WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant condensates

  1. Active condensation of water by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomenon in question is found everywhere, but it is particularly important for plants in arid ecosystems.

  2. Condenser Optimization in Steam Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukru Bekdemir; Recep Ozturk; Zehra Yumurtac

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effects of the condenser design parameters (such as turbine inlet condition, turbine power and condenser pressure) on heat transfer area, cooling water flow-rate, condenser cost and specific energy generation cost are studied for surface type condenser.The results are given in the text and also shown as diagrams.

  3. Performance analysis of heating plants equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Schibuola, L.

    1986-01-01

    The behaviour of the condensing boilers is strictly bound to the temperature of the water coming back from the plant. This temperature depends on the control modes and on the meteorological conditions. The seasonal performance has been computed for a heating plant of a building equipped with a condensing boiler simulating the load at short time intervals through a suitable modification of TRNSYS. The study has been carried out in the climate of Padova. For other towns a rough estimate is proposed.

  4. Materials in flue gas condensation plants; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Nordling Magnus

    2003-02-01

    This project is the first part of a larger project. In the part reported here, materials for flue gas condensers have been investigated by contact with plant owners and suppliers and by a literature review of reported failures. If it is decided to continue with another part of the project, a number of materials will be long term tested on site. The project is complementary to an earlier project, which investigated the operating experiences from flue gas condensers in biomass fired cogeneration plants. In the project materials (steel and polymeric) suitable for long term testing in existing plants are discussed. It is proposed that testing in the second part of the project is made with material coupons in one plant fired with only biomass and one plant where biomass is co fired with other fuels. In the biomass fired plant a number of steel materials should be tested. In the co fired plant, with its harsher operating conditions, the same steel materials plus a number of polymeric materials should be tested. Materials suitable for testing are summarised in the report.

  5. Extraction of condensed tannins from Mexican plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcíaa, Ramiro; Aguilera, Antonio; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2008-01-01

    Contents of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins, and their stability to various pH values and temperatures were studied in Mexican blueberry, cuautecomate fruit, garambullo fruit, aubergine, coffee pulp and residues of black grapes. Several aqueous extracts, obtained through a one-pass-extraction process, were analyzed using liquid chromatography in order to quantify the condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content responsible for their antioxidant activity and colour. All tested samples included high proanthocyanidin contents demonstrating that these Mexican fruits and vegetables are good sources of natural antioxidants, and they all could be considered as excellent functional foods due to their bioactivity measured as the condensed tannin level.

  6. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  7. Experimental researches on power plant condensers performed at ENEA laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizi, F.; Girardi, G.; Palazzi, G. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energetica

    1993-09-01

    Improvement of Italian industrial design capability is the principal aim of the ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) R&D program which is studying the thermo-hydraulic aspects of shell-and-tube condensers. The principal experimental apparatus of this project allows researchers to perform tests for investigating in detail feed-water heater (FWH) thermo-hydraulic performance. A scaled-down test section was used in significant size to reproduce condensing, de-superheating and drain cooling zones. To approach condensation phenomena occurring in the FWH, a visualization test section was also built. A new model for condensation flow, perpendicular to the tubes, was developed using the films shot through the visualization test section. All the experimental data carried out in the program were used to assess an original code, named COND. Concerning the tube-side condenser design, an analysis of the velocity field in the front end head was performed to minimize erosion phenomena.

  8. Failure of Titanium Condenser Tubes after 24 Years Power Plant Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Enemark, Allan; Hangaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    a plant trip. In addition, small amounts of titanium hydride were revealed to be present in the tubes within the tubesheet indicating that the carbon steel tubesheet was corroding due to ingress of salt water. Although this was not the reason for the failure, it indicated the need for repair of the epoxy......The titanium condenser has been in operation for 24 years at Amager unit 3 power plant. In February 2012, the plant was contaminated by seawater due to a failed condenser tube and some tubes were plugged. A month later, the plant tripped again. Small leaks were found again and finally approx. 200...

  9. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J.O.; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  10. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  11. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  12. HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1990-06-01

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  13. Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant.It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvement of air-cooled condensers.Based on representative 2×600 MW direct air-cooled power plant,three ways that can arrange and optimize the flow field of cooling air thus enhance the heat transfer of air-cooled condensers were proposed.The physical and mathematical models of air-cooled condensers with various flow leading measures were presented and the flow and temperature fields of cooling air were obtained by CFD simulation.The back pressures of turbine were calculated for different measures on the basis of the heat transfer model of air-cooled condensers.The results show that the performance of air-cooled condensers is improved thus the back pressure of turbine is lowered to some extent by taking measures against the adverse impact of natural wind.

  14. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  15. A dynamic model of a shell-and-tube condenser operating in a vapour compression refrigeration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llopis, R.; Cabello, R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Campus de Riu Sec, Jaume I Univ., E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Torrella, E. [Dept. of Applied Thermodynamics, Camino de Vera 14, Polytechnic Univ. of Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents a mathematical model of a shell-and-tube condenser based on mass continuity, energy conservation and heat transfer physical fundamentals, whose methodology can be easily adapted for modelling any type of condenser. The model is formulated as a combination of control volumes that represents all the refrigerant states in the condenser and the liquid receiver function, which is carried out by the condenser of the experimental plant. Model validation is performed by using steady-state data and transient tests from an experimental vapour compression plant; the prediction error of the model is lower than 5% and a good representation of the dynamic performance of the condenser is achieved. A theoretical comparison involving the importance of the dynamic responses of the evaporator and the condenser at the plant is also presented. (author)

  16. Independent component analysis approach for fault diagnosis of condenser system in thermal power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajami Ali; Daneshvar Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    A statistical signal processing technique was proposed and verified as independent component analysis (ICA) for fault detection and diagnosis of industrial systems without exact and detailed model. Actually, the aim is to utilize system as a black box. The system studied is condenser system of one of MAPNA’s power plants. At first, principal component analysis (PCA) approach was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the real acquired data set and to identify the essential and useful ones. Then, the fault sources were diagnosed by ICA technique. The results show that ICA approach is valid and effective for faults detection and diagnosis even in noisy states, and it can distinguish main factors of abnormality among many diverse parts of a power plant’s condenser system. This selectivity problem is left unsolved in many plants, because the main factors often become unnoticed by fault expansion through other parts of the plants.

  17. Performance of monosphere new gel type ion exchange resins for condensate polisher at PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, S.; Nakamura, M.; Asou, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Izumi, T.; Deguchi, T.; Ino, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1998-12-31

    There are two kinds of ion exchange resins of gel type and porous one which are used as condensate polisher in LWR nuclear power plants. In order to estimate the performance of these resins on the condensate polisher at the secondary cycle of Japanese PWR plants, a column test was performed setting the column test device in Ohi power station unit 1 of the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. and the variations of the resin properties and the samples at the end of column were analyzed. The column test showed that the cross-linking degree of the new gel resins used was lower than those of porous ones. The new resins captured larger amounts of Matrix-Diffused Crud than the conventional cation resins before regeneration but not after that. Whereas the surface adsorbed crud was less captured by the new resins than conventional anion resins. However, there were little differences among these resins in respects of rinsing characteristics, sphericity, water quality, break through capacity, etc. At the condensate polisher in the secondary system it was confirmed that new gel resins had almost the same performance as one of the conventional ones and could be applied to the actual plant. (M.N.)

  18. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  19. Fouling and thermal-performance characteristics of the Humboldt Bay Unit 2 power-plant condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Elliott, E.S. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (US)

    1993-07-01

    An experimental program was conducted at the Humboldt Bay condenser using eight clusters of four neighboring tubes with different conditions. In each cluster, there were (1) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being distilled water; (2) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being plant circulating water (seawater) and no cleaning; (3) an old tube, plant circulating water with no cleaning; and (4) an old tube, plant circulating water with normal periodic manual cleaning (blowing plugs or sponge balls). These tube clusters were located at four different locations within both the first and second passes of this two-pass condenser. Because of the different conditions, the fouling and cleaning characteristics can be obtained with measurements of the flow rate and inlet, outlet, and saturation temperatures. In addition to the fouling data, the thermal performance can be compared to that obtained with the standard rating method. There was a reduction in the thermal performance of the new, distilled-water tubes for about the first 80 days, and then the performance remained essentially constant. This performance change was most likely the result of the change from dropwise to filmwise condensation on the 7/8-in OD, 18 BWG Admiralty tubes. There was a continued increase of the tubeside fouling resistance with time (no asymptotic behavior) for the tubes that were not cleaned in each cluster using the plant circulating water. The fouling rates were somewhat larger for the first or lower temperature pass initially for the new tubes and after about 100 days for the old tubes. However, the fouling resistance values were substantially larger for the old tubes.

  20. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  1. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  2. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  3. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  4. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  5. Condensed tannins in extracts from European medicinal plants and herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9 g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1.6/98.4 to 100/0 and cis/trans flavan-3-ol ratios of 17.7/82.3 to 97.3/2.7. The majority of samples contained procyanidins, four contained A-type linkages (blackthorn flowers, heather flowers, bilberry leaves and cowberry leaves) and one sample also had galloylated procyanidins (great water dock roots).

  6. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse...

  7. Portable pilot plant for evaluating marine biofouling growth and control in heat exchangers-condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, J F; Sánchez, J; García-Morales, J L; Casanueva-Robles, T; López, J A; Portela, J R; Nebot, E; Sales, D

    2003-01-01

    Biofouling frequently involves a serious impediment to achieving optimum operating conditions in heat exchangers-condensers. The economic coat and energy losses associated with this phenomenon are significant and the environmental impact of biocides must satisfy stringent regulations. A portable pilot plant has been designed in order to carry out in-situ experimental study as biofilm is formed under thermal and hydrodynamically controlled conditions. The pilot plant has an automatic monitoring, control and data acquisition system, which automatically processes data from indirect measure of fouling in terms of increased fluid frictional and heat transfer resistances. A particular method is used and proposed for direct measuring and biofilm characterization. Once we know the actual film thickness, we can calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the layer by using the appropriate heat transfer equations.

  8. The production of hot sanitary water by condensing boilers: Analysis of the seasonal experimental results of a central heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliari, R.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.

    1988-12-01

    The use of condensing boilers in the production of hot sanitary water clearly evidences their advantages, since the highest operating temperatures are only around 60/degree/C. This paper examines performance test results relevant to a central heating plant (serving a residential area in Rovereto, Italy) with 112 kW of thermal power. The analysis reveals the excellent performance characteristics of the condensing boilers and points out the importance of proper management of the recirculation system.

  9. Predicting the operation performance of condensate polishing plant using a mathematical kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handy, B.J.; Greene, J.C. [NNC Solutions Ltd, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    NNC limited provides an ion exchange resin technology facility, which includes a resin testing service. A range of ion exchange resin properties is measured and this includes ion exchange capacity, resin bead particle sizes and anion kinetic performance in terms of mass transfer coefficients. It has long been considered by the authors that the experimental data for resins taken from operating condensate polishing plant (CPP) could be used to predict the expected plant performance. This has now been realised with the development of a mathematical model which predicts CPP behaviour using appropriate experimentally derived parameters and plant design data. Modelling methods for the separate anion and cation components of a mixed bed were initially developed before the mixed bed as a whole was addressed. Initially, an analytical approach was adopted, which proved successful for simple cases. For more complex examples a numerical approach was developed and found to be more suitable. The paper describes the development of anion and cation bed models, and a mixed bed model. In the latter model, the anion and cation components modelled earlier are combined, and used to model simultaneously typical concentrations of ammonia, sodium, chloride and sulphate. Examples of operation are given, and observations and points of interest are discussed with respect to the calculated concentration profiles. The experimental behaviour of a number of resin samples taken from operating plant was examined in a purpose-built ultrapure water recirculation loop equipped with a range of analytical instruments. This has permitted the observed experimental results to be compared with model predictions. The next stage of the model development is to identify plants suitable for testing the model against real plant performance and the authors are now seeking to identify plant managers interested in collaborating in this venture. (orig.)

  10. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Condenser for Wind Power Plant Grid Connection Support: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-03

    A synchronous condenser (SC) using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed for providing necessary reactive power to a wind power plant to support its connection to a weak grid. A PMSG has the advantage of higher efficiency and reliability. Because of its lack of a field winding, a PMSG is typically controlled by a full-power converter, which can be costly. In the proposed system, the reactive power of the SC is controlled by a serially connected compensator operating in a closed-loop configuration. The compensator also damps the PMSG's tendency to oscillate. The compensator's VA rating is only a fraction of the rating of the SC and the PMSG. In this initial investigation, the proposed scheme is shown to be effective by computer simulations.

  11. Performance Analysis of a Shell Tube Condenser for a Model Organic Rankine Cycle for Use in Geothermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haile Araya Nigusse

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The global energy demand increases with the economic growth and population rise. Most electrical power is currently generated by conventional methods from fossil fuels. Despite the high energy demand, the conventional energy resources such as fossil fuels have been declining. In addition to this harmful combustion byproducts are resulting global warming. However, the increase of environmental concerns and energy crisis can be minimized by sustainable utilization of the low to medium temperature heat resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle power plant is a very effective option for utilization of low grade heat sources for power generation. Heat exchangers are the main components of the Organic Rankine Cycle power plant which receives heat energy from the heat source to evaporate and condense the low boiling temperature organic working fluid which in turn drives the turbine to generate power. This paper presents a simplified approach to the design, fabrication and performance assessment of a shell tube heat exchanger designed for condenser in a model Organic Rankine Cycle geothermal power plant. The design involved sizing of heat exchanger (condenser using the LMTD method based on an expected heat transfer rate. The heat exchanger of the model power plant was tested in which hot water simulated geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the heat exchanger is thermally suitable for the condenser of the model power plant.

  12. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  13. Materials in flue gas condensation plants. Stage 2; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus; Bergman, Gunnar; Baeck, Gustaf; Jacobsson, Karin; Pahverk, Helen; Roemhild, Stefanie

    2004-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of some metallic and polymeric materials has been investigated in the flue gas scrubbers/condensers in the power plants at Igelsta using waste wood and Brista using bio fuel in the boilers. The materials were exposed inside the inlet part of the condenser and inside the flue gas duct after the condenser. In Brista, the polymeric materials were also exposed to the hot flue gases inside the duct before the condenser. The temperature of the gases before and after the condenser in Brista was 140 deg C and 50-60 deg C, respectively. In Igelsta, the flue gas temperature after the condenser was 45 deg C. The metallic coupons in the condenser were located in the spray-zone, both in Igelsta and Brista. That was true also for the polymeric material in Brista. In both plants, the wash-solution had a pH of 7-8, a temperature of 30 deg C, and a low content of chloride. The metallic materials investigated were stainless steels of the following grades: 17-12-2.5, 2205, SAF2507 and 254SMO. The major part of the polymeric materials investigated consisted of FRP laminates, which were made with different combinations of resin type of surface veil and type of chopped strand mat (CSM). Laminates with a new type of vinyl ester resin, Atlac E-Nova FW 1045, a new type of a stress-corrosion-resistant glass-fibre called Arcotex, and two types of surface reinforcement of carbon fibre have been compared to laminates of common type. Laminates with a special reinforcement of the type 3-D fabric were also included as well as five polypropylene materials (PP) with varying degree of stabilisation, two glass-flake materials applied on carbon steel and a butyl rubber. The corrosion resistance of the materials was evaluated after seven a months exposure at the different positions in the plants. The stainless steel materials were evaluated with respect to uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice attack. The corrosion resistance of the polymeric materials was evaluated with

  14. Materials in flue gas condensation plants. Stage 2; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus; Bergman, Gunnar; Baeck, Gustaf; Jacobsson, Karin; Pahverk, Helen; Roemhild, Stefanie

    2004-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of some metallic and polymeric materials has been investigated in the flue gas scrubbers/condensers in the power plants at Igelsta using waste wood and Brista using bio fuel in the boilers. The materials were exposed inside the inlet part of the condenser and inside the flue gas duct after the condenser. In Brista, the polymeric materials were also exposed to the hot flue gases inside the duct before the condenser. The temperature of the gases before and after the condenser in Brista was 140 deg C and 50-60 deg C, respectively. In Igelsta, the flue gas temperature after the condenser was 45 deg C. The metallic coupons in the condenser were located in the spray-zone, both in Igelsta and Brista. That was true also for the polymeric material in Brista. In both plants, the wash-solution had a pH of 7-8, a temperature of 30 deg C, and a low content of chloride. The metallic materials investigated were stainless steels of the following grades: 17-12-2.5, 2205, SAF2507 and 254SMO. The major part of the polymeric materials investigated consisted of FRP laminates, which were made with different combinations of resin type of surface veil and type of chopped strand mat (CSM). Laminates with a new type of vinyl ester resin, Atlac E-Nova FW 1045, a new type of a stress-corrosion-resistant glass-fibre called Arcotex, and two types of surface reinforcement of carbon fibre have been compared to laminates of common type. Laminates with a special reinforcement of the type 3-D fabric were also included as well as five polypropylene materials (PP) with varying degree of stabilisation, two glass-flake materials applied on carbon steel and a butyl rubber. The corrosion resistance of the materials was evaluated after seven a months exposure at the different positions in the plants. The stainless steel materials were evaluated with respect to uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice attack. The corrosion resistance of the polymeric materials was evaluated with

  15. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  16. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  17. Cleaning of condensate from flue gas condensing plants at co-combustion of waste fuels. Follow-up of emissions; Rening av kondensat fraan roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar vid samfoerbraenning av avfallsbraenslen. Uppfoeljning av utslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, Lena; Dejfors, Charlotte; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Limits of discharges in waste water at flue gas cleaning are one of the fields included in the EC-directive (2000/76/EG) regarding combustion of waste from December 28th, 2000. The pollutants included in the limits are suspended material, Hg, Cd, Tl, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn as well as dioxins and furans. The limits of the directive applies generally for plants with combustion of waste, regardless of type of waste fraction, the degree of admixture or if it is a so called co-combustion plant or not. For new plants, the limits shall be fulfilled within two years after the date of the directive whereas existing plants have another three years to meet the new demands. In this project, the condensate from the flue gas has been analysed at five different combustion plants. Samples of the fuel have also been analysed as a reference at the evaluation of the results. The results from the analysed condensate have then been compared and evaluated with regards to the limit values in the EC-directive. However, one exception is dioxins and furans that are not included in this study. The analysis of the pure condensate show that at most plants the content of pollutants is below, or in some cases well below, the limits of the EC-directive. At plants with co-combustion of recovered biofuels, even the contents of pollutants in the non-purified raw condensate are below the limits of the directive. This means that plants with co-combustion of recovered wood waste and biofuels most likely will meet the requirements for emissions to waste water in the EC-directive. The water treatment process in these plants normally consists of a pH-adjustment stage followed by adding of chemicals before the condensate enters into a sand filter. The cleaned condensate from the sand filter is normally released to a recipient whereas the dirty condensate goes through a lamell separator in order to separate rest sludge. The most polluted raw condensate was found at a plant with 100 % combustion of municipal

  18. Extraction and quantification of "condensed tannins" as a measure of plant anti-herbivore defence? Revisiting an old problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Baumann, Birgit; Andary, Claude; Linsenmair, Eduard; McKey, Doyle

    2002-10-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds in leaf extracts often serve as a measure of plant anti-herbivore defence. This method suffers from the multifunctionality of phenolics and from problems with their colorimetric quantification. Here we present further evidence for the pertinence of these problems. Contents of condensed tannins (CCT) were spectrophotometrically quantified in leaf extracts of 11 closely related mimosoid species, and Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars were reared on artificial diet containing these extracts. The relationship of CCT with caterpillar growth differed considerably among plant species, since both positive and negative correlations were detected. There was, however, a negative correlation of CCT with fungal spore germination, indicating a role of these compounds in resistance to fungi. Detailed knowledge on the structure and biological function of defensive compounds and on the overall composition of leaves is required to estimate a plant's defensive efficacy against a particular group of enemies.

  19. Effect of biomass composition on the condensable gas yield from torrefaction of plant residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Alves Macedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the effect of biomass composition (ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon content, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content, lignin, extractives and holocellulose content on the condensable gas yield from the torrefaction of rice husk (Oryza sativa L., jatropha seed husk (Jatropha curcas L., elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. var. mineiro; sugarcane bagasse (Sacharum officinarum L. and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris ex J.C. Wendl. var. vulgaris. Biomasses with a particle size between 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm were subjected to torrefaction process using a temperature gradient varying from 250 °C to 300 °C, for 15 min, with a heating rate of 20 °C min-1. Five trials were conducted for each biomass and solid, liquid and gas yields were obtained. The holocellulose and the volatile matter content of biomass showed a positive and significant correlation with condensable yield. The ash content showed a negative and significant correlation with condensable yield. There was no significant correlation between the elementary chemical composition and the condensable yield.

  20. [Study of the possibility of utilizing the transpired mositure condensate from sweet potato for growing plants in biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derendiaeva, T A

    1976-01-01

    The effect of nonpurified condensate obtained during prolonged cultivation of batata in a sealed chamber upon batata cuttings and seedlings of garden cress, radish and Chinese cabbage was studied. It was shown that nonpurified condensate produced an inhibitory effect on the formation of roots in batata cuttings and on the growth of previously developed roots of batata cuttings and seedlings. The studies which used a chemical model of 3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine indicated that the condensate contained biologically active substance of organic origin. However, only experiments with the real continuous culture of batata, using real dilutions of the condensate that depend on the size of the greenhouse and the amount of the nutrient solution would clarify wheather condensate of transpiration water of batata plants can be repeatedly utilized in life support systems.

  1. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  2. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  3. Experimental results of ammonia operated condensate polishing plants in combined cycle power plants; Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Ammoniumfahrweise einer Kondensatreinigungsanlage bei GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochsmann, Christian [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Jahr, Henrik; Glueck, Wolfgang [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Neumann, Stefan; Wedemeyer, Hans-Juergen [Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Modern combined cycle power plants with once-through boilers require highly pure boiler feedwater. Typically a condensate polishing plant (CPP) is used as 'salt sink' in the water-steam cycle, with a combination of cation and anion exchanger resin in a mixed bed filter. Ammonia ions are removed which reduces the lifetime of CPP. An alternative is the so-called 'ammonium form operation' which is being presented and discussed. This mode was investigated. The experimental results show that the 'ammonium form operation' is an attractive technology, which offers reduced operating costs and therefore meets economical expectations of power plant operators. (orig.)

  4. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  5. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  6. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  7. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  8. The separation and distribution of simple and condensed leucoanthocyanins of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, G I; Bendall, D S

    1969-08-01

    1. Leucoanthocyanin monomers of high mobilities in aqueous solvents on thinlayer chromatograms, assumed to be structurally simple, were characteristic of mature bulky tissues, whereas members of lower mobility were confined to young vegetative and floral tissues. 2. Flavylogens were separated by gel filtration on Sephadex columns into monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric fractions. 3. The polymeric fraction from young brown stems was heterogeneous, one-half having a molecular weight of about 3400, one-third a molecular weight between 3600 and 17000, and the remainder a molecular weight of over 17000. 4. Leaves had low flavylogen concentrations; only monomers were present. Stem tissues were rich in polymers, which increased with the age of the young stem and decreased inwards through the wood. The maximal flavylogen concentrations were in the phloem and cambium from mature stems, where all three fractions were richly present. The periderm tissue and, to a lesser extent, the seed coat were characterized by a very high polymer/monomer ratio, exhibiting a much higher degree of polymerization than the wood. Root tissues contained high concentrations of monomers. 5. In general, there was an inverse correlation between the extent of polymerization and the complexity of the monomers present. 6. The results are in favour of the thesis that the function of the flavanols is, after polymerization to condensed tannins, to impregnate dead structural tissues and thereby to protect them from infection and decay.

