support control engineers at the controller design stage, the paper describes a tool, i.e., a metamorphic controller with extended functionality, for selection and implementation of the most suitable control algorithm. In comparison to existing solutions, the main advantage of the metamorphic controller is its possibility of changing the control algorithm. In turn, the candidate algorithms can be tested through simulations and the total time needed to perform all simulations can be less than a few minutes, which is less than or comparable to the design time in the concurrent design approach. Moreover, the use of well-known tuning procedures, makes the system easy to understand and operate even by inexperienced control engineers. The application was implemented in the real industrial programmable logic controller (PLC and tested with linear and nonlinear virtual plants. The obtained simulation results confirm that the change of the control algorithm allows the control objectives to be achieved at lower costs and in less time.

  13. A Study on Large Display Panel Design for the Countermeasures against Team Errors within the Main Control Room of APR-1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The personal aspect of human errors has been mainly overcome by virtue of the education and training. However, in the system aspect, the education and training system needs to be reconsidered for more effective reduction of human errors affected from various systems hazards. Traditionally the education and training systems are mainly not focused on team skills such as communication, situational awareness, and coordination, etc. but individual knowledge, skill, and attitude. However, the team factor is one of the crucial issues to reduce the human errors in most industries. In this study, we identify the emerging types of team errors, especially, in digitalized control room of nuclear power plants such as the APR-1400 main control room. Most works in nuclear industry are to be performed by a team of more than two persons. Even though the individual errors can be detected and recovered by the qualified others and/or the well trained team, it is rather seldom that the errors by team could be easily detected and properly recovered by the team itself. Note that the team is defined as two or more people who are appropriately interacting with each other, and the team is a dependent aggregate, which accomplishes a valuable goal. Team error is one of the typical organizational errors that may occur during performing operations in nuclear power plants. The large display panel is a representative feature of digitalized control room. As a group-view display, the large display panel provides plant overview to the operators. However, in terms of team performance and team errors, the large display panel is on a discussion board still because the large display panel was designed just a concept of passive display. In this study, we will propose revised large display panel which is integrated with several alternative interfaces against feasible team errors.

  14. Concept and controllability of virtual power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, E.A.

    2007-07-01

    In the end of 20th century the conception of electrical power supply is morphing gradually from centralized into decentralized system, indicated by increasing the installation of distributed generation on the main grid. With emerging of advanced communication and information technology, the aggregation control of several DG units can be developed as virtual power plant in order to provide added-value to the electric power system. This thesis presents definitions and types of Virtual Power Plants (VPP), then developing control through numerical simulation. The thesis proposes three DG controls namely Basic Autocontrol System (BAS), Smart Autocontrol System (SAS) and Tracking Efficiency Autocontrol System (TEAS). The BAS controls the DG output power with the objective to cover the local load demand. The drawback of this system is that the coordination among DG units is not established yet. In contrast to the BAS, the SAS has a control coordination centre which is responsible of controlling a certain number of DG units. The SAS controls and coordinates the operation of the dedicated DG units in order to minimize power exchange with the superior grid. However the efficiency issue is not considered at two previous control systems, therefore the TEAS was developed. Principally this system is similar to the SAS in terms of information exchange but additionally optimizes the operation efficiency of DG units. This is accomplished by tracking the systems' most efficient operation point. All control systems have been implemented into a simulation environment. The simulation results show that all developed control systems are capable to minimize the power exchange with the superior grid. The systems are able to follow changing load conditions. Furthermore the simulation results prove the ability of TEAS to optimize the system efficiency. Finally the contribution of VPP to voltage regulation is investigated with several scenarios. The influence of both, active and reactive

  15. Copper Selenide Nanosnakes: Bovine Serum Albumin-Assisted Room Temperature Controllable Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Kong, Yifei; Li, Zhiming; Gao, Feng; Cui, Daxiang

    2010-06-01

    Herein we firstly reported a simple, environment-friendly, controllable synthetic method of CuSe nanosnakes at room temperature using copper salts and sodium selenosulfate as the reactants, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as foaming agent. As the amounts of selenide ions (Se2-) released from Na2SeSO3 in the solution increased, the cubic and snake-like CuSe nanostructures were formed gradually, the cubic nanostructures were captured by the CuSe nanosnakes, the CuSe nanosnakes grew wider and longer as the reaction time increased. Finally, the cubic CuSe nanostructures were completely replaced by BSA-CuSe nanosnakes. The prepared BSA-CuSe nanosnakes exhibited enhanced biocompatibility than the CuSe nanocrystals, which highly suggest that as-prepared BSA-CuSe nanosnakes have great potentials in applications such as biomedical engineering.

  16. Copper Selenide Nanosnakes: Bovine Serum Albumin-Assisted Room Temperature Controllable Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we firstly reported a simple, environment-friendly, controllable synthetic method of CuSe nanosnakes at room temperature using copper salts and sodium selenosulfate as the reactants, and bovine serum albumin (BSA as foaming agent. As the amounts of selenide ions (Se2− released from Na2SeSO3 in the solution increased, the cubic and snake-like CuSe nanostructures were formed gradually, the cubic nanostructures were captured by the CuSe nanosnakes, the CuSe nanosnakes grew wider and longer as the reaction time increased. Finally, the cubic CuSe nanostructures were completely replaced by BSA–CuSe nanosnakes. The prepared BSA–CuSe nanosnakes exhibited enhanced biocompatibility than the CuSe nanocrystals, which highly suggest that as-prepared BSA–CuSe nanosnakes have great potentials in applications such as biomedical engineering.

  17. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Greek Physical Society Annual Student Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In a continuation of last years` efforts, The Hellenic Union of Physicists organises for the 5th consecutive year its annual meeting for high-performing students across Greece. In this creative thinking meeting, students will have an excellent opportunity to acquire an in-depth understanding in contemporary physics issues and topics as well as in modern scientific knowledge and thinking in general. Moreover, they will be introduced to modern scientific methods and will practice critical thinking via live interaction with distinctive physicists. During this meeting, students will also connect live to the ATLAS control room to talk to a Greek physicist and learn about latest developments from the world`s largest physics laboratory.

  18. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Natural History Museum, London

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    Nature Live is a programme of daily events which take place at the Natural History Museum, London. Nature Live brings together scientists and visitors to explore, discover and discuss the natural world and our place within it. In each event visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and ask lots of questions. Today Nature Live will feature a live link to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to discover how scientists at the Museum and at CERN are all looking back through deep time to answer those big questions on the origins of life, the universe and everything. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/London_NatureLive-2012.html

  19. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Europe Day Symposium

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    EUROPE DAY 2013: A Symposium Examining Canada/European Scientific Collaboration On May 9 2013. Canadians in Vancouver, British Columbia, will be gathering to enrich their understanding of scientific collaboration between Canada and Europe using CERN and its recent discovery of the Higgs boson as a framework for a symposium celebrating Europe Day. Canadians have been involved in nearly every aspect of the Large Hadron Collider accelerator and the ATLAS particle-physics detector. ATLAS-Canada spokesperson Rob McPherson will be addressing the symposium participants and talking about the multi-national effort that led to the Higgs breakthrough; his presentation will include a live virtual visit to the ATLAS control room at CERN. The event is hosted by TRIUMF, Canada`s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics. http://www.europeanfestival.ca/europe-day

  20. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by QuarkNet program in Portland

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The LHC fellows of the U.S. QuarkNet program will hold a workshop "Real LHC Data for the Classroom" for teachers using elements of the ATLAS masterclass on July 13, 2013. The workshop is part of the Summer 2013 Meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers. In the workshop, teachers are introduced to particle physics, the ATLAS experiment, and ways to use actual data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to help their students understand fundamental physics. One of the highlights of this one-day workshop is an ATLAS Virtual Visit, in which the teachers connect by videoconference with the ATLAS control room. In the videoconferecne, the participants will be able to to ask questions of and have discussions with an ATLAS physicist.

  1. Near-room-temperature refrigeration through voltage-controlled entropy change in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Ch.; Burobina, V.

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials with large magnetoelectric effect are proposed for application in advanced near-room-temperature refrigeration. The key innovation rests on utilizing the magnetocaloric effect in zero applied magnetic fields. This approach promises sizable isothermal entropy change and virtually temperature-independent refrigerant capacity through pure voltage-control. It is in sharp contrast with the conventional method of exploiting the magnetocaloric effect through applied magnetic fields. We outline the thermodynamics and estimate an isothermal entropy change specifically for the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(001) two-phase composite material. Finally, we propose structural variations of two-phase composites, which help in overcoming the challenging task of producing nanostructured material in macroscopic quantities.

  2. Control of room-temperature defect-mediated ferromagnetism in VO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tsung-Han, E-mail: tyang3@ncsu.edu [NSF Center for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Nori, Sudhakar; Mal, Siddhartha; Narayan, Jagdish [NSF Center for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We report interesting ferromagnetic properties and their control in a vanadium-based oxide system driven by stoichiometric defects. Vanadium oxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different ambient conditions. The ferromagnetism of the epitaxial VO{sub 2} films can be switched on and off by altering the cooling ambient parameters. In addition, the saturated magnetic moments and coercivity of the VO{sub 2} films were found to be a function of the oxygen partial pressure during the growth process. The room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of VO{sub 2} films were correlated with the nature of the microstructure and the growth parameters. The origin of the induced magnetic properties are qualitatively understood to stem from intrinsic structural and stoichiometric defects.

  3. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by 1st and 3rd Lyceums in Chios

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    High school students from the 1st and 3rd Lyceums of Chios, Greece, will be visiting the control room of ATLAS to discuss the latest results on the Higgs search, LHC’s first long shutdown and what the future holds for the ATLAS experiment. This visit takes place in the context of a Masterclass where students will learn how to analyse real events from the LHC with the use of the HYPATIA online applet based on educational scenarios from the Discover the COSMOS portal. This full-day activity is organized by the University of Athens, the University of the Aegean, Ellinogermaniki Agogi and the Chios Physical Society in the framework of the Open Discovery Space EU project.

  4. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the University of Genova

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Virtual Visit is included in the program of the Course in Particle and Nuclear Experimental Physics at the Physics Department of the Genova University. Students are introduced to experimental techniques and instrumentation and run few experiences in the laboratory. Besides that, they visit the Department groups that are involved both in Nuclear or High Energy Particle physics experiments. In this context, the ATLAS team will open them the doors to laboratory where ~1/3 of the Pixel detector has been built and where we are currently assembling and qualifying part of the electrical services and modules for the Insertable B layer (IBL) that will be installed in 2014 in ATLAS. Students will be introduced to LHC, ATLAS and the physics program before having the possibility to meet ATLAS physicists in ATLAS control room. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Genova-2012.html

  5. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the Genova University

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Virtual Visit is included in the program of the Course in Particle and Nuclear Experimental Physics at the Physics Department of the Genova University. Students are introduced to experimental techniques and instrumentation and run few experiences in the laboratory. Besides that, they visit the Department groups that are involved both in Nuclear or High Energy Particle physics experiments. In this context, the ATLAS team will open them the doors to laboratory where ~1/3 of the Pixel detector has been built and where we are currently assembling and qualifying part of the electrical services and modules for the Insertable B layer (IBL) that will be installed in 2014 in ATLAS. Students will be introduced to LHC, ATLAS and the physics program before having the possibility to meet ATLAS physicists in ATLAS control room. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2013/Genova-2013_2.html

  6. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the Genova University

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Virtual Visit is included in the program of the Course in Particle and Nuclear Experimental Physics at the Physics Department of the Genova University. Students are introduced to experimental techniques and instrumentation and run few experiences in the laboratory. Besides that, they visit the Department groups that are involved both in Nuclear or High Energy Particle physics experiments. In this context, the ATLAS team will open them the doors to laboratory where ~1/3 of the Pixel detector has been built and where we are currently assembling and qualifying part of the electrical services and modules for the Insertable B layer (IBL) that will be installed in 2014 in ATLAS. Students will be introduced to LHC, ATLAS and the physics program before having the possibility to meet ATLAS physicists in ATLAS control room. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2013/Genova-2013_1.html

  7. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by High Schools from Greece & Cyprus

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The subatomic journey to Nobel Prize experiments at CERN continues - this time in Greece and Cyprus. More than 600 high-schoolers from 12 schools in seven different locations across the two countries will have the unique opportunity to visit the control room of the ATLAS experiment to interact live with a Greek scientist involved in the search for the Higgs Boson and learn what it takes for CERN scientists to keep pushing the boundaries of our understanding of the origins of the Universe at the world`s largest particle physics laboratory. This international-level virtual visit has been supported by the Open Discovery Space and Inspiring Science Education EU projects that aim to help science teachers find innovative ways to make their teaching of physics and science more inspirational, attractive and relevant to students` lives.

  8. Solar field control for desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, Lidia [Convenio Universidad de Almeria, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Yebra, Luis; Alarcon-Padilla, Diego C. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper presents the development and application of a feedback linearization control strategy for a solar collector field supplying process heat to a multi-effect seawater distillation plant. Since one objective is to use as much as possible the solar resource, control techniques can be used to produce the maximum heat process in the solar field. The main purpose of the controller presented in this paper is to manipulate the water flow rate to maintain an outlet-inlet temperature gradient in the collectors, thereby ensuring continuous process heating, or in other words, continuous production of fresh water in spite of disturbances. The dynamic behaviour of this solar field was approximated by a simplified lumped-parameters nonlinear model based on differential equations, validated with real data and used in the feedback linearization control design. Experimental results in the seawater desalination plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain) show good agreement of the model and real data despite the approximations included. Moreover, by using feedback linearization control it is possible to track a constant gradient temperature reference in the solar field with good results. (author)

  9. Overall control and monitoring systems for pumped storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, B.; Cvetko, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and technical innovations in power plant engineering have resulted in continuous improvements of operation control, availability and safety of pumped storage plants. Process control is constantly improved as new developments are made in equipment and systems engineering. Plant control concepts with increasingly complex automation hierarchy are described by which pumped storage processes can be controlled optimally, reliably, and automatically.

  10. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  11. Neural Network Based PID Gain Tuning of Chemical Plant Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun; Hasegawa, Ryusaku; Watanabe, Masamori; Kamijo, Hiroaki

    In these years, plant control systems are highly automated and applied to many industries. The control performances change with the passage of time, because of the deterioration of plant facilities. This is why human experts tune the control system to improve the total plant performances. In this study, PID control system for the oil refining chemical plant process is treated. In oil refining, there are thousands of the control loops in the plant to keep the product quality at the desired value and to secure the safety of the plant operation. According to the ambiguity of the interference between control loops, it is difficult to estimate the plant dynamical model accurately. Using neuro emulator and recurrent neural networks model (RNN model) for emulation and tuning parameters, PID gain tuning system of chemical plant controller is constructed. Through numerical experiments using actual plant data, effect of the proposed method was ascertained.

  12. Room transfers and the risk of delirium incidence amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amanda; Straus, Sharon E; Hamid, Jemila S; Wong, Camilla L

    2015-06-25

    Room transfers are suspected to promote the development of delirium in hospitalized elderly patients, but no studies have systematically examined the relationship between room transfers and delirium incidence. We used a case-control study to determine if the number of room transfers per patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients, controlling for baseline risk factors. We included patients 70 years of age or older who were admitted to the internal medicine or geriatric medicine services at St. Michael's Hospital between October 2009 and September 2010 for more than 24 h. The cases consisted of patients who developed delirium during the first week of hospital stay. The controls consisted of patients who did not develop delirium during the first week of hospital stay. Patients with evidence of delirium at admission were excluded from the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the relationship between room transfers and delirium development within the first week of hospital stay. 994 patients were included in the study, of which 126 developed delirium during the first week of hospital stay. Using a multivariable logistic regression model which controlled for age, gender, cognitive impairment, vision impairment, dehydration, and severe illness, room transfers per patient days were associated with delirium incidence (OR: 9.69, 95 % CI (6.20 to15.16), P patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients. This is an exploratory analysis and needs confirmation with larger studies.

  13. W-026 acceptance test plan plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 216)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System Hardware will be conducted throughout the construction of WRAP I with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests will be broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DNS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document will contain completed copies of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  14. W-026 acceptance test report plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 220.C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP1 Plant Control System Hardware was conducted throughout the construction of WRAPI with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests were broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DMS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document contains a completed copy of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  15. Operating Room Time Savings with the Use of Splint Packs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p

  16. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb-etc-besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India); Chattopadhyay, P. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  17. Defect control in room temperature deposited cadmium sulfide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Como, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Martinez-Landeros, V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 66600, México (Mexico); Mejia, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 66600, México (Mexico); Nascimento, C.D.; Azevedo, G. de M; Krug, C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 91509-900 (Brazil); Quevedo-Lopez, M.A., E-mail: mquevedo@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The control of defects in cadmium sulfide thin films and its impact on the resulting CdS optical and electrical characteristics are studied. Sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial concentrations in the CdS films are controlled using the ambient pressure during pulsed laser deposition. CdS film resistivities ranging from 10{sup −1} to 10{sup 4} Ω-cm are achieved. Hall Effect measurements show that the carrier concentration ranges from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and is responsible for the observed resistivity variation. Hall mobility varies from 2 to 12 cm{sup 2}/V-s for the same pressure regime. Although the energy bandgap remains unaffected (∼ 2.42 eV), the optical transmittance is reduced due to the increase of defects in the CdS films. Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy shows the dependence of the CdS films stoichiometry with deposition pressure. The presence of CdS defects is attributed to more energetic species reaching the substrate, inducing surface damage in the CdS films during pulsed laser deposition. - Highlights: • CdS thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. • The optical, electrical and structural properties were evaluated. • Carrier concentration ranged from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}. • The chemical composition was studied by Rutherford back scattering. • The density of sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial was varied.

  18. Measurement, evaluation and control of the microclimate in rooms for weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The Animal Occupied Zone (AOZ), or the microclimate, in a room for weaned piglets is roughly the zone between 0 and 50 cm above the floor of the pen. It is distinguished from the macroclimate, which is the average climate of a pig room. The ability to create and maintain an optimal climate in the AO

  19. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  20. Room-temperature triggered single photon emission from a III-nitride site-controlled nanowire quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark J; Choi, Kihyun; Kako, Satoshi; Arita, Munetaka; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2014-02-12

    We demonstrate triggered single photon emission at room temperature from a site-controlled III-nitride quantum dot embedded in a nanowire. Moreover, we reveal a remarkable temperature insensitivity of the single photon statistics, and a g((2))[0] value at 300 K of just 0.13. The combination of using high-quality, small, site-controlled quantum dots with a wide-bandgap material system is crucial for providing both sufficient exciton confinement and an emission spectrum with minimal contamination in order to enable room temperature operation. Arrays of such single photon emitters will be useful for room-temperature quantum information processing applications such as on-chip quantum communication.

  1. Development of human performance evaluation methods and systems for human factors validation in an advanced control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Su

    2008-02-15

    Advanced control room (ACR) human-machine interface (HMI) design of advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as APR (advanced power reactor)-1400 can be validated through performance-based tests to determine whether it acceptably supports safe operation of the plant. In this paper, plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, workload, teamwork, and anthropometric/ physiological factor are considered as factors for the human performance evaluation. For development of measures in each of the factors, measures generally used in various industries and empirically proven to be useful are adopted as main measures with some modifications. In addition, helpful measures are developed as complementary measures in order to overcome some of the limitations associated with the main measures. The development of the measures is addressed based on the theoretical and empirical background and also based on the regulatory guidelines. A computerized system, which is called HUPESS (human performance evaluation support system), is developed based on the measures developed in this paper. The development of HUPESS is described with respect to the system configuration, the development process, and integrated measurement, evaluation, and analysis. HUPESS supports evaluators (or experimenters) to effectively measure, analyze, and evaluate the human performance for the HMI design validation in ACRs. Hence HUPESS is expected to be used as an effective tool for the human factors validation in the ACR of Shin Kori 3 and 4 NPPs (APR-1400 type) which are under construction in South-Korea. Also two measures of attentional-resource effectiveness based on cost-benefit analysis are developed. One of them is Fixation to Importance Ratio (FIR) which represents the attentional resources spent on an information source compared to the importance of the information source. The other measure is selective attention effectiveness (SAE) which incorporates the FIRs for all information

  2. Gold nanoparticle assemblies of controllable size obtained by hydroxylamine reduction at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tódor, István Sz.; Szabó, László; Marişca, Oana T.; Chiş, Vasile; Leopold, Nicolae, E-mail: nicolae.leopold@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2014-12-15

    Colloidal nanoparticle assemblies (NPAs) were obtained in a one-step procedure, by reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, at room temperature, without the use of any additional nucleating agent. By changing the order of the reactants, NPAs with mean size of ∼20 and ∼120 nm were obtained. Because of their size and irregular popcorn like shape, the larger size NPAs show absorption in the NIR spectral region. The building blocks of the resulted nanoassemblies are spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 4–8 and 10–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, by stabilizing the colloid with bovine serum albumin at different time moments after synthesis, NPAs of controlled size between 20 and 120 nm, could be obtained. The NPAs were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM electron microscopies. In addition, the possibility of using the here proposed NPAs as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was assessed and found to provide a higher enhancement compared to conventional citrate-reduced nanoparticles.

  3. Gold nanoparticle assemblies of controllable size obtained by hydroxylamine reduction at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tódor, István Sz.; Szabó, László; Marişca, Oana T.; Chiş, Vasile; Leopold, Nicolae

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal nanoparticle assemblies (NPAs) were obtained in a one-step procedure, by reduction of HAuCl4 by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, at room temperature, without the use of any additional nucleating agent. By changing the order of the reactants, NPAs with mean size of 20 and 120 nm were obtained. Because of their size and irregular popcorn like shape, the larger size NPAs show absorption in the NIR spectral region. The building blocks of the resulted nanoassemblies are spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 4-8 and 10-30 nm, respectively. Moreover, by stabilizing the colloid with bovine serum albumin at different time moments after synthesis, NPAs of controlled size between 20 and 120 nm, could be obtained. The NPAs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM electron microscopies. In addition, the possibility of using the here proposed NPAs as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was assessed and found to provide a higher enhancement compared to conventional citrate-reduced nanoparticles.

  4. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the Southdown Primary School in Huntington

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    This ATLAS Virtual Visit is being conducted with Mrs. Triessl's 4th grade class at the Southdown Primary School in Huntington, NY. The students of Mrs. Triessl's class have been studying together in an innovative Dual-Language (Spanish/English) program since kindergarten. In spite of the extra academic effort this program requires, the curriculum has maintained a strong and increasing focus on science education. The students have begun this year learning about matter and energy and look forward to meeting a real scientist addressing these topics in a laboratory far across the ocean! The school and the district are thrilled to have this opportunity, which they hope will inspire their students toward future participation in their growing K-12 scientific programs (see http://www.hufsd.edu/academics/science/science_index.html). http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Huntington-2012.html Steven Goldfarb and Kate Shaw in the ATLAS Control Room and students of the 4th grade class a...

  5. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by the Vancouver Community Science Celebration

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    October 13th and 14th, 2012. This is the first event of its kind at TELUS World of Science, and we want you to be there. Let's celebrate the science all around us at the Vancouver Community Science Celebration at TELUS World of Science! October 14, 13:30 local (22:30 CET) Sunday's program will feature a live link to the ATLAS control room at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the LHC experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to discover how scientists in Canada and at CERN are all looking back through deep time to answer those big questions on the origins of life, the universe and everything. Doors to the Science Theatre will open at 1:15 pm and space is limited to the first 200 through the door.. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Vancouver-2012.html

  6. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during Researchers Night by Natural History Museum, London

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    This event is part of EU Researchers Night, when institutions in more than 200 cities across Europe reveal the exciting science research taking place behind their doors and how science research is exciting, fun and vital to our daily lives. Following the success of Science Uncovered in 2010 and 2011, the Natural History Museum, London throws open its doors once again this September. There will be hundreds of inspiring scientific activities happening throughout the Museum's iconic galleries and behind the scenes. One big part of the night is a series of Nature Live events, where visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and join in the discussion. Throughout the night these events will feature live links to other scientific institutions across the world, including to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to...

  7. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The Higgs in Tour, Bologna

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    "HIGGS IN TOUR: A discovery in the making" - Three science shows touring Emilia Romagna (Italy), organized by INFN, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Bologna and by the University of Bologna. Three legs are scheduled in the cities of: - Forlì : 13 Oct. - Reggio Emilia : 10 Nov. - Bologna : 17 Nov. The announcement of the discovery of a new particle compatible with the Higgs boson at CERN last July hit the headlines worldwide. The general public and students in these cities are ready and greedy to know more and meet the scientists behind the discovery. Within the 2 hour programmes, particle physicists from Bologna will take the floor at the venues in Italy and from the LHC experiments' control rooms at CERN through videoconferencing. Videos and animations will make the LHC experiments and the physics discoveries tangible for the audience, who will be able to interact with the scientists in town and at CERN. The event will be moderated by local host Patrizio Roversi (a tv star in Italy) and remote h...

  8. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The Higgs in Tour, Forlì, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    "HIGGS IN TOUR: A discovery in the making" - Three science shows touring Emilia Romagna (Italy), organized by INFN, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Bologna and by the University of Bologna. Three legs are scheduled in the cities of: - Forlì : 13 Oct. - Reggio Emilia : 10 Nov. - Bologna : 17 Nov. The announcement of the discovery of a new particle compatible with the Higgs boson at CERN last July hit the headlines worldwide. The general public and students in these cities are ready and greedy to know more and meet the scientists behind the discovery. Within the 2 hour programmes, particle physicists from Bologna will take the floor at the venues in Italy and from the LHC experiments' control rooms at CERN through videoconferencing. Videos and animations will make the LHC experiments and the physics discoveries tangible for the audience, who will be able to interact with the scientists in town and at CERN. The event will be moderated by local host Patrizio Roversi (a tv star in Italy) and remote h...

  9. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-02-03

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours.

  10. Linkage of spreaders an the LWL infrastructure of the control room Garzweiler II in the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Anbindung der Absetzer an die LWL-Infrastruktur des Leitstandes Garzweiler II im Tagebau Garzweiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueren, Daniel [RWE Power Aktiengesellschaft, Grevenbroich (DE). Tagebau Garzweiler, Infrastruktur Elektrotechnik - Technische Unterstuetzung (PCG-IE-T)

    2011-12-15

    In the Rhenish mining area nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were produced annually. The conveyors are connected with each other and with the central process control system. The control of the plant is performed by a control room. In light of the retrofitting of the band control center for the open-cast mining Garzweiler a broadband communication network based on OTN (Open Transport Network) was established. The connection of the spreader to the infrastructure of the control room via OTN nodes was performed in the years 2006 to 2010. Six spreaders as well as the associated belt grinding carriages can be connected to the central control of the band control station.

  11. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  12. Demonstrator Flood Control Room : Inventarisatie van de wensen van de verschillende Deltares onderdelen en een hierop gebaseerd ontwerp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjens, G.J.; Attema-van Waas, A.R.; Guikema, M.; Schilder, C.M.C.; Veen, M.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Op basis van het uitgevoerde onderzoek trekt TNO de volgende conclusies: • De bestaande ruimte die Deltares op het oog heeft voor de realisatie van de trainingsruimte is klein. Een eerste fase van de gewenste Flood Control Room is realiseerbaar in deze ruimte, met inachtneming dat niet alle geïdenti

  13. Conventional heat distribution systems and their control for room cooling; Konventionelle Waermeabgabesysteme und deren Regulierung fuer die Raumkuehlung - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, J. [Schnyder-Energie, Energie-Dienstleistungen, Bronschhofen (Switzerland); Feger, D.; Graf, J.; Rusterholtz, R. [Interstaatliche Hochschule fuer Technik Buchs NTB, Buchs (Switzerland); Schoeringhumer, D.; Cenci, D. [Arbonia AG, Arbon (Switzerland); Heule, D. [hps energieconsulting ag, Ingenieurbuero fuer nachhaltige Energie- und Gebaeudetechnik, Kuesnacht (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines how conventional heat distribution systems such as radiators and floor heating systems can be used for room cooling and the appropriate control requirements. Thermostatic valves used 'in reverse', their functional testing and the results obtained are discussed. Possibilities for their optimisation are examined. The apparatus used for the measurements made on both radiator and floor-heating systems is reported on and the results obtained are presented and discussed. Further, simulations used are looked at and examples of the results obtained for rooms with varying glazed surfaces are presented and discussed.

  14. Control of Single-room Ventilation with Regenerative Heat Recovery for Indoor Climate and Energy Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The Danish government will seek energy-efficiency improvements to meet their targeted aims. Single-room ventilation with heat recovery allows simple installation through the façade and may be broadly deployed in apartments. Danish building regulations require greater than 80% heat recovery in new constructions and will soon require 85%. The development of single-room ventilation units may aim for these requirements as a result. The exhaust temperatures in highly efficient heat exchangers may ...

  15. The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room is about to start a new life. Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, the room will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. When finished, it will resemble the CERN Control Centre for LHC operations, located in Prevessin.

    CERN Multimedia

    Husi C.

    2007-01-01

    The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room is about to start a new life. Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, the room will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. When finished, it will resemble the CERN Control Centre for LHC operations, located in Prevessin.

  16. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....

  17. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  18. 2D or 3D? New user interfaces for control rooms in process industries. A feasibility study; 2D eller 3D? Nya graenssnitt foer processindustrins kontrollrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, MariAnne

    2008-01-15

    Three dimensional user interfaces and techniques for visualisation have been discussed as possible ways to improve the work situation for control room operators in process industries. The aims of the project, which is a pilot project, has been: (i) to compile existing knowledge on the pro's and con's of 2D versus 3D user interfaces in order to assess and conclude if, and how, 3-dimensional visualisations could be applied when designing new user interfaces for modern process control rooms and (ii) to investigate operators' attitudes towards and acceptance of 3-dimensional user interfaces for visualisation of information. The project has included the following activities: a literature review has been completed in order to collect information on different projects and tests in which 3-dimensional user interfaces have been evaluated for different tasks; an identification of feasible use cases has been made, partly on basis of a workshop in which participated researchers from the field and partly on basis of study visits to different process plants on the west coast of Sweden; an interview study has been carried with control room operators at four different power plants in order to find out the operators' assessments of and attitudes towards 3-dimensional information visualisation; and interviews with representatives of system developers have been completed in order to elicit information on ongoing development work and experiences of developing and implementing 3-dimensional user interfaces in control rooms. On basis of the literature review as well as the interview studies cannot be concluded that 3-dimensional user interfaces and 3-dimensional visualisation of information hold any general advantages compared to 2-dimensional solutions. Pro's and con's are, instead, highly contextual and dependant upon (i) the characteristics of user (in terms e.g. of computer skills); (ii) the (work) task; and (iii) the specific design of the user

  19. An Methodology for Quality Control and Draught Assessment of Room Ventilation Supply Using Laser Light Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    A common technique to investigate draught problems in a room is to make spot measurements of air velocity. This might identify where the draught problem is located but it does not necessarily identify the distribution and source of the problem. Usually visual inspections of the location of ventil...

  20. Selection Guidelines for Central Heat Plant Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    21 PID Controllers ............................................... 22 Combustion Control...Therefore, closed-loop control is preferred for boiler control. PID Controllers Figure 9 shows the basic functions of a closed loop controller

  1. A Novel Grid-Wide Transient Stability Assessment and Visualization Method for Increasing Situation Awareness of Control Room Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to introduce a grid-wide assessment method to determine the transient stability margin and visualize it effectively to increase the situation awareness of control room operators. Critical area(s) with insufficient transient stability margin have to be identified in order...... to be able to take appropriate preventive actions. The introduced method evaluates the transient stability margin with a time-domain approach by using the voltage angle of several buses across the power system. Information about the severity of a contingency and the location of the most critical buses...... is derived. Moreover, it is shown that the method facilitates the visual examination of transient stability. It provides control room operators with essential information about the state of the system and enables them to take appropriate preventive actions if insufficient transient stability margins...

  2. Best Tracking Performance under Plant Uncertainty and Control Energy Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Yi-gang; WANG Zhi-xin; WANG Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    This paper has investigated best tracking performance for linear feedback control systems in the case that plant uncertainty and control effort need to be considered simultaneously. Firstly, an average integral square criterion of the tracking error and the plant input energy over a class of additive model errors is defined. Then, utilizing spectral factorization to minimize the performance index, we obtain an optimal controller design method, and furthermore study optimal tracking performance under plant uncertainty and control energy constraint. The results can be used to evaluate optimal average tracking performance and control energy in designing practical control systems.