  9. OPTIMAL SYSNTHESIS PROCESSES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDENSATION ASSOCIATED OIL GAS PLANT REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of modern high-efficient systems is a key priority for the Energy Sector of Ukraine. The cooling technological streams of gas and oil refineries, including air coolers, water cooling and refrigeration systems for specific refrigerants are the objectives of the present study. Improvement of the refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions is mandatory in order to increase cooling capacity, lowering the boiling point of coolant and increasing the coefficient of target hydrocarbons extraction from the associated gas flow. In this paper it is shown that cooling temperature plays significant role in low-temperature condensation process. Two operation modes for refrigeration unit were proposed: permanent, in which the concentration of the refrigerant mixture does not change and dynamic, in which the concentration of refrigerant mixtures depends on the ambient temperature. Based on the analysis of exergy losses the optimal concentration of refrigerant mixtures propane/ethane for both modes of operation of the refrigeration unit has been determined. On the basis of the conducted pinch-analysis the modification of refrigeration unit with refrigerant separation into fractions was developed. Additional recuperative heat exchangers for utilization heat were added to the scheme. Several important measures to increase the mass flow rate of refrigerant through the second section of the refrigeration centrifugal compressor from 22.5 to 25 kg/s without violating the agreed operational mode of the compressor sections were implemented.

  10. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock. Oesop...

  11. Condensation patterns of prophase/prometaphase chromosome are correlated with H4K5 histone acetylation and genomic DNA contents in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitoza, Lidiane; Costa, Lucas; Guerra, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Mitotic prophase chromosome condensation plays an essential role in nuclear division being therefore regulated by highly conserved mechanisms. However, degrees of chromatin condensation in prophase-prometaphase cells may vary along the chromosomes resulting in specific condensation patterns. We examined different condensation patterns (CPs) of prophase and prometaphase chromosomes and investigated their relationship with genome size and distribution of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 5 (H4K5ac) in 17 plant species. Our results showed that most species with small genomes (2C < 5 pg) (Arachis pusilla, Bixa orellana, Costus spiralis, Eleutherine bulbosa, Indigofera campestris, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Poncirus trifoliata, and Solanum lycopersicum) displayed prophase chromosomes with late condensing terminal regions that were highly enriched in H4K5ac, and early condensing regions with apparently non-acetylated proximal chromatin. The species with large genomes (Allium cepa, Callisia repens, Araucaria angustifolia and Nothoscordum pulchellum) displayed uniformly condensed and acetylated prophase/prometaphase chromosomes. Three species with small genomes (Eleocharis geniculata, Rhynchospora pubera, and R. tenuis) displayed CP and H4K5ac labeling patterns similar to species with large genomes, whereas a forth species (Emilia sonchifolia) exhibited a gradual chromosome labeling, being more acetylated in the terminal regions and less acetylated in the proximal ones. The nucleolus organizer chromatin was the only chromosomal region that in prometaphase or metaphase could be hyperacetylated, hypoacetylated or non-acetylated, depending on the species. Our data indicate that the CP of a plant chromosome complement is influenced but not exclusively determined by nuclear and chromosomal DNA contents, whereas the CP of individual chromosomes is clearly correlated with H4K5ac distribution.

  12. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  13. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  14. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  15. Improving the energy efficiency of refrigeration plants by decreasing the temperature difference in air-cooled condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, V. V.; Talyzin, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The electric energy consumption efficiency is estimated in comparing the real refrigeration machine cycle with the theoretical inverse Carnot cycle. The potential for saving electricity in using aircooled condensers with different values of temperature difference is shown. A procedure for calculating a refrigerating system with the evaporation temperature equal to -10°C, which corresponds at this temperature level to the thermal load of a standard supermarket, is described. The calculation was carried out taking into account the annual profile of temperatures in the indicated locality and based on the possibility of adjusting the condenser capacity for maintaining constant condensation temperature. The payback period in case of using condensers with different values of temperature difference is calculated; for example, in using condensers with a temperature difference of less than 15 K, the payback period will be less than one year. Decreasing the temperature difference results, on one hand, in a larger annual consumption of electric energy by the condenser fans, and on the other hand, it results in a lower condensation pressure, which leads to a smaller annual consumption of energy by the compressor unit. As a result, the total amount of energy consumed by the refrigeration system decreases so that despite a higher cost of condensers designed to operate at lower values of temperature difference, it becomes possible to achieve the above-mentioned payback period. Additionally, the payback period in case of using an air-cooled microchannel aluminum condenser was calculated: in case of using such a condenser with a temperature difference of 8 K instead of the condenser with the temperature difference equal to 15 K, the payback period will be less than half a year. Recommendations for designing new refrigeration systems equipped with air-cooled condensers are given.

  16. Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

  17. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

  18. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  19. Helium Leak Examination Technology on In-Service Condenser in Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂凝汽器在役氦检漏技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯; 谢圣华; 钱征宇

    2011-01-01

    凝汽器是核电厂汽轮机组的重要设备,在电厂凝汽式汽轮机组的热力循环中起着冷源的作用,其传热管在运行的过程中可能发生破管,从而引起二回路水质恶化.介绍了针对核电厂常规岛凝汽器破管的氦气泄漏检测方法.通过对在役凝汽器氦气泄漏检测方法的研究,掌握传热管破管的判断方法.现场检测结果表明,开发的检验技术应用效果良好,在保证核电厂安全、经济运行上起到了重要的作用.%Condenser is the very important equipment in the steamship unit of the nuclear power plant and it plays a cooling effect on the heat circulation in the condensable steamship unit of the nuclear power plant. Pipe rupture in the process of operation might occur in its heat transfer canal and it will lead to the deterioration of water quality in the Second Circuit. This article introduced the helium leak examination method against the pipe rupture in the condenser in the steamship unit of the nuclear power plant, grasping the judgment method whether the pipe rupture occurs in heat transfer canal by researching the helium leak examination method on the in-service condenser. The on-site examination results indicated the developed examination technology apply well, it played an important effect on assuring the safety and economic operation of the nuclear power plant.

  20. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

    2005-08-19

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded

  1. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  2. Fragility Analysis Methodology for Degraded Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants - Illustrated using a Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y.; Kim, M.; Choi, I.

    2010-06-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work, BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. In the Year 2 scope of work, BNL carried out a research effort to identify and assess degradation models for the long-term behavior of dominant materials that are

  3. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock...... stages of O. dentatum. MethodsExtracts and purified fractions were prepared from five plants containing CT and analysed by HPLC-MS. Anthelmintic activity was assessed at five different stages of the O. dentatum life cycle; the development of eggs to infective third-stage larvae (L3), the parasitic L3...... control option for O. dentatum in pigs, particularly against adult stages. Moreover, our results demonstrate a varied susceptibility of different life-cycle stages of the same parasite to CT, which may offer an insight into the anthelmintic mechanisms of these commonly found plant compounds....

  4. Rapid Drop Dynamics During Superhydrophobic Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Boreyko, Jonathan; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2008-11-01

    Rapid drop motion is observed on superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation; condensate drops with diameter of order 10 μm can move at above 100G and 0.1 m/s. When water vapor condenses on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface, condensate drops move in a seemingly random direction. The observed motion is attributed to the energy released through coalescence of neighboring condensate drops. A scaling analysis captured the initial acceleration and terminal velocity. Our work is a step forward in understanding the dynamics of superhydrophobic condensation occurring in both natural water-repellant plants and engineered dropwise condensers.

  5. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User`s Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  6. A Novel approach for Low temperature Condenser waste heat Utilization in winter air conditioning for overall Performance Improvement of a Power Plant in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper to highlight the scope of utilization of waste heat of condenser for winter air conditioning in and around thermal power stations. The vast amount of low grade condenser waste heat can be used to provide winter air conditioning by utilizing the existing system of year round central air conditioning without additional heavy capital expenditure .The present case study is about North India where peak winter lasts about 90 days . The waste heat utilization for winter conditioning will not only save large amount of electrical energy being used in electrical heaters but also generate additional revenue by selling out extra/spared power ,increase thermal energy utilization ,improve performance of the plant .The novel method of winter air conditioning will also reduce the heat load of the cooling towers, avoid pumping and blow down power as the returning water from air conditioning system can be used as blow down to maintain cooling water parameters in the plant.

  7. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 2, User`s guide and manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  8. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  9. The effect of purified condensed tannins of forage plants from Botswana on the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibe, O; Sutherland, I A; Lesperance, L; Harding, D R K

    2013-10-18

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from forage plants from Botswana on the free-living stages of a number of species of gastrointestinal nematode parasites derived from infected sheep were investigated using in vitro assays. Fresh samples of five different plants (Viscum rotundifolium, Viscum verrucosum, Tapinanthus oleifolius, Grewia flava and Ipomoea sinensis) were collected over two summers (February 2009 and 2010). Fractionation of each crude extract on a Sephadex LH-20 column yielded low molecular weight phenolics and CT-containing fractions. The effect of each purified CT fraction on parasites was evaluated using either egg hatch, larval development or larval migration inhibition assays. Three gastrointestinal nematode species (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta) derived from infected sheep were evaluated in the study. CT from V. rotundifolium and I. sinensis fractions from samples collected in 2009 and 2010 did not inhibit larval development. However, CT isolated from V. verrucosum, T. oleifolius and G. flava collected in 2009 completely inhibited the development of all parasite species. These CT fractions were more potent in inhibiting larval development of H. contortus than fractions from the same plant species collected in 2010. However, a slight effect on larval migration was observed with some CT extracts. The results suggest that CT extracts of some forage plants from Botswana have anti-parasitic properties in vitro, and that further research is required to determine any in vivo efficacy from feeding the plants to goats in a field situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Flue gas condensation in oxyfuel power plants. Heat- and mass transfer measurements and experimental validation of an efficient condensation concept; Rauchgaskondensation in Oxyfuel-Kraftwerken. Waerme- und Stoffuebergangsmessungen sowie experimentelle Validierung eines effizienten Kondensationskonzepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raindl, Markus

    2010-12-06

    Condensation of a steam-inert gas mixture in an Oxyfuel condenser differs significantly from condensation of pure steam: condenser pressure and rest gas content increase dramatically, heat- and mass transfer coefficients are lower and oversaturation of the steam-inert gas mixture yields to fog formation. In the context of this thesis, therefore, at first the optimal ranges of working parameters for Oxyfuel processes calculated. In the following some heat flux measurements were carried out on a horizontal, crossflow pipe to validate various heat- and mass transfer theories. Building on these results a new, efficient condensation concept was developed to reduce fog formation. The final results of the measurements with a laboratory model show great performance regarding fog reduction and condensation efficiency. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of variable compositions on the removal of technetium from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, John M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-29

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the offgas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  12. Condensation Polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2017-04-01

    The very idea that large polymer molecules can indeed existwas hotly debated during the early part of the 20th century.As highlighted by Sivaram in his articles on Carothersand Flory, Staudinger’s macromolecular hypothesis was finallyaccepted, and the study of polymers gained momentumbecause of the remarkable efforts of the these two individualswho laid down the foundations concerning the processes thatled to the formation of large polymer molecules, and to thosethat led to an understanding of many of their extraordinaryphysical properties. Condensation polymerizations, as thename suggests, utilizes bond-forming reactions that generatea small molecule condensate, which often needs to be continuouslyremoved to facilitate the formation of the polymer. Inthis article, I shall describe some of the essential principles ofcondensation polymerizations or more appropriately calledstep-growth polymerizations; and I will also describe someinteresting extensions that lead to the formation of polymernetworks and highly branched polymers.

  13. Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes work at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop strategies to enhance air-side heat transfer in geothermal air-cooled condensers such that it should not significantly increase pressure drop and parasitic fan pumping power. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, Yokohama National University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was performed to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to largescale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique was employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that included four tube rows in a staggered array. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were also acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus in the Single Blow Test Facility. In addition, a numerical modeling technique was developed to predict local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds number flows, with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results were obtained that reveal quantitative details of local finsurface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results were obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500. The winglets were of triangular (delta) shape with a 1:2 or 1:3 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface heat transfer results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (in terms of

  14. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  15. Presence of Siloxanes in the Biogas of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Separation in Condensates and Influence of the Dose of Iron Chloride on its Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, García [Empresa Mixta de Aguas Residuales de Alicante, S.A. (EMARASA) (Spain); Daniel, Prats; Arturo, Trapote, E-mail: atj@ua.es [University Institute of Water and Environmental Sciences, University of Alicante (Spain)

    2015-12-21

    The siloxanes present in the biogas produced during anaerobic digestion damage the mechanism of cogeneration equipment and, consequently, negatively affect the energy valorization process. For this reason, the detection and elimination of these silicon-derived chemical compounds are a priority in the management of cogeneration facilities. In this regard, the objectives of this paper are, firstly, to characterize the siloxanes in the biogas and, secondly, to qualitatively evaluate the influence of the dose of iron chloride on its elimination. The research was performed at the Rincón de León Wastewater Treatment Plant (Alicante, Spain). The outflow biogas of the digesters and of the pressurized gasometers was sampled and analyzed. The results obtained made it possible to demonstrate, firstly, the absence of linear siloxanes and that, of the cyclic siloxanes, the predominant type was decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, and, secondly, that the addition of iron chloride in the digesters significantly reduces the siloxane content in the biogas. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the process of compression of the biogas, with the elimination of condensates, also produces significant reductions in the concentration of siloxanes in the biogas.

  16. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ropiak, Honorata M; Fryganas, Christos; Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-11-19

    Plant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock. Oesophagostomum dentatum is an economically important parasite of pigs, as well as serving as a useful laboratory model of helminth parasites due to the ability to culture it in vitro for long periods through several life-cycle stages. Here, we investigated the anthelmintic effects of CT on multiple life cycle stages of O. dentatum. Extracts and purified fractions were prepared from five plants containing CT and analysed by HPLC-MS. Anthelmintic activity was assessed at five different stages of the O. dentatum life cycle; the development of eggs to infective third-stage larvae (L3), the parasitic L3 stage, the moult from L3 to fourth-stage larvae (L4), the L4 stage and the adult stage. Free-living larvae of O. dentatum were highly susceptible to all five plant extracts. In contrast, only two of the five extracts had activity against L3, as evidenced by migration inhibition assays, whilst three of the five extracts inhibited the moulting of L3 to L4. All five extracts reduced the motility of L4, and the motility of adult worms exposed to a CT-rich extract derived from hazelnut skins was strongly inhibited, with electron microscopy demonstrating direct damage to the worm cuticle and hypodermis. Purified CT fractions retained anthelmintic activity, and depletion of CT from extracts by pre-incubation in polyvinylpolypyrrolidone removed anthelmintic effects, strongly suggesting CT as the active molecules. These results suggest that CT may have promise as an alternative parasite control option for O. dentatum in pigs, particularly against adult stages. Moreover, our results demonstrate a varied susceptibility of different life-cycle stages of the same parasite to CT, which may offer an insight

  17. Condensation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  18. Failure Analysis and Prevention Strategy for Condenser Tubes at Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂凝汽器传热管失效分析和预防策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁光廷

    2014-01-01

    The condenser is an important equipment of the thermal cycle system in nuclear power plant , the tubes leakage & failure affect the plant safety operation .For these problems , it analyze the cause of condenser tubes failure .Then ,modify the second filter unreasonable design ,strictly control foreign materi-al,change the failure tubes with stainless steel solid tubes ,these measure solve the tubes frequently leak problem.In the future,it provide the preventive measure and suggesting from equipment management and optimizing maintenance ,and ensure the condenser long -term safety &reliable operation .%凝汽器是核电厂热力循环系统重要设备,传热管泄漏失效影响了电站的安全可靠运行。针对该问题,分析了凝汽器传热管失效的原因。通过改进二次滤网设备不合理设计、严格异物控制、控制海水物生长、更换不锈钢实心管等,解决了传热管频繁泄漏问题。后续从加强设备管理和优化维修等方面提出了防范措施和建议,确保凝汽器长期安全可靠运行。

  19. Numerical Study of Condensation Heat Exchanger Design in a Saturated Pool: Correlation Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Generally the condensation heat exchanger has higher heat transfer coefficient compared to the single phase heat exchanger, so has been widely applied to the cooling systems of fissile power plant. Recently vertical or horizontal type condensation heat exchangers are being studied for the application to secondary passive cooling system of nuclear plants. To design vertical condensation heat exchanger in a saturated water pool, a thermal sizing program of condensation heat exchanger, TSCON(Thermal Sizing of CONdenser) was developed. In this study, condensing heat transfer correlation of TSCON is evaluated with the existing experimental data set to design condensation heat exchanger without noncondensable gas effect (pure steam condensation)

  20. Coolants for a closed-cycle cooling system of device for removing the condensation heat of teh waste steam from steam-turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, D.; Heeren, H.

    1976-03-25

    A series of demands are made on the coolant for the purpose mentioned. They should (a) have a large heat of evaporation, a low freezing point, a high vapor density at evaporation-condensation temperature, high heat transfer numbers with bubble vapors and condensation and a low saturated vapor pressure at operational temperature, (b) not be poisonous and inflammable, and (c) be economical compared to forced-water circulation. According to the invention, an azeotropic mixture of water and methyl-propylene glycol fulfills these requirements.

  1. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  2. optimal evaporating and condensing temperatures of organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... optimal condensing temperature (OCT) of a subcritical ORC plant, which is based on thermodynamic .... evaporator driven by heat from a solar collector, an ... Mass flow and energy flow through the plant were ..... Thermal PVT Water Collector,” Sol. ... techniques of hybrid renewable energy systems for.

  3. Enhancing Condensers for Geothermal Systems: the Effect of High Contact Angles on Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-10-06

    Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.

  4. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  5. The Dynamics of Aerosols in Condensational Scrubbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jens Tue; Christensen, Jan A.; Simonsen, Ole;

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamics of aerosol change in condensational scrubbers and scrubbing condensers is proposed. The model is applicable for packed column gas/liquid contact when plug flow can be assumed. The model is compared with experimental data for particle removal...... in a pilot plant condensational scrubber. The model can satisfactorily predict particle growth and particle deposition by diffusional, convective and inertial mechanisms for a wide range of conditions. The parameters of principal importance for the model precision are identified and a procedure...

  6. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  7. Enhancing dropwise condensation through bioinspired wettability patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Beaini, Sara; Zhang, Bong June; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-11-01

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum diameter (Dmax) of condensate droplets departing from the condenser surface. This study presents a facile technique implemented to gain control of Dmax in DWC within vapor/air atmospheres. We demonstrate how this approach can enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate by harnessing the capillary forces in the removal of the condensate from the surface. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively, sustain and combine DWC and filmwise condensation on the substrate. The material system uses laser-patterned masking and chemical etching to achieve the desired wettability contrast and does not employ any hydrophobizing agent. By applying alternating straight parallel strips of hydrophilic (contact angle ∼78°) mirror-finish aluminum and superhydrophilic regions (etched aluminum) on the condensing surface, we show that the average maximum droplet size on the less-wettable domains is nearly 42% of the width of the corresponding strips. An overall improvement in the condensate collection rate, up to 19% (as compared to the control case of DWC on mirror-finish aluminum) was achieved by using an interdigitated superhydrophilic track pattern (on the mirror-finish hydrophilic surface) inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern design, particularly under higher humidity conditions in the presence of noncondensable gases (NCG), a condition that is more challenging for maintaining sustained DWC.

  8. Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.

  9. 高压变频器在火电厂凝结水泵上的应用%The application of high voltage inverter in the coal-fired power plant condensate pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花雨; 张德本

    2013-01-01

      介绍深圳妈湾电厂5、6号机组凝结水泵变频改造方案,阐述了高压变频器的安装调试情况及其控制策略,运行结果显示变频改造后电动机节能效果显著。%The article introduces frequency conversion recon-struction scheme of condensate pump for Shenzhen Mawan power plant unit 5, and 6.This paper expounds the installation and debug-ging situation of high voltage frequency converter and its control strategy. Operation results show that the frequency conversion re-construction after motor energy saving effect is remarkable, and im-prove the motor operating conditions.

  10. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  11. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  12. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin ( 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change themselves.

  13. Activity, purification, and analysis of condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a class of plant polyphenolic compounds contained in some forages (i.e., sanfoin, big trefoil, birdfoot trefoil), condensed tannins (CTs), also referred to as proanthocyanidins (PAs), exhibit a variety of biological effects on ruminants and on the dairy farm nitrogen cycle. Interest in CTs stems ...

  14. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  15. Wettability Patterning for Enhanced Dropwise Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2014-11-01

    Dropwise condensation (DwC), in order to be sustainable, requires removal of the condensate droplets. This removal is frequently facilitated by gravity. The rate of DwC heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum departing droplet diameter. Based on wettability patterning, we present a facile technique designed to control the maximum droplet size in DwC within vapor/air atmospheres, and demonstrate how this approach can be used to enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively sustain DwC and filmwise (FwC) condensation on the substrate. The fabrication method does notemploy any hydrophobizing agent. By juxtaposing parallel lines of hydrophilic (CA ~ 78°) and superhydrophilic (CA ~ 0°) regions on the condensing surface, we create alternating domains of DwC and FwC. The average droplet size on the DwC domain is reduced by ~ 60% compared to the theoretical maximum, which corresponds to the line width. We compare heat transfer rate between unpatternend DwC surfaces and patterned DwC surfaces. Even after sacrificing 40% of condensing area, we achieve up to 20% improvement in condensate collection rate using an interdigitated superhydrophilic pattern, inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern, particularly under higher vapor loadings in an air/vapor ambient atmosphere. NSF STTR Grant 1331817 via NBD Nano.

  16. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  17. Study on a phenol-aldehyde condensation process for the pre-treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents%酚醛缩聚法处理酚醛树脂废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘慧云; 李成杰; 张静

    2013-01-01

    采用酚醛缩聚的方法作为酚醛树脂废水前处理工艺,分别探讨了酸性条件和碱性条件下的酚醛缩合反应.结果表明,碱性条件下,最佳反应条件为甲醛2 mL,Ba(OH)21 g,反应时间3h,反应温度85℃,COD去除率46.7%,挥发酚去除率42.1%,甲醛去除率72.1%.酸性条件下,最佳反应条件为:甲醛3 mL,HCl 4 mL,反应时间3h,反应温度100℃,COD去除率47.4%、挥发酚去除率84.6%,甲醛去除率-1.0%.酚醛缩聚法可以有效去除废水中高浓度的挥发酚和甲醛,为后续的化学氧化或生物处理提供良好基础.%Pre-treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents containing highly concentrated phenol has been carried out by phenol-aldehyde condensation method. The optimal conditions are determined under acidic conditions and alkaline conditions respectively. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows :formaldehyde 2 mL,Ba(OH)2 1 g,reaction time 3 h and reaction temperature 85 ℃ , the removal rate of COD,phenol and formaldehyde were 46.7% ,42. 1% and 72.1% respectively under alkaline conditions. And the optimal conditions were as follows:formaldehyde 3 mL,HCl 4 mL,reaction time 3 h and reaction temperature 100 ℃ , the removal rate of COD, phenol and formaldehyde were 47.4% ,84.6% and - 1. 0% under acidic conditions. According to the results, phenol-aldehyde condensation process proved to be an effective method for the pre-treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents containing highly concentrated phenol and formaldehyde, it' s providing a good foundation for the subsequent chemical oxidation and biological treatment.