  3. Economic analysis of linking operating room scheduling and hospital material management information systems for just-in-time inventory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2000-08-01

    Operating room (OR) scheduling information systems can decrease perioperative labor costs. Material management information systems can decrease perioperative inventory costs. We used computer simulation to investigate whether using the OR schedule to trigger purchasing of perioperative supplies is likely to further decrease perioperative inventory costs, as compared with using sophisticated, stand-alone material management inventory control. Although we designed the simulations to favor financially linking the information systems, we found that this strategy would be expected to decrease inventory costs substantively only for items of high price ($1000 each) and volume (>1000 used each year). Because expensive items typically have different models and sizes, each of which is used by a hospital less often than this, for almost all items there will be no benefit to making daily adjustments to the order volume based on booked cases. We conclude that, in a hospital with a sophisticated material management information system, OR managers will probably achieve greater cost reductions from focusing on negotiating less expensive purchase prices for items than on trying to link the OR information system with the hospital's material management information system to achieve just-in-time inventory control. In a hospital with a sophisticated material management information system, operating room managers will probably achieve greater cost reductions from focusing on negotiating less expensive purchase prices for items than on trying to link the operating room information system with the hospital's material management information system to achieve just-in-time inventory control.

  4. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  5. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  6. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator; Mesa de controle virtual para treinamento de operadores: um estudo de caso para um simulador de usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-15

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  7. Soil microorganisms control plant ectoparasitic nematodes in natural coastal foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskiewicz, A.M.; Duyts, H.; Berg, M.P.; Costa, S.R.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Belowground herbivores can exert important controls on the composition of natural plant communities. Until now, relatively few studies have investigated which factors may control the abundance of belowground herbivores. In Dutch coastal foredunes, the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis

  8. Overall control and monitoring systems for pumped storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, B.; Cvetko, H.

    1982-06-01

    The article describes control and monitoring concepts in which the delegation of responsibility is becoming more decisive than ever (automation hierarchy), and which are capable of optimized, automatic control of process events in pumped storage plants. 8 refs.

  9. Soil microorganisms control plant ectoparasitic nematodes in natural coastal foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskiewicz, A.M.; Duyts, H.; Berg, M.P.; Costa, S.R.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Belowground herbivores can exert important controls on the composition of natural plant communities. Until now, relatively few studies have investigated which factors may control the abundance of belowground herbivores. In Dutch coastal foredunes, the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis

  10. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  11. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONTROL IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beáta Oborny

    2003-01-01

    Bodies of plants are modularly organized. Development proceeds by adding new modules to open endings with a potential for branching. Each module is autonomous to some extent. Development relies on the self-organized patterns that emerge from the interactions of individual modules. Interactions include both competition and cooperation, and several types of positive and negative feedback loops are involved. Development can be open to external influences, thus enabling the plant to adjust its form to the environment, for example, to the spatial distribution of ecological resources. This paper provides a review on adaptive plasticity in plants.

  12. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative

  13. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  14. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  15. The Class of Stabilizing Nonlinear Plant Controller Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paice, A.D.B.; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a general approach is taken to yield a characterization of the class of stable plant controller pairs which is a generalization of the Youla parameterization for linear systems. This is based on the idea of representing the input-output pairs of the plant and controller as elements of

  16. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, A. I., E-mail: gor@tornado.nsk.ru [JSC “Tornado Modular Systems” (Russian Federation); Serdyukov, O. V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  17. Human Factors and Modeling Methods in the Development of Control Room Modernization Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; Slay III, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    nuclear power plants. Although the nuclear industry has made steady improvement in outage optimization, each day of a refueling outage still represents an opportunity to save millions of dollars and each day an outage extends past its planned end date represents millions of dollars that may have been spent unnecessarily. Reducing planned outage duration or preventing outage extensions requires careful management of the outage schedule as well as constant oversight and monitoring of work completion during the outage execution. During a typical outage, there are typically more than 10,000 activities on the schedule that, if not managed efficiently, may cause expensive outage delays. Management of outages currently relies largely on paper-based resources and general-purpose office software. A typical tool currently used to monitor work performance is a burn-down curve, where total remaining activities are plotted against the baseline schedule to track bulk work completion progress. While these tools are useful, there is still considerable uncertainty during a typical outage that bulk work progress is adequate and therefore a lot of management time is spent analyzing the situation on a daily basis. This paper describes recent advances made in developing a framework for the design of visual outage information presentation, as well as an overview of the scientific principles that informed the development of the visualizations. To test the utility of advanced visual outage information presentation, an outage management dashboard software application was created as part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Outage Control Center project. This dashboard is intended to present all the critical information an outage manager would need to understand the current status of a refueling outage. The dashboard presents the critical path, bulk work performance, key performance indicators, outage milestones and metrics relating current performance to historical performance

  18. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in situ room closure in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA); RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured WIPP in situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in situ room closure in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured WIPP in situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  1. Hypoxia Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  2. Hypoxia Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  3. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  4. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able...... to respond appropriately and reject these disturbances in the influent. A methodology is described here which systematically addresses the assessment of the plant and the influent dynamics, in order to propose a controller tuning that is best adapted to an existing or planned wastewater treatment plant...

  5. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena......, plant layout, controllers, sensors, performance criteria and test procedures, i.e. a complete benchmarking protocol....

  6. Optimal control and cold war dynamics between plant and herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Candace; Ellner, Stephen P; Holden, Matthew H

    2013-08-01

    Herbivores eat the leaves that a plant needs for photosynthesis. However, the degree of antagonism between plant and herbivore may depend critically on the timing of their interactions and the intrinsic value of a leaf. We present a model that investigates whether and when the timing of plant defense and herbivore feeding activity can be optimized by evolution so that their interactions can move from antagonistic to neutral. We assume that temporal changes in environmental conditions will affect intrinsic leaf value, measured as potential carbon gain. Using optimal-control theory, we model herbivore evolution, first in response to fixed plant strategies and then under coevolutionary dynamics in which the plant also evolves in response to the herbivore. In the latter case, we solve for the evolutionarily stable strategies of plant defense induction and herbivore hatching rate under different ecological conditions. Our results suggest that the optimal strategies for both plant and herbivore are to avoid direct conflict. As long as the plant has the capability for moderately lethal defense, the herbivore will modify its hatching rate to avoid plant defenses, and the plant will never have to use them. Insights from this model offer a possible solution to the paradox of sublethal defenses and provide a mechanism for stable plant-herbivore interactions without the need for natural enemy control.

  7. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system.

  8. Plant growth control by light spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that have to cope with their environment as it is exposed to them in nature. To do so, they developed systems to sense environmental signals and to integrate these with endogenous developmental programs. As a result, they are well equipped to survive and flourish in

  9. Plant growth control by light spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that have to cope with their environment as it is exposed to them in nature. To do so, they developed systems to sense environmental signals and to integrate these with endogenous developmental programs. As a result, they are well equipped to survive and flourish in v

  10. Data-driven wind plant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebraad, P.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Each wind turbine in a cluster of wind turbines (a wind power plant) can influence the performance of other turbines through the wake that forms downstream of its rotor. The wake has a reduced wind velocity, since the turbine extracts energy from the flow, and the obstruction by the wind turbine

  11. Coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching for TiO{sub 2} film at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Qin, Hongwei; Bu, Jianpei; Zhu, Gengchang; Xie, Jihao; Hu, Jifan, E-mail: hujf@sdu.edu.cn, E-mail: hu-jf@vip.163.com [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory for Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-10

    The Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device exhibits the coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching at room temperature. The bipolar resistive switching in Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device may be dominated by the modulation of Schottky-like barrier with the electron injection-trapped/detrapped process at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}. We suggest that the electric field-induced magnetization modulation originates mainly from the creation/annihilation of lots of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}.

  12. Analysis of hospital infection control awareness of ultrasound room office personnel in Busan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JJung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    146 people working in the ultrasound room in Busan were surveyed, and their perception of hospital infection was analyzed. According to the results of the survey, academic background showed the highest number in terms of awareness and performance of personal hygiene management and hand washing management, and the group with experience of infection education showed the highest number in terms of awareness of ultrasound equipment hygiene, and the group with less than college education showed the highest number in terms of performance of ultrasound equipment hygiene. The difference was statistically significant. Based on the results of this study, performance was lower than awareness in general. This result indicates that the degree of performance is inadequate. Therefore, it can be concluded that individuals need to change their perception of personal hygiene and take interest in it through infection education.

  13. Mesoporous Structure Control of Silica in Room-Temperature Synthesis under Basic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Wook Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of mesoporous silica, such as continuous cubic-phase MCM-48, hexagonal-phase MCM-41, and layer-phase spherical silica particles, have been synthesized at room temperature using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant, ethanol as a cosurfactant, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor, and ammonia as a condensation agent. Special care must be taken both in the filtering of the resultant solid products and in the drying process. In the drying process, further condensation of the silica after filtering was induced. As the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations in the reaction mixture increased and the NH3 concentration decreased, under given conditions, continuous cubic MCM-48 and layered silica became the dominant phases. A cooperative synthesis mechanism, in which both the surfactant and silica were involved in the formation of mesoporous structures, provided a good explanation of the experimental results.

  14. Controllable synthesis and catalytic activity of SnO_2 nanostructures at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-rui

    2009-01-01

    SnO_2 hollow spheres and rod bundles were prepared using SnSO_4 as raw material and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as templates at room temperature through oxidation-crystallization of colloidal spheres in different systems. The products were characterized with X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. Meanwhile, the catalytic performance of the SnO_2 hollow spheres and rod bundles toward CO oxidation was studied. The result indicates that SnO_2 hollow spheres with the uniform size exhibit a better catalytic activity toward CO oxidation, suggesting that the morphology of the materials has exerted a noticeable influence on the catalytic performance.

  15. Plant-microbe interactions and the new biotechnological methods of plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, E; Bonaterra, A; Badosa, E; Francés, J; Alemany, J; Llorente, I; Moragrega, C

    2002-12-01

    Plants constitute an excellent ecosystem for microorganisms. The environmental conditions offered differ considerably between the highly variable aerial plant part and the more stable root system. Microbes interact with plant tissues and cells with different degrees of dependence. The most interesting from the microbial ecology point of view, however, are specific interactions developed by plant-beneficial (either non-symbiotic or symbiotic) and pathogenic microorganisms. Plants, like humans and other animals, also become sick, but they have evolved a sophisticated defense response against microbes, based on a combination of constitutive and inducible responses which can be localized or spread throughout plant organs and tissues. The response is mediated by several messenger molecules that activate pathogen-responsive genes coding for enzymes or antimicrobial compounds, and produces less sophisticated and specific compounds than immunoglobulins in animals. However, the response specifically detects intracellularly a type of protein of the pathogen based on a gene-for-gene interaction recognition system, triggering a biochemical attack and programmed cell death. Several implications for the management of plant diseases are derived from knowledge of the basis of the specificity of plant-bacteria interactions. New biotechnological products are currently being developed based on stimulation of the plant defense response, and on the use of plant-beneficial bacteria for biological control of plant diseases (biopesticides) and for plant growth promotion (biofertilizers).

  16. Abscisic acid controlled sex before transpiration in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; Hedrich, Rainer; Atallah, Nadia M; Cai, Chao; Geringer, Michael A; Lind, Christof; Nichols, David S; Stachowski, Kye; Geiger, Dietmar; Sussmilch, Frances C

    2016-10-26

    Sexual reproduction in animals and plants shares common elements, including sperm and egg production, but unlike animals, little is known about the regulatory pathways that determine the sex of plants. Here we use mutants and gene silencing in a fern species to identify a core regulatory mechanism in plant sexual differentiation. A key player in fern sex differentiation is the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which regulates the sex ratio of male to hermaphrodite tissues during the reproductive cycle. Our analysis shows that in the fern Ceratopteris richardii, a gene homologous to core ABA transduction genes in flowering plants [SNF1-related kinase2s (SnRK2s)] is primarily responsible for the hormonal control of sex determination. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway has transitioned from determining the sex of ferns to controlling seed dormancy in the earliest seed plants before being co-opted to control transpiration and CO2 exchange in derived seed plants. By tracing the evolutionary history of this ABA signaling pathway from plant reproduction through to its role in the global regulation of plant-atmosphere gas exchange during the last 450 million years, we highlight the extraordinary effect of the ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway in plant evolution and vegetation function.

  17. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  18. Gesture-Controlled Interface for Contactless Control of Various Computer Programs with a Hooking-Based Keyboard and Mouse-Mapping Technique in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ben Joonyeon; Jang, Taekjin; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    We developed a contactless interface that exploits hand gestures to effectively control medical images in the operating room. We developed an in-house program called GestureHook that exploits message hooking techniques to convert gestures into specific functions. For quantitative evaluation of this program, we used gestures to control images of a dynamic biliary CT study and compared the results with those of a mouse (8.54 ± 1.77 s to 5.29 ± 1.00 s; p < 0.001) and measured the recognition rates of specific gestures and the success rates of tasks based on clinical scenarios. For clinical applications, this program was set up in the operating room to browse images for plastic surgery. A surgeon browsed images from three different programs: CT images from a PACS program, volume-rendered images from a 3D PACS program, and surgical planning photographs from a basic image viewing program. All programs could be seamlessly controlled by gestures and motions. This approach can control all operating room programs without source code modification and provide surgeons with a new way to safely browse through images and easily switch applications during surgical procedures.

  19. Paradigm shift in plant growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2015-06-01

    For plants to grow they need resources and appropriate conditions that these resources are converted into biomass. While acknowledging the importance of co-drivers, the classical view is still that carbon, that is, photosynthetic CO2 uptake, ranks above any other drivers of plant growth. Hence, theory and modelling of growth traditionally is carbon centric. Here, I suggest that this view is not reflecting reality, but emerged from the availability of methods and process understanding at leaf level. In most cases, poorly understood processes of tissue formation and cell growth are governing carbon demand, and thus, CO2 uptake. Carbon can only be converted into biomass to the extent chemical elements other than carbon, temperature or cell turgor permit.

  20. Plant Disease Control by the Use of Chemicals. MP-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, William D.; Bridgmon, George H.

    This document has been prepared as a reference manual providing information regarding plant diseases. The text concerns itself with the identification and development of infectious and non-infectious diseases and associated control measures. An appendix includes a glossary of plant pathological terms and a bibliography. (CS)

  1. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  2. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  3. Thermal room modelling adapted to the test of HVAC control systems; Modele de zone adapte aux essais de regulateurs de systemes de chauffage et de climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P.

    2002-01-15

    Room models, currently used for controller tests, assume the room air to be perfectly mixed. A new room model is developed, assuming non-homogeneous room conditions and distinguishing between different sensor positions. From measurement in real test rooms and detailed CFD simulations, a list of convective phenomena is obtained that has to be considered in the development of a model for a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The zonal modelling approach that divides the room air into several sub-volumes is chosen, since it is able to represent the important convective phenomena imposed on the HVAC system. The convective room model is divided into two parts: a zonal model, representing the air at the occupant zone and a second model, providing the conditions at typical sensor positions. Using this approach, the comfort conditions at the occupant zone can be evaluated as well as the impact of different sensor positions. The model is validated for a test room equipped with different HVAC systems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model. Performance assessment and energy consumption are then compared for different sensor positions in a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The results are also compared with those obtained when a well-mixed model is used. A main conclusion of these tests is, that the differences obtained, when changing the position of the controller's sensor, is a function of the HVAC system and controller type. The differences are generally small in terms of thermal comfort but significant in terms of overall energy consumption. For different HVAC systems the cases are listed, in which the use of a simplified model is not recommended. (author)

  4. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and continue reduction of the accumulation of recently...

  5. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and reduce the accumulation of recently documented...

  6. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  7. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... 2Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton 20107, Kenya. ... the incidence of this disease is to eradicate and control ...... effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera:.

  8. (Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  9. [Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  10. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...

  11. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  12. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; David; Adams; Jr.; Xiaogang; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  13. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  14. Steigerwald - Invasive Plant Detection, Control, and Replacement with Native Plants 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would maintain and expand annual invasive plant survey, control, and monitoring on Steigerwald Lake NWR. Early detection surveys, rapid response, large...

  15. Steigerwald - Invasive Plant Detection, Control, and Replacement with Native Plants 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would maintain and expand annual invasive plant survey, control, & monitoring on Steigerwald Lake NWR. Early detection surveys, rapid response,...

  16. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design o...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  17. Quality control of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzini, Elisabetta; Badea, Mihaela; Santos, Ariana Dos; Restani, Patrizia; Sievers, Hartwig

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment.

  18. Is single room hospital accommodation associated with differences in healthcare-associated infection, falls, pressure ulcers or medication errors? A natural experiment with non-equivalent controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Murrells, Trevor; Griffiths, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A wide range of patient benefits have been attributed to single room hospital accommodation including a reduction in adverse patient safety events. However, studies have been limited to the US with limited evidence from elsewhere. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on safety outcomes of the move to a newly built all single room acute hospital. Methods A natural experiment investigating the move to 100% single room accommodation in acute assessment, surgical and older people’s wards. Move to 100% single room accommodation compared to ‘steady state’ and ‘new build’ control hospitals. Falls, pressure ulcer, medication error, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile rates from routine data sources were measured over 36 months. Results Five of 15 time series in the wards that moved to single room accommodation revealed changes that coincided with the move to the new all single room hospital: specifically, increased fall, pressure ulcer and Clostridium difficile rates in the older people’s ward, and temporary increases in falls and medication errors in the acute assessment unit. However, because the case mix of the older people’s ward changed, and because the increase in falls and medication errors on the acute assessment ward did not last longer than six months, no clear effect of single rooms on the safety outcomes was demonstrated. There were no changes to safety events coinciding with the move at the new build control site. Conclusion For all changes in patient safety events that coincided with the move to single rooms, we found plausible alternative explanations such as case-mix change or disruption as a result of the re-organization of services after the move. The results provide no evidence of either benefit or harm from all single room accommodation in terms of safety-related outcomes, although there may be short-term risks associated with a move to single rooms. PMID:26811373

  19. Parent misperception of control in childhood/adolescent asthma: the Room to Breathe survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W D; Wildhaber, J; Brand, P L P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine how often asthma control is achieved in children and adolescents, and how asthma affects parents' and children's daily lives. Interviews, including the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), were conducted with 1,284 parents of asthmatic children (aged 4-15 yrs), as well as with the children themselves (aged 8-15 yrs; n=943), in Canada, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, South Africa and the UK. Parents reported mild asthma attacks at least weekly in 11% of children, and serious attacks (requiring oral corticosteroids or hospitalisation) at least annually in 35%. Although 73% of parents described their child's asthma as mild or intermittent, 40% of children/adolescents had C-ACT scores ≤ 19, indicating inadequate control, and only 14.7% achieved complete Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-defined control and just 9.2% achieved Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)/British Thoracic Society (BTS)-defined control. Guideline-defined asthma control was significantly less common than well-controlled asthma using the C-ACT (pAsthma restricted the child's activities in 39% of families and caused lifestyle changes in 70%. Complete asthma control is uncommon in children worldwide. Guideline-defined control measures appear to be more stringent than those defined by C-ACT or families. Overall, parents underestimate their child's asthma severity and overestimate asthma control. This is a major potential barrier to successful asthma treatment in children.

  20. Room-temperature electronically-controlled ferromagnetism at the LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Feng; Huang, Mengchen; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungwoo; Bark, Chung-Wung; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    2014-09-25

    Reports of emergent conductivity, superconductivity and magnetism have helped to fuel intense interest in the rich physics and technological potential of complex-oxide interfaces. Here we employ magnetic force microscopy to search for room-temperature magnetism in the well-studied LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system. Using electrical top gating to control the electron density at the oxide interface, we directly observe the emergence of an in-plane ferromagnetic phase as electrons are depleted from the interface. Itinerant electrons that are reintroduced into the interface align antiferromagnetically with the magnetization at first screening and then destabilizing it as the conductive regime is approached. Repeated cycling of the gate voltage results in new, uncorrelated magnetic patterns. This newfound control over emergent magnetism at the interface between two non-magnetic oxides portends a number of important technological applications.

  1. Room-temperature electronically-controlled ferromagnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Feng; Huang, Mengchen; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungwoo; Bark, Chung-Wung; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    2014-09-01

    Reports of emergent conductivity, superconductivity and magnetism have helped to fuel intense interest in the rich physics and technological potential of complex-oxide interfaces. Here we employ magnetic force microscopy to search for room-temperature magnetism in the well-studied LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system. Using electrical top gating to control the electron density at the oxide interface, we directly observe the emergence of an in-plane ferromagnetic phase as electrons are depleted from the interface. Itinerant electrons that are reintroduced into the interface align antiferromagnetically with the magnetization at first screening and then destabilizing it as the conductive regime is approached. Repeated cycling of the gate voltage results in new, uncorrelated magnetic patterns. This newfound control over emergent magnetism at the interface between two non-magnetic oxides portends a number of important technological applications.

  2. SOWFA Super-Controller: A High-Fidelity Tool for Evaluating Wind Plant Control Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Michalakes, J.; Johnson, K.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for testing wind plant controllers in the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA). SOWFA is a high-fidelity simulator for the interaction between wind turbine dynamics and the fluid flow in a wind plant. The new super-controller testing environment in SOWFA allows for the implementation of the majority of the wind plant control strategies proposed in the literature.

  3. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control combines fault detection and isolation techniques with supervisory control, to achieve the autonomous accommodation of faults before they develop into failures. While fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods have matured during the past decade, the extension to fault......-tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...... is the analysis and implementation of autonomous fault accommodation. A benchmark kit can be obtained from the authors....

  4. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  5. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  6. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  7. Parent misperception of control in childhood/adolescent asthma : the Room to Breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, W. D.; Wildhaber, J.; Brand, P. L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine how often asthma control is achieved in children and adolescents, and how asthma affects parents' and children's daily lives. Interviews, including the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), were conducted with 1,284 parents of asthmatic children (aged 4-15 yrs)

  8. Parent misperception of control in childhood/adolescent asthma : the Room to Breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, W. D.; Wildhaber, J.; Brand, P. L. P.

    The aim of our study was to determine how often asthma control is achieved in children and adolescents, and how asthma affects parents' and children's daily lives. Interviews, including the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), were conducted with 1,284 parents of asthmatic children (aged 4-15

  9. Artificial Intelligence Based Alum Dosage Control in Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Poongodi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying good quality of drinking water is a challenging task during the rainy season and floods. During this period water becomes highly polluted with suspended solids which increase the water turbidity. Alum is used to reduce the turbidity of the water. Typically in water treatment plants alum dosage is decided by the Jar test and the desired alum dosage is added manually. This research proposes an automatic alum dosage mixing process. The alum dosage is controlled by an intelligent controller which consists of a dosage predictor, an inverse model of the dosage pump and a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM controller. The optimal alum dosage is predicted by the dosage predictor. The PWM controller controls the flow rate of the alum dosing pump. This proposed method has been implemented in a laboratory based water treatment plant and it ensures the automation in water treatment plant to supply good quality drinking water.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  11. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  12. Microgrid Plant Control Design and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegman, Herman; Baone, Chaitanya

    2017-08-14

    This report discusses the technical performance of the proposed microgrid at Potsdam, New York, and the enhanced microgrid controller platform. The test objectives were outlined by the DOE, and summary results and discussion are given for each objective. The findings show that the proposed Potsdam, NY microgrid would have a significant impact on the regional CO2 emissions, the amount of imported energy from the utility, and the resiliency of the critical loads. Additionally, the enhanced microgrid control system developed for this project was tested to be compliant with IEEE 1547 standards, and able to generate revenues to help offset energy costs by way of participation in ancillary services.

  13. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  14. Plant-based strategies for mosquito control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit some of the most devastating emerging infectious diseases of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Although vector control by use of chemical insecticides has played an important role in prevention and management of these diseases, their sustained use remains questionable due t...

  15. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acid can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.

  16. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum. PMID:27687773

  17. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-09-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum.

  18. Rapid Control Prototyping Plataform for Didactic Plant Motor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bazán-Orobio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a design, implementation and validation of a Rapid Control Prototype platform for a plant based on a DC motor is proposed. This low-cost prototype provides of an electronic card (with a motor DC and sensors manipulated by PC with free software tools using Linux, Scilab / Scicos and RTAI-Lab. This RCP System allows developing speed -position control trainings by using different types of PID industrial controllers with anti – wind up and bump less transfer schemes. We develop a speed control application structured in four steps: identification, controller design, simulation and real time control, where there are pedagogical advantages of a platform that not only allows simulation but also real-time control of a plant.

  19. Highlights of the GURI hydroelectric plant computer control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Monte, R.; Banakar, H.; Hoffman, R.; Lebeau, M.; Schroeder, R.

    1988-07-01

    The GURI power plant on the Caroni river in Venezuela has 20 generating units with a total capacity of 10,000 MW, the largest currently operating in the world. The GURI Computer Control System (GCS) provides for comprehensive operation management of the entire power plant and the adjacent switchyards. This article describes some highlights of the functions of the state-of-the-art system. The topics considered include the operating modes of the remote terminal units (RTUs), automatic start/stop of generating units, RTU closed-loop control, automatic generation and voltage control, unit commitment, operator training stimulator, and maintenance management.

  20. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from...

  1. Fuzzy control applied to nuclear power plant pressurizer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Almeida, Jose C.S., E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.b, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) the pressure control in the primary loop is very important for keeping the reactor in a safety condition and improve the generation process efficiency. The main component responsible for this task is the pressurizer. The pressurizer pressure control system (PPCS) utilizes heaters and spray valves to maintain the pressure within an operating band during steady state conditions, and limits the pressure changes, during transient conditions. Relief and safety valves provide overpressure protection for the reactor coolant system (RCS) to ensure system integrity. Various protective reactor trips are generated if the system parameters exceed safe bounds. Historically, a proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller is used in PWRs to keep the pressure in the set point, during those operation conditions. The purpose of this study has two main goals: first is to develop a pressurizer model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs); second is to develop a fuzzy controller for the PWR pressurizer pressure, and compare its performance with the P controller. Data from a simulator PWR plant was used to test the ANN and the controllers as well. The reference simulator is a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant with a total thermal output of 2785 MWth. The simulation results show that the pressurizer ANN model response are in reasonable agreement with the simulated power plant, and the fuzzy controller built in this study has better performance compared to the P controller. (author)

  2. Calling all LEGO lovers! Add a mini control room to your collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The mini LHC Lego project launched in March (see here) now has almost 6,000 supporters - well on its way to the 10,000 votes needed for it to (hopefully!) hit store shelves. This week, the project added a new feature to its line: a mini control centre! The new LEGO Control centre, featuring operators "Kerstin" and "Marco".   The mini LHC project is the brainchild of ATLAS PhD student Nathan Readioff, who designed Lego replicas of the LHC and the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments on a micro scale. Each detector model is small enough to fit in the palm of your hand but crammed with detailed internal systems revealed by cutaway walls. Every major detector component is represented by a Lego piece. Now, Nathan has created a control centre to complement the mini LHC project. This would be an add-on feature for Lego’s consideration, should they decide to develop the accelerator into a box set. “The control centre is ...

  3. Association of plant injury with an air contaminant in a controlled environment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, L.L.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1974-01-01

    Gaseous compounds are common, yet seldom recognized contaminants in controlled environments. Injury to several plant species has been observed in the Biotron which uses trichloroethylene as a coolant in its centrally controlled system. Sometimes this compound is present in the rooms at an average level of 2 ppm, as measured by gas chromatography. Injury symptoms, which vary between species, are characteristic of air pollution injury. Present studies with Tagetes patula show a distinctive necrosis on the upper leaf surfaces. Experiments are being conducted to determine whether trichloroethylene is the agent involved and to investigate aspects of the physiology of injury utilizing a procedure which may be applicable to other long-term, low-level pollution studies.

  4. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during Researchers Night by Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    We invite our "6-th Ma?opolska Researchers Night" guests for Virtual Visits in ATLAS Control Room. They could ask Polish scientists and experts during a lecture "How a mass is created - the Higgs boson discovery" to be given by dr Anna Kaczmarska. "Ma?opolska Researchers Night" is a part of European Researchers Night events to be held in more than 200 cities. Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences invites Cracow citizens and tourists visiting our town to its laboratories and to the "Science Garden" formed, especially for this event, in front of the main building. Visitors will have an unique opportunity to discuss science problems with researches and students. Wide range of demonstrations of interesting activities performed in our institute will be presented, these include among others: - AIC 144 Cyclotron with hadrons' therapy facility for eye treatment - Dosimetry and environmental pollution monitoring - Large Hadron Collider experiments - Van de Graff linear accelerator with proton micro b...

  5. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm2, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  6. Transcription regulation by CHD proteins to control plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng eHu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CHD (Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA binding proteins have been characterized in various species as important transcription regulators by their chromatin remodeling activity. However, in plant the function of these proteins has hardly been analyzed before except that Arabidopsis PICKLE and rice CHR729 are identified to play critical roles in the regulation of series of genes involved in developmental or stress responding process. In this review we focus on how plant CHD proteins regulate gene expression and the role of these proteins in controlling plant development and stress response.

  7. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chemical herbicides are not allowed, if resistant weed species are present or in the integrated pest management against weeds with reduced herbicides doses and other non-chemical measures, but it has certain limitations and disadvantages.

  8. Communications Dashboard (Control Rooms Take a Cue from Facebook), Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David w.

    2013-01-01

    Papers published via IEEE and AIAA conferences have presented an overview of how social media could benefit NASA working environments in general and proposed three specific social applications to benefit space flight control operations. One of them, Communications Dashboard, would help a real time flight controller keep up with both the "big picture" and significant details of operations via a cohesive interface similar to those of social networking services (SNS). Instead of recreational social features, "CommDash" would support functions like console logging, categorized and threaded text chat streams with enhanced accountability and graphics display features, high-level status displays driven by telemetry or other events, and an on-screen hailing function for requesting voice or text stream conversation. Moving certain voice conversations to text streams would reduce confusion and stress in two ways. Within text conversations, there would be far less repetition of content since text conversations have visual persistence and are reviewable instantly, e.g., there s no need to brief new participants to a discussion -- they just read what s already there. Remaining voice traffic would stand out more clearly, and quieter voice loops means fewer "say again" calls and less distraction from visual and mental tasks, thus less stress. (Most flight controllers monitor 4 or 5 voice loops at once.) Links could be created from console log entries to chat selections so that underlying details are readily available yet unobtrusive. This would reduce the confusion that rises from having multiple and sometimes divergent copies of the same information due to cut/copy and paste operations, attachments, and asynchronous editing. This concept could apply to a plethora of real time control environments and to other settings with lots of information juggling. This paper explores the dashboard concept in further detail and chronicles the first phase of a NASA IT Labs (Information

  9. Communications dashboard (control rooms, take a cue from Facebook® !) Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.

    Papers published via IEEE and AIAA conferences have presented an overview of how social media could benefit NASA working environments in general [1] and proposed three specific social applications to benefit space flight control operations [2]. One of them, Communications Dashboard, would help a real time flight controller keep up with both the “ big picture” and significant details of operations via a cohesive interface similar to those of social networking services (SNS). Instead of recreational social features, “ CommDash” would support functions like console logging, categorized and threaded text chat streams with enhanced accountability and graphics display features, high-level status displays driven by telemetry or other events, and an on-screen hailing function for requesting voice or text stream conversation. Moving certain voice conversations to text streams would reduce confusion and stress in two ways. Within text conversations, there would be far less repetition of content since text conversations have visual persistence and are reviewable instantly, e.g., there's no need to brief new participants to a discussion - they just read what's already there. Remaining voice traffic would stand out more clearly, and quieter voice loops means fewer “ say again” calls and less distraction from visual and mental tasks, thus less stress. (Most flight controllers monitor 4 or 5 voice loops at once.) Links could be created from console log entries to chat selections so that underlying details are readily available yet unobtrusive. This would reduce the confusion that rises from having multiple and sometimes divergent copies of the same information due to cut/copy and paste operations, attachments, and asynchronous editing. This concept could apply to a plethora of real time control environments and to other settings with lots of information juggling. This paper explores the dashboard concept in further detail and chronic- es the first phase of a NASA IT

  10. An efficient on-board metal-free nanocatalyst for controlled room temperature hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Saswati; Das, Debanjan; Das, Nirmalya Sankar; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-04-01

    Positively charged functionalized carbon nanodots (CNDs) with a variety of different effective surface areas (ESAs) are synthesized via a cheap and time effective microwave method and applied for the generation of hydrogen via hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of metal-free controlled hydrogen generation. Our observation is that a positively charged functional group is essential for the hydrolysis for hydrogen production, but the overall activity is found to be enhanced with the ESA. A maximum value of 1066 ml g(-1) min(-1) as the turnover frequency is obtained which is moderate in comparison to other catalysts. However, the optimum activation energy is found to be 22.01 kJ mol(-1) which is comparable to well-known high cost materials like Pt and Ru. All of the samples showed good reusability and 100% conversion even after the 10th cycle. The effect of H(+) and OH(-) is also studied to control the on-board and on-demand hydrogen production ("on-off switching"). It is observed that H2 production decreases inversely with NaOH concentration and ceases completely when 10(-1) M NaOH is added. With the addition of HCl, H2 production can be initiated again, which confirms the on/off control over production.