  18. Determination and Emission of Condensable particulate Matter from Coal-fired power plants%燃煤电厂可凝结颗粒物的测试与排放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴冰

    2015-01-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21. 2 ± 3. 5) mg•m - 3 while the FPM was (20. 6 ± 10. 0) mg•m - 3 during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32% , and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1% .%建立了固定源可凝结颗粒物(condensable particulate matter, CPM)采样-分析方法,开发了 CPM 采样配件,与 EPA Method 202方法进行比对后应用于燃煤电厂.结果表明燃煤电厂 CPM 排放均值为(21.2±3.5) mg•m -3,同步使用国标方法测得的FPM 为(20.6±10.0) mg•m -3;高效除尘器可有效降低 FPM 的排放水平,但对 CPM 无太大影响.高效除尘改造后 CPM 对TPM 的贡献将有所提高,应引起足够的重视. CPM 中冷凝液贡献了68%,滤膜为32%,有机组分较少,为1%.

  19. Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

    1992-02-01

    Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

  20. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  1. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  2. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  3. Numerical Study of Condensation Heat Exchanger Design in a Cooling jacket: Correlation Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Han Ok; Lee, Tae Ho; Park, Cheon Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, condensing heat transfer correlation of TSCON is evaluated with the existing experimental data set to design condensation heat exchanger without noncondensable gas effect (pure steam condensation) in a cooling jacket. From the investigation of the existing condensation heat transfer correlation to the existing experimental data, the improved Shah's correlation showed most satisfactory result for the condensation heat transfer coefficient with experimental data of Khun in a cooling jacket, whereas the Shah's correlation with experimental data of Lee. Lee et al. reported the improved Shah correlation gave us the best predictor for the condensation heat transfer data of Kim and Henderson in a subcooled and saturated water pool. They suggested the improved Shah correlation should be adopted as condensation heat transfer module in TSCON(Thermal Sizing of CONdenser) to design condensation heat exchanger in secondary passive cooling system of nuclear plant.

  4. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  5. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  6. Preventing freezing of condensate inside tubes of air cooled condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jeong A; Hwang, In Hwan; Lee, Dong Hwan [Chonbuk Nat' l Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Il [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia (United States)

    2012-08-15

    An air cooled condenser is a device that is used for converting steam into condensate by using ambient air. The air cooled condenser is prone to suffer from a serious explosion when the condensate inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is frozen; in particular, tubes can break during winter. This is primarily due to the structural problem of the tube outlet of an existing conventional air cooled condenser system, which causes the backflow of residual steam and noncondensable gases. To solve the backflow problem in such condensers, such a system was simulated and a new system was designed and evaluated in this study. The experimental results using the simulated condenser showed the occurrence of freezing because of the backflow inside the tube. On the other hand, no backflow and freezing occurred in the advanced new condenser, and efficient heat exchange occurred.

  7. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  8. Soft condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures illustrate some of the concepts of soft-condensed matter physics, taking examples from colloid physics. Many of the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with the results of computer simulations. After a brief introduction describing interactions between colloids, the paper focuses

  9. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    . This paper addresses the question of whether the sensation of landscape can be condensed in function or to the size of an urban building. It also discusses the benefits and potentials of the amalgamate, by underlining the unique qualities of such a hybrid. In an attempt to define the experience of landscape...

  10. Pretreatment of Process Condensate with Ammonia Degassing in CAN Fertilizer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the production process of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN fertilizer, process-condensate is generated with a high content of ammonium nitrogen. Such high mass concentration of ammonium nitrogen (approximately 2 g L-1 significantly burdens the operation of the wastewater treatment plant, where the process condensate is treated by method of ion exchange. At CAN 1 Plant, a degassing system for process condensate was built. After pretreatment, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the process condensate was reduced to less than 500 mg L-1.Before upgrading with degassing system, the process condensate from CAN 1 Plant was collected in tank TK 17 301, from which it was pumped to the wastewater treatment plant to be treated by the method of ion exchange. When CAN 1 Plant is in normal operation, 10 m3h-1 of process condensate is formed with pH around 10, and temperatures around 50 °C. The degassing system of process condensate consists of a new tank, TK 17 504, which is connected with new pipeline to the tank TK 17 301. The process condensate input was transferred from the old to the new tank, TK 17 504. A new pump was installed for regulation of process condensate and bursting above the condensate level.Additional stimulation for ammonia degassing followed, after the return of 12 bar steam condensate into the tank TK 17 504. Consequently, the process condensate temperature increased to 80 C. Degassed ammonia is introduced into the existing system for washing gases and returns into the process of fertilizer production.By degassing ammonia from the process condensate at CAN 1 Plant, 10.7 kg h-1of ammonia returns into the fertilizer production process.Additionally, there has been an improved performance of the wastewater treatment plant, so that in December 2010, the volume of treated wastewater was almost 80 000 m3 which is an increase of 86 %.

  11. Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, R D; Lu, Yang

    1996-01-01

    The probability distribution of neutral pion fraction from independent domains of disoriented chiral condensate is characterized. The signal for the condensate is clear for a small number of domains but is greatly reduced for more than three.

  12. Photon condensation: A new paradigm for Bose-Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Renju; Ramesh Babu, P.; Senthilnathan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation is a state of matter known to be responsible for peculiar properties exhibited by superfluid Helium-4 and superconductors. Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in its pure form is realizable with alkali atoms under ultra-cold temperatures. In this paper, we review the experimental scheme that demonstrates the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. We also elaborate on the theoretical framework for atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, which includes statistical mechanics and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. As an extension, we discuss Bose-Einstein condensation of photons realized in a fluorescent dye filled optical microcavity. We analyze this phenomenon based on the generalized Planck's law in statistical mechanics. Further, a comparison is made between photon condensate and laser. We describe how photon condensate may be a possible alternative for lasers since it does not require an energy consuming population inversion process.

  13. Molecular fossils in Cretaceous condensate from western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmila Bhattacharya; Suryendu Dutta; Ratul Dutta

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports the biomarker distribution of condensate belonging to the early Cretaceous time frame using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment was inscribed into these molecular fossils which reflected the source and conditions of deposition of the condensate. The saturate fraction of the condensate is characterized by normal alkanes ranging from -C9 to -C29} (CPI-1.13), cycloalkanes and C14 and C15 sesquiterpanes. The aromatic fraction comprises of naphthalene, phenanthrene, their methylated derivatives and cyclohexylbenzenes. Isohexylalkylnaphthalenes, a product of rearrangement process of terpenoids, is detected in the condensate. Several aromatic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids have been recorded. Dihydro-ar-curcumene, cadalene and ionene form the assemblage of sesquiterpenoids which are indicative of higher plant input. Aromatic diterpenoid fraction comprises of simonellite and retene. These compounds are also indicative of higher plants, particularly conifer source which had been a predominant flora during the Cretaceous time.

  14. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  15. Chaos of chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    Assigning a chaos index for vacua of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem. We find chaotic behavior of chiral condensates of a quantum gauge theory at strong coupling limit, by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We evaluate the time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates and in an N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the SU(N_c) gauge group at large N_c and at large 't Hooft coupling lambda. At an equivalent classical gravity picture, a Lyapunov exponent is readily defined. We show that the condensates exhibit chaotic behavior for energy density E > (6x10^2) (N_c/lambda^2) (m_q)^4 where m_q is the quark mass. The energy region of the chaotic vacua of the N=2 supersymmetric QCD increases for smaller N_c or larger lambda. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of the theory (N_c,lambda,E), showing that the N=2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller N_c.

  16. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  17. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  18. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemele, J; Blumberga, D; Talcis, N; Burmistre, I

    2012-01-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S “Imanta” where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through ...

  19. A CFD study of wave influence on film steam condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianmao, E-mail: xm-wang11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang, Huajian, E-mail: changhj@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Corradini, Michael, E-mail: corradini@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A condensation model is incorporated in the ANSYS FLUENT. • Different turbulence models are evaluated for flows over wavy surfaces. • Wavy surfaces with and without moving velocities are used to model the wave. • Various wavy surfaces with different wave heights and wavelengths are selected. • Wave influence on film steam condensation is investigated. - Abstract: Steam condensation plays an important role in removing heat from the containment of a nuclear plant during postulated accidents. However, due to the presence of non-condensable gases such as air and hydrogen in the containment, the condensation rate can decrease dramatically. Under certain conditions, the condensate film on the cold containment walls can affect the overall heat transfer rate. The wavy interface of the condensate film is a factor and is usually believed to enhance the condensation rate, since the waves can both increase the interfacial area and disturb the non-condensable gas boundary layer. However, it is not clear how to properly account for this factor and what is its quantitative influence in experiments. In this work, a CFD approach is applied to study the wave effects on film condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas. Wavy surfaces with and without moving velocities are used to replace the wavy interface of the falling film. A condensation model is incorporated in the ANSYS FLUENT simulation and a realizable k–ε turbulence model is applied. Various wavy surfaces with different wave heights and wavelengths are selected to conduct numerical experiments with a wide range of gas velocities. The results show that the wave structure can enhance condensation rate up to ten percent mainly due to the alteration of local flow structures in the gas phase. The increments of the condensation rate due to the wavy interface can vary with different gas velocities. The investigation shows that a multiplication factor accounts for the wave effects on film

  20. Convective condensation heat transfer in a horizontal condenser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, P.K. [College of Engineering, GITAM, Visakhapatnam (India); Sastry, C.V.N.; Rao, V.D. [Andhra Univ., College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam (India); Kakac, S.; Liu, H. [Miami Univ., College of Engineering, FL (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to solve analytically the problem of convective condensation of vapors inside a horizontal condenser tube. Homogeneous model approach is employed in the estimation of shear velocity, which is subsequently, made use of in predicting local convective condensation heat transfer coefficients. The resulting analysis of the present study is compared with some of the available equations in the literature. It is observed that the agreement is reasonably satisfactory validating the assumptions and the theory presented. (authors)

  1. Superfluidity in polariton condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A; Lefrere, J; Adrados, C; Giacobino, E; Bramati, A [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC, ENS and CNRS, 75005 Paris (France); Sanvitto, D; Laussy, F P; Ballarini, D; Valle, E del; MartIn, M D; Tejedor, C; Vina, L [SEMICUAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pigeon, S; Ciuti, C [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7 and CNRS, 75013 Paris (France); Carusotto, I [BEC-CNR-INFM and Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Houdre, R [Institut de Photonique et d' Electronique Quantique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); LemaItre, A; Bloch, J [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Krizhanovskii, D N; Skolnick, M S, E-mail: alberto.amo@spectro.jussieu.f [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    Exciton-polaritons, two-dimensional composite bosons arising from the quantum mixture of excitons and photons, can manifest many-body quantum effects at liquid He temperatures (4 K). Interestingly, polaritons are predicted to behave as particular quantum fluids due to their out of equilibrium character, arising from their reduced lifetime (shorter than their thermalization time). Here we report the observation of superfluid motion of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities both under cw and pulsed excitation. Among other signatures, superfluidity is manifested via the absence of scattering of the polariton condensates when encountering a localized defect in their flow path.

  2. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions. PMID:28176827

  3. Galaxies as condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Bugg, D V

    2012-01-01

    A novel interpretation of MOND is presented. For galactic data, in addition to Newtonian acceleration, there is an attractive acceleration peaking at Milgrom's parameter a_0. The peak lies within experimental error where a_0 = cH_0/2\\pi and H_0 is the present-time value of the Hubble constant. This peaking may be understood in terms of quantum mechanical mixing between Newtonian gravitation and the Hubble mechanism. There are five pointers towards galaxies being Fermi-Dirac condensates.

  4. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  5. Condition assessment and trending of condenser tube degradation for condenser life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friant, C. Lee; Schlegel, Jennifer L.

    1995-05-01

    Eddy current testing (ET) is routinely used to assess tubing condition in heat exchangers at power plants. Generally, ET results provided by typical final report formats are not well- suited for facilitating condition assessments, especially when the component has a significant number of tubes. The main condenser at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) Unit #1 contains nearly 50,000 tubes. An accurate condition assessment based on 2,500 pages of final reports generated from a 100% condenser inspection in 1992 proved difficult, if not impossible, without some type of automated data management system. With the aid of a data management system, engineering recommendations, founded on database queries and graphics, can be made quickly and reliably. These displays effectively communicate information about overall condition, are helpful in making operating decisions, and aid in predicting future performance. Standard procedures for critical heat exchanger inspections require trending of indication growth over time to determine a rate of tube degradation. Specifically, for the 1994 ET inspection of CCNPP Unit #1 condenser, the size of indications were compared against their 1992 value to determine a mean growth rate. The results of these efforts are presented along with a discussion of how Baltimore Gas and Electric has used eddy current data to prolong the operating life of this condenser while ensuring leak tightness.

  6. Topology and Fermionic Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, I.; Pronin, P.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate an influence of a space-time topology on the formation of fermionic condensate in the model with four-fermion interaction ()2. The value for the space-time with topology of R1 × R1 × S1 is found. Moreover a relation of the value of fermionic condensate to a periodic length is studied. In this connection the possibility of a relation of the topologic deposits to structure of hadrons is discussed.Translated AbstractTopologie und FermikondensatEs wird der Einfluß einer Raum-Zeittopologie auf die Bildung des Fermikondensats in einem Modell mit Vierfermionenwechselwirkung ()2 untersucht. Für eine Raum-Zeit mit der Topologie R1 × R2 × S1 werden die Parameter gegeben. Weiterhin wird die Relation der Größe des Fermikondensats zu einer periodischen Länge untersucht. In diesem Zusammenhang wird die Verbindung des topologischen Depots zur Struktur der Hadronen diskutiert.

  7. Polariton condensates put in motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanvitto, D; Amo, A; Vina, L [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Laussy, F P; Tejedor, C [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); LemaItre, A; Bloch, J, E-mail: daniele.sanvitto@uam.es [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, F-91460, Marcoussis (France)

    2010-04-02

    We present several examples of the interesting phenomenology shown by a moving polariton condensate in semiconductor microcavities. The superfluid behavior is probed by colliding the polariton condensate against physical obstacles in the form of natural defects of the sample, demonstrating a clear suppression of scattering when the speed of the flow lies below the critical velocity. At higher velocities Cerenkov-like shock waves around the defect and disruption of the condensate are also observed.

  8. Quantitative assessment of DNA condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Slattum, P M; Hagstrom, J E; Wolff, J A; Budker, V G

    1999-02-15

    A fluorescent method is proposed for assessing DNA condensation in aqueous solutions with variety of condensing agents. The technique is based on the effect of concentration-dependent self-quenching of covalently bound fluorophores upon DNA collapse. The method allows a more precise determination of charge equivalency in titration experiments with various polycations. The technique's ability to determine the number of DNA molecules that are condensed together in close proximity is under further investigation.

  9. Assessing and controlling corrosion in air-cooled condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, R. Barry [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Preez, Francois du [Eskom (South Africa); Aspden, J. Denis; Howell, Andrew G.

    2009-05-15

    An increasing number of air-cooled condensers (ACC) are being installed and operated on conventional and combined cycle plants worldwide. Unless understood and corrected, the corrosion associated with the ACC ducts and tube entries can become a major problem for operators of plant. Up to just a few years ago very little was known about the corrosion/ flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) process. This paper starts to rectify the situation with a description of the corrosion/FAC process, a corrosion index and a relationship between the operating pH and the level of iron at the condensate pump discharge. (orig.)

  10. Nonequilibrium Weak Processes in Kaon Condensation; 2, Kinetics of condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Muto, T; Iwamoto, N; Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Iwamoto, Naoki

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of negatively charged kaon condensation in the early stages of a newly born neutron star is considered. The thermal kaon process, in which kaons are thermally produced by nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to be dominant throughout the equilibration process. Temporal changes of the order parameter of the condensate and the number densities of the chemical species are obtained from the rate equations, which include the thermal kaon reactions as well as the kaon-induced Urca and the modified Urca reactions. It is shown that the dynamical evolution of the condensate is characterized by three stages: the first, prior to establishment of a condensate, the second, during the growth and subsequent saturation of the condensate, and the third, near chemical equilibrium. The connection between the existence of a soft kaon mode and the instability of the noncondensed state is discussed. Implications of the nonequilibrium process on the possible delayed collapse of a protoneutron star are also mentioned.

  11. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  12. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  13. PPOOLEX experiments on wall condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the wall condensation experiments carried out in December 2008 and January 2009 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows, were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study wall condensation phenomenon inside the dry well compartment while steam is discharged through it into the condensation pool and to produce comparison data for CFD calculations at VTT. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. For the wall condensation experiments the test facility was equipped with a system for collecting and measuring the amount of condensate from four different wall segments of the dry well compartment. A thermo graphic camera was used in a couple of experiments for filming the outside surface of the dry well wall. The effect of the initial temperature level of the dry well structures and of the steam flow rate for the accumulation of condensate was studied. The initial temperature level of the dry well structures varied from 23 to 99 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 90 to 690 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 115 to 160 deg. C. During the initial phase of steam discharge the accumulation of condensate was strongly controlled by the temperature level of the dry well structures; the lower the initial temperature level was the more condensate was accumulated. As the dry well structural temperatures increased the condensation process slowed down. Most of the condensate usually accumulated during the first 200 seconds of the discharge. However, the condensation process never completely stopped because a small temperature difference remained between the dry well atmosphere and inner wall

  14. Decay of Ultralight Axion Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C.R.

    2017-05-15

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion masses $m\\sim10^{-22}$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. We find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.

  15. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  16. Antikaon condensation in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, S; Greiner, W

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the condensation of charged K sup - meson and neutral anti-K sup 0 meson in dense neutron star matter. Calculations are performed in relativistic mean field models in which both the baryon-baryon and (anti)kaon-baryon interactions are mediated by meson exchange. It is found that anti-K sup 0 condensation is quite sensitive to the antikaon optical potential and depends more strongly on the nucleonic equation of state. For moderate values of antikaon potential and a rather stiff equation of state, a significant region of maximum mass star will contain anti-K sup 0 meson. The critical density of anti-K sup 0 condensation is always higher than that of K sup - condensation. With the appearance of K sup - and anti-K sup 0 condensates, pairs of p-K sup - and n-Kbar sup 0 are produced with equal proportion leading to a perfectly symmetric matter of nucleons and antikaons in neutron stars. Along with K sup - condensate, anti-K sup 0 condensate makes the equation of state much softer resulting in smaller...

  17. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  18. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity in manned modules. Condensing surfaces...

  19. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  20. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Wealth Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, D

    2006-01-01

    We analyze wealth condensation for a wide class of stochastic economy models on the basis of the economic analog of thermodynamic potentials, termed transfer potentials. The economy model is based on three common transfers modes of wealth: random transfer, profit proportional to wealth and motivation of poor agents to work harder. The economies never reach steady state. Wealth condensation is the result of stochastic tunneling through a metastable transfer potential. In accordance with reality, both wealth and income distribution transiently show Pareto tails for high income subjects. For metastable transfer potentials, exponential wealth condensation is a robust feature. For example with 10 % annual profit 1% of the population owns 50 % of the wealth after 50 years. The time to reach such a strong wealth condensation is a hyperbolic function of the annual profit rate.

  1. Solar engineering - a condensed course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars

    2011-11-15

    The document represents the material covered in a condensed two-week course focusing on the most important thermal and PV solar energy engineering topics, while also providing some theoretical background.

  2. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  3. Flue gas condensing with heat pump; Roekgaskondensering med vaermepump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Pettersson, Camilla [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Flue gas condensing is often both a technically and economically efficient method to increase the thermal efficiency in a plant using fuels with high moisture and/or high hydrogen content. The temperature of the return water in district heating systems in Sweden is normally 50 deg C, which gives quite high efficiency for a flue gas condenser. The flue gas after the flue gas condenser still contains energy that to some extent can be recovered by a combustion air humidifier or a heat pump. The object of this project is to technically and economically analyse flue gas condensing with heat pump. The aim is that plant owners get basic data to evaluate if a coupling between a flue gas condenser and a heat pump could be of interest for their plant. With a heat pump the district heating water can be 'sub cooled' to increase the heat recover in the flue gas condenser and thereby increase the total efficiency. The project is set up as a case study of three different plants that represent different types of technologies and sizes; Aabyverket in Oerebro, Amagerforbraending in Copenhagen and Staffanstorp district heating central. In this report a system with a partial flow through the condenser of the heat pump is studied. For each plant one case with the smallest heat pump and a total optimization regarding total efficiency and cost for investment has been calculated. In addition to the optimizations sensitivity analyzes has been done of the following parameters: Moisture in fuel; Type of heat pump; Temperature of the return water in the district heating system; and, Size of plant. The calculations shows that the total efficiency increases with about 6 % by the installation of the heat pump at a temperature of the return water in the district heating system of 50 deg C at Aabyverket. The cost for production of heat is just below 210 kr/MWh and the straight time for pay-off is 5,4 years at 250 kr/MWh in heat credit and at 300 kr/MWh in basic price for electricity. The

  4. Evaluation of Advanced Models for PAFS Condensation Heat Transfer in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Byong-Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is operated by the natural circulation to remove the core decay heat through the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) which is composed of the nearly horizontal tubes. For validation of the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) facility was constructed and the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS was experimentally investigated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). From the PASCAL experimental result, it was found that conventional system analysis code underestimated the condensation heat transfer. In this study, advanced condensation heat transfer models which can treat the heat transfer mechanisms with the different flow regimes in the nearly horizontal heat exchanger tube were analyzed. The models were implemented in a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant), and it was evaluated with the PASCAL experimental data. With an aim of enhancing the prediction capability for the condensation phenomenon inside the PCHX tube of the PAFS, advanced models for the condensation heat transfer were implemented into the wall condensation model of the SPACE code, so that the PASCAL experimental result was utilized to validate the condensation models. Calculation results showed that the improved model for the condensation heat transfer coefficient enhanced the prediction capability of the SPACE code. This result confirms that the mechanistic modeling for the film condensation in the steam phase and the convection in the condensate liquid contributed to enhance the prediction capability of the wall condensation model of the SPACE code and reduce conservatism in prediction of condensation heat transfer.

  5. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  6. Exergy analysis of inlet water temperature of condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doi Aysakhanam m

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most of the power plant designed by energetic performance criteria based on first law of thermodynamics. According to First law of thermodynamics energy analysis cannot be justified the losses of energy.The method of exergy analysis is well suited to describe true magnitude of waste and loss to be determined. Such information can be used in the design of new energy efficient system and increasing the efficiency of existing systems.In the present study exergy analysis of the shell and tube condenser is carried out. As the condenser is one of the major components of the power plant, so it is necessary to operate the condenser efficiently under the various operating condition to increase the overall efficiency of the power plant. In the present study inlet temperature of the condenser is optimized using the exergy method. The main aim of paper is to be find out causes of energy destruction that can be helpful to redesign the system and to increase the efficiency

  7. Dynamic model for controller design of condensate throttling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Zeng, De-Liang; Liu, Ji-Zhen; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Ya-zhe

    2015-09-01

    Improving the load adjustment rate of coal-fired power plants in China is very important because of grid load fluctuations and the construction of new large-scale power plants connected to the country's power grid. In this paper, a new application of condensate throttling system for rapid load adjustment is proposed on the basis of the characteristics of turbine-stored energy. To ensure effective and safe operation of the condensate throttling system, a non-linear control model is derived through reasonable simplifications of fundamental physical laws, and the model parameters are identified using experimental data from a 660 MW supercritical coal-fired power plant. The model outputs are compared with actual measured data for different unit loads. Results show that the established model's responses strongly correlate with the actual unit's responses and can be used for controller design.

  8. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  9. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    CERN Document Server

    Carignano, Stefano; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid in the normal phase and close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to ...

  10. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  11. Dry coolers and air-condensing units (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, O. O.; Anan'ev, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of factors affecting the growth of shortage of freshwater is performed. The state and dynamics of the global market of dry coolers used at electric power plants are investigated. Substantial increase in number and maximum capacity of air-cooled condensers, which have been put into operation in the world in recent years, are noted. The key reasons facilitating the choice of developers of the dry coolers, in particular the independence of the location of thermal power plant from water sources, are enumerated. The main steam turbine heat removal schemes using air cooling are considered, their comparison of thermal efficiency is assessed, and the change of three important parameters, such as surface area of heat transfer, condensate pump flow, and pressure losses in the steam exhaust system, are estimated. It is shown that the most effective is the scheme of direct steam condensation in the heat-exchange tubes, but other schemes also have certain advantages. The air-cooling efficiency may be enhanced much more by using an air-cooling hybrid system: a combination of dry and wet cooling. The basic applied constructive solutions are shown: the arrangement of heat-exchange modules and the types of fans. The optimal mounting design of a fully shopassembled cooling system for heat-exchange modules is represented. Different types of heat-exchange tubes ribbing that take into account the operational features of cooling systems are shown. Heat transfer coefficients of the plants from different manufacturers are compared, and the main reasons for its decline are named. When using evaporative air cooling, it is possible to improve the efficiency of air-cooling units. The factors affecting the faultless performance of dry coolers (DC) and air-condensing units (ACU) and the ways of their elimination are described. A high velocity wind forcing reduces the efficiency of cooling systems and creates preconditions for the development of wind-driven devices. It is noted that

  12. Persistent currents in ferromagnetic condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacraft, Austen

    2017-06-01

    Persistent currents in Bose condensates with a scalar order parameter are stabilized by the topology of the order parameter manifold. In condensates with multicomponent order parameters it is topologically possible for supercurrents to "unwind" without leaving the manifold. We study the energetics of this process in the case of ferromagnetic condensates using a long wavelength energy functional that includes both the superfluid and spin stiffnesses. Exploiting analogies to an elastic rod and rigid body motion, we show that the current carrying state in a 1D ring geometry transitions between a spin helix in the energy minima and a solitonlike configuration at the maxima. The relevance to recent experiments in ultracold atoms is briefly discussed.

  13. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carignano, Stefano; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Lepori, Luca [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito-L' Aquila (Italy); Pagliaroli, Giulia [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to that of quantum magnets. By integrating out the ''radial'' fluctuations we obtain a soft Lagrangian in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising from the breaking of the pion number symmetry. Finally, we test the robustness of the second-order transition between the normal and the pion condensed phase when next-to-leading-order chiral corrections are included. We determine the range of parameters for turning the second-order phase transition into a first-order one, finding that the currently accepted values of these corrections are unlikely to change the order of the phase transition. (orig.)

  14. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the ‘classical hypotheses’ of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  15. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  16. Condensed Matter Physics - Biology Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, G.

    The field of condensed matter physics had its genesis this century and it has had a remarkable evolution. A closer look at its growth reveals a hidden aim in the collective consciousness of the field - a part of the development this century is a kind of warm up exercise to understand the nature of living condensed matter, namely the field of biology, by a growing new breed of scientists in the coming century. Through some examples the vitality of this interaction will be pointed out.

  17. An Experimental Study of the Dropwise Condensation on Physically Processed Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Chang, Soonheung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, N.; Sambuichi, T.; Shiota, D.; Aritomi, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Recent research by Kawakubo et al. derived empirical condensation heat transfer correlation suitable for wider range of operating condition in presence of non-condensable gas. However, their proposals of PCCS are focused on plane tube surface. To design better PCCS heat exchanger with high heat transfer coefficient new treatment on condensation surface can be considered in order to maintain dropwise condensation, the heat transfer coefficient of which has an order of magnitude larger than those of film condensation. Advanced research measure dropwise condensation heat transfer coefficient of Au and Cr coated surface based on number of droplet and droplet growth rate. However, coated surface is not desirable in power plant due to its duration of few years. On the other hand, physical processing (micro holes and patterns) on stainless steel and titanium surface is expected to perform better heat transfer, also is durable for the whole reactor lifetime. Since there is no published research about dropwise condensation for physically processed surface on SUS and Ti, the purposes of this research are to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and analyze its mechanism of enhanced heat transfer of treated SUS and Ti commonly used to nuclear plant. In the comparison of theoretical equation and experiment, it shows same result that heat transfer coefficient is proportional to maximum droplet diameter power to -0.321. Moreover, in the comparison of bare and processed surface, heat transfer coefficient decreases in processed surface.

  18. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  19. Improvement of dropwise condensation heat transfer using hydrophobic nano porous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Hyun Dae [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently interest of passive system in thermal hydraulic safety system of nuclear power plants has been increased. Passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) is applied to SMART and APR+ for providing the sufficient cooling capacity against accident conditions. PRHRS is a device for removing the decay heat that cools steam through condensation heat transfer in emergency tank. Condensation is one of most important heat transfer methods in almost industry including the PRHRS. Condensation is classified, according to shape of condensate, into drop-wise condensation and film wise condensation. Drop-wise condensation (DWC) exhibits a significantly higher heat transfer coefficient than film wise condensation (FWC). Whether DWC or FWC occurs in a heat transfer surface is strongly affected by wettability of a surface. It is known that DWC is appears on low wettability surfaces while FWC is appears on high wettability one. In this study, nano-porous hydrophobic surfaces were prepared and tested for the improvement of dropwise condensation heat transfer performance.

  20. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.04.023

    2012-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated.

  1. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  2. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-11-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  3. Rotary condenser for SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    During 1975 the SC2 performance was improved among other things by redesigning some of the elements of the ROTCO (Annual Report 1975, p. 55). The photo shows an interior wiew of the housing of the rotary condenser and of the sixteen sets of shaped stator blades.

  4. 大容量机组空冷支架结构抗震设计方法研究%STUDY OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN METHOD OF AIR COOLED CONDENSER SUPPORT STRUCTURE SYSTEM IN HIGH-CAPACITY THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林; 白国良; 薛群虎; 代慧娟

    2014-01-01

    大容量机组空冷支架结构属质量和刚度沿竖向分布不均匀的竖向混合结构,结构的扭转效应明显,地震作用复杂。大直径钢筋混凝土薄壁管柱为结构的主要抗侧力构件和耗能构件,结构抗震防线过于单一。强烈地震作用下,混凝土管柱底部及柱顶钢桁架连接部位为抗震设计的关键部位。目前,对大容量机组空冷支架结构抗震设计缺乏系统研究,国家相关规范对这方面内容很少涉及。为了确保空冷支架结构的安全,在模型抗震性能试验和大直径薄壁管柱承载力试验的基础上,提出了大容量机组空冷支架结构抗震设计方法和抗震构造措施。%Support structure of air cooled condenser is a typical vertical hybrid structure whose stiffness and mass are non-uniform at vertical direction; torsion effect of the structure is obvious , earthquake response of the structure is complex.Research results show that the large-diameter and thin-walled reinforced concrete pipe columns are main lateral force resisting members in the structure , the damage of the structure is mainly concentrated on the bottom of the columns, structure’s earthquake resistance fortification is simplex .For lacking of systematic study on the seismic design method of this kind of structure , and little of its design cortents is involved in the national standards .In order to guarantee the safety of the support structure and equipment under earthquake action , based on the seismic behavior test of model structure and bearing capacity test of large-diameter and thin-walled reinforced concrete pipe columns , seismic design method and seismic measure are put forward to design support structure of air cooled condenser .

  5. Molecular Effects on Evaporation and Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Meland, Roar

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the evaporation from and condensation on a plane liquid surface have been studied by analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of the condensation coefficient on the inverted temperature gradient for a two-surface evaporation-condensation geometry is investigated by the moment method. The influence of the molecular exchange phenomenon on the gas-kinetic treatment of evaporation and condensation is shown to be neglible under certain assumptions. Methods to simulate...

  6. Polymer induced condensation of dna supercoils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessa Ramos Jr., J.E.; Ruggiero Neto, J.; Vries, de R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding is thought to be a significant factor driving DNA condensation in prokaryotic cells. Whereas DNA in prokaryotes is supercoiled, studies on crowding-induced DNA condensation have so far focused on linear DNA. Here we compare DNA condensation by poly(ethylene oxide) for superco

  7. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  8. Optimized wood/pellet heater with flue gas condensation; Optimerad ved/pelletspanna med roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Christian; Ramstroem, Erik; Berge, Niklas [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    cleaning. The use of fresh water spray in the equipment dilutes the condensate further, which makes the concentration of the pollutants even lower with fewer problems for the purifying plant. For integration of a flue gas condenser in a heating system, the main question is if there is a heat demand at sufficiently low temperatures where the heat generated by the condenser could be utilized. A combination of floor heating and tap water pre-heating with a water accumulator is shown to be an attractive system design. This solution could use the heat from the condenser and could at the same time handle seasonal variation in the heat demand. The economical calculations that have been done shows that it is economically motivated to invest in flue gas condensation equipment if the domestic heating system is to be converted from electricity or oil heating to a biomass heated system. The best possibility for this technique to be economically competitive is if the condenser is integrated in a new wood stove where the additional costs for equipment are the lowest.

  9. Ideal climatic conditions for condensation of atmospheric moisture on the plants’ surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey

    2015-12-01

    A study of the diversity of the plant adaptation mechanisms that contribute to lowering the surface temperature and the absorption of condensate will allow us in the future to carry out introduction, genetic modification or selection of plants with the most visible effect of lowering the temperature and the least dependence on insolation.

  10. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  11. Polymer Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, E., E-mail: ecastellanos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Chacón-Acosta, G., E-mail: gchacon@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, México D.F. 01120 (Mexico)

    2013-05-13

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose–Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ{sup 2} up to ≲10{sup −16} m{sup 2}. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  12. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  13. Atomistic modeling of dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, B. S.; Singh, P. L.; Muralidhar, K.; Khandekar, S.

    2016-05-01

    The basic aim of the atomistic modeling of condensation of water is to determine the size of the stable cluster and connect phenomena occurring at atomic scale to the macroscale. In this paper, a population balance model is described in terms of the rate equations to obtain the number density distribution of the resulting clusters. The residence time is taken to be large enough so that sufficient time is available for all the adatoms existing in vapor-phase to loose their latent heat and get condensed. The simulation assumes clusters of a given size to be formed from clusters of smaller sizes, but not by the disintegration of the larger clusters. The largest stable cluster size in the number density distribution is taken to be representative of the minimum drop radius formed in a dropwise condensation process. A numerical confirmation of this result against predictions based on a thermodynamic model has been obtained. Results show that the number density distribution is sensitive to the surface diffusion coefficient and the rate of vapor flux impinging on the substrate. The minimum drop radius increases with the diffusion coefficient and the impinging vapor flux; however, the dependence is weak. The minimum drop radius predicted from thermodynamic considerations matches the prediction of the cluster model, though the former does not take into account the effect of the surface properties on the nucleation phenomena. For a chemically passive surface, the diffusion coefficient and the residence time are dependent on the surface texture via the coefficient of friction. Thus, physical texturing provides a means of changing, within limits, the minimum drop radius. The study reveals that surface texturing at the scale of the minimum drop radius does not provide controllability of the macro-scale dropwise condensation at large timescales when a dynamic steady-state is reached.

  14. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  15. Radiative corrections to Bose condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. (Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana. Inst. de Matematica, Cibernetica y Computacion)

    1985-04-01

    The Bose condensation of the scalar field in a theory behaving in the Coleman-Weinberg mode is considered. The effective potential of the model is computed within the semiclassical approximation in a dimensional regularization scheme. Radiative corrections are shown to introduce certain ..mu..-dependent ultraviolet divergences in the effective potential coming from the Many-Particle theory. The weight of radiative corrections in the dynamics of the system is strongly modified by the charge density.

  16. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, B. [Rohm and Haas Co. (United States); Tsuzuki, S. [Rohm and Haas Co. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  17. Theory of laminar film condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Tetsu

    1991-01-01

    Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar­ ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con­ densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con­ denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo­ retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with som...

  18. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation

  19. Condensate from a two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2000-01-01

    that the organic compounds and the inhibition effect are very low even before treatment with activated carbon. The moderate inhibition effect relates to a high content of ammonia in the condensate. The nitrifiers become tolerant to the condensate after a few weeks of exposure. The level of organic compounds......Condensate, produced when gas from downdraft biomass gasifier is cooled, contains organic compounds that inhibit nitrifiers. Treatment with activated carbon removes most of the organics and makes the condensate far less inhibitory. The condensate from an optimised two-stage gasifier is so clean...

  20. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  1. CFD simulation of aerosol deposition in a single tube of a passive containment condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.; Brown, D.P.; Jokiniemi, J.K. [VTT Energy, Aerosol Technology Group (Finland); Gamble, R.E. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study aerosol particle deposition in a single tube of the AIDA (Aerosol Impaction and Deposition Analysis) condenser test facility (Ludwig, 2000) and the full scale PCC (Passive Containment Condenser) of an ESBWR plant. This condenser utilizes natural circulation, which results in significant simplification due to the reduction of active components (e.g. pumps, valves etc.) in the reactor control system. After a severe core melt accident aerosol particles are likely to be generated. Deposition is an essential aspect of the source term prediction for severe core melt accidents. (author)

  2. Is countercurrent regeneration an option for condensate polishing? Yes, it is.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, K. [DONG Energy Generation A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents a brief report on operation experience with a three-train separate bed condensate polisher in countercurrent operation/regeneration mode installed at a 400 MW ultra supercritical unit. Operation data show that the quality of the polished condensate is superior to that of the previously used standard (cation-mixed bed) condensate polisher, and it has been possible to almost completely eliminate sodium sulfate-related deposition problems in the plant cycle experienced when operating with that standard design unit. (orig.)

  3. Parametric experiments and CFD analysis on condensation heat transfer performance of externally condensing tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; Kim, Do Yun; Shin, Chang Wook; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Geometric effects of HXs on external condensation are experimentally observed. • Lower tube angle has higher heat transfer coefficients over vertical tubes by 15–30%. • 2.68 cmD tube has higher heat transfer coefficients over 4.91 cmD tube roughly by 10–20%. • CFD approach is validated against our experiments with good accuracy (error ∼7%). - Abstract: To ensure safe operation of nuclear power plants even in the case of a prolonged station blackout, advanced reactors adopt passive systems that can operate without electricity supply. In Korea, a passive auxiliary feedwater system was successfully validated, and a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) has recently attracted attention. To investigate the thermal performance of PCCSs, we perform various experiments with external heat exchangers, which condense steam externally, for PCCSs. Through experiments, we construct a database for the lower air mass fraction and perform a parametric study on the tube inclination and diameter. The operating ranges for the experiments are 0.24–0.38 MPa (pressure), 0.06–0.4 (air mass fraction), and 0–90° (tube inclination). A lower tube inclination and smaller tube diameter are found to yield higher heat-transfer coefficients, by approximately 20%. In the prediction of condensation heat-transfer coefficients, experimental correlations and the heat–mass transfer analogy have limitations in both accuracy and applicability. A computational-fluid-dynamics approach is used with the aid of user-defined functions to calculate the heat-transfer coefficients. The resulting predictions exhibit an average error of 7% when the air mass fraction is higher than 0.2.

  4. THE ACTION OF OIL, GAS CONDENSATE, DRILLING CUTTINGS AND DRILLING MUD ON THE BIOTA OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. S. Abdusamadov; A. P. Panarin; G. S. Gorbunova; L. D. Kovalenko; B. R. Guseinova; N. V. Panarina; A. M. Dokhtukaeva; L. A. Dudurkhanova

    2012-01-01

    Conducted experimental studies on the effect of crude oil, gas condensate, drilling muds and cuttings on the zooplankton, on the plant pigments of phytoplankton, on the saprophytic microflora, as well...

  5. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  6. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  7. UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRITERPANE AND STERANE TERRESTRIAL BIOMARKERS IN YACHENG CONDENSATES FROM YING-QIONG BASINS, SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 盛国英; 傅家膜; 耿安松; 陈军红; 张启明; 潘贤庄; 黄保家

    2002-01-01

    The condensates from the Yacheng Gas Field, Ying-Qiong Basins, have unusual chemical characteristics, with distribution dominated by terpanes and steranes derived from higher-plants. Pr/Ph ratios (6-11) are very high. Drimane, cadinanes and homocadinanes exist in high concentration. Anomalously abundant 18α(H)-oleanane and remarkably abundant bicadinanes are present in Yacheng condensates, while 17α(H)-hopanes are in extremely low concentration. Taraxastaneand significantly abundant 17α(H)-diahopanes occur in the condensates. In addition, a number of C29 and C30 unknown pentacyclic triterpanes were monitored in the condensates, some of which are abundant. The unknown compounds may be terrestrial biomarkers or their occurrence may suggest a sub-oxic (dyacrobic) clay-rich depositional environment. C29 homologues are relatively predominant in regularand rearranged steranes. The concentration of diasteranes is markedly higher than that of regular steranes. The characteristics of Yacheng condensates are indicative of terrestrial source input. Based on condensate-condensate and condensate-rock correlations, combined with results of studies on sedimentary facies. Yacheng condensates may be sourced from Yacheng and Lingshui Formations in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The maturity of Yacheng condensate is relatively high, at late oil window stage (corresponding to 0.9%-1.3% R0), based on sterane and terpane maturity parameters.``

  8. Unusual distribution of triterpane and sterane terrestrial biomarkers in yacheng condensates from Ying-Qiong basins, South China sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Geng, An-Song; Chen, Jun-Heng; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Pan, Xian-Zhuang; Huang, Bao-Jia

    2002-06-01

    The condensates from the Yacheng Gas Field, Ying-Qiong Basins, have unusual chemical characteristics, with distribution dominated by terpanes and steranes derived from higher-plants. Pr/Ph ratios (6 11) are very high. Drimane, cadinanes and homocadinanes exist in high concentration. Anomalously abundant 18α(H)-oleanane and remarkably abundant bicadinanes are present in Yacheng condensates, while 17α(H)-hopanes are in extremely low concentration. Taraxastane and significantly abundant 17α(H)-diahopanes occur in the condensates. In addition, a number of C29 and C30 unknown pentacyclic triterpanes were monitored in the condensates, some of which are abundant. The unknown compounds may be terrestrial biomarkers or their occurrence may suggest a sub-oxic (dyacrobic) clay-rich depositional environment. C29 homologues are relatively predominant in regular and rearranged steranes. The concentration of diasteranes is markedly higher than that of regular steranes. The characteristics of Yacheng condensates are indicative of terrestrial source input. Based on condensate-condensate and condensate-rock correlations, combined with results of studies on sedimentary facies. Yacheng condensates may be sourced from Yacheng and Lingshui Formations in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The maturity of Yacheng condensate is relatively high, at late oil window stage (corresponding to 0.9% 1.3% R0), based on sterane and terpane maturity parameters.

  9. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  10. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  11. Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Hoang, Michelle; McManus, Brendan; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of the diameter of horizontal hydrophobic cylinders on droplet growth. We postulate that the concentration gradient created by natural convection around a horizontal circular cylinder is related to the droplet growth on the cylinder by condensation. We derive a simple scaling law of droplet growth and compare it with experimental results. The predicted negative exponent of drop diameter (d) as a function of cylinder diameter (D) at different time points is similar to the general trend of experimental data. Further, this effect of cylinder diameter on droplet growth is observed to be stronger than the supersaturation conditions created by different surface temperatures.

  12. Estimation of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers based on statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study aimed at estimation of the state and prediction of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers on the basis of statistical analysis. The possibility of such evaluation during the operation of steam-turbine plants with accuracy sufficient for practical purposes is demonstrated. It is shown that identification of the operating period, viz., the initial period, the normal operation period, or the period of the lifetime exhaustion, as well as determination of the condenser's operating time at the moment when the failure of an individual tube occurs, is very important for statistical evaluation of the condenser state. Two statistical models are proposed and comparative analysis of the results calculated by these models for the residual life of the condensers at the Reftinskaya SDPP has been performed. The first model can be used when comprehensive information about the condenser's operating time before the tubes have failed is available as well as a priori information—or information based on analysis of the condenser tube metal—that the condenser is in its normal operation period. In this case, the fact of exhaustion of the condenser's lifetime is established by reaching the limit of the failed condenser tubes, which is determined by technical and economic analysis of losses caused by operating the turbine with a reduced heat-exchange surface of the condenser. The distribution function for the operating time of the failed tubes is approximated by a normal distribution. In the cases when no precise information on the condenser tubes' operating time is available at the thermoelectric power plant (TEPP), the second statistical model based on censored samples is proposed for estimation of the condenser state. An expression to assess the confidence interval that determines the significant difference between the distribution functions for complete and censored operating time values has been derived. It is shown that this model

  13. Preleptotene chromosome condensation stage in human foetal and neonatal testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, J M; Devictor, M; Stahl, A

    1977-04-01

    A preleptotene stage of chromosome condensation analogous to that already described in various plants and in the oocytes of several animal species has been observed in the human foetal testis. Contrary to what has been previously described, this stage in the testis is not followed by decondensation leading to leptotene filaments. This observation underlines the problem of the precise significance of this stage and its relation to initiation of meiosis. It is suggested that meiosis may be initiated during this condensation phase and that the male germ cell, despite its XY chromosome constitution, tends to evolve towards meiosis. This proposal pleads in favour of both the role of somatic cells in the inhibition of meiosis in the male foetus and the role of environmental factors rather than genetic constitution of the germ cell in meiotic induction.

  14. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  15. The physics of exciton-polariton condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 researchers created the first polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at 19K in the solid state. Being inherently open quantum systems, polariton condensates open a window into the unpredictable world of physics beyond the “fifth state of matter”: the limited lifetime of polaritons renders polariton condensates out-of-equilibrium and provides a fertile test-bed for non-equilibrium physics. This book presents an experimental investigation into exciting features arising from this non-equilibrium behavior. Through careful experimentation, the author demonstrates the ability of polaritons to synchronize and create a single energy delocalized condensate. Under certain disorder and excitation conditions the complete opposite case of coexisting spatially overlapping condensates may be observed. The author provides the first demonstration of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and the first observation of fractional vortices with full phase and amplitude characterization. Finally, this book investigate...

  16. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  17. DNA condensation in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardatscher, Günther; Bracha, Dan; Daube, Shirley S.; Vonshak, Ohad; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be programmed to assemble into a variety of shapes and patterns on the nanoscale and can act as a template for hybrid nanostructures such as conducting wires, protein arrays and field-effect transistors. Current DNA nanostructures are typically in the sub-micrometre range, limited by the sequence space and length of the assembled strands. Here we show that on a patterned biochip, DNA chains collapse into one-dimensional (1D) fibres that are 20 nm wide and around 70 µm long, each comprising approximately 35 co-aligned chains at its cross-section. Electron beam writing on a photocleavable monolayer was used to immobilize and pattern the DNA molecules, which condense into 1D bundles in the presence of spermidine. DNA condensation can propagate and split at junctions, cross gaps and create domain walls between counterpropagating fronts. This system is inherently adept at solving probabilistic problems and was used to find the possible paths through a maze and to evaluate stochastic switching circuits. This technique could be used to propagate biological or ionic signals in combination with sequence-specific DNA nanotechnology or for gene expression in cell-free DNA compartments.