  11. Performance limitations for networked control systems with plant uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

    2016-04-01

    There has recently been significant interest in performance study for networked control systems with communication constraints. But the existing work mainly assumes that the plant has an exact model. The goal of this paper is to investigate the optimal tracking performance for networked control system in the presence of plant uncertainty. The plant under consideration is assumed to be non-minimum phase and unstable, while the two-parameter controller is employed and the integral square criterion is adopted to measure the tracking error. And we formulate the uncertainty by utilising stochastic embedding. The explicit expression of the tracking performance has been obtained. The results show that the network communication noise and the model uncertainty, as well as the unstable poles and non-minimum phase zeros, can worsen the tracking performance.

  12. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  13. Control techniques for invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Sá Dechoum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are recognized as a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity. These species should be managed based on local and regional environmental conditions. Control techniques were tested for ten invasive species in Santa Catarina State: the trees Casuarina equisetifolia, Hovenia dulcis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia catappa, and shrubs and herbs Rubus fruticosus, Furcraea foetida, Hedychium coronarium, Impatiens walleriana, and Tradescantia zebrina. Treatments applied for trees were cut stump, frill and girdling or ring-barking followed by herbicide application, while the other species were treated with foliar spray, application of herbicide on the root system, cut stump and herbicide injection. The active ingredients tested were Triclopyr, Glyphosate, and the combination of Triclopyr + Fluroxipyr in concentrations from 2 to 6%, according to the species. The cut stump method was efficient for all of the woody species, while ring-barking and frilling followed by herbicide application and basal bark application resulted in different levels of efficiency for the species tested. The most efficient method for herbs and shrubs was foliar spray, and the least efficient methods were cut stump and herbicide injection.

  14. Operation Room Infection Factors and Control%手术室感染因素及控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽; 周静

    2014-01-01

    The postoperative infection of patients means that the threat to life, so to prevent postoperative infection has become the guarantee of human life, an important task to promote the rehabilitation of patients and medical development. In order to reduce the infection rate of operation, improve the quality of medical treatment, the operation infection factors analysis. The results show that: the infection factors although many, but in general the main or operation contact and air bacteria through various means of land caused by operation wound infection in operation room, so is the key to control [1] infection, so the scientific management of operation room, take comprehensive measures and dynamic bacteriological monitoring is the fundamental way to reduce operation incision infection. Ensure work quality is the key to operation room infection reduce all kinds of operation after operation.%术后感染对患者意味着生命的威胁,因此防止术后感染已经成为当今保障人类生命,促进患者康复和医学发展的一个重大课题。为降低手术感染率,提高医疗质量,对手术感染因素进行分析。结果表明:感染因素虽然很多,但总的来说主要还是手术的接触传播和空气浮游菌通过各种途径降落于手术创面而引起的感染,所以手术室是控制切口感染的关键[1],因此对手术室进行科学管理,采取综合预防措施和动态细菌学监测是降低手术切口感染的根本途径。保证手术室工作质量是减少各类手术术后感染的关键。

  15. Joint excitation and reactive power control in thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated voltage and reactive power controller, designed for the thermal power plant, is presented in the paper. A brief explanation of the need for such device is given and justification for commissioning of such equipment is outlined. After short description of the theoretical background of the proposed control design, the achieved features of the commissioned equipment are fully given. Achieved performances are illustrated by recorded reactive power and bus voltage responses after commissioning of the described equipment into the largest thermal power plant in Serbia. As it can be seen in presented records, all design targets are met.

  16. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  17. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hou - Tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  18. Health-aware Model Predictive Control of Pasteurization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Puig, Vicenç; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize the trade-off between components life and energy consumption, the integration of a system health management and control modules is required. This paper proposes the integration of model predictive control (MPC) with a fatigue estimation approach that minimizes the damage of the components of a pasteurization plant. The fatigue estimation is assessed with the rainflow counting algorithm. Using data from this algorithm, a simplified model that characterizes the health of the system is developed and integrated with MPC. The MPC controller objective is modified by adding an extra criterion that takes into account the accumulated damage. But, a steady-state offset is created by adding this extra criterion. Finally, by including an integral action in the MPC controller, the steady-state error for regulation purpose is eliminated. The proposed control scheme is validated in simulation using a simulator of a utility-scale pasteurization plant.

  19. Z Number Based Fuzzy Inference System for Dynamic Plant Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahib H. Abiyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequently the reliabilities of the linguistic values of the variables in the rule base are becoming important in the modeling of fuzzy systems. Taking into consideration the reliability degree of the fuzzy values of variables of the rules the design of inference mechanism acquires importance. For this purpose, Z number based fuzzy rules that include constraint and reliability degrees of information are constructed. Fuzzy rule interpolation is presented for designing of an inference engine of fuzzy rule-based system. The mathematical background of the fuzzy inference system based on interpolative mechanism is developed. Based on interpolative inference process Z number based fuzzy controller for control of dynamic plant has been designed. The transient response characteristic of designed controller is compared with the transient response characteristic of the conventional fuzzy controller. The obtained comparative results demonstrate the suitability of designed system in control of dynamic plants.

  20. Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.

  1. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 - and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  2. Microorganisms in confined habitats: Microbial monitoring and control of intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room, product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms, or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g. microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  3. Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong eLiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27℃, high temperature (27-30℃ and extremely high temperature (37-42℃, also known as heat stress for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic mechanisms of plant responses to heat have been well studied, mainly focusing on elevated ambient temperature-mediated morphological acclimation and acceleration of flowering, modulation of plant immunity and circadian clock by high temperatures, and thermotolerance to heat stress. Recently, great progress has been achieved on epigenetic regulation of heat responses, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, histone chaperones, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other undefined epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications regulate the expression of heat-responsive genes and function to prevent heat-related damage. This review focuses on recent progresses regarding the genetic and epigenetic control of heat responses in plants, and pays more attention to the role of the major epigenetic mechanisms in plant heat responses. Further research perspectives are also discussed.

  4. Control of meiotic recombination frequency in plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian R

    2012-11-01

    Sexual eukaryotes reproduce via the meiotic cell division, where ploidy is halved and homologous chromosomes undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover (CO). CO frequency has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and species evolution. Relative CO rates vary extensively both within and between plant genomes. Plant genome size varies by over 1000-fold, largely due to differential expansion of repetitive sequences, and increased genome size is associated with reduced CO frequency. Gene versus repeat sequences associate with distinct chromatin modifications, and evidence from plant genomes indicates that this epigenetic information influences CO patterns. This is consistent with data from diverse eukaryotes that demonstrate the importance of chromatin structure for control of meiotic recombination. In this review I will discuss CO frequency patterns in plant genomes and recent advances in understanding recombination distributions.

  5. Reversible strain control of magnetic anisotropy in magnetoelectric heterostructures at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Margo; Gopman, Daniel B.; Iunin, Yury L.; Shull, Robert D.; Cheng, Shu Fan; Bussmann, Konrad; Finkel, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The ability to tune both magnetic and electric properties in magnetoelectric (ME) composite heterostructures is crucial for multiple transduction applications including energy harvesting or magnetic field sensing, or other transduction devices. While large ME coupling achieved through interfacial strain-induced rotation of magnetic anisotropy in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric multiferroic heterostructures has been demonstrated, there are presently certain restrictions for achieving a full control of magnetism in an extensive operational dynamic range, limiting practical realization of this effect. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of generating substantial reversible anisotropy changes through induced interfacial strains driven by applied electric fields in magnetostrictive thin films deposited on (0 1 1)-oriented domain-engineered ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with extended temperature and voltage ranges as compared to binary relaxors. We show, through a combination of angular magnetization and magneto-optical domain imaging measurements, that a 90° in-plane rotation of the magnetic anisotropy and propagation of magnetic domains with low applied electric fields under zero electric field bias are realized. To our knowledge, the present value attained for converse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient is the highest achieved in the linear piezoelectric regime and expected to be stable for a wide temperature range, thus representing a step towards practical ME transduction devices.

  6. Performance of the Operating Room Personnel in following of the standards of Infection Control in the Educational Hospitals of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rostaminejad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Surgical wound infection is one of the common nosocomial infections. During operation, members of the surgical team which are in contact with the tissue incision should observe the standards of infection control in the operating room since it has a great role in prevention and control of these infections. The present study aimed to determine the performance of the operating room personnel in observing the standards of infection control in educational hospitals of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Materials & Methods: Forty two operating room personnel participated in this cross-sectional analytic-descriptive study. A check list was used for unnoticeably collecting the data about the performance of personnel in respect of infection control standards at three different times. Their performances were classified into four levels (very weak, weak, moderate and good and the results were shown as absolute and relative frequency distribution. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fischer exact test by the SPSS software. Results: Performance of personnel in following the standards of infection control in this study was moderate. Conclusion: The results indicate that the participants of the study do not follow some of the standards of infection control in the operating rooms. Therefore, further activities of the committees of infection control and using of new antiseptic for surgical scrub are recommended.

  7. The Plant Ontology Database: A Community Resource for Plant Structure and Developmental Stages Controlled Vocabulary and Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC, http://www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among model plant genome databases and plant researchers that aims to create, maintain and facilitate the use of a controlled vocabulary(ontology) for plants. The ontology allows users to ascribe attributes o...

  8. Electric field control of magnetization in Cu2O/porous anodic alumina hybrid structures at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L. Q.; Liu, H. Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Liu, L. H.; Han, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    Cu2O nanoporous films are deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. This paper focuses on voltage driven magnetization switching in Cu2O/PAA (CP) composite films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. By applying a dc electric field, the magnetization of the CP composite films can be controlled in a reversible and reproducible way and shows an analogous on-off behavior. The magnitude of the change in the magnetization was about 75 emu/cm3 as the electric field was switched on and off. Resistive switching behavior was also observed in as-prepared CP composite films. Further analysis indicated that the formation/rupture of conducting filaments composed of oxygen vacancies is likely responsible for the changes in the magnetization as well as in the resistivity. Such reversible change of magnetization controlled by an electric field at room temperature may have applications in spintronics and power efficient data storage technologies.

  9. Design and control of integrated styrene aniline production plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partenie, O.; Van der Last, V.; Sorin Bildea, C.; Altimari, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the operational difficulties arising from simultaneously performing exothermic and endothermic reactions, and demonstrates that a plant can be built and safely operated by integrating the design and plantwide control issues. The behaviour of reactor – separation – recycle

  10. Sound field control in a rectangular room at low frequencies to simulate the sound radiated by a virtual source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco, Arturo; Uchiyama, Michiaki; Tohyama, Mikio

    1999-01-01

    The sound reproduced in a room by a conventional audio system is modified because of the acoustic response of the room. In this paper a theoreticalstudy based on computer simulations for the synthesis of a desired sound field in a room is presented. The optimal solution in a continuous region...... that covers almost the entire volume of the room has been obtained with the least-square approximation. It is shown that the synthesis of travelling waves in a certain direction is possible at frequencies up to 320 Hz in a room with dimensions 2.9x3.6x2.5 m using 32 loudspeakers. If waves travelling in any...

  11. Silicon control of bacterial and viral diseases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakr Nachaat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon plays an important role in providing tolerance to various abiotic stresses and augmenting plant resistance against diseases. However, there is a paucity of reports about the effect of silicon on bacterial and viral pathogens of plants. In general, the effect of silicon on plant resistance against bacterial diseases is considered to be due to either physical defense or increased biochemical defense. In this study, the interaction between silicon foliar or soil-treatments and reduced bacterial and viral severity was reviewed. The current review explains the agricultural importance of silicon in plants, refers to the control of bacterial pathogens in different crop plants by silicon application, and underlines the different mechanisms of silicon-enhanced resistance. A section about the effect of silicon in decreasing viral disease intensity was highlighted. By combining the data presented in this study, a better comprehension of the complex interaction between silicon foliar- or soil-applications and bacterial and viral plant diseases could be achieved.

  12. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step solution processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. A high-temperature thermal annealing treatment was applied to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into a compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. However, thermal annealing for extended periods led to degraded device performance owing to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. A controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method was used to grow "bilayer" CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple air exposure at room temperature for making well-oriented, highly crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ca. 800 nm and a high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to values reported for thermally annealed perovskite films.

  13. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...... reference tracking and disturbance rejection in an economically optimal way. The performance function is chosen as a mixture of the `1-norm and a linear weighting to model the economics of the system. Simulations show a significant improvement of the performance of the MPC compared to the current...

  14. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  15. Controlling pH in a Precipitation Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Støle-Hansen

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with pH control in a precipitation and dissolution process. The process is a part of the electrolyte purification plant at Falconbridge Nikkelverk in Kristiansand, Norway. The process including the present strategy for pH control are presented, and experienced weaknesses with this strategy are described. A rigorous dynamic model of the process is briefly summarized. This model was developed in earlier work with the purpose of being a tool for control design. Because of the precipitation in form of hydroxides and the limited dissolution rate of nickel carbonate, the process is approximately linear in pH. Therefore, an alternative strategy for pH control based on adding derivative and feed forward action is suggested. The alternative control strategy is by simulations shown to give severe improvements in performance. The robustness of the proposed controller is briefly analysed.

  16. Study on Intellective Fuzzy Control System for Oil Pump Room%军队油库泵房智能控制仿真系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆忠; 何涪

    2011-01-01

    对军队油库泵房收发油故障进行综合分析,论述军队油库泵房智能控制仿真系统的工作原理,设计了位置模糊控制器及其软件,提出了泵房设备模糊控制的设计方法,给出了仿真系统的应用实例,对实现军队油库泵房各种设备的智能模糊控制,具有科学性和实用性.%In this paper, the accident of oil receiving and deporting in oil pump room are analyzed. The working principles of intellective fuzzy control system for oil pump room are discussed. The design ways of location fuzzy controller, its software and mechanical fuzzy control for pump room are described. The authors expound that the application of this system realizes intellective fuzzy control to a varieties of mechanism in oil pump room, and this system is scientific and practical.

  17. A summary of the models used for the mechanical response of disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with regard to compliance with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.; Mendenhall, F.T.

    1993-08-01

    A summary is presented of the results of a number of studies conducted prior to March 1992 that have led to a conceptual model describing how the porosity (and therefore the permeability) of waste and backfill in a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room changes with time and also describes how results from calculations involving mathematical models of these processes are used to provide input into performance assessment of the repository. Included in the report are descriptions of essential material response or constitutive models that include the influence of gas generation and the response of simple gas-pressurized cracks and fractures in salt, marker beds, and clay seams. Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional disposal room configurations and descriptions of the differences between numerical codes are also discussed. Calculational results using the mathematical models for disposal room response are described, beginning with closure of empty rooms and becoming progressively more complex. More recent results address some of the effects of gas generation in a room containing waste and backfill and intersected by a gas permeable marker bed. Developments currently in progress to improve the evaluation of the disposal room performance are addressing the coupling between brine flow and closure and the two-dimensional capability for analyzing a complete panel of rooms. Next, a method is described for including disposal room closure results into performance assessment analyses that determine if the repository is in compliance with regulatory standards. The coupling is accomplished using closure surfaces that describe the relationship among porosity, total amount of gas in the repository, and time. A number of conclusions about room response and recommendations for further work are included throughout the report.