  18. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  19. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  20. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil crust, NW China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xin-Ping Wang; Yan-Xia Pan; Rui Hu; Ya-Feng Zhang; Hao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Characteristics of water vapour condensation, including the onset, duration, and amount of water vapour condensation on moss-dominated biological soil crust (BSC) and dune sand were studied under simulated conditions with varying air temperature and relative humidity. The simulations were performed in a plant growth chamber using an electronic balance recording the weight of condensation. There was a positive linear correlation between the water vapour condensation and relative humidity while the mean temperature was negatively linearly related to amounts of water vapour condensation for both soil surfaces. The amount of water vapour condensation on BSC and dune sand can be described by the difference between air temperature and dew point with an exponential function, indicating that when the difference of air temperature and dew point exceeds a value of 35.3°C, there will be zero water vapour condensed on BSC. In contrast, when the difference of air temperature and dew point exceeds a value of 20.4°C, the water vapour condensation will be zero for dune sand. In general, when the air is fully saturated with water and the dew point is equal to the current air temperature, the water vapour condensed on BSC attained its maximum value of 0.398 mm, whereas it was 0.058 mm for dune sand. In comparison, water vapour condensed on BSC was at a relatively high temperature and low relative humidity, while we did not detect water vapour condensation on the dune sand under the similar conditions. Physical and chemical analyses of the samples pointed to a greater porosity, high content of fine particles, and high salinity for BSC compared to the dune sand. These results highlight that soil physicochemical properties are the likely factors influencing the mechanism of water vapour condensation under specific meteorological conditions, as onset was earlier and the duration was longer for water vapour condensation on BSC in comparison with that of dune sand. This contributed to

  1. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil crust, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ping; Pan, Yan-Xia; Hu, Rui; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Hao

    2014-03-01

    Characteristics of water vapour condensation, including the onset, duration, and amount of water vapour condensation on moss-dominated biological soil crust (BSC) and dune sand were studied under simulated conditions with varying air temperature and relative humidity. The simulations were performed in a plant growth chamber using an electronic balance recording the weight of condensation. There was a positive linear correlation between the water vapour condensation and relative humidity while the mean temperature was negatively linearly related to amounts of water vapour condensation for both soil surfaces. The amount of water vapour condensation on BSC and dune sand can be described by the difference between air temperature and dew point with an exponential function, indicating that when the difference of air temperature and dew point exceeds a value of 35.3◦C, there will be zero water vapour condensed on BSC. In contrast, when the difference of air temperature and dew point exceeds a value of 20.4◦C, the water vapour condensation will be zero for dune sand. In general, when the air is fully saturated with water and the dew point is equal to the current air temperature, the water vapour condensed on BSC attained its maximum value of 0.398 mm, whereas it was 0.058 mm for dune sand. In comparison, water vapour condensed on BSC was at a relatively high temperature and low relative humidity, while we did not detect water vapour condensation on the dune sand under the similar conditions. Physical and chemical analyses of the samples pointed to a greater porosity, high content of fine particles, and high salinity for BSC compared to the dune sand. These results highlight that soil physicochemical properties are the likely factors influencing the mechanism of water vapour condensation under specific meteorological conditions, as onset was earlier and the duration was longer for water vapour condensation on BSC in comparison with that of dune sand. This contributed to

  2. Structure of Nonlocal Vacuum Condensate of Quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娟; 马维兴

    2003-01-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger formalism is used to derive a fully dressed quark propagator. By use of the derived form of the quark propagator, the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate is studied, and the values of local quark vacuum condensate as well as quark gluon mixed condensate are calculated. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the empirical one used commonly in the literature.

  3. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, Mark; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occuring at two orders of magnitude lower pump intensity than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity-lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results suggest methods to bring this threshold even lower.

  4. Van der Waals Interactions and Exciton Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, P. H.; Kittel, C.

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that the van der Waals interaction can lead at low temperatures to a condensed state of excitons with properties in qualitative agreement with the observations of exciton droplets. Our calculation gives a binding energy of the correct sign and magnitude for the exciton condensate. In a diclectric medium, the strong enhancement of the exciton polarizability leads to a giant van der Waals interaction, and this interaction appears to make possible a condensed exciton phase. PMID:16591958

  5. Lorentz violation and Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaib, Muhammad Adeel

    2014-01-01

    We present heuristic arguments that hint to a possible connection of Lorentz violation with observed phenomenon in condensed matter physics. Various references from condensed matter literature are cited where operators in the Standard Model Extension (SME) appear to be enhanced. Based on this we propose that, in the non-relativistic limit, Lorentz violation in the context of the SME exhibits itself in various condensed matter systems.

  6. Enhanced condensation heat transfer with wettability patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2015-11-01

    Condensation of water vapor on metal surfaces is useful for many engineering applications. A facile and scalable method is proposed for removing condensate from a vertical plate during dropwise condensation (DWC) in the presence of non-condensable gases (NCG). We use wettability-patterned superhydrophilic tracks (filmwise condensing domains) on a mirror-finish (hydrophilic) aluminum surface that promotes DWC. Tapered, horizontal ``collection'' tracks are laid to create a Laplace pressure driven flow, which collects condensate from the mirror-finish domains and sends it to vertical ``drainage tracks'' for gravity-induced shedding. An optimal design is achieved by changing the fractional area of superhydrophilic tracks with respect to the overall plate surface, and augmenting capillary-driven condensate-drainage by adjusting the track spatial layout. The design facilitates pump-less condensate drainage and enhances DWC heat transfer on the mirror-finish regions. The study highlights the relative influences of the promoting and retarding effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation zones on the overall heat transfer improvement on the substrate. The study demonstrated ~ 34% heat transfer improvement on Aluminum surface for the optimized design.

  7. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  8. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage, but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage. These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp.

  9. Numerical analysis of transient pressure variation in the condenser of a nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinjun; Zhou, Zijie; Song, Zhao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Lu, Qiankui; Li, Jiafu [Dong Fang Turbine Co., Ltd, Deyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    To research the characteristics of the transient variation of pressure in a nuclear power station condenser under accident condition, a mathematical model was established which simulated the cycling cooling water, heat transfer and pressure in the condenser. The calculation program of transient variation characteristics was established in Fortran language. The pump's parameter, cooling line's organization, check valve's feature and the parameter of siphonic water-collecting well are involved in the cooling water flow's mathematical model. The initial conditions of control volume are determined by the steady state of the condenser. The transient characteristics of a 1000 MW nuclear power station's condenser and cooling water system were examined. The results show that at the condition of plant-power suspension of pump, the cooling water flow rate decreases rapidly and refluxes, then fluctuates to 0. The variation of heat transfer coefficient in the condenser has three stages: at start it decreases sharply, then increases and decreases, and keeps constant in the end. Under three conditions (design, water and summer), the condenser pressure goes up in fluctuation. The time intervals between condenser's pressure signals under three conditions are about 26.4 s, which can fulfill the requirement for safe operation of nuclear power station.

  10. Regeneration method for condensate desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurumi, Takeshi; Kashimura, Makoto

    1998-09-02

    Regeneration of a condensate desalting device in a PWR type power plant is conducted by separating a mixed bed into an anion exchange resin layer and a cation exchange resin layer by back washing after stoppage of passage of water. Regeneration of an anion exchange resin layer is conducted by injecting alkali (hydrogen) carbonate such as sodium carbonate and potassium hydrogen carbonate, and extruding them with purified water and then injecting alkali hydroxide, extruding and further washing with purified water. Regeneration of a cation exchange resin layer is conducted by injecting acids such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid followed by extrusion and washing. It is preferable that a liquid formed by mixing the regenerated liquid wastes of the anion exchange resin containing alkali (hydro) carbonate and regenerated liquid wastes of the cationic exchange resin containing acids and allowing generated carbon dioxide to be absorbed to alkali hydroxide is used as alkali (hydrogen) carbonate for the next regeneration. With such procedures, anion exchange resin which adsorbs decomposed products of amines can be regenerated efficiently. (I.N.)

  11. Resin regeneration device for condensate desalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Yoshihiro [Toshiba Engineering Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Hirose, Yuki

    1998-07-28

    The present invention provides a resin regeneration device for a condensate desalter of a nuclear power plant. Namely, both anionic and cationic exchange resins are supplied in a mixed state from a forwarding water desalting tower to an anionic resin regeneration tower. In the anionic resin generation tower, the resin is once separated to an anionic exchange region layer, a mixed resin layer and an cationic exchange resin layer in this order from the upper portion by water injected from a stirring water injection tube disposed at the bottom. Then, water is injected from a developing water injection tube disposed at the lower portion of the mixed resin layer to develop the cationic exchange resin layer and the mixed resin layer to the upper portion of the cationic resin regeneration tower. Subsequently, the amount of the injection of the developing water is reduced to such a flow rate that only the anionic exchange resin is precipitated. Then, a cationic exchange resin layer is formed at the upper portion and an anion exchange resin layer is formed at the lower portion of the developing water injection tube of the cationic resin regeneration tower. The anionic exchange resin is transferred to the anionic exchange resin regeneration tower in this state. According to the present invention, the mixed resin layer can be separated to anionic and cationic exchange resins easily and reliably. (I.S.)

  12. Packaging, Transportation and Recycling of NPP Condenser Modules - 12262

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.M. [Perma-Fix Environmental Services, 575 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    facility. If any of these issues were not adequately resolved prior to the start of the outage, costly delays would result and the re-start of the power plant could be impacted. The main focus of this project was to find successful methods for keeping this material out of the landfills and preserving the natural resources. In addition, this operation provided a significant cost savings to the public utility by minimizing landfill disposal. The onsite portion of the project has been completed without impact to the overall outage schedule. By the date of presentation, the majority of the waste from the condenser replacement project will have been processed and recycled. The goals for this project included helping Energy Northwest maintain the outage schedule, package and characterize waste compliantly, perform transportation activities in compliance with 49CFR (Ref-1), and minimize the waste disposal volume. During this condenser replacement project, over three millions pounds of waste was generated, packaged, characterized and transported without injury or incident. It is anticipated that 95% of the waste generated during this project will not require landfill disposal. All of the waste is scheduled to be processed, decontaminated and recycled by June of 2012. (authors)

  13. The mean condensate heat resistance of dropwise condensation with flowing inert gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, C.W.M.; Brouwers, Jos

    1995-01-01

    The quantification of the condensate heat resistance is studied for dropwise condensation from flowing air-steam mixtures. Flows are essentially laminar and stable with gas Reynolds numbers around 900 and 2000. The condensate shaping up as hemispheres on a plastic plane wall and the presence of iner

  14. The mean condensate heat resistance of dropwise condensation with flowing inert gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, van der C.W.M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The quantification of the condensate heat resistance is studied for dropwise condensation from flowing air-steam mixtures. Flows are essentially laminar and stable with gas Reynolds numbers around 900 and 2000. The condensate shaping up as hemispheres on a plastic plane wall and the presence of iner

  15. The mean condensate heat resistance of dropwise condensation with flowing inert gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, C.W.M.; Brouwers, Jos

    1995-01-01

    The quantification of the condensate heat resistance is studied for dropwise condensation from flowing air-steam mixtures. Flows are essentially laminar and stable with gas Reynolds numbers around 900 and 2000. The condensate shaping up as hemispheres on a plastic plane wall and the presence of

  16. Space, Time, and Tachyon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, B

    2006-01-01

    It has often been suggested that strings propagating on spatial sections with one or more dimensions compactified to a circle might help to resolve the initial singularity in cosmology. Assuming that Inflation occurred, it can however be shown, under extremely mild assumptions, that spatial sections having first homology groups which contain an element of infinite order actually \\emph{worsen} the singularity problem. We illustrate the force of this observation by explaining its consequences for recent ideas about winding strings and tachyon condensation as resolutions of the initial singularity. We argue that, in order to understand the initial singularity, one has to understand why the versions of de Sitter spacetime with compact flat spatial sections are themselves geodesically incomplete. To this end, we study the problem of the "twins" in these spacetimes. This study suggests that the singularity is not "resolved" but is instead made physically inaccessible.

  17. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  18. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  19. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Fermi liquids. Pressure comparison between the spherical cellular model and the Thomas-Fermi model / G.A. Baker, Jr. Pair excitations and vertex corrections in Fermi fluids and the dynamic structure function of two-dimension 3He / H.M. Böhm, H. Godfrin, E. Krotscheck, H.J. Lauter, M. Meschke and M. Panholzer. Condensation of helium in wedges / E.S. Hernádez ... [et al.]. Non-Fermi liquid behavior from the Fermi-liquid approach / V.A. Khodel ... [et al.]. Theory of third sound and stability of thin 3He-4He superfluid films / E. Krotscheck and M.D. Miller. Pairing in asymmetrical Fermi systems / K.F. Quader and R. Liao. Ground-state properties of small 3He drops from quantum Monte Carlo simulations / E. Sola, J. Casulleras and J. Boronat. Ground-state energy and compressibility of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas / Tanatar ... [et al.]. Quasiexcitons in photoluminescence of incompressible quantum liquids / A. Wójs, A.G ladysiewicz and J.J. Quinn -- pt. B. Bose liquids. Quantum Boltzmann liquids / K.A. Gernoth, M L. Ristig and T. Lindenau. Condensate fraction in the dynamic structure function of Bose fluids / M. Saarela, F. Mazzanti and V. Apaja -- pt. C. Strongly-correlated electronic systems. Electron gas in high-field nanoscopic transport: metallic carbon nanotubes / F. Green and D. Neilson. Evolution and destruction of the Kondo effect in a capacitively coupled double dot system / D.E. Logan and M.R. Galpin. The method of increments-a wavefunction-based Ab-Initio correlation method for solids / B. Paulus. Fractionally charged excitations on frustrated lattices / E. Runge, F. Pollmann and P. Fulde. 5f Electrons in actinides: dual nature and photoemission spectra / G. Zwicknagl -- pt. D. Magnetism. Magnetism in disordered two-dimensional Kondo-Necklace / W. Brenig. On the de Haas-can Alphen oscillation in 2D / S. Fujita and D.L. Morabito. Dynamics in one-dimensional spin systems-density matrix reformalization group study / S. Nishimoto and M

  20. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  1. Condensed tannins increase nitrogen recovery by trees following insect defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madritch, Michael D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    While the importance of plant secondary metabolites to belowground functioning is gaining recognition, the perception remains that secondary metabolites are produced for herbivore defense, whereas their belowground impacts are ecological by-products, or 'afterlife' effects. However, plants invest a significant amount of resources into production of secondary metabolites that have minimal effects on herbivore resistance (e.g. condensed tannins and insect herbivores). We show that genetically mediated variation in condensed tannin concentration is correlated with plant nitrogen recovery following a severe defoliation event. We used single-tree mesocosms labeled with (15) N to track nitrogen through both the frass and litter cycling pathways. High concentrations of leaf tannins in Populus tremuloides were correlated with (15) N recovery from frass within the same growing season and in the following growing season. Likewise, leaf tannin concentrations were also correlated with (15) N recovery from the litter of defoliated trees in the growing season following the defoliation event. Conversely, tannins were not well correlated with nitrogen uptake under conditions of nominal herbivory. Our results suggest that tannins may confer benefits in response to herbivore pressure through conserved belowground nitrogen cycling, rather than via defensive properties. Consequently, tannins may be considered as chemical mediators of tolerance rather than resistance.

  2. Semiflexible biopolymers: Microrheology and single filament condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Bernhard

    Polymers and their elementary subunits, called monomers, come in an immense variety of structures and sizes, and are of great importance for their material properties as well as a multitude of biological functions. The emphasis here is on semiflexible polymers, which are identified by their intermediate degree of stiffness. Their individual as well as their collective properties when assembled into entangled networks is a topic of great interest to polymer physics, materials science, and biology. Some of the most important semiflexible polymers are biopolymers, with such prominent examples as DNA, F-actin, and microtubules. Their functions range from their use as structural elements in the cytoskeleton of most plant and animal cells, to their role as transport tracks for molecular motors, and the storage of genetic information in their linear sequence. The two parts of this experimental and theoretical thesis address single filament aspects as well as network properties of solutions of semiflexible polymers. In the first part, we describe an optical technique for measuring the bulk properties of soft materials at the local scale. We apply it to a solution of entangled, filamentous actin, a particularly difficult material to characterize with conventional techniques. Beyond a description of measurements and apparatus, we also discuss, from a theoretical point of view, the interpretation and fundamental limitations of this and other microrheological techniques. In the second part, we describe the condensation dynamics of a single, semiflexible filament, induced by changing solvent conditions. A biologically important example of this phenomenon is the condensation of DNA into toroidal structures, which occurs, for instance, in viral capsids. Our observations of a molecular simulation motivate an unexpected pathway of collapse via a series of metastable intermediates we call ``racquet'' states. The analysis of the conformational energies of these structures in the

  3. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTROLLABILITY OF CONDENSIBLE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. he study compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical...

  5. Phase contrast imaging of Bose condensed clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, R; Rozendaal, R.A.; Koller, S.B.; Vogels, J.M.; van der Straten, P.

    2010-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging is used to observe Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) at finite temperature in situ. The imaging technique is used to accurately derive the absolute phase shift of a probe laser beam due to both the condensate and the thermal cloud. The accuracy of the method is enhanced by usin

  6. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L

    1999-01-01

    The recent creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of atomic hydrogen has added a new system to this exciting field, The differences between hydrogen and the alkali metal atoms require other techniques for the initial trapping and cooling of the atoms and the subsequent detection of the condensate. T

  7. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  8. Gravitino condensation, supersymmetry breaking and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Houston, N

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by dualistic considerations of the reality of quark condensation in quantum chromodynamics, and the connections of supergravity to the exotic physics of string and M-theory, in this thesis we investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry via gravitino condensation. We firstly demonstrate non-perturbative gravitino mass generation via this mechanism in flat spacetime, and from this derive the condensate mode wavefunction renormalisation. By then calculating the full canonically normalised one-loop effective potential for the condensate mode about a de Sitter background, we demonstrate that, contrary to claims in the literature, this process may both occur and function in a phenomenologically viable manner. In particular, we find that outside of certain unfortunate gauge choices, the stability of the condensate is intimately tied via gravitational degrees of freedom to the sign of the tree-level cosmological constant. Furthermore, we find that the energy density liberated may provide the n...

  9. When does lasing become a condensation phenomenon?

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    We present a generic classical light condensation (LC) phenomenon in linear photonic mode systems, such as cw laser cavities, in a noisy environment (spontaneous emission, etc.), based on weighting the modes in a loss-gain scale rather than in photon energy. It is characterized by a sharp transition from multi- to single-mode oscillation. The study uses a linear multivariate Langevin formulation which gives a mode occupation hierarchy that functions like Bose-Einstein statistics. We find that condensation occurs when the spectral filtering has near the lowest loss mode a power law dependence with exponent smaller than 1. We then discuss how and when condensation occurs in photon systems, how it relates to lasing, and the difficulties to observe regular photon Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in laser cavities. We raise the possibility that recent experiments on photon condensation in optical cavities fall in a classical LC or lasing category rather than being a thermal-quantum BEC phenomenon.

  10. Cost-optimized design approach for steam condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurma Rao, P.S.V.

    1982-08-23

    Examines methods of selecting cooling water quality for a steam surface condenser operating in a power plant or in a process. Equations and graphs for determining optimum terminal temperature difference and optimum cooling water velocity are presented. With large quantity with large terminal temperature difference, water cost will be more, but the annual fixed charges for maintenance will be smaller because the surface area is less due to the large terminal temperature difference. With high velocities giving high heat transfer rates with less surface area, initial costs are low, but pumping costs will be higher.

  11. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Živković

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay. Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.

  12. Experiences of membrane technique in flue gas condensate treatment applications; Utvaerdering av erfarenheter av membranteknik foer rening av roekgaskondensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Ekdahl, Emma; Hellman, Mats

    2009-07-01

    Investing in a flue gas condensate treatment plant often turns out to be very profitable. The profitability comes from savings in energy and water consumption when treated waste water is recirculated, and also from savings in the NO{sub x} fee as condensate treatment allows for higher ammonia injection rates in the SNCR (NO{sub x} reduction) system. The membrane based technologies for flue gas treatment, which were investigated in this report, have proven to be successful and are operating well. However, they require that the project management is committed and acquaint themselves with the technology to avoid problems during commissioning and operation. In this project, experience with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment at ten different plants was investigated and evaluated. The ten plants are either biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. Membrane based flue gas condensate treatment is used by circa ten Swedish plants (Ultra Filtration membranes and/or Reverse Osmosis membranes, and at some plants also membranes for ammonia and carbon dioxide removal). All plants are biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. In Sweden, no plant firing municipal waste has yet been equipped with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment. These plants usually use precipitation and filtration technologies instead. Also the purpose of the condensation step is primarily to operate as a wet flue gas cleaning step. The heat recovery is of subordinate importance. Typical for these plants is also that they use condensation in several steps. The condensates from the different steps are often treated separately, as they may be of very different qualities. The RO unit is the main equipment in a membrane based water treatment plant. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of the RO water is adjusted to the incoming condensate quality, and to the requirements on the effluent. The

  13. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B. K.; Althof, J. A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations.

  14. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  16. Dispensing fuel with aspiration of condensed vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovich, M.S.; Strock, D.J.

    1993-08-10

    A vapor recovery process is described, comprising the steps of: fueling a motor vehicle with gasoline by discharging gasoline into a fill opening or filler pipe of a tank of said vehicle through a fuel outlet conduit of a nozzle; emitting gasoline vapors from said tank during said fueling; substantially collecting said vapors during said fueling with a vapor return conduit of said nozzle and passing said vapors through said vapor return conduit in counter current flow relationship to said discharging gasoline in said fuel conduit; conveying said vapors from said vapor return conduit to a vapor return hose; at least some of said vapors condensing to form condensate in said vapor return hose; substantially removing said condensate from said vapor return hose during said fueling with a condensate pickup tube from said nozzle by passing said condensate through said condensate pickup tube in counter current flow relationship to said conveying vapors in said vapor return hose; sensing the presence of gasoline with a liquid sensing tube in said vapor return conduit of said nozzle between inner and outer spouts of said nozzle to detect when said tank of said vehicle is filled with said fuel conduit being within the inner spout of said nozzle; and automatically shutting off said fueling and condensate removing when said liquid sensing tube detects when said tank of said vehicle is filled and fuel enters said vapor return conduit.

  17. Dynamics of condensation on lubricant impregnated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Beysens, Daniel; Varanasi, Kripa

    2013-03-01

    Replacing the filmwise condensation mode with dropwise condensation promises large improvements in heat transfer that will lead to large cost savings in material, water consumption and decreased size of the systems. In this regards, use of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by texturing surfaces with nano/microstructures has been shown to lead decrease in contact line pinning of millimetric drops resulting in fast shedding. However, these useful properties are lost during condensation where droplets that nucleate within texture grow by virtue of condensation to large sized droplets while still adhering to the surface. Recently we have shown that liquid impregnated surfaces can overcome many limitations of conventional superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation. Here we discuss aspects related to condensation on lubricant surfaces, such as behavior of growing droplets. We compare the characteristics of droplets condensing on these surfaces with their behavior on conventional un-impregnated superhydrophobic surfaces and show how use of lubricant impregnated surfaces may lead to large enhancement in heat transfer and energy efficiencies.

  18. Fouling computations for optimized condenser cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, P.J.; March, P.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Condenser tests are typically performed to evaluate water side fouling levels. Because the water side fouling level is independent of condenser operating conditions, fouling levels determined from a condenser test should also be independent of condenser operating conditions. This study investigates the effect of inlet cooling water temperature on fouling levels computed with an empirical relation presented in the Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) Standard and with the resistance-summation method. These two methods are compared with a simplified mathematical model of a condenser and with actual test data. The comparisons show that the fouling and fouling rate computed by the HEI method are significantly lower than the resistance-summation method for cold condenser circulating water inlet temperatures. The significance of the deviation in fouling rates is then evaluated within the context of an optimized condenser cleaning schedule to determine differences in cleaning schedules and the associated dollar costs of basing cleaning decisions on each of the two methods. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Silicate condensation in Mira variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gail, Hans-Peter; Pucci, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    We study whether the condensation of silicate dust in Mira envelopes could be caused by cluster formation by the abundant SiO molecules. For a simplified model of the pulsational motions of matter in the the outer layers of a Mira variable which is guided by a numerical model for Mira pulsations, the equations of dust nucleation and growth are solved in the co-moving frame of a fixed mass element. It is assumed that seed particles form by clustering of SiO molecules. The calculation of the nucleation rate is based on the experimental data of Nuth and Donn (1982). The quantity of dust formed is calculated by a moment method and the calculation of radiation pressure on the dusty gas is based on a dirty silicate model. Dust nucleation occurs in the model at the upper culmination of the trajectory of a gas parcel where it stays for a considerable time at low temperatures while subsequent dust growth occurs during the descending part of the motion and continues after the next shock reversed motion. It is found tha...

  20. Stellar matter with pseudoscalar condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Andrianov, V.A.; Kolevatov, S.S. [Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Espriu, D. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In this work we consider how the appearance of gradients of pseudoscalar condensates in dense systems may possibly influence the transport properties of photons in such a medium as well as other thermodynamic characteristics. We adopt the hypothesis that in regions where the pseudoscalar density gradient is large the properties of photons and fermions are governed by the usual lagrangian extended with a Chern-Simons interaction for photons and a constant axial field for fermions. We find that these new pieces in the lagrangian produce non-trivial reflection coefficients both for photons and fermions when entering or leaving a region where the pseudoscalar has a non-zero gradient. A varying pseudoscalar density may also lead to instability of some fermion and boson modes and modify some properties of the Fermi sea. We speculate that some of these modifications could influence the cooling rate of stellar matter (for instance in compact stars) and have other observable consequences. While quantitative results may depend on the precise astrophysical details most of the consequences are quite universal and consideration should be given to this possibility. (orig.)

  1. Baryonic Condensates on the Conifold

    CERN Document Server

    Benna, M K; Klebanov, I R; Benna, Marcus K.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; Klebanov, Igor R.

    2007-01-01

    We provide new evidence for the gauge/string duality between the baryonic branch of the cascading SU(k(M+1)) \\times SU(kM) gauge theory and a family of type IIB flux backgrounds based on warped products of the deformed conifold and R^{3,1}. We show that a Euclidean D5-brane wrapping all six deformed conifold directions can be used to measure the baryon expectation values, and present arguments based on kappa-symmetry and the equations of motion that identify the gauge bundles required to ensure worldvolume supersymmetry of this object. Furthermore, we investigate its coupling to the pseudoscalar and scalar modes associated with the phase and magnitude, respectively, of the baryon expectation value. We find that these massless modes perturb the Dirac-Born-Infeld and Chern-Simons terms of the D5-brane action in a way consistent with our identification of the baryonic condensates. We match the scaling dimension of the baryon operators computed from the D5-brane action with that found in the cascading gauge theor...

  2. The condensation of steam from steam-water mixture on water jets at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Kisina, V. I.; Shvarts, A. L.; Kolbasnikov, A. V.; Kanishchev, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    A physical model for condensation of steam in water flow at high pressure is developed, and analytical dependences for calculating heat transfer are obtained, in particular as applied to the operation of a direct-contact feedwater heater for a new-generation reactor plant with lead coolant.

  3. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  4. Quark Virtuality and QCD Vacuum Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    @@ Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the ‘rainbow' approximation, we investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, we calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ2u,d = 0.7 GeV2 for u, d quarks, and 2s 1.6 GeV2 for s quark.Our theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions.

  5. Microscopic theory of equilibrium polariton condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wu, Fengcheng; Xie, Ming; Su, Jung-Jung; MacDonald, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the equilibrium polariton condensate state of a semiconductor quantum well in a planar optical cavity. The theory accounts for the adjustment of matter excitations to the presence of a coherent photon field, predicts effective polariton-polariton interaction strengths that are weaker and condensate exciton fractions that are smaller than in the commonly employed exciton-photon model, and yields effective Rabi coupling strengths that depend on the detuning of the cavity-photon energy relative to the bare exciton energy. The dressed quasiparticle bands that appear naturally in the theory provide a mechanism for electrical manipulation of polariton condensates.

  6. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....

  7. Holographic Duality in Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaanen, Jan; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Condensed matter: the charted territory; 3. Condensed matter: the challenges; 4. Large N field theories for holography and condensed matter; 5. The AdS/CFT correspondence as computational device: the dictionary; 6. Finite temperature magic: black holes and holographic thermodynamics; 7. Holographic hydrodynamics; 8. Finite density: the Reissner-Nordström black hole and strange metals; 9. Holographic photoemission and the RN metal: the fermions as probes; 10. Holographic superconductivity; 11. Holographic Fermi liquids; 12. Breaking translational invariance; 13. AdS/CMT from the top down; 14. Outlook: holography and quantum matter; References; Index.

  8. Pool boiling and condensation analysis for a vertical tube bundle condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Wolf, B., E-mail: zhouw@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Revankar, S.T., E-mail: shripad@ecn.purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is performed for the steam condensation in a vertical tube bundle passive condenser simulating PCCS condenser in the ESBWR. Four condenser tubes are submerged in a water pool where the heat from the condenser tube is removed through boiling heat transfer. Condenser tubes with a full length/diameter scale are used to obtain the condensation data with various process parameters. The comparison of tube bundle experimental data with the single tube data by both the experiments and models shows that the single tube secondary heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is between 25% - 35% less than what was recorded for the tube bundle, and the tube bundle condensation rates are slightly higher than the data from the single tube test sections due to turbulent mixing effect which increases the condensation heat removal. The turbulent mixing on the secondary side decreases the DT between pool water and condenser tube outer wall, causing an increase in secondary HTC. This increase in secondary HTC thus results in higher condensate mass flow rates. Tube bundle boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model were then developed for the prediction of the filmwise steam condensation with noncondensable (NC) gas in a vertical tube bundle. The predictions from the models are compared with the experimental data for various complete condensation and through flow conditions and the agreement is satisfactory. The local parameters predicted by the boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model with tube bundle pool boiling can also be predicted with the axial distance from entrance for different NC gas fractions and system pressures. (author)

  9. Energy analysis of a central domestic hot water heating system equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Caliari, R. (Servizio Energia, Provincia Autonoma di Trento (IT))

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on a central plant for the heating of domestic hot water for a block of 143 flats and 15 offices. The behaviour of the condensing boilers serving the plant was examined and the energy costs of recirculation and distribution were analysed. Since the losses due to recirculation are of the same order as the useful energy, the influence of the various parameters on the losses has been studied, and some methods of lowering them are proposed. (author).

  10. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  11. Vacuum condensates and `ether-drift' experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Consoli, M.; Pagano, A.; Pappalardo, L.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of a `condensed' vacuum state is generally accepted in modern elementary particle physics. We argue that this should motivate a new generation of precise `ether-drift' experiments with present-day technology.

  12. Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E

    2016-01-01

    A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the "mother" condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

  13. Cold condensation of dust in the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Rouillé, Gaël; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...

  14. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    unimodal refers to that there is one polymer only in the system. As an alternative to unimodal networks there are the bimodal networks where two polymers with significantly different molecular weights are mixed with one crosslinker. [2]Silicone rubber can be divided into condensation type and addition type...... according to the curing reaction. The advantages of condensation silicones compared to addition are the relatively low cost, the curing rate largely being independent of temperature, the excellent adhesion, and the catalyst being nontoxic. [3]In this work, a series of bimodal condensation silicone......, the top and bottom surfaces of the elastomer (7:3) prepared at 23oC and 50% humidity were tested by water contact angle and optical microscope. The results show the bimodal condensation elastomer possesses structural heterogeneity, which may lead to favourable properties for DE applications....

  15. Convection in Condensible-rich Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case-water vapor in Earth's present climate-the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO2 is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-co...

  16. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.

  17. Arnold Sommerfeld and Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Christian; Eckert, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951), one of the founders of modern theoretical physics and a pioneer of quantum theory, was no condensed matter physicist. He nevertheless played a crucial role for the history of the field. Besides his important contributions to the study of condensed matter systems, among which his seminal electron gas theory of metallic conduction probably stands out, he influenced the field through his very approach to science, through his way of “doing” physics. Sommerfeld's specific style permeated not only his research but also his teaching and his promoting of physics. This has had a lasting influence on the practices of physicists to this day, and not only, but importantly, on those of condensed matter physicists. This article aims to provide a concise account of Sommerfeld's influence on the study of condensed matter systems, with regard to both his research and his practice.

  18. Stabilization flyuorytopodibnoyi structure in oxide vacuum condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.М. Заславський

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The influence of the oxide-stabilizer content, M'-cation radius and film deposition temperature on the stabilization of the fluorite-like solid solutions in the zirconium and hafnium oxides-based vacuum condensates, obtained by Laser-evaporating method, was investigated. The optimum parameters of the coatication of the isotropic thermostable coverings was determined. This results were explained by using of the high-speed condensation in vacuum theory.

  19. Essay: fifty years of condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2008-12-19

    Since the birth of Physical Review Letters fifty years ago, condensed matter physics has seen considerable growth, and both the journal and the field have flourished during this period. In this essay, I begin with some general comments about condensed matter physics and then give some personal views on the conceptual development of the field and list some highlights. The focus is mostly on theoretical developments.

  20. Gaugino condensation, duality and supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    The status of gaugino condensation in low-energy string theory is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the determination of the efective action below condensation scale in terms of the 2PI and Wilson actions. We illustrate how the different perturbative duality symmetries survive this simple nonperturbative phenomenon, providing evidence for the believe that these are exact nonperturbative symmetries of string theory. Consistency with T duality lifts the moduli degeneracy. The B_{\\mu\

  1. Experimental simulation of the condensation and metamorphism of seasonal CO2 condensates under martian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolle, F.; Schmitt, B.; Beck, P.; Philippe, S.; Brissaud, O.

    2014-04-01

    An experimental set-up, CARBON-IR, has been developed in order to perform the condensation and metamorphism of CO2 condensates in various controlled martian conditions at, or out of, equilibrium. The sample texture is monitored and near-infrared reflectance spectra are recorded. We present a first set of experiments aimed to simulate the formation of compact translucent slabs by condensation of CO2 gas, the metamorphism of CO2 snow, as well as their sublimation.

  2. Structure-activity relationship of condensed tannins and synergism with trans-cinnamaldehyde against Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Desrues, Olivier; Williams, Andrew Richard

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of livestock are increasingly developing resistance to synthetic nematocidal drugs. Moreover, the use of nematocides can induce ecotoxicity by affecting free-living nematodes. Condensed tannins (CT) are a structurally diverse group of bioactive plant...

  3. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2014-11-25

    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  4. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Jan; Dlouhý, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures of steam with added air were carried out to find the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the air concentration in the steam mixture. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical formulas describing the cases. The theoretical determination of the HTC is based on the Nusselt model of steam condensation on a vertical wall, where the analogy of heat and mass transfer is used to take into account the behaviour of air in a steam mixture during the condensation process. The resulting dependencies obtained from the experiments and obtained from the theoretical model have similar results. The significant decrease in the condensation HTC, which begins at very low air concentrations in a steam mixture, was confirmed.

  5. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlík Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures of steam with added air were carried out to find the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC on the air concentration in the steam mixture. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical formulas describing the cases. The theoretical determination of the HTC is based on the Nusselt model of steam condensation on a vertical wall, where the analogy of heat and mass transfer is used to take into account the behaviour of air in a steam mixture during the condensation process. The resulting dependencies obtained from the experiments and obtained from the theoretical model have similar results. The significant decrease in the condensation HTC, which begins at very low air concentrations in a steam mixture, was confirmed.

  6. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  7. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  8. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  9. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Hua; Cai, Qingjun; Tsai, Chialun; Chen, Chung-Lung; Xiong, Guangyong; Yu, Ying; Ren, Zhifeng

    2007-04-01

    Dropwise condensation can enhance heat transfer by an order of magnitude compared to film condensation. Superhydrophobicity appears ideal to promote continued dropwise condensation which requires rapid removal of condensate drops; however, such promotion has not been reported on engineered surfaces. This letter reports continuous dropwise condensation on a superhydrophobic surface with short carbon nanotubes deposited on micromachined posts, a two-tier texture mimicking lotus leaves. On such micro-/nanostructured surfaces, the condensate drops prefer the Cassie state which is thermodynamically more stable than the Wenzel state. With a hexadecanethiol coating, superhydrophobicity is retained during and after condensation and rapid drop removal is enabled.

  10. Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haljan, Paul C.

    2004-05-01

    Since the advent of Bose-Einstein condensation in the dilute alkalis, there has been considerable interest in observing effects in atomic condensates akin to the hallmark effects associated with superfluidity and superconductivity. In particular, the study of quantized vortices and vortex lattices represents an important connection between the traditional ``super" systems such as liquid Helium and this new atomic system. This thesis explores some of the first vortex experiments in a condensate of magnetically trapped Rubidium-87. Single vortex lines and rings are created using a wavefunction engineering technique, which is an ideal starting point to study the dynamical behavior of vortices within the condensate. An entirely different approach of ``intrinsic nucleation" has been developed to create rapidly rotating condensates with large amounts of vorticity. A novel variation of forced evaporation is used to simultaneously cool and spin up an ultracold gas. In this way, condensates can be formed that are rotating in excess of 95% of the centrifugal limit and contain large, extraordinarily regular lattices of well over 100 vortices. Direct detection of the vortex cores makes it possible to study the microscopic structure of the vortex arrangements both at equilibrium and under dynamical conditions where severe applied stresses distort the lattice far from its equilibrium configuration. In conclusion, the techniques developed in this work have helped to open up a new area of rotating condensate physics and, in the future, may lead to regimes of extreme rotation and quantum Hall physics. This work was performed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, under the supervision of Prof. Eric A. Cornell.

  11. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the study? This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays. Why was it done? No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  12. Effect of Non-Condensable Gas Mass Fraction on Condensation Heat Transfer for Water-Ethanol Vapor Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixue; Utaka, Yoshio

    The condensation heat transfer characteristic curves for a ternary vapor mixture of water, ethanol and air (or nitrogen) under several ethanol concentrations and relatively low concentrations of air (or nitrogen) were measured. The effect of non-condensable gas on several different domains in the condensation curves was discussed. The effect of non-condensable gas in the domains controlled by the diffusion resistance and the filmwise condensation was not notable; whereas that in the domain dominated by the condensate resistance of dropwise mode was remarkable. Moreover, variations due to changes in non-condensable gas concentration of several characteristic points representing the curves were discussed.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Steam Condenser and Design of PI Controller Based on Grey Wolf Optimizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shell-and-tube condenser is a heat exchanger for cooling steam with high temperature and pressure, which is one of the main kinds of heat exchange equipment in thermal, nuclear, and marine power plant. Based on the lumped parameter modeling method, the dynamic mathematical model of the simplified steam condenser is established. Then, the pressure PI control system of steam condenser based on the Matlab/Simulink simulation platform is designed. In order to obtain better performance, a new metaheuristic intelligent algorithm, grey wolf optimizer (GWO, is used to realize the fine-tuning of PI controller parameters. On the other hand, the Z-N engineering tuning method, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm algorithm are adopted for tuning PI controller parameters and compared with GWO algorithm. Simulation results show that GWO algorithm has better control performance than other four algorithms.

  14. Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

    1978-08-01

    Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

  15. Simulation Prediction of Transient Dropwise Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2014-11-01

    In order to design effective surfaces for large-scale dropwise condensation, an understanding of how surface functionalization affects drop growth and coalescence is needed. The long term technological goal is a set of design conditions to help NASA achieve maximum heat transfer rates of waste heat generated from electronics and habitable environments under microgravity conditions. Prediction of condenser surface heat transfer performance requires accurate simulation and modeling of the evolution of populations of drops in time. At shorter times, drops are primarily isolated and grow mainly by condensation onto the liquid-gas interface. At longer times, drops grow mainly by coalescence with neighbors. Simulation of dropwise condensation on a neutrally wetting surface and comparison with our previous experimental results is reported. A steady-state single drop conduction model is empirically fitted to determine a temperature profile that captures the drop size evolution. The simulation accurately predicts the continuous time evolution of number-density of drops, drop-size distributions, total condensate volume, fractional coverage, and median drop-size for both transient and steady states, all with no free parameters. This work was supported by a NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  16. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  17. The NSF Condensed Matter Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Paul

    The Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) program in the NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports experimental, as well as combined experiment and theory projects investigating the fundamental physics behind phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. CMP is the largest Individual Investigator Award program in DMR and supports a broad portfolio of research spanning both hard and soft condensed matter. Representative research areas include: 1) phenomena at the nano- to macro-scale including: transport, magnetic, and optical phenomena; classical and quantum phase transitions; localization; electronic, magnetic, and lattice structure or excitations; superconductivity; topological insulators; and nonlinear dynamics. 2) low-temperature physics: quantum fluids and solids; 1D & 2D electron systems. 3) soft condensed matter: partially ordered fluids, granular and colloid physics, liquid crystals, and 4) understanding the fundamental physics of new states of matter as well as the physical behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions e.g., low temperatures, high pressures, and high magnetic fields. In this talk I will review the current CMP portfolio and discuss future funding trends for the program. I will also describe recent activities in the program aimed at addressing the challenges facing current and future principal investigators.

  18. CFD modelling and validation of wall condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschaeck, G., E-mail: guillermo.zschaeck@ansys.com [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg 12, Otterfing 83624 (Germany); Frank, T. [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg 12, Otterfing 83624 (Germany); Burns, A.D. [ANSYS UK Ltd, 97 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4RY (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A wall condensation model was implemented and validated in ANSYS CFX. • Condensation rate is assumed to be controlled by the concentration boundary layer. • Validation was done using two laboratory scale experiments. • CFD calculations show good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present and validate a mathematical model implemented in ANSYS CFD for the simulation of wall condensation in the presence of non-condensable substances. The model employs a mass sink at isothermal walls or conjugate heat transfer (CHT) domain interfaces where condensation takes place. The model was validated using the data reported by Ambrosini et al. (2008) and Kuhn et al. (1997)

  19. Measurement of liquid-liquid equilibria for condensate + glycol and condensate + glycol + water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Today's oil and gas production requires the application of various chemicals in large amounts. To evaluate the effects of those chemicals on the environment, it is of crucial importance to know how much of the chemicals are discharged via produced water and how much is dissolved in the crude oil....... The ultimate objective of this work is to develop a predictive thermodynamic model for the mutual solubility of oil, water, and polar chemicals. But for the development and validation of the model, experimental data are required. This work presents new experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for 1......,2-ethanediol (MEG) + condensate and MEG + water + condensate systems at temperatures from (275 to 323) K at atmospheric pressure. The condensate used in this work is a stabilized natural gas condensate from an offshore field in the North Sea. Compositional analysis of the natural gas condensate was carried out...

  20. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide

  1. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Degraded Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Kim, M.K.; Choi, I-K.

    2011-05-16

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Brookhaven National Laboratory are conducting a collaborative research project to develop seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the goals of this collaboration endeavor is to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The essential part of this collaboration is aimed at achieving a better understanding of the effects of aging on the performance of SSCs and ultimately on the safety of NPPs. A recent search of the degradation occurrences of structures and passive components (SPCs) showed that the rate of aging related degradation in NPPs was not significantly large but increasing, as the plants get older. The slow but increasing rate of degradation of SPCs can potentially affect the safety of the older plants and become an important factor in decision making in the current trend of extending the operating license period of the plants (e.g., in the U.S. from 40 years to 60 years, and even potentially to 80 years). The condition and performance of major aged NPP structures such as the containment contributes to the life span of a plant. A frequent misconception of such low degradation rate of SPCs is that such degradation may not pose significant risk to plant safety. However, under low probability high consequence initiating events, such as large earthquakes, SPCs that have slowly degraded over many years could potentially affect plant safety and these effects need to be better understood. As part of the KAERI-BNL collaboration, a condensate storage tank (CST) was analyzed to estimate its seismic fragility capacities under various postulated degradation scenarios. CSTs were shown to have a significant impact on the seismic core damage frequency of a nuclear power plant. The seismic fragility capacity of the CST was developed

  2. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  3. Vector meson condensation in a pion superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Tomáš; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the suggestion that charged ρ -mesons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in isospin-rich nuclear matter. Using a simple version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, we conclude that ρ -meson condensation is either avoided or postponed to isospin chemical potentials much higher than the ρ -meson mass as a consequence of the repulsive interaction with the preformed pion condensate. In order to support our numerical results, we work out a linear sigma model for pions and ρ -mesons, showing that the two models lead to similar patterns of medium dependence of meson masses. As a byproduct, we analyze in detail the mapping between the NJL model and the linear sigma model, focusing on conditions that must be satisfied for a quantitative agreement between the models.

  4. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  5. Condensation heat transfer coefficient versus wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudgar, M.; De Coninck, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we show how condensation on substrates can induce wetting behavior that is quite different from that of deposited or impinging drops. We describe surfaces with the same wettability in ambient conditions presenting different wetting behavior and growth of droplets in condensation. The experimental results show a rapid spread of droplets and formation of the film on the copper surface, while droplets on SU-8 surface remains on the regular shape while they grow within the time, without coalescence, as observed for Cu. Although the heat conductivity of SU-8 is much lower, due to a difference in wetting behavior, the heat transfer coefficient (h) is higher for dropwise condensation on Cu with a thin layer of SU-8 than filmwise on the bare copper.

  6. Nonlocal Condensate Model for QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou

    2009-01-01

    We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the K$\\ddot{\\mathrm{a}}$ll$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$n-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to $Q^2 \\approx 10 $ GeV$^2$. It is observed that the nonlocal quark-condensate contribution descends like $1/Q^4$, different from the exponential decrease in $Q^2$ obtained in the literature, and contrary to the linear rise in the local-condensate approximation.

  7. Efficient cell migration requires global chromatin condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlitz, Gabi; Bustin, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental process that is necessary for the development and survival of multicellular organisms. Here, we show that cell migration is contingent on global condensation of the chromatin fiber. Induction of directed cell migration by the scratch-wound assay leads to decreased DNaseI sensitivity, alterations in the chromatin binding of architectural proteins and elevated levels of H4K20me1, H3K27me3 and methylated DNA. All these global changes are indicative of increased chromatin condensation in response to induction of directed cell migration. Conversely, chromatin decondensation inhibited the rate of cell migration, in a transcription-independent manner. We suggest that global chromatin condensation facilitates nuclear movement and reshaping, which are important for cell migration. Our results support a role for the chromatin fiber that is distinct from its known functions in genetic processes.

  8. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  9. Field theories of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fradkin, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.

  10. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  12. Vector meson condensation in a pion superfluid

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the suggestion that charged rho-mesons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in isospin-rich nuclear matter. Using a simple version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, we conclude that rho-meson condensation is either avoided or postponed to isospin chemical potentials much higher than the rho-meson mass as a consequence of the repulsive interaction with the preformed pion condensate. In order to support our numerical results, we work out a linear sigma model for pions and rho-mesons, showing that the two models lead to similar patterns of medium dependence of meson masses. As a byproduct, we analyze in detail the mapping between the NJL model and the linear sigma model, focusing on conditions that must be satisfied for a quantitative agreement between the models.