  18. Can lemmings control the expansion of woody plants on tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Olofsson, Johan; Virtanen, Risto; Hoset, Katrine; Tuomi, Maria; Kyrö, Kukka

    2013-04-01

    results show that edibility plays a relatively small role for the vulnerability of woody plants to lemming impacts. As long as the plants are relatively small, like the evergreens were on our plots (the dominating species was the lingonberry, Vaccinium vitis-ideaea), they are mowed down by lemmings in outbreak years. The potential of lemmings to control the expansion of woody plants is thus likely to depend on the size of the seedlings of trees and shrubs and, therefore, on the frequency of lemming outbreaks

  19. Mechanisms of developmentally controlled cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Matthias; Nowack, Moritz K

    2016-02-01

    During plant development various forms of programmed cell death (PCD) are implemented by a number of cell types as inherent part of their differentiation programmes. Differentiation-induced developmental PCD is gradually prepared in concert with the other cell differentiation processes. As precocious or delayed PCD can have detrimental consequences for plant development, the actual execution of PCD has to be tightly controlled. Once triggered, PCD is irrevocably and rapidly executed accompanied by the breakdown of cellular compartments. In most developmental PCD forms, cell death is followed by cell corpse clearance. Devoid of phagocytic mechanisms, dying plant cells have to prepare their own demise in a cell-autonomous fashion before their deaths, ensuring the completion of cell clearance post mortem. Depending on the cell type, cell clearance can be complete or rather selective, and persistent corpses of particular cells accomplish vital functions in the plant body. The present review attempts to give an update on the molecular mechanisms that coordinate differentiation-induced PCD as vital part of plant development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing flexibility of coal power plant by control system modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Ante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implementation of intermittent renewable energy sources has already started to change the role of thermal power plants in energy systems across Europe. Traditionally base load plants are now forced to operate as peaking plants. A familiar transition in upcoming years is expected in Croatia and coal power plant operators are preparing accordingly. To evaluate cycling capabilities and control system operation for flexible operation of selected 210 MW coal plant, series of tests with different load gradients were performed and results were thoroughly analyzed. Two possible “bottlenecks” are identified, thermal stress in superheater header, and achievable ramping rate considering operational limitations of coal feeders, firing system and evaporator dynamics. Several unexpected readings were observed, usually caused by malfunctioning sensors and equipment, resulting in unexpected oscillations of superheated steam temperature. Based on superheater geometry and experimental data, maximal steam temperature gradient during ramping was evaluated. Since thermal stress was well inside the safety margins, the simulation model of the whole boiler was used to evaluate achievable ramping on electric side.

  1. Simulation model for plant growth in controlled environment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, C. D., Jr.; Wann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the mathematical model is to relate the individual processes to environmental conditions and the behavior of the whole plant. Using the controlled-environment facilities of the phytotron at North Carolina State University for experimentation at the whole-plant level and methods for handling complex models, researchers developed a plant growth model to describe the relationships between hierarchial levels of the crop production system. The fundamental processes that are considered are: (1) interception of photosynthetically active radiation by leaves, (2) absorption of photosynthetically active radiation, (3) photosynthetic transformation of absorbed radiation into chemical energy of carbon bonding in solube carbohydrates in the leaves, (4) translocation between carbohydrate pools in leaves, stems, and roots, (5) flow of energy from carbohydrate pools for respiration, (6) flow from carbohydrate pools for growth, and (7) aging of tissues. These processes are described at the level of organ structure and of elementary function processes. The driving variables of incident photosynthetically active radiation and ambient temperature as inputs pertain to characterization at the whole-plant level. The output of the model is accumulated dry matter partitioned among leaves, stems, and roots; thus, the elementary processes clearly operate under the constraints of the plant structure which is itself the output of the model.

  2. Native plants for erosion control in urban river slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alvarado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and structural erosion of soils is produced by the loss of the vegetal cover and the action of rain on unprotected surfaces. Raindrop impact, transport and sediment deposition leads to landslides and slope instability and soil loss. In Costa Rica, water bodies have been negatively impacted by urban development and both water resources and soils have become more vulnerable. This is the case of the Pirro river micro watershed where riverbed vegetation has been replaced by constructions producing erosion problems in its slopes. In order to evaluate how native plants favor sediment control and prevent this sediment from been deposited in the river, eight experimental plots were installed. Four treatments were established: A (Costus pulverulentus Presl, B (Heliconia tortuosa (Griggs Standl., C (Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash and D (control. Sediments were collected weekly during the rainy and transitional seasons. A clear relation between rainfall intensity and sediment production was determined, particularly for intensities higher than 50 mm h-1. Significant differences were also determined between the treatments and the efficiency order was B >A > C >D, with the native plants being the most efficient in terms of sediment control. The use of native plants is recommended for the management and rehabilitation of slopes near urban rivers due to their ecological value and their capability for sediment control.

  3. Screening for plant extracts to control potato late blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shutong; HU Tongle; ZHANG Fengqiao; H.R.Forrer; CAO Keqiang

    2007-01-01

    Six extracts from plant material(Galla chinensis,Potentilla erecta,Rheum rhabarbarum,Salviae officinalis,Sophoraflavescens,and Terminalia chebula)were tested for controlling effects against the infection of Phytophthora infestans on detached potato leaves, seedlings, and tuber slices.On detached leaves,G.chinensis(2%),R.rhabarbarum(rhizome,2%)and S.flavescens(2%)extracts showed a significant control effect,with a control efficacy of 96.67%,G.chinensis was the best.On seedlings R.rhabarbarum(rhizome,2%)showed the best inhibiting effect,followed by S.flavescens(2%),T.chebula(1%),and G.chinensis(2%).The control efficacies were 91.67%,75.00%,70.24%,and 64.29%,respectively on the seventh day after inoculation.However,on potato slices,none of the plant extracts showed effective protection against infection and sporangia production by P.infestans.The reason was analyzed and the potential for developing a natural fungicide based on these plant materials was discussed.

  4. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  5. Understanding Plant-Soil Relationships Using Controlled Environment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C. P.; Rygiewicz, P. T.

    1999-01-01

    Although soil is a component of terrestrial ecosystems, it is comprised of a complex web of interacting organisms, and therefore can be considered itself as an ecosystem. Soil microflora and fauna derive energy from plants and plant residues and serve important functions in maintaining soil physical and chemical properties, thereby affecting net primary productivity (NPP), and in the case of contained environments, the quality of the life support system. We have been using 3 controlled-environment facilities (CEF's) that incorporate different levels of soil biological complexity and environmental control, and differ in their resemblance to natural ecosystems, to study relationships among plant physiology, soil ecology, fluxes of minerals and nutrients, and overall ecosystem function. The simplest system utilizes growth chambers and specialized root chambers with organic-less media to study the physiology of plant-mycorrhizal associations. A second system incorporates natural soil in open-top chambers to study soil bacterial and fungal population response to stress. The most complex CEF incorporates reconstructed soil profiles in a ``constructed'' ecosystem, enabling close examination of the soil foodweb. Our results show that closed ecosystem research is important for understanding mechanisms of response to ecosystem stresses. In addition, responses observed at one level of biological complexity may not allow prediction of response at a different level of biological complexity. In closed life support systems, incorporating soil foodwebs will require less artificial manipulation to maintain system stability and sustainability.

  6. Emission control of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur emission rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate emission control because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient emission control if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur.

  7. Advanced control room design review guidelines: Integration of the NUREG-0700 guidelines and development of new human-system interface guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report documents the work conducted in four tasks of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) project entitled Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation. The purpose of the first task was to integrate the applicable sections of NUREG-0700 into the advanced control room design review (ACRDR) guidelines to ensure that all applicable guidelines are together in one document and conveniently accessible to users. The primary objective of the second task was to formulate a strategy for the development of new ACRDR guidelines that have not otherwise been identified. The main focus of the third task was to modify the individual ACRDR guidelines generated to date to ensure that they are suitable for the intended nuclear power plant (NPP) control station system application. The goal of the fourth task was to develop human factors guidelines for two human-system interface categories that are missing from the current ACRDR guidelines document. During the first task those areas in NUREG-0700 that are not addressed by the ACRDR guidelines document were identified, the areas were subsequently reviewed against six recent industry human factors engineering review guidelines, and the NUREG-0700 guidelines were updated as necessary. In the second task 13 general categories of human-system interface guidelines that are either missing from or not adequately addressed by the ACRDR document were discovered. An approach was derived for the development of new ACRDR guidelines, a preliminary assessment of the available sources that may be useful in the creation of new guidelines and their applicability to the identified human-system interface categories was performed, and an estimate was made of the amount of time and level of effort required to complete the development of needed new ACRDR guidelines. During the third task those NPP control station systems to which the NUREG-0700 and ACRDR guidelines apply were identified, matrices of such

  8. Leap Motion Gesture Control With Carestream Software in the Operating Room to Control Imaging: Installation Guide and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchot, Julien; Di Tommaso, Laetitia; Lounis, Ahmed; Benassarou, Mourad; Mathieu, Pierre; Bernot, Dominique; Aubry, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, routine cross-sectional imaging viewing during a surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). Such contact risks exposure to aseptic conditions and causes loss of time. Devices such as the recently introduced Leap Motion (Leap Motion Society, San Francisco, CA), which enables interaction with the computer without any physical contact, are of wide interest in the field of surgery, but configuration and ergonomics are key challenges for the practitioner, imaging software, and surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of Leap Motion on a PC for optimized use with Carestream Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY) using a plug-in (to download at https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_F4eBeBQc3yNENvTXlnY09qS00&authuser=0) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Videos of surgical procedure and discussion about innovative gesture control technology and its various configurations are provided in this article.

  9. Selection and Assessment of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria for Biological Control of Multiple Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Newman, Molli; McInroy, John A; Hu, Chia-Hui; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2017-08-01

    A study was designed to screen individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for broad-spectrum disease suppression in vitro and in planta. In a preliminary screen, 28 of 196 strains inhibited eight different tested pathogens in vitro. In a secondary screen, these 28 strains showed broad spectrum antagonistic activity to six different genera of pathogens, and 24 of the 28 strains produced five traits reported to be related to plant growth promotion, including nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and biofilm formation. In advanced screens, the 28 PGPR strains selected in vitro were tested in planta for biological control of multiple plant diseases including bacterial spot of tomato caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, damping-off of pepper caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. In all, 5 of the 28 tested strains significantly reduced three of the four tested diseases, and another 19 strains showed biological control to two tested diseases. To understand the observed broad-spectrum biocontrol capacity, antiSMASH was used to predict secondary metabolite clusters of selected strains. Multiple gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites, e.g., bacillibactin, bacilysin, and microcin, were detected in each strain. In conclusion, selected individual PGPR strains showed broad-spectrum biocontrol activity to multiple plant diseases.

  10. Development of abamectin loaded plant virus nanoparticles for efficacious plant parasitic nematode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Guenther, Richard H; Sit, Tim L; Lommel, Steven A; Opperman, Charles H; Willoughby, Julie A

    2015-05-13

    Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the world's major agricultural pests, causing in excess of $157 billion in worldwide crop damage annually. Abamectin (Abm) is a biological pesticide with a strong activity against a wide variety of plant parasitic nematodes. However, Abm's poor mobility in the soil compromises its nematicide performance because of the limited zone of protection surrounding the growing root system of the plant. In this study, we manipulated Abm's soil physical chemistry by encapsulating Abm within the Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) to produce a plant virus nanoparticle (PVN) delivery system for Abm. The transmission electron microscopic and dynamic light scattering characterization of Abm-loaded PVN (PVN(Abm)) indicated the resultant viral capsid integrity and morphology comparable to native RCNMV. In addition, the PVN(Abm) significantly increased Abm's soil mobility while enabling a controlled release strategy for Abm's bioavailability to nematodes. As a result, PVN(Abm) enlarged the zone of protection from Meloidogyne hapla root knot nematodes in the soil as compared to treating with free Abm molecules. Tomato seedlings treated with PVN(Abm) had healthier root growth and a reduction in root galling demonstrating the success of this delivery system for the increased efficacy of Abm to control nematode damage in crops.

  11. New computer-controlled precipitator at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E N; Robbins, C C; Murdock, D W

    1988-01-01

    A new plutonium triflouride preciptation facility was successfully started up on the first attempt May 13, 1987 at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This new facility provided a 75% reduction in radiation exposure, a substantial improvement in process performance, and elimination of the major SRP process bottleneck. This was accomplished through sound engineering, improved process control, process automation, and extensive testing of components, assemblies, and entire system prior to ''hot'' startup.

  12. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  13. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  14. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  15. ITER fast plant system controller prototype based on ATCA platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, B., E-mail: bruno@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Batista, A.; Neto, A.; Santos, B.; Duarte, A.; Valcarcel, D.; Alves, D.; Correia, M.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, P.F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, J.M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    The ITER fast plan system controllers (FPSC) are based on embedded technologies. The FPSCs [1] will be devoted to data acquisition tasks (sampling rates >1 kSPS) and control purposes in closed-control loops whose cycle times are below 1 ms. Fast controllers will be dedicated industrial controllers with the ability to supervise other fast and/or slow controllers and interface to actuators, sensors and high performance networks. This contribution presents an FPSC prototype, specialized for data acquisition, based on the ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture) standard. This prototyping activity contributes to the ITER Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) effort of standardization, specifically regarding fast controller characteristics. For the prototype, IPFN has developed a new family of ATCA modules targeting ITER requirements. This family of modules comprises an AMC (Advanced Mezzanine Card) carrier/data hub/timing hub, compliant with the upcoming ATCA extensions for Physics, and a multi-channel galvanically isolated PnP digitizer, designed for serviceability. The design and test of a peer-to-peer communications layer for the implementation of a reflective memory over PCI Express and the design and test of an IEEE-1588 transport layer over an high performance serial link were also performed. In this contribution, a complete description of the solution is presented as well as the integration of the controller into the standard CODAC environment. The most relevant test results will be addressed, focusing in the benefits and limitations of the applied technologies.

  16. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinas, Nino A.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary “arms race” between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  17. Epigenetic control of defense signaling and priming in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR. These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements (TEs as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens.

  18. Handbook for replacement of process control systems in thermal power plants; Handbok - Utbytesbehov i kontrollsystem foer vaermekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszynski, J. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Tage [Vattenfall Energisystem AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Modernization of control equipment in more complex power plants, such as thermal power plants, requires special attention due to the almost complete change-over to new computerised technology. The introduction of new technology gives rise to great changes in both the process control systems and in operation and maintenance routines. The change-over to computerised technology also causes lack of spare parts and service for older equipment. The older technology becomes obsolete due to the great advantages that comes with new technology. Therefore, the lifetime of control equipment is not only coupled to traditional ageing and wear, such as oxidation and fatigue of material, but also to the fact that the old equipment is getting out of date. It becomes more and more common that this out-of-date factor, rather than ageing, sets the limit for the useful life of the equipment. The Handbook for replacement of process control systems in thermal power plants is thought to be a first help for engineers and managers who has the responsibility for process control modernization. The Handbook points out the factors that determines the service life of the control equipment. It also suggests what information is required in order to take a decision on modernization. The Handbook at its present form constitutes a first approach that leaves room for an extension later on. Any request to expand the Handbook should be put forward to Vaermeforsk or its partners

  19. Soil microorganisms control plant ectoparasitic nematodes in natural coastal foredunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piśkiewicz, Anna M; Duyts, Henk; Berg, Matty P; Costa, Sofia R; van der Putten, Wim H

    2007-06-01

    Belowground herbivores can exert important controls on the composition of natural plant communities. Until now, relatively few studies have investigated which factors may control the abundance of belowground herbivores. In Dutch coastal foredunes, the root-feeding nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis is capable of reducing the performance of the dominant grass Ammophila arenaria (Marram grass). However, field surveys show that populations of this nematode usually are controlled to nondamaging densities, but the control mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we first established that T. ventralis populations are top-down controlled by soil biota. Then, selective removal of soil fauna suggested that soil microorganisms play an important role in controlling T. ventralis. This result was confirmed by an experiment where selective inoculation of microarthropods, nematodes and microbes together with T. ventralis into sterilized dune soil resulted in nematode control when microbes were present. Adding nematodes had some effect, whereas microarthropods did not have a significant effect on T. ventralis. Our results have important implications for the appreciation of herbivore controls in natural soils. Soil food web models assume that herbivorous nematodes are controlled by predaceous invertebrates, whereas many biological control studies focus on managing nematode abundance by soil microorganisms. We propose that soil microorganisms play a more important role than do carnivorous soil invertebrates in the top-down control of herbivorous ectoparasitic nematodes in natural ecosystems. This is opposite to many studies on factors controlling root-feeding insects, which are supposed to be controlled by carnivorous invertebrates, parasitoids, or entomopathogenic nematodes. Our conclusion is that the ectoparasitic nematode T. ventralis is potentially able to limit productivity of the dune grass A. arenaria but that soil organisms, mostly microorganisms, usually prevent the

  20. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  1. ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype based on PXIe platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M., E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.es [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, CAEND CSIC-UPM Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, D.; Lopez, J.M.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Nieto, J. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, CAEND CSIC-UPM Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient data acquisition and data movement using EPICS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance of PCIe technologies in the implementation of FPSC. - Abstract: The ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) is based on embedded technologies. The FPSC will be devoted to both data acquisition tasks (sampling rates higher than 1 kHz) and control purposes (feedback loop actuators). Some of the essential requirements of these systems are: (a) data acquisition and data preprocessing; (b) interfacing with different networks and high speed links (Plant Operation Network, timing network based on IEEE1588, synchronous data transference and streaming/archiving networks); and (c) system setup and operation using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) process variables. CIEMAT and UPM have implemented a prototype of FPSC using a PXIe (PCI eXtension for Instrumentation) form factor in a R and D project developed in two phases. The paper presents the main features of the two prototypes developed that have been named alpha and beta. The former was implemented using LabVIEW development tools as it was focused on modeling the FPSC software modules, using the graphical features of LabVIEW applications, and measuring the basic performance in the system. The alpha version prototype implements data acquisition with time-stamping, EPICS monitoring using waveform process variables (PVs), and archiving. The beta version prototype is a complete IOC implemented using EPICS with different software functional blocks. These functional blocks are integrated and managed using an ASYN driver solution and provide the basic functionalities required by ITER FPSC such as data acquisition, data archiving, data pre-processing (using both CPU and GPU) and streaming.