  13. Why double-stranded RNA resists condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Pabit, Suzette; Katz, Andrea M.; Chen, Yujie; Drozdetski, Aleksander; Baker, Nathan A.; Pollack, Lois; Onufriev, Alexey

    2014-09-15

    The addition of small amounts of multivalent cations to solutions containing double-stranded DNA leads to attraction between the negatively charged helices and eventually to condensation. Surprisingly, this effect is suppressed in double-stranded RNA, which carries the same charge as the DNA, but assumes a different double helical form. However, additional characterization of short (25 base-pairs) nucleic acid (NA) duplex structures by circular dichroism shows that measured differences in condensation are not solely determined by duplex helical geometry. Here we combine experiment, theory, and atomistic simulations to propose a mechanism that connects the observed variations in condensation of short NA duplexes with the spatial variation of cobalt hexammine (CoHex) binding at the NA duplex surface. The atomistic picture that emerged showed that CoHex distributions around the NA reveals two major NA-CoHex binding modes -- internal and external -- distinguished by the proximity of bound CoHex to the helical axis. Decreasing trends in experimentally observed condensation propensity of the four studied NA duplexes (from B-like form of homopolymeric DNA, to mixed sequence DNA, to DNA:RNA hybrid, to A-like RNA) are explained by the progressive decrease of a single quantity: the fraction of CoHex ions in the external binding mode. Thus, while NA condensation depends on a complex interplay between various structural and sequence features, our coupled experimental and theoretical results suggest a new model in which a single parameter connects the NA condensation propensity with geometry and sequence dependence of CoHex binding.

  14. Temporal dynamics of Bose-condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Martinez, Mauricio

    2014-03-19

    We perform a detailed quantum dynamical study of non-equilibrium trapped, interacting Bose-condensed gases. We investigate Josephson oscillations between interacting Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a finite size double-well trap and the non-trivial time evolution of a coherent state placed at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice. For the Josephson oscillations three time scales appear. We find that Josephson junction can sustain multiple undamped oscillations up to a characteristic time scale τ{sub c} without exciting atoms out of the condensates. Beyond the characteristic time scale τ{sub c} the dynamics of the junction are governed by fast, non-condensed particles assisted Josephson tunnelling as well as the collisions between non-condensed particles. In the non-condensed particles dominated regime we observe strong damping of the oscillations due to inelastic collisions, equilibrating the system leading to an effective loss of details of the initial conditions. In addition, we predict that an initially self-trapped BEC state will be destroyed by these fast dynamics. The time evolution of a coherent state released at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice shows a ballistic expansion with a decreasing expansion velocity for increasing two-body interactions strength and particle number. Additionally, we predict that if the two-body interactions strength exceeds a certain value, a forerunner splits up from the expanding coherent state. We also observe that this system, which is prepared far from equilibrium, can evolve to a quasistationary non-equilibrium state.

  15. Analyzing and modeling the dynamic thermal behaviors of direct contact condensers packed with PCM spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Tao; Hassabou, Abdel H.; Spinnler, Markus; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Condensers serve as important components for humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination plants. Based on the interpenetration continua approach with volume averaging technique, a mathematical dynamic model for analyzing the heat and mass transfer within direct contact condensers with co-current or countercurrent flow arrangement was developed. It was validated against the experimental data from a small scale HDH desalination system. Comparisons including the productivities and the temperature profiles of gas, liquid, and solid phases show good agreement with the measurements. Phase change material (PCM) melting processes have little effect on water production rate for co-current flow arrangement, but the condenser packed with PCM capsules have higher water production rates than that packed with air capsules packed under given conditions. The relative humidity profile of the bulk gas shows contrary trend with the gas temperature profile. The direct contact condenser with countercurrent flow arrangement can provide much better heat and mass transfer between gas and water and produce about 16.3% more fresh water than the same condenser with co-current flow arrangement in 4 h under given conditions.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  17. Renormalisation Group Flow and Kaon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Krippa, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Functional renormalisation group approach is applied to a system of kaons with finite chemical potential. A set of approximate flow equations for the effective couplings is derived and solved. At high scale the system is found to be at the normal phase whereas at some critical value of the running scale it undergoes the phase transition (PT) to the phase with a spontaneously broken symmetry with the kaon condensate as an order parameter. The value of the condensate turns out to be quite sensitive to the kaon-kaon scattering length.

  18. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Kleppner, D; Killian, T C; Fried, D G; Willmann, L; Landhuis, D; Moss, S C; Kleppner, Daniel; Greytak, Thomas J.; Killian, Thomas C.; Fried, Dale G.; Willmann, Lorenz; Landhuis, David; Moss, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of trapped atomic hydrogen, and studied it by two-photon spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition. In these lecture notes we briefly review the history of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and describe the final steps to BEC. Laser spectroscopy, which probes the difference in mean field energy of the 1S and 2S states, is used to study the condensate, which has a peak density of 4.8e15 cm^-3 and population of 10^9.

  19. Turbulent meson condensation in quark deconfinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a QCD-like strongly coupled gauge theory at large Nc, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that heavy quark deconfinement is accompanied by a coherent condensation of higher meson resonances. This is revealed in non-equilibrium deconfinement transitions triggered by static, as well as quenched electric fields even below the Schwinger limit. There, we observe a “turbulent” energy flow to higher meson modes, which finally results in the quark deconfinement. Our observation is consistent with seeing deconfinement as a condensation of long QCD strings.

  20. Effects of oxaliplatin on DNA condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU HaiPeng; ZHANG HongYan; LI Wei; WANG PengYe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the interactions between DNA and anti-cancer drug oxaliplatin were investigated by using magnetic tweezers.The dynamics of DNA condensation due to oxaliplatin was traced under various forces.It is found that torsion constraint in DNA enhances the ability of oxaliplatin for shortening DNA.The transplatin helps oxaliplatin combine to DNA and increase the rate of DNA condensation.All these results are consistent to the previously proposed model and are helpful for further investigation of interaction between DNA and oxaliplatin.

  1. Geometric approach to condensates in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hirn, J; Sanz, V; Hirn, Johannes; Rius, Nuria; Sanz, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    An SU(Nf)xSU(Nf) Yang-Mills theory on an extra-dimensional interval is considered, with appropriate symmetry-breaking boundary conditions on the IR brane. UV-brane to UV-brane correlators at high energies are compared with the OPE of two-point functions of QCD quark currents. Condensates correspond to departure from AdS of the (different) metrics felt by vector and axial combinations, away from the UV brane. Their effect on hadronic observables is studied: the extracted condensates agree with the signs and orders of magnitude expected from QCD.

  2. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, David

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

  3. Composition of gases vented from a condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R.N.

    1980-08-01

    Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

  4. Chiral Lagrangians and quark condensate in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, J.; Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.

    1996-03-01

    The evolution of density of quark condensate in nuclear medium with interacting nucleons, including the short range correlations is examined. Two chiral models are used, the linear sigma model and the non-linear one. It is shown that the quark condensate, as other observables, is independent on the variant selected. The application to physical pions excludes the linear sigma model as a credible one. The non-linear models restricted to pure s-wave pion-nucleon scattering are examined. (author). 28 refs.; Submitted to nuclear Physics, A (NL).

  5. Influence of condensation temperature on selected exhaled breath parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manini Paola

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of changes in cooling temperature on biomarker levels in exhaled breath condensate have been little investigated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of condensation temperature on the parameters of exhaled breath condensate and the levels of selected biomarkers. Methods Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 24 healthy subjects at temperatures of -10, -5, 0 and +5 C degrees. Selected parameters (condensed volume and conductivity and biomarkers (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde were measured. Results There was a progressive increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations, and condensate conductivity as the cooling temperature increased; total condensate volume increased as the cooling temperature decreased. Conclusion The cooling temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection influenced selected biomarkers and potential normalizing factors (particularly conductivity in different ways ex vivo. The temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection should be controlled and reported.

  6. Investigation of Interfacial Phenomena During Condensation of Humid Air on a Horizontal Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Akhilesh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The condensation phenomenon of humid air on solid substrates can occur in many applications, and it is known as one of the most difficult problem to deal with for the improvement of the quality of air in a closed environment. The present study was motivated by the investigation of the coupling between ventilation and condensation inside controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS, as it has an important role for higher plants growth in greenhouses and living conditions in manned spacecraft cabins, particularly in long duration space flights or in future space bases. It is well known that the enhancement of the gas exchange with leaves and the growth of plants are dependent on the organoleptic and/or the surrounding thermo-physical factors. Insufficient air movement around plants and condensation on plant leaves generally limit their growth by suppressing the gas diffusion in the leaf boundary-layer thereby decreasing photosynthetic and transpiration rates. Thus, the optimization of a CELSS will require the control of the airflow and concomitant gas/liquid transfer at the plant surfaces. The experimental and theoretical modeling of CELSS requires a comprehensive understanding of the micro to the macro levels of liquid gas phase transfer. Hence, an experimental set-up was developed at 1-g to evaluate the mass transfer coefficients due to condensation of humid air on specific geometries in well controlled environmental conditions. The goal was to establish correlations between the fluxes of mass and heat, the relative humidity and the mean flow for the development of theoretical models based on local transfer coefficients. The experiments were performed at ambient temperature, with a relative humidity between 35-70% and for a velocity range of 1.0-3.0 m.s−1.

  7. Sn, a maize bHLH gene, modulates anthocyanin and condensed tannin pathways in Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mark Paske; Paolocci, Francesco; Hughes, John-Wayne; Turchetti, Valentina; Allison, Gordon; Arcioni, Sergio; Morris, Phillip; Damiani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins and condensed tannins are major flavonoid end-products in higher plants. While the transactivation of anthocyanins by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors is well documented, very little is known about the transregulation of the pathway to condensed tannins. The present study analyses the effect of over-expressing an Sn transgene in Lotus corniculatus, a model legume, with the aim of studying the regulation of anthocyanin and tannin end-products. Contrary to expectation, effects on anthocyanin accumulation were subtle and restricted to the leaf midrib, leaf base and petiole tissues. However, the accumulation of condensed tannin polymers was dramatically enhanced in the leaf blade and this increase was accompanied by a 50-fold increase in the number of tannin-containing cells in this tissue. A detailed analysis of selected lines indicated that this transactivational phenotype correlated with high steady-state transcript levels of the introduced transgene and the introduction of a single copy of the CaMV35S-Sn construct into these clonal genotypes. While the levels of condensed tannins in leaves were increased by up to 1% of the dry weight, other major secondary end-products (flavonols, lignins and inducible phytoalexins) were unaltered in transactivated lines. These results give an initial insight into the developmental and higher-order regulation of polyphenolic metabolism in Lotus and other higher plant species.

  8. Dynamic modeling of low thermal gradient evaporators and condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, M.

    1980-12-01

    The transient behavior of different types of heat exchangers proposed for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is discussed. Models are developed for both shell-tube condensers and evaporators and for two phase flow systems. Two numerical techniques for the simulation of distributed parameter systems which arise in heat exchanger modeling are investigated: classic finite difference methods and the more recent delay dissipation (sometimes called sine photography) approach. Frequency response analysis is used to compare the two simulation methods. The resultant heat exchanger models give the dynamic response of ammonia pressure (output of the model) to changes in ammonia vapor flow rate (input). An OTEC power cycle is molded so that different heat exchangers may be plugged in and their transient behavior analyzed. The dynamic stability of the OTEC power plant for all heat exchangers analyzed in this work (falling film, pool boiling and two phase flow system) is confirmed.

  9. Condensation heat transfer on two-tier superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Vandadi, Aref; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2012-09-01

    We investigated water vapor condensation on a two-tier superhydrophobic surface in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and in a customer-designed vapor chamber. We have observed continuous dropwise condensation (DWC) on the textured surface in ESEM. However, a film layer of condensate was formed on the multiscale texture in the vapor chamber. Due to the filmwise condensation, the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface is lower than that of a flat hydrophobic surface especially under high heat flux situations. Our studies indicate that adaptive and prompt condensate droplet purging is the dominant factor for sustaining long-term DWC.

  10. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    2001-01-01

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into sepa

  11. Neutrino emissivity under neutral kaon condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, S

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino emissivity from neutron star matter with neutral kaon condensate is considered. It is shown that a new cooling channel is opened, and what is more, all previously known channels acquire the greater emissivity reaching the level of the direct URCA cycle in normal matter.

  12. Initial stages of Bose-Einstein condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    1997-01-01

    We present the quantum theory for the nucleation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic Bose gas. This quantum theory has the important advantage that both the kinetic and coherent stages of the nucleation process can be described in a unified way by a single Fokker-Planck equation.

  13. Initial stages of Bose-Einstein condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    We present the quantum theory for the nucleation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic Bose gas. This quantum theory confirms the results of the semiclassical treatment, but has the important advantage that both the kinetic and coherent stages of the nucleation process can now be describe

  14. Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  15. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  16. Spermine Condenses DNA, but Not RNA Duplexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Andrea M.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Pollack, Lois

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between the polyamine spermine and nucleic acids drive important cellular processes. Spermine condenses DNA, and some RNAs such as poly(rA):poly(rU). A large fraction of the spermine present in cells is bound to RNA, but apparently does not condense it. Here, we study the effect of spermine binding to short duplex RNA and DNA and compare our findings with predictions of molecular dynamics simulations. When small numbers of spermine are introduced, RNA with a designed sequence, containing a mixture of 14 GC pairs and 11 AU pairs, resists condensation relative to DNA of an equivalent sequence or to 25 base pair poly(rA):poly(rU) RNA. Comparison of wide-angle x-ray scattering profiles with simulation suggests that spermine is sequestered deep within the major groove of mixed sequence RNA, preventing condensation by limiting opportunities to bridge to other molecules as well as stabilizing the RNA by locking it into a particular conformation. In contrast, for DNA, simulations suggest that spermine binds external to the duplex, offering opportunities for intermolecular interaction. The goal of this study is to explain how RNA can remain soluble, and available for interaction with other molecules in the cell, despite the presence of spermine at concentrations high enough to precipitate DNA.

  17. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capi....... The theory can be applied to the description of flocculations in two-dimensional systems of colloids....

  18. Tachyon Condensation in Rotated Brane Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S P

    1999-01-01

    The decay of rotated brane configurations and the corresponding condensation of tachyons is discussed. In a certain IIB orbifold case a heuristic argument about the mass of the state living on the fixed plane is made. When the rotation angle is $\\pi$ this mass agrees with that obtained by Sen.

  19. ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ, M.

    2005-07-25

    With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.

  20. PECVD silicon nitride diaphragms for condenser microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeper, P.R.; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, P.

    1991-01-01

    The application of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride as a diaphragm material for condenser microphones has been investigated. By means of adjusting the SiH4/NH3 gas-flow composition, silicon-rich silicon nitride films have been obtained with a relatively low tensile s

  1. Chaos in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Xia; Ni Zheng-Guo; Cong Fu-Zhong; Liu Xue-Shen; Chen Lei

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Smale-horseshoe chaos exists in the time evolution of the one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate driven by time-periodic harmonic or inverted-harmonic potential.A formally exact solution of the timedependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation is constructed,which describes the matter shock waves with chaotic or periodic amplitudes and phases.

  2. Polariton condensation in a disordered potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón, C.; Tosi, G.; Lingg, C. A.;

    2011-01-01

    We study polariton condensation under OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) out-of-equilibrium conditions [1] in the presence of linear and point defects. Because of the simultaneous presence of pump, signal and idler emitting at different wave vectors, as well as of photonic disorder, the system i...

  3. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation of plexcitons

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, S R K; Rivas, J Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Bosons (particles with integer spin) above a critical density to temperature ratio may macroscopically populate the ground state of a system, in an effect known as Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC). The observation of BEC in dilute atomic gases was a great triumph of modern physics, a task requiring nK cooling of atoms. Following these demonstrations, a quest for lighter bosons enabling BEC at higher temperatures came to light. Photons in a microcavity were destined to fulfil this quest. Their coupling to semiconductor excitons allowed the condensation of exciton-polaritons at a few K in solid-state, and the condensation of photons was later observed in a liquid-state dye at room-temperature. Distinctly, one of the most actively studied excitations in condensed matter, surface plasmon polaritons - collective oscillations of conduction electrons in metals -, has never been shown or predicted to exhibit BEC. The strong radiative and Ohmic losses in metals, together with the lack of a suitable (e.g. harmonic) pot...

  5. Pollen grains are efficient cloud condensation nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, F D, E-mail: fdp21@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    This letter presents a laboratory study investigating the ability of pollen grains to act as cloud condensation nuclei. The hygroscopicity of pollen is measured under subsaturated relative humidities using an electrodynamic balance. It is found, along with other results, that pollen exhibits bulk uptake of water under subsaturated conditions. Through the use of an environmental scanning electron microscope it was observed that the surface of pollen is wettable at high subsaturated humidities. The hygroscopic response of the pollen to subsaturated relative humidities is parametrized using {kappa}-Koehler theory and values of the parameter {kappa} for pollen are between 0.05 and 0.1. It is found that while pollen grains are only moderately hygroscopic, they can activate at critical supersaturations of 0.001% and lower, and thus pollen grains will readily act as cloud condensation nuclei. While the number density of pollen grains is too low for them to represent a significant global source of cloud condensation nuclei, the large sizes of pollen grains suggest that they will be an important source of giant cloud condensation nuclei. Low temperature work using the environmental scanning electron microscope indicated that pollen grains do not act as deposition ice nuclei at temperatures warmer than - 15 deg. C.

  6. On condensation of topological defects and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2004-01-01

    We study the static quantum potential for a theory of anti-symmetric tensor fields that results from the condensation of topological defects, within the framework of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism. Our calculations show that the interaction energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potentials, leading to the confinement of static probe charges.

  7. rotor of the SC rotating condenser

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The rotor of the rotating condenser was installed instead of the tuning fork as the modulating element of the radiofrequency system, when the SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements between 1973 to 1975 (see object AC-025). The SC was the first accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990.

  8. Condensation enhancement by means of electrohydrodynamic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrymowicz Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Short state-of-the-art on the enhancement of condensation heat transfer techniques by means of condensate drainage is presented in this paper. The electrohydrodynamic (EHD technique is suitable for dielectric media used in refrigeration, organic Rankine cycles and heat pump devices. The electric field is commonly generated in the case of horizontal tubes by means of a rod-type electrode or mesh electrodes. Authors proposed two geometries in the presented own experimental investigations. The first one was an electrode placed just beneath the tube bottom and the second one consisted of a horizontal finned tube with a double electrode placed beneath the tube. The experimental investigations of these two configurations for condensation of refrigerant R-123 have been accomplished. The obtained results confirmed that the application of the EHD technique for the investigated tube and electrode arrangement caused significant increase in heat transfer coefficient. The condensation enhancement depends both on the geometry of the electrode system and on the applied voltage.

  9. Convection in Condensible-rich Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, F.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO2 is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.

  10. Dropwise condensation on a cold gradient substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Distributions of drops that arise from dropwise condensation evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence of drops. An understanding of how surface-energy gradients applied to the substrate affect drop growth and coalescence is needed for design of effective surfaces for large-scale dropwise condensation. Transient dropwise condensation from a vapor phase onto a cold and chemically treated surface is reported. The surfaces were treated to deliver either a uniform contact-angle or a gradient of contact-angles by silanization. The time evolution of drop-size and number-density distributions is reported. For a typical condensation experiment, the drop distributions advance through two stages: an increase in drop density as a result of nucleation and a decrease in drop density as a result of larger scale coalescence events. Because the experiment is transient in nature, the shape of the distribution can be used to predict the number of drop generations and their stage of development. Preliminary results for gradient surfaces will be discussed and compared against observations of behavior on uniformly coated surfaces. NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  11. Condensing Organic Aerosols in a Microphysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  12. Tachyon condensation and black hole entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish

    2002-03-04

    String propagation on a cone with deficit angle 2pi(1-1 / N) is considered for the purpose of computing the entropy of a large mass black hole. The entropy computed using the recent results on condensation of twisted-sector tachyons in this theory is found to be in precise agreement with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  13. Capillary condensation as a morphological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Konstantin G; Shingareva, Inna K; Neimark, Alexander V

    2002-02-25

    The process of capillary condensation/evaporation in cylindrical pores is considered within the idea of symmetry breaking. Capillary condensation/evaporation is treated as a morphological transition between the wetting film configurations of different symmetry. We considered two models: (i) the classical Laplace theory of capillarity and (ii) the Derjaguin model which takes into account the surface forces expressed in terms of the disjoining pressure. Following the idea of Everett and Haynes, the problem of condensation/evaporation is considered as a transition from bumps/undulations to lenses. Using the method of phase portraits, we discuss the mathematical mechanisms of this transition hidden in the Laplace and Derjaguin equations. Analyzing the energetic barriers of the bump and lens formation, it is shown that the bump formation is a prerogative of capillary condensation: for the vapor-liquid transition in a pore, the bump plays the same role as the spherical nucleus in a bulk fluid. We show also that the Derjaguin model admits a variety of interfacial configurations responsible for film patterning at specific conditions.

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum glasses

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The role of geometrical frustration in strongly interacting bosonic systems is studied with a combined numerical and analytical approach. We demonstrate the existence of a novel quantum phase featuring both Bose-Einstein condensation and spin-glass behaviour. The differences between such a phase and the otherwise insulating "Bose glasses" are elucidated.

  15. Condensate formation in a Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Using magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen as an example, we investigate the prospects of achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute Bose gas. We show that, if gas is quenched sufficiently far into the critical region of the phase transition, the typical time scale for the nucleation of the co

  16. Neutrino emissivity under neutral kaon condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kubis, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Neutrino emissivity from neutron star matter with neutral kaon condensate is considered. It is shown that a new cooling channel is opened, and what is more, all previously known channels acquire the greater emissivity reaching the level of the direct URCA cycle in normal matter.

  17. Interaction between ionic lattices and superconducting condensates

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the ionic lattice with the superconducting condensate is treated in terms of the electrostatic force in superconductors. It is shown that this force is similar but not identical to the force suggested by the volume difference of the normal and superconducting states. The BCS theory shows larger deviations than the two-fluid model.

  18. Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3776 Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (UCPC; pictured in Appendix A) is designed for researchers interested in airborne particles smaller than 20 nm. With sensitivity to particles down to 2.5 nm in diameter, this UCPC is ideally suited for atmospheric and climate research, particle formation and growth studies, combustion and engine exhaust research, and nanotechnology research.

  19. Condensation in Saturn's Stratospheric Haze Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Erika L.; Moses, Julianne I.

    2016-10-01

    Haze particles in Saturn's stratosphere can be seen in the visible limb images of Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS). These hazes are likely a mix of particles, including solid organics formed as a result of methane photolysis and electron deposition, as well as the condensation of water and hydrocarbon ices. We have examined data from both Cassini and Voyager to study the detailed vertical structure of absorbing/scattering particulates in Saturn's stratosphere and developed a Saturn version of the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA), adding a large database of hydrocarbons that are observed or expected to be present in Saturn's atmosphere.Our modeling indicates that water ice condenses independently of the hydrocarbons to form a thin layer above the 0.1 mbar pressure level. Between about 5 and 50 mbar, the hydrocarbons reach their condensation levels (in order of increasing pressure level): C6H6, C5H12, C4H2, C4H10, and C2H2. Because of the proximity of their condensation levels and due to the gravitational settling of the particles, the hydrocarbons are likely condensing on one another and forming a thicker layer of mixed composition. Interestingly, butane (C4H10) has a triple point around 135 K which is much lower than most of the other condensing species we've explored. Given an approximate condensation level of 10 mbar and the observed temperature changes at this pressure level following the December 2010 northern-hemisphere storm (stratospheric temperatures were elevated by as much as 50-70 K in a region near 40° N latitude.), melting and further nucleation of droplets could be occurring.A number of factors including temperature profile, vapor pressure equation, volatile abundance, nucleation critical saturation, and coagulation efficiency will affect the altitudes of the individual ice layers. We will present a summary of results following the nucleation and growth of compounds in order to quantify the likely size and

  20. Critical temperature and condensed fraction of Bose-Einstein condensation in optical lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Critical temperature and condensate fraction of Bose-Einstein condensation in the optical lattice are studied. The results show that the critical temperature in optical lattices can be characterized with an equivalent critical temperature in a single lattice, which provide a fast evaluation of critical temperature and condensate fraction of Bose-Einstein condensation confined with pure optical trap. Critical temperature can be estimated with an equivalent critical temperature. It is predicted that critical temperature is proportional to q in q number lattices for superfluid state and should be equal to that in a single lattic for Mott insulate state. Required potential depth or Rabi frequency and maximum atom number in the lattices both for superfluid state and Mott state are presented based on views of thermal mechanical statistics.