  2. Simulation-based biagnostics and control for nuclar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced simulation-based diagnostics and control guidance systems for the identification and management of off-normal transient events in nuclear power plants is currently under investigation. To date a great deal of progress has been made in effectively and efficiently combining information obtained through fuzzy pattern recognition and macroscopic mass and energy inventory analysis for use in multiple failure diagnostics. Work has also begun on the unique problem of diagnostics and surveillance methodologies for advanced passively-safe reactors systems utilizing both statistical and fuzzy information. Plans are also being formulated for the development of deterministic optimal control algorithms combined with Monte Carlo incremental learning algorithms to be used for the flexible and efficient control of reactor transients.

  3. Using Plant Phylogenetic Relatedness as a Predictor for Plants' Control on Soil Microbial Communities and Nitrogen Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.; Bowman, W. D.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the known importance of soil microbes and their influence on soil processes, a mechanistic understanding is still needed to predict how plants and soil microbes interact at scales that are relevant to community and ecosystem-scale processes. Closely related plant species have similar traits aboveground, but we don't know whether this is also true for belowground traits that affect soil microbial community structure and function. Determining how tightly plant phylogeny and plant functional traits are linked to soil microbial communities is a useful approach for discovering plant-microbe associations that are generalizable across plant species (a limitation of studies that employ a single or few plant species). Using this approach, we conducted a greenhouse study with seven congeneric grasses (genus Poa) and their native soils to examine whether plants' influences on microbial community structure were consistent with plant phylogenetic relatedness and/or plant functional traits. Seeds of each Poa species were planted in native soil (from the seed source population) as well as a homogenized soil from all seven populations. Additionally, a nitrogen treatment was added to address how an environmental change (such as nitrogen deposition) alters plant-microbe associations. Rhizosphere community composition of bacteria and fungi was obtained via marker gene sequencing to compare community composition across plant species. Patterns in plant-microbe associations across plant species reveal plant control on nutrient cycling via plant species' influence on microbial community structure. These results determine if we are ready to generalize about plant-microbe interactions at the genus level, an important stepping-stone to applying knowledge of plant-microbe interactions to larger ecological scales.

  4. Parasitic plants in agriculture: Chemical ecology of germination and host-plant location as targets for sustainable control: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; John F. Tooker; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Parasitic plants are among the most problematic pests of agricultural crops worldwide. Effective means of control are generally lacking, in part because of the close physiological connection between the established parasite and host plant hindering efficient control using traditional methods. Seed germination and host location are critical early-growth stages that...

  5. Difficult points and countermeasures for hospital infection control in operating room%手术室医院感染控制的难点及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯迎辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To solve the difficulties of controlling hospital infection in operating room and give some solutions to this problem in order to improve the quality of nursing. Methods: The problems which found in our hospital in daily work were analyzed, improved and summaried, such as the operating room environment, the management of sterile goods, hand hygiene, movement in the surgery. Results: Cut the way caused the operating room infection, make the indicators of the operating room in the normal range, could avoid the occurrence of various surgical infections and improve the quality of health care. Conclusion: The effective implementations of the operating room disinfection and isolation measures were an important way to control hospital infection.%目的:解决手术室医院感染控制的难点并探讨手术室医院感染控制对策,以提高医疗护理质量.方法:通过我院感染管理科在日常工作中发现的问题,如手术室环境、无菌物品的管理、手卫生、手术中人员流动、各项感染措施及各项制度的落实等找出原因进行分析、整改和总结.结果:切断了引起手术室医院感染的途径,使手术室的各项指标在正常范围,避免了各项手术感染的发生,提高了医院的医疗护理质量.结论:有效地落实手术室消毒隔离措施是控制医院感染的重要途径.

  6. Size-controllable APTS stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoparticles catalyst for the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahmakıran, Mehmet; Philippot, Karine; Özkar, Saim; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-01-14

    Dimethylamine-borane, (CH(3))(2)NHBH(3), has been considered as one of the attractive materials for the efficient storage of hydrogen, which is still one of the key issues in the "Hydrogen Economy". In a recent communication we have reported the synthesis and characterization of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoparticles with the preliminary results for their catalytic performance in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature. Herein, we report a complete work including (i) effect of initial [APTS]/[Ru] molar ratio on both the size and the catalytic activity of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles, (ii) collection of extensive kinetic data under non-MTL conditions depending on the substrate and catalyst concentrations to define the rate law of Ru(0)/APTS-catalyzed dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature, (iii) determination of activation parameters (E(a), ΔH(#) and ΔS(#)) for Ru(0)/APTS-catalyzed dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane; (iv) demonstration of the catalytic lifetime of Ru(0)/APTS nanoparticles in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature, (v) testing the bottlability and reusability of Ru(0)/APTS nanocatalyst in the room-temperature dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane, (vi) quantitative carbon disulfide (CS(2)) poisoning experiments to find a corrected TTO and TOF values on a per-active-ruthenium-atom basis, (vii) a summary of extensive literature review for the catalysts tested in the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane as part of the results and discussions.

  7. Plant-centered biosystems in space environments: technological concepts for developing a plant genetic assessment and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Terri L; Findlay, Kirk A; White, T J; Winner, William E

    2003-06-01

    Plants will play an essential role in providing life support for any long-term space exploration or habitation. We are evaluating the feasibility of an adaptable system for measuring the response of plants to any unique space condition and optimizing plant performance under those conditions. The proposed system is based on a unique combination of systems including the rapid advances in the field of plant genomics, microarray technology for measuring gene expression, bioinformatics, gene pathways and networks, physiological measurements in controlled environments, and advances in automation and robotics. The resulting flexible module for monitoring and optimizing plant responses will be able to be inserted as a cassette into a variety of platforms and missions for either experimental or life support purposes. The results from future plant functional genomics projects have great potential to be applied to those plant species most likely to be used in space environments. Eventually, it will be possible to use the plant genetic assessment and control system to optimize the performance of any plant in any space environment. In addition to allowing the effective control of environmental parameters for enhanced plant productivity and other life support functions, the proposed module will also allow the selection or engineering of plants to thrive in specific space environments. The proposed project will advance human exploration of space in the near- and mid-term future on the International Space Station and free-flying satellites and in the far-term for longer duration missions and eventual space habitation.

  8. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    , wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe......Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements...

  9. 78 FR 64909 - Southwestern Region: Invasive Plant Control Project, Carson and Santa Fe National Forests, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Forest Service Southwestern Region: Invasive Plant Control Project, Carson and Santa Fe National Forests... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for controlling invasive plants in the Carson and Santa Fe... and correct deficiencies identified in the 2005 Invasive Plant Control Project Final Environmental...

  10. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  11. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants...

  12. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273—Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority Section 104 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, approved...

  14. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  15. Dependence of leaf surface potential response of a plant (Ficus Elastica) to light irradiation on room temperature; Shokubutsu (gomunoki) hamen den`i no hikari shosha oto no shitsuon izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In order to clarify plant body potential information, study was made on a leaf surface potential response to light irradiation. The leaf surface potential change, total transpiration and transpiration rate of Ficus Elastica were measured using light irradiation period and room temperature as parameters. The leaf surface potential change shows a positive peak after the start of light irradiation, while a negative peak after its end. Arrival time to both peaks is constant regardless of the light irradiation period, while decrease with an increase in room temperature. Although the total transpiration increases with room temperature, this tendency disappears with an increase in light irradiation period. The transpiration rate shows its peak after the start of light irradiation. Arrival time to the peak is saturated with the light irradiation period of 60min, while decreases with an increase in room temperature. These results suggest that opening of stomata becomes active with an increase in room temperature, and the peak of the leaf surface potential after the start of light irradiation relates to the opening. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common and complex problems of modern societies which has caused many economic and social problems. Because diabetes has no definite treatment, the use of traditional medicine seems to be an appropriate solution to control and manage it. Studies revealed that Vaccinium Arctostaphylos L., Securigera securidaca L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Atriplex halimus L., Camellia sinensis L., Ginkgo biloba L., Mamordica charantia L., Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Silybum marianum (L., Gaertn and Trigonella foenum graecum L. are effective against diabetes. Flavonoids, quercin, metformin, quinolizidine, anthocyanin, catechin and flavone, phenylpropanoids, lipoic acid and coumarin metabolites were introduced major impact on diabetes. With regard to the study of plants and their metabolites and the mechanisms of their influence, it is clear that these plants have the potential to reduce blood sugar and diabetes and be considered as candidates for preparing new drugs. Combination of plants extracts or their components may also have synergistic effects to better act on diabetes.

  17. Physiological parameters controlling plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren; Mattsson, Marie

    Recent advances in characterizing the influence of different physiological and environmental parameters on NH 3 exchange between plants and the atmosphere are presented. A central parameter in controlling the rate and direction of NH 3 fluxes is the NH 3 compensation point. It may vary from below 1 to over 20 nmol NH 3 mol -1 air. High compensation points seem to be a result of high tissue N status, rapid absorption of NH +4 from the root medium and/or low activity of glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in NH +4 assimilation. These conditions cause the NH +4 concentration in leaf apoplast and leaf cells to increase. The NH 3 compensation point also depends on plant developmental stage with peaks in NH 3 emission related to leaf senescence and N remobilization. The leaf temperature has a profound influence on the NH 3 compensation point: an increase in temperature from 15 to 30°C may cause a plant to switch from being a strong sink for atmospheric NH 3 to being a significant NH 3 source. Stomatal conductance for NH 3 relative to that of water vapour increases with tissue N status and with leaf senescence. At a given leaf temperature, the NH 3 compensation point can be successfully predicted on basis of the pH and NH +4 concentration in the apoplast of the mesophyll cells.

  18. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  19. Nonlinear Fuzzy Model Predictive Control for a PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable power and temperature control in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant is necessary to guarantee high efficiency and plant safety. Since the nuclear plants are quite nonlinear, the paper presents nonlinear fuzzy model predictive control (MPC, by incorporating the realistic constraints, to realize the plant optimization. T-S fuzzy modeling on nuclear power plant is utilized to approximate the nonlinear plant, based on which the nonlinear MPC controller is devised via parallel distributed compensation (PDC scheme in order to solve the nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Improved performance compared to the traditional PID controller for a TMI-type PWR is obtained in the simulation.

  20. A coordinated MIMO control design for a power plant using improved sliding mode controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Samani, Siavash Golmohammadi

    2014-03-01

    For the participation of the steam power plants in regulating the network frequency, boilers and turbines should be co-ordinately controlled in addition to the base load productions. Lack of coordinated control over boiler-turbine may lead to instability; oscillation in producing power and boiler parameters; reduction in the reliability of the unit; and inflicting thermodynamic tension on devices. This paper proposes a boiler-turbine coordinated multivariable control system based on improved sliding mode controller (ISMC). The system controls two main boiler-turbine parameters i.e., the turbine revolution and superheated steam pressure of the boiler output. For this purpose, a comprehensive model of the system including complete and exact description of the subsystems is extracted. The parameters of this model are determined according to our case study that is the 320MW unit of Islam-Abad power plant in Isfahan/Iran. The ISMC method is simulated on the power plant and its performance is compared with the related real PI (proportional-integral) controllers which have been used in this unit. The simulation results show the capability of the proposed controller system in controlling local network frequency and superheated steam pressure in the presence of load variations and disturbances of boiler.

  1. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Jose Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts, resins, oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme (F. guttiforme) and Chalara paradoxa, and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures. Methods: The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method. To control pineapple fusar-iosis in situ, preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv. P´erola (susceptible). Results: The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed, 46% were effective against F. guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa. The natural plant extracts, mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra (MTGG1), mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum (MTBT2), mother tincture of Aloe vera (MTAV3), mother tincture of Allium sativum (MTAS4), resin of Protium heptaphyllum (RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle (CEMV6), exhibited an antifungal activity against F. guttiforme. In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis, MTAV3, MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide. The curative treatments with MTAV3, MTAS4, MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide (P Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phyto-pathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  2. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Patrícia Machado Bueno Fernandes; José Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts,resins,oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme(F.guttiforme)and Chalara paradoxa,and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures.Methods:The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method.To control pineapple fusariosis in situ,preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv.Perola(susceptible).Results:The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed,46% were effective against F.guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa.The natural plant extracts,mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra(MTGG1),mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum(MTBT2),mother tincture of Aloe vera(MTAV3),mother tincture of Allium sativum(MTAS4),resin of Protium heptaphyllum(RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle(CEMV6),exhibited an antifungal activity against F.guttiforme.In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis,MTAV3,MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide.The curative treatments with MTAV3,MTAS4,MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide(P < 0.05).Conclusions:The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens.The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi.This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications,with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  3. An Evolutionarily Conserved Plant RKD Factor Controls Germ Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koi, Satoshi; Hisanaga, Tetsuya; Sato, Katsutoshi; Shimamura, Masaki; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-07-11

    In contrast to animals, in which the germ cell lineage is established during embryogenesis, plant germ cells are generated in reproductive organs via reprogramming of somatic cells. The factors that control germ cell differentiation and reprogramming in plants are poorly understood. Members of the RKD subfamily of plant-specific RWP-RK transcription factors have been implicated in egg cell formation in Arabidopsis based on their expression patterns and ability to cause an egg-like transcriptome upon ectopic expression [1]; however, genetic evidence of their involvement is lacking, due to possible genetic redundancy, haploid lethality, and the technical difficulty of analyzing egg cell differentiation in angiosperms. Here we analyzed the factors that govern germ cell formation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. This recently revived model bryophyte has several characteristics that make it ideal for studies of germ cell formation, such as low levels of genetic redundancy, readily accessible germ cells, and the ability to propagate asexually via gemma formation [2, 3]. Our analyses revealed that MpRKD, a single RWP-RK factor closely related to angiosperm RKDs, is preferentially expressed in developing eggs and sperm precursors in M. polymorpha. Targeted disruption of MpRKD had no effect on the gross morphology of the vegetative and reproductive organs but led to striking defects in egg and sperm cell differentiation, demonstrating that MpRKD is an essential regulator of germ cell differentiation. Together with previous findings [1, 4-6], our results suggest that RKD factors are evolutionarily conserved regulators of germ cell differentiation in land plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smart — STATCOM control strategy implementation in wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Cantarellas, Antoni Mir; Miranda, H.;

    2012-01-01

    converters is increasing. This paper deals with an advanced control strategy design of a three-level converter performing STATCOM and Active Filter functionalities. The proposed system is called Smart-STATCOM since it has the capability of self-controlling reactive power and harmonic voltages at the same......High penetration of wind energy into the grid may introduce stability and power quality problems due to the fluctuating nature of the wind and the increasing complexity of the power system. By implementing advanced functionalities in power converters, it is possible to improve the performance...... of the wind farm and also to provide grid support, as it is required by the grid codes. One of the main compliance difficulties that can be found in such power plants are related to reactive power compensation and to keep the harmonics content between the allowed limits, even if the power of the WPP...

  5. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  6. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  7. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  8. Hormone-controlled UV-B responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a portion of solar radiation that has significant effects on the development and metabolism of plants. Effects of UV-B on plants can be classified into photomorphogenic effects and stress effects. These effects largely rely on the control of, and interactions with, hormonal pathways. The fairly recent discovery of the UV-B-specific photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) allowed evaluation of the role of downstream hormones, leading to the identification of connections with auxin and gibberellin. Moreover, a substantial overlap between UVR8 and phytochrome responses has been shown, suggesting that part of the responses caused by UVR8 are under PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR control. UV-B effects can also be independent of UVR8, and affect different hormonal pathways. UV-B affects hormonal pathways in various ways: photochemically, affecting biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling. This review concludes that the effects of UV-B on hormonal regulation can be roughly divided in two: inhibition of growth-promoting hormones; and the enhancement of environmental stress-induced defense hormones.

  9. Average Air Temperature Inside a Room With a Semitransparent Wall With a Solar Control Film: Effect of The Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Xamán; Álvarez, G; Chávez, Y.; J. O. Aguilar; Arce, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical study on conjugated heat transfer (natural convection, radiation and conduction) in a squareroom (cavity) with turbulent flow is presented, taking into account variation on the opaque wall emissivity. The room isformed by an isothermal vertical wall, two adiabatic horizontal walls and a semitransparent wall with and without acontrol solar radiation film. The governing equations for turbulent flow in 2D were solved using a finite volumeformulation and k- turbulent ...

  10. Average Air Temperature Inside a Room With a Semitransparent Wall With a Solar Control Film: Effect of The Emissivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xamán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical study on conjugated heat transfer (natural convection, radiation and conduction in a squareroom (cavity with turbulent flow is presented, taking into account variation on the opaque wall emissivity. The room isformed by an isothermal vertical wall, two adiabatic horizontal walls and a semitransparent wall with and without acontrol solar radiation film. The governing equations for turbulent flow in 2D were solved using a finite volumeformulation and k- turbulent model. Results for an isothermal wall at 21°C and an external temperature of 35°C arepresented. The size of the room is 4.0 m length and height and the solar radiation falling directly on thesemitransparent wall was 750 W/m2 (AM2. The emissivity of the opaque walls was varied between 0.1 ≤ * ≤ 1.0.Results show that, based on the air average temperature and the effective heat flux inside the room, the solar controlfilm under study was advantageous for energy saving purposes, for emissivity values of * ≤ 0.46. A correlation onthis system for the heat transfer as a function of the emissivities was determined.

  11. Topical hemostasis: a valuable adjunct to control bleeding in the operating room, with a special focus on thrombin and fibrin sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Cataldo; Vaccino, Silvia

    2009-02-01

    Achieving surgical hemostasis plays a major role in the operating room. Occasionally, classical surgical techniques are ill suited or fail to achieve the desired control at the site of bleeding. Topical hemostasis may be seen as a useful addition to assist the surgeon in controlling surgical bleeding. To provide a brief overview of available topical hemostatic agents with a focus on the different formulations of thrombin. The scope of the review was limited to a keyword search on PubMed and Ovid (surgical hemostasis, thrombin, tissue adhesives). Proven as adjuncts to surgical hemostasis, topical hemostatic agents have become quite valuable to bridge or to achieve permanent hemostasis.

  12. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and... nuclear material control and accounting system requirements for nuclear power plants. This guide applies...

  13. INSETICIDAL OILS FROM AMAZON PLANTS IN CONTROL OF FALL ARMYWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLÁUDIA VIEIRA DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential insecticidal of oils from southwestern Amazon plants against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was investigated. Initial bioassays were performed with undiluted oils from 11 plant species. The efficacy of the oils was evaluated against eggs and third-instar caterpillars of S. frugiperda. The oils of Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae, Orbignya phalerata (Arecaceae, and Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae displayed a high efficacy against the caterpillars and were used in subsequent concentration-response bioassays, at concentrations established through preliminary tests. The highest nonlethal concentrations of oils and the lowest lethal concentrations were calculated. A completely randomized design was adopted in both bioassays. The LC50 of the oils varied from 7.50 to 60.84% (v/v. Copaifera sp. oil had the highest toxicity and was 6.84-fold more toxic than O. phalerata oil and 8.11-fold more toxic than Carapa guianensis oil. In general, oils from Copaifera sp., O. phalerata, and Carapa guianensis were effective in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars under laboratory conditions, and are good candidates for use in integrated management programs of corn pests.

  14. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  15. Measurement of total site mercury emissions from a chlor-alkali plant using ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy and cell room roof-vent monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Eben D.; Secrest, Cary; Hall, Eric S.; Lee Jones, Donna; Shores, Richard C.; Modrak, Mark; Hashmonay, Ram; Norwood, Phil

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg 0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of 2006. The optical remote sensing (ORS) area source measurement method EPA OTM 10 was used to provide Hg 0 flux data for the site. These results are reported and compared with cell room roof-vent monitoring data acquired by the facility for similar time periods. The 24-h extrapolated mercury emission rate estimates determined by the two monitoring approaches are shown to be similar with overall averages in the 400 g day -1 range with maximum values around 1200 g day -1. Results from the OTM 10 measurements, which include both cell room emissions and potential fugitive sources outside the cell room, are shown to be approximately 10% higher than cell room monitoring results indicating that fugitive emissions from outside the cell room produce a small but measurable effect for this site.

  16. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  17. A predictive controller based on transient simulations for controlling a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, B.

    2016-11-01

    A predictive governor based on an embedded, online transient simulation was commissioned at Tonstad power plant in Norway in December 2014. This governor controls each individual turbine governor by feeding them modified setpoints. Tonstad power plant consists of 4 × 160 MW + 1 × 320 MW high head Francis turbines. With a yearly production of 3888 GWh, it is the largest in Norway. The plant is a typical high head Norwegian plant with very long tunnels and correspondingly active dynamic behaviour. This new governor system continuously simulates the entire plant, and appropriate actions are taken automatically by special algorithms. The simulations are based on the method of characteristics (MOC). The governing system has been in full operational mode since December 19 2014. The testing period also included special acceptance tests to be able to deliver FRR, both on the Nordic grid and on DC cable to Denmark. Although in full operational mode, this system is still a prototype under constant development. It shows a new way of using transient analysis that may become increasingly important in the future with added power from un-regulated sources such as wind, solar and bio.

  18. Plant-wide modelling and control of nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo

    % of those CO2 equivalents comes from N2O emissions. It becomes therefore relevant, within the context of reducing the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment (WWT) systems, to develop control strategies aimed at the minimization of the emissions of this gas. Till now, few operation strategies have been...... environments and a multi-criteria evaluation, taking into account not only the N2O emissions but also the effluent quality and the operational costs, is carried out. This is because the reduction of the carbon footprint of WWT plants cannot be achieved at the expense of worse effluent quality and unreasonably......Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouses gas with a global warming potential three hundred times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2). The IPCC report released in 2014 shows that the CO2 equivalents emitted from the wastewater systems are increasing in the last decades. It was also estimated that 14...

  19. Plant-microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Streptomyces and the fungal genera Ampelomyces, Coniothyrium, and Trichoderma are model organisms to demonstrate influence on plant health. Based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions, it is possible to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology. Dependent on their mode of action and effects, these products can be used as biofertilizers, plant strengtheners, phytostimulators, and biopesticides. There is a strong growing market for microbial inoculants worldwide with an annual growth rate of approximately 10%. The use of genomic technologies leads to products with more predictable and consistent effects. The future success of the biological control industry will benefit from interdisciplinary research, e.g., on mass production, formulation, interactions, and signaling with the environment, as well as on innovative business management, product marketing, and education. Altogether, the use of microorganisms and the exploitation of beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer promising and environmentally friendly strategies for conventional and organic agriculture worldwide.

  20. Within-plant distribution of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on various greenhouse plants with implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Mattson, N S; Wraight, S P; Sanderson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest in greenhouses of North America and the United Kingdom. Little nonanecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse crops. To help improve integrated pest management decisions for A. solani, the within-plant distribution of this pest was explored on a variety of common greenhouse plants in both the vegetative and flowering stage. This aphid generally was found on lower leaves of vegetative plants, but was found higher in the canopy on reproductive plants (on flowers, flower buds, or upper leaves). Aphid numbers were not consistently positively correlated with total leaf surface areas within plant strata across plant species. Thus, the observed differences in preferred feeding sites on vegetative versus flowering plants are possibly a response to differences in nutritional quality of the various host-plant tissues. Despite being anecdotally described as a "stem-feeding aphid," A. solani was rarely found feeding on stems at the population densities established in our tests, with the exception of racemes of scarlet sage (Salvia splendans). Although some previous reports suggested that A. solani prefers to feed on new growth of plants, our results indicate that mature leaves are preferred over growing tips and young leaves. The implications of the within-plant feeding preferences of A. solani populations with respect to both biological and chemical control are discussed.

  1. Control of the actin cytoskeleton in plant cell growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, P.J.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Deeks, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Plant cells grow through increases in volume and cell wall surface area. The mature morphology of a plant cell is a product of the differential rates of expansion between neighboring zones of the cell wall during this process. Filamentous actin arrays are associated with plant cell growth, and the a

  2. Control and optimization of the refrigeration plant in a brewery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P.M; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    The design and operation of a refrigeration plant in a brewery has been studied. The plant has been evaluated by using mathematical models of the components to simulate responses to real-life load variations. The study shows that the efficiency and economy of the actual refrigeration plant could...

  3. Plant-wide control: eco-efficiency and control loop configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, M T; Yu, W; Young, B R

    2013-01-01

    Since the eco-efficiency of all industrial processes/plants has become increasingly important, engineers need to find a way to integrate the control loop configuration and the measurements of eco-efficiency. A new measure of eco-efficiency, the exergy eco-efficiency factor, for control loop configuration, is proposed in this paper. The exergy eco-efficiency factor is based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy which can be used to analyse a process in terms of its efficiency associated with the control configuration. The combination of control pairing configuration techniques (such as the relative gain array, RGA and Niederlinski index, NI) and the proposed exergy eco-efficiency factor will guide the process designer to reach the optimal control design with low operational cost (i.e., energy consumption). The exergy eco-efficiency factor is implemented in the process simulation case study and the reliability of the proposed method is demonstrated by dynamic simulation results.

  4. Software Configuration Management Plan for the B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-08-31

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This Software Configuration Management Plan provides instructions for change control of the CVCS.

  5. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  6. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray

  7. Automatic Generation Control Using PI Controller with Bacterial Foraging for both Thermal and Hydro Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Hooda,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The load-frequency control (LFC is used to restore the balance between load and generation in each control area by means of speed control. In power system, the main goal of load frequency control (LFC or automatic generation control (AGC is to maintain the frequency of each area and tie- line power flow within specified tolerance by adjusting the MW outputs of LFC generators so as to accommodate fluctuating load demands. In this paper, attempt is made to make a scheme for automatic generation control within a restructured environment considering effects of contracts between DISCOs and GENCOs to make power system network in normal state where, GENCO used are hydro plants as well as thermal plants. The bacterial foraging optimization technique is being developed, which is applied to AGC in an interconnected four area system.The performance of the system is obtained by MATLAB Simulink tool. The results are shown in frequency and power response for four area AGC system. In this paper we have shown practical work by using thermal and hydro both system at Genco’s side.As reheated system transfer function is being used.

  8. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  9. 6 June 2008 - Chancellor F. Tomàs Vert, University of Valencia, visiting ATLAS control room and experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    6 June 2008 - Chancellor F. Tomàs Vert, University of Valencia, visiting ATLAS control room and experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni. Other participants: Prof. Francisco José Botella, Director, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, University of València and CSIC Prof. José Peñarrocha, Dean, Faculty of Physics Prof. Antonio Ferrer, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, University of València and CSIC Prof. Antonio Pich, University of València, Member of IFIC (CSIC - Univ. València), Coordinator of CPAN, Spanish National Centre for Particle, Astroparticle and Nuclear Physics.

  10. Electric field control of the γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface conductivity at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Trier, Felix; von Soosten, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Controlling interfaces using electric fields is at the heart of modern electronics. The discovery of the conducting interface between the two insulating oxides LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) has led to a number of interesting electric field-dependent phenomena. Recently, it was shown that replacing...... LAO with a spinel γ-Al2O3 (GAO) allows a good pseudo-epitaxial film growth and high electron mobility at low temperatures. Here, we show that the GAO/STO interface resistance, similar to LAO/STO, can be tuned by orders of magnitude at room temperature using the electric field of a backgate...

  11. Hydrofluoric Acid Controlled TiO2 Phase Transformation from Rutile to Anatase at Room Temperature and Their Photocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Li, Dapeng; Jia, Gaoyang; Wang, Beibei; Yang, Zhen; Yang, Zongyang; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we first present rutile TiO2 superstructures could be successfully transformed into anatase TiO2 nanoparticles at room temperature by adjusting the amount of hydrofluoric acid (HF) used in aqueous solution. Photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the as prepared anatase TiO2 exhibited better photocatalytic performance than that of rutile TiO2. We further studied the photocatalytic degradation of RhB on different TiO2 via active species trapping experiments and confirmed that the presence of surface F- on TiO2 was beneficial for the formation of *OH, which was thought to be mainly responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  12. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL GROUP-CONTAINING ORGANICS ON MORPHOLOGY-CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Wang; H.B. Yin; M. Ren; X.N. Cheng; Q.F. Zhou; X.F. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with average particles sizes ranging from 2 to 131nm were manipulatively synthesized starting from silver nitrate using different functional group-containing organic modifiers at room temperature. The effects of the organic modifiers on the morphology of the resulting silver nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the intrinsic properties of the functional groups and the reducibility of the reductant. Numerous ether bonds (-O-) present in polyethylene glycol and Tween-80 were beneficial to the formation of silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of several nanometers in a narrow size distribution in both weak and strong reducing environments.Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide induced the formation of nanosized silver triangle plates in a weak reducing environment. The crystal growth of the silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of more than 10nm was postulated through an adhesion process of small-sized particles followed by a subsequent coalescence process under the present reaction conditions.

  13. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  15. 4th February 2011- Polish Ambassador to the United Nations Office R. A. Henczel visiting CMS control room and underground experimental area with his daughter, guided by Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011- Polish Ambassador to the United Nations Office R. A. Henczel visiting CMS control room and underground experimental area with his daughter, guided by Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  16. 19 September 2012 - Indonesian Members of Parliament visiting the CMS control room and experimental cavern at Point 5 with Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck and International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    19 September 2012 - Indonesian Members of Parliament visiting the CMS control room and experimental cavern at Point 5 with Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck and International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis.

  17. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  18. Control systems of fission reactors and of reprocessing plants: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1998-10-01

    As any industrial facility, nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing centers need means to monitor and manage the physical processes that are involved in their activities. All these means form the control system. Control systems are made up of sensors, able to turn physical data into electric signals, of automatic control circuits dedicated to process these electric signals, of supervisor systems to give to the staff the possibility to intervene, and of actuators designed to transform electric signals into actions on the physical process. The general design of control systems has to conform to the requirements imposed by the physical process itself, by nuclear safety and by operating conditions. As for the physical process, requirements can be diverse according to the purpose of the nuclear facility but the continuity must be assured because of the permanent release of energy from irradiated materials. As for safety, we have to notice the stiff requirements for all the equipment that is concerned by the confinement of radioactivity. The general architecture of control systems is made up of 3 levels; i) level 0: sensors and actuators, ii) level 1: automatic control circuits and iii) level 2: the control room. The second and third levels are mainly based on computer and data processing systems. All the equipment is classified into 3 levels of demands. The first level is the stiffest which generally implies that devices are specially designed so that they satisfy all the requirements. (A.C.)

  19. Failure analysis for JNK Boracic acid Tank Room of NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The JNK Boracic acid Tank Room is important safety equipment for Nuclear Power Plant. Corrosion,crack and leaked Boracic acid were found on the some welding area of the liners of the JNK Tank Room during operation.

  20. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU; Shenglei; Howard; Ferris

    2006-01-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63±0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47±0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45±0.30 to 5.43±0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting.The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.