  1. The effect of condensate inundation on steam condensation heat transfer to wire-wrapped tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, G. D.

    1983-06-01

    Steam condensation heat transfer measurements were made in a 5-tube test condenser having an additional perforated tube to simulate up to 30 active tubes. Results were obtained for smooth tubes and roped tubes wrapped with wire. A Sieder-Tate equation was used to correlate the inside heat-transfer coefficient. For smooth tubes, a leading coefficient of 0.029 was found, while it was 0.061 for the roped tubes. The average condensing coefficient measured for 30 smooth tubes was 0.59 times the Nusselt coefficient calculated for the first tube. When the smooth tubes were wrapped with wire, this ratio increased up to 0.86. Further, roped tubes without wire experienced a ratio of 0.63, while roped tubes wrapped with wire resulted in a ratio of 0.86. These preliminary data show that wire-wrapped tubes may lead to a significant reduction in condenser surface area.

  2. 缩合单宁功能性研究探讨%Discussion on the Functions of Condensed Tannins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊宏; 郑向丽; 徐国忠

    2011-01-01

    缩合单宁作为一种植物次生代谢物,其含量的多少直接影响到牧草的营养品质和动物的适口性.本文从缩合单宁的结构人手,着重综述了缩合单宁的功能,探讨了其在生产应用中对动植物的影响,以期为牧草选育和畜牧业生产提供一些有益的参考.%Condensed tannins, as a kind of plant secondary metabolites, are associated with the nutrient quality of the forage and palatability. The functions of condensed tannins are reviewed, started the structure. The effects of condensed tannins application on animals and plants are discussed, so as to provide reference for pasture breeding and animal husbandry.

  3. Refrigeration. Heat Transfer. Part I: Evaporators and Condensers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard

    2002-01-01

    The note gives an introduction to heat transfer with phase shift. Pool Boiling, Flow Boiling, Condensation.......The note gives an introduction to heat transfer with phase shift. Pool Boiling, Flow Boiling, Condensation....

  4. Effect of CEFR Condenser Pressure on Thermal Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Tong-wei; ZHANG; Huan-qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) use two horizontal dual-flow condensers, circulating watersystem and vacuum system using fixed-speed pumps, therefore, thermal efficiency depends largely on thelevel of condenser pressure.

  5. Study of steam condensation in SG tubes with large amount of nitrogen to be accumulated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logvinov, S.A.; Sitnik, Y.K. [EDO Gidropress, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of nitrogen during SG heat transfer under SBLOCA conditions have been studied. Depressurization of the primary side leads to release of nitrogen dissolved in the hydroaccumulator water. Nitrogen can accumulate in SGs and affect adversely heat transfer under reflux condenser conditions. The main objective of the study has been to show that nitrogen does not prevent heat transfer in SGs of the VVER-640 which is reactor plant of new generation. (orig.).

  6. Condensation: Passenger Not Driver in Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Denur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The second law of thermodynamics states that processes yielding work or at least capable of yielding work are thermodynamically spontaneous, and that those costing work are thermodynamically nonspontaneous. Whether a process yields or costs heat is irrelevant. Condensation of water vapor yields work and hence is thermodynamically spontaneous only in a supersaturated atmosphere; in an unsaturated atmosphere it costs work and hence is thermodynamically nonspontaneous. Far more of Earth’s atmosphere is unsaturated than supersaturated; based on this alone evaporation is far more often work-yielding and hence thermodynamically spontaneous than condensation in Earth’s atmosphere—despite condensation always yielding heat and evaporation always costing heat. Furthermore, establishment of the unstable or at best metastable condition of supersaturation, and its maintenance in the face of condensation that would wipe it out, is always work-costing and hence thermodynamically nonspontaneous in Earth’s atmosphere or anywhere else. The work required to enable supersaturation is most usually provided at the expense of temperature differences that enable cooling to below the dew point. In the case of most interest to us, convective weather systems and storms, it is provided at the expense of vertical temperature gradients exceeding the moist adiabatic. Thus, ultimately, condensation is a work-costing and hence thermodynamically nonspontaneous process even in supersaturated regions of Earth’s or any other atmosphere. While heat engines in general can in principle extract all of the work represented by any temperature difference until it is totally neutralized to isothermality, convective weather systems and storms in particular cannot. They can extract only the work represented by partial neutralization of super-moist-adiabatic lapse rates to moist-adiabaticity. Super-moist-adiabatic lapse rates are required to enable convection of saturated air

  7. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Hayata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.

  8. Mechanocaloric and Thermomechanical Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, G. C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Muniz, S. R.; Spehler, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid He-4, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fl...

  9. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayata, Tomoya, E-mail: hayata@riken.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Arata [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-05-11

    We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.

  10. Transient behavior of a radiative distiller/condenser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, O.M.; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Irbid (Jordan)

    2002-04-01

    In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the thermal performance of a radiative distiller under transient conditions. The parameters which cause the dynamic variation in the condenser performance are the finite thermal capacity of the radiative condenser panel, effective sky-temperature, ambient temperature, humidity ratio and the condensers overall heat transfer coefficient. The presented model is solved numerically and the effects of the design and operating conditions on the condensers performance are investigated. (Author)

  11. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened condensed milk. (a) Description. Sweetened condensed milk is the food obtained by partial removal...

  12. Observation of water condensate on hydrophobic micro textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Wook; Do, Sang Cheol; Ko, Jong Soo; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2013-07-01

    We visually observed that a dropwise condensation occurred initially and later changed into a filmwise condensation on hydrophobic textured surface at atmosphere pressure condition. It was observed that the condensate nucleated on the pillar side walls of the micro structure and the bottom wall adhered to the walls and would not be lifted to form a spherical water droplet using environmental scanning electron microscope.

  13. Electric field enhanced dropwise condensation on hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratian, Davood; Hoek, Harmen; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder; Physics of Complex Fluids Team

    2016-11-01

    Dropwise condensation occurs when vapor condenses on a low surface energy surface, and the substrate is just partially wetted by the condensate. Dropwise condensation has attracted significant attention due to its reported superior heat transfer performance compared to filmwise condensation. Extensive research efforts are focused on how to promote, and enhance dropwise condensation by considering both physical and chemical factors. We have studied electrowetting-actuated condensation on hydrophobic surfaces, aiming for enhancement of heat transfer in dropwise condensation. The idea is to use suitably structured patterns of micro-electrodes that generate a heterogeneous electric field at the interface and thereby promote both the condensation itself and the shedding of condensed drops. Comforting the shedding of droplets on electrowetting-functionalized surfaces allows more condensing surface area for re-nucleation of small droplets, leading to higher condensation rates. Possible applications of this innovative concept include heat pipes for (micro) coolers in electronics as well as in more efficient heat exchangers. We acknowledge financial support by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), within the VICI program.

  14. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. Collapsing dynamics of attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The self-similar collapse of 3D and quasi-2D atom condensates with negative scattering length is examined. 3D condensates are shown to blow up following the scenario of weak collapse, for which 3-body recombination weakly dissipates the atoms. In contrast, 2D condensates undergo a strong collapse...

  16. Phase diffusion in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, A. W.; Van Der Wurff, E. C I; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T C

    2014-01-01

    We study phase diffusion in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light in a dye-filled optical microcavity, i.e., the spreading of the probability distribution for the condensate phase. To observe this phenomenon, we propose an interference experiment between the condensed photons and an external laser. We

  17. Simulation of inviscid compressible multi-phase flow with condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Condensation of vapours in rapid expansions of compressible gases is investigated. In the case of high temperature gradients the condensation will start at conditions well away from thermodynamic equilibrium of the fluid. In those cases homogeneous condensation is dominant over heterogeneous

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of horizontal tube bundle for passive condensation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong Jae

    The research in this thesis supports the design of a horizontal tube bundle condenser for passive heat removal system in nuclear reactors. From nuclear power plant containment, condensation of steam from a steam/noncondensable gas occurs on the primary side and boiling occurs on the secondary side; thus, heat exchanger modeling is a challenge. For the purpose of this experimental study, a six-tube bundle is used, where the outer diameter, inner diameter, and length of each stainless steel tube measures 38.10mm (1.5 inches), 31.75mm (1.25 inches) and 3.96m (156 inches), respectively. The pitch to diameter ratio was determined based on information gathered from literature surveys, and the dimensions were determined from calculations and experimental data. The objective of the calculations, correlations, and experimental data was to obtain complete condensation within the tube bundle. Experimental conditions for the tests in this thesis work were determined from Design Basis Accident (DBA). The applications are for an actual Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS) condenser under postulated accident conditions in future light water reactors. In this research, steady state and transient experiments were performed to investigate the effect of noncondensable gas on steam condensation inside and boiling outside a tube bundle heat exchanger. The condenser tube inlet steam mass flow rate varied from 18.0 to 48.0 g/s, the inlet pressure varied from 100 kPa to 400 kPa, and the inlet noncondensable gas mass fraction varied from 1% to 10%. The effect of the noncondensable gas was examined by comparing the tube centerline temperatures for various inlet and system conditions. As a result, it was determined that the noncondensable gas accumulated near the condensate film causing a decrease of mass and energy transfer. In addition, the effect of the inlet steam flow rate gas was investigated by comparing the tube centerline temperatures, the conclusion being that, as the inlet

  19. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT deter...

  20. THE ACTION OF OIL, GAS CONDENSATE, DRILLING CUTTINGS AND DRILLING MUD ON THE BIOTA OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted experimental studies on the effect of crude oil, gas condensate, drilling muds and cuttings on the zooplankton, on the plant pigments of phytoplankton, on the saprophytic microflora, as well as on representatives of ichthyofauna of the Caspian sea.

  1. Technology feasibility analysis of addition of 6MW pure condensing turbine to play existing capacity of thermal power plant%发挥自备热电厂现有设备出力 增设6MW纯凝机组的技术可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤永平

    2012-01-01

    从锅炉的出力、汽轮机的耗汽量、外供汽量,循环水量的配置上论述了增加6 MW纯凝机组的技术可行性。%To contribute to the article from the boiler, steam turbine steam consumption and external supply of steam, circular discusses the allocation of water to increase the feasibility of 6MW of pure condensate unit.

  2. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of Procyanidin- and Prodelphinidin-based condensed tannins in lotus species by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used for quantifying extractable and insoluble condensed tannins (CT, syn. proanthocyanidins) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants, but the method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant material. To imp...

  3. Electrostrong Nuclear Disintegration in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, J; Widom, A

    2013-01-01

    Photo- and electro-disintegration techniques have been traditionally used for studying giant dipole resonances and through them nuclear structure. Over a long period, detailed theoretical models for the giant dipole resonances were proposed and low energy electron accelerators were constructed to perform experiments to test their veracity. More recently, through laser and "smart" material devices, electrons have been accelerated in condensed matter systems up to several tens of MeV. We discuss here the possibility of inducing electro-disintegration of nuclei through such devices. It involves a synthesis of electromagnetic and strong forces in condensed matter via giant dipole resonances to give an effective "electro-strong interaction" - a large coupling of electromagnetic and strong interactions in the tens of MeV range.

  4. Solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylutki, M.; Donadello, S.; Serafini, S.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Dalfovo, F.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.

    2015-04-01

    We analyse, theoretically and experimentally, the nature of solitonic vortices (SV) in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. In the experiment, such defects are created via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, when the temperature of a gas of sodium atoms is quenched across the BEC transition, and are imaged after a free expansion of the condensate. By using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we calculate the in-trap density and phase distributions characterizing a SV in the crossover from an elongated quasi-1D to a bulk 3D regime. The simulations show that the free expansion strongly amplifies the key features of a SV and produces a remarkable twist of the solitonic plane due to the quantized vorticity associated with the defect. Good agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  5. Statistical steady state in turbulent droplet condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Siewert, Christoph; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the early stages of clouds and other systems in which droplets grow and shrink in a turbulence-driven supersaturation field, we investigate the problem of turbulent condensation using direct numerical simulations. The turbulent fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. Based on that, we propose a Lagrangian stochastic model for condensation and evaporation of small droplets in turbulent flows. It consists of a set of stochastic integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along the droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is t...

  6. Hydrogen behavior in ice condenser containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, P.; Hongisto, O. [Power Plant Lab., Helsinki (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A new hydrogen management strategy is being developed for the Loviisa ice condenser containment. The strategy relies on containment-wide natural circulations that develop, once the ice condenser doors are forced open, to effectively produce a well-mixed behavior, and a correspondingly slow rise in hydrogen concentration. Levels can then be kept low by a distributed catalytic recombiner system, and (perhaps) an igniter system as a backup, while the associated energy releases can be effectively dissipated in the ice bed. Verification and fine-tuning of the approach is carried out experimentally in the VICTORIA facility and by associated scaling/modelling studies. VICTORIA represents an 1/15th scale model of the Loviisa containment, hydrogen is simulated by helium, and local concentration measurements are obtained by a newly developed instrument specifically for this purpose, called SPARTA. This paper is focused on experimental results from several key experiments that provide a first delineation of key behaviors.

  7. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  8. Confinement versus Bose-Einstein condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Langfeld, K

    2004-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition at high baryon densities and low temperatures evades a direct investigation by means of lattice gauge calculations. In order to make this regime of QCD accessible by computer simulations, two proposal are made: (i) A Lattice Effective Theory (LET) is designed which incorporates gluon and diquark fields. The deconfinement transition takes place when the diquark fields undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. (ii) Rather than using eigenstates of the particle number operator, I propose to perform simulations for a fixed expectation value of the baryonic Noether current. This approach changes the view onto the finite density regime, but evades the sign and overlap problems. The latter proposal is exemplified for the LET: Although the transition from the confinement to the condensate phase is first order in the coupling constant space at zero baryon densities, the transition at finite densities appears to be a crossover.

  9. Astrophysical Bose-Einstein Condensates and Superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate gravitational analogue models to describe slowly rotating objects (e.g., dark-matter halos, or boson stars) in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates, trapped in their own gravitational potentials. We begin with a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that the resulting background equations of motion are stable, as long as the rotational component is treated as a small perturbation. The dynamics of the fluctuations of the velocity potential are effectively governed by the Klein-Gordon equation of a "Eulerian metric", where we derive the latter by the use of a relativistic Lagrangian extrapolation. Superradiant scattering on such objects is studied. We derive conditions for its occurence and estimate its strength. Our investigations might give an observational handle to phenomenologically constrain Bose-Einstein condensates.

  10. Astrophysical Bose-Einstein condensates and superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Florian; Rampf, Cornelius

    2014-11-01

    We investigate gravitational analogue models to describe slowly rotating objects (e.g., dark-matter halos, or boson stars) in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates, trapped in their own gravitational potentials. We begin with a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that the resulting background equations of motion are stable, as long as the rotational component is treated as a small perturbation. The dynamics of the fluctuations of the velocity potential are effectively governed by the Klein-Gordon equation of an "Eulerian metric," where we derive the latter by the use of a relativistic Lagrangian extrapolation. Superradiant scattering on such objects is studied. We derive conditions for its occurrence and estimate its strength. Our investigations might give an observational handle to phenomenologically constrain Bose-Einstein condensates.

  11. Quantum Effects of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong; SUN Jin-Zuo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,we study quadrature squeezings of two Bose-Einstein condensates with collision and nonclassical properties of pair entanglement in four wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensates.With the aid of a numerical method,we find that the two modes(pair entanglement modes)a1 and a2 may exhibit quadrature squeezing,in which they are affected by the initial phase.It is shown that the two pump modes exhibit the same super-Poissonian distribution.The analysis for the mode-mode correlation shows that there always exists a violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality,which means that correlation between the two pump modes is nonclassical.

  12. Condensing Heat Exchanger with Hydrophilic Antimicrobial Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-layer antimicrobial hydrophilic coating is applied to a substrate of anodized aluminum, although other materials may form the substrate. A silver layer is sputtered onto a thoroughly clean anodized surface of the aluminum to about 400 nm thickness. A layer of crosslinked, silicon-based macromolecular structure about 10 nm thickness overlies the silver layer, and the outermost surface of the layer of crosslinked, silicon-based macromolecular structure is hydroxide terminated to produce a hydrophilic surface with a water drop contact angle of less than 10.degree.. The coated substrate may be one of multiple fins in a condensing heat exchanger for use in the microgravity of space, which has narrow channels defined between angled fins such that the surface tension of condensed water moves water by capillary flow to a central location where it is pumped to storage. The antimicrobial coating prevents obstruction of the capillary passages.

  13. Tunneling of trapped-atom Bose condensates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subodh R Shenoy

    2002-02-01

    We obtain the dynamics in number and phase difference, for Bose condensates that tunnel between two wells of a double-well atomic trap, using the (nonlinear) Gross–Pitaevskii equation. The dynamical equations are of the canonical form for the two conjugate variables, and the Hamiltonian corresponds to that of a momentum-shortened pendulum, supporting a richer set of tunneling oscillation modes than for a superconductor Josephson junction, that has a fixed-length pendulum as a mechanical model. Novel modes include ‘inverted pendulum’ oscillations with an average angle of ; and oscillations about a self-maintained population imbalance that we term ‘macroscopic quantum self-trapping’. Other systems with this phase-number nonlinear dynamics include two-component (interconverting) condensates in a single harmonic trap, and He3B superfluids in two containers connected by micropores.

  14. Essence of the Vacuum Quark Condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; Roberts, Craig D.; /Argonne, PHY /Peking U.; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook; Tandy, Peter C.; /Kent State U.

    2010-08-25

    We show that the chiral-limit vacuum quark condensate is qualitatively equivalent to the pseudoscalar meson leptonic decay constant in the sense that they are both obtained as the chiral-limit value of well-defined gauge-invariant hadron-to-vacuum transition amplitudes that possess a spectral representation in terms of the current-quark mass. Thus, whereas it might sometimes be convenient to imagine otherwise, neither is essentially a constant mass-scale that fills all spacetime. This means, in particular, that the quark condensate can be understood as a property of hadrons themselves, which is expressed, for example, in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wavefunctions.

  15. Bouncing cosmologies from quantum gravity condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2017-02-01

    We show how the large-scale cosmological dynamics can be obtained from the hydrodynamics of isotropic group field theory condensate states in the Gross–Pitaevskii approximation. The correct Friedmann equations are recovered in the classical limit for some choices of the parameters in the action for the group field theory, and quantum gravity corrections arise in the high-curvature regime causing a bounce which generically resolves the big-bang and big-crunch singularities.

  16. A Simple Analytic Solution for Tachyon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a new and simple analytic solution for tachyon condensation in open bosonic string field theory. Unlike the B_0 gauge solution, which requires a carefully regulated discrete sum of wedge states subtracted against a mysterious "phantom" counter term, this new solution involves a continuous integral of wedge states, and no regularization or phantom term is necessary. Moreover, we can evaluate the action and prove Sen's conjecture in a mere few lines of calculation.

  17. Condensed Extended Hyper-Wiener Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Hua; Abraham F. Jalbout; JI Zhi

    2008-01-01

    According to the definitions of molecular connectivity and hyper-Wiener index, a novel set of hyper-Wiener indexes (Dn, mDn) were defined and named as condensed extended hyper-Wiener index, the potential usefulness of which in QSAR/QSPR is evaluated by its correlation with a number of C3-C8 alkanes as well as by a favorable comparison with models based on molecular connectivity index and overall Wiener index.

  18. Thermal condensation mode in a dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Pandey; J Vranješ; S Parhi

    2003-03-01

    In the present work, the radiative condensation instability is investigated in the presence of dust charge fluctuations. We find that the charge variability of the grain reduces the growth rate of radiative mode only for fluctuation wavelength smaller or of the order of the Debye length and this reduction is not very large. Far from the Debye sphere, radiative mode can damp due to thermal conduction of electrons and ions.

  19. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  20. Exact Mappings in Condensed Matter Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ching Hua

    2016-01-01

    Condensed matter systems are complex yet simple. Amidst their complexity, one often find order specified by not more than a few parameters. Key to such a reductionistic description is an appropriate choice of basis, two of which I shall describe in this thesis. The first, an exact mapping known as the Wannier State Representation (WSR), provides an exact Hilbert space correspondence between two intensely-studied topological systems, the Fractional Quantum Hall (FQH) and Fractional Chern Insul...

  1. TAPS condensers - 12 years of operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, V.S. (Tarapur Atomic Power Station (India))

    This paper describes briefly the 12 years of operating experience of TAPS condensers, which have aluminium brass tubes and use sea water from Arabian sea for cooling. The abnormal tube failure rates led to a thorough investigation of the causes. The remedial measures adopted to arrest and bring down the failure rate are elaborated. In addition to improved preventive maintenance practices, additional measures like ferrous ion addition, partial zonal retubing are also brought out.

  2. Capillary condensation for fluids in spherical cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    The capillary condensation for fluids into spherical nano-cavities is analyzed within the frame of two theoretical approaches. One description is based on a widely used simplified version of the droplet model formulated for studying atomic nuclei. The other, is a more elaborated calculation performed by applying a density functional theory. The agreement between both models is examined and it is shown that a small correction to the simple fluid model improves the predictions. A connection to ...

  3. No reactive motion arising from condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio D; Bunyard, Peter; Li, Bai-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Bannon (2002, J. Atmos. Sci. 59: 1967-1982) developed expressions governing the motion of moist air on the basis that when droplets condense and begin to fall the remaining gas moves upwards so as to conserve momentum. Here we show that such a reactive motion is based on a misunderstanding of the conservation of momentum in the presence of a gravitational field and does not exist.

  4. Boson Condensation in an Einstein Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Altaie, M. B.; Malkawi, Ehab

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of massive spin-1 particles in an Einstein universe. The system is considered under relativistic conditions taking into consideration the possibility of particle-antiparticle pair production. An exact expression for the charge density is obtained, then certain approximations are employed in order to obtain the solutions in closed form. A discussion of the approximations employed in this and other work is given. The effects of finite-...

  5. Spin selective filtering of polariton condensate flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, T. [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Antón, C.; Martín, M. D. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Liew, T. C. H. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Hatzopoulos, Z. [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Viña, L. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Instituto de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Eldridge, P. S., E-mail: eldridge@udel.edu [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Savvidis, P. G., E-mail: psav@materials.uoc.gr [FORTH-IESL, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-06

    Spin-selective spatial filtering of propagating polariton condensates, using a controllable spin-dependent gating barrier, in a one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity ridge waveguide is reported. A nonresonant laser beam provides the source of propagating polaritons, while a second circularly polarized weak beam imprints a spin dependent potential barrier, which gates the polariton flow and generates polariton spin currents. A complete spin-based control over the blocked and transmitted polaritons is obtained by varying the gate polarization.

  6. A superheated Bose-condensed gas

    OpenAIRE

    Gaunt, Alexander L.; Fletcher, Richard J.; Robert P. Smith; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of various states of matter usually relies on the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. However, the transitions between different phases of matter can be strongly affected by non-equilibrium phenomena. Here we demonstrate and explain an example of non-equilibrium stalling of a continuous, second-order phase transition. We create a superheated atomic Bose gas, in which a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) persists above the equilibrium critical temperature, $T_c$, if its coup...

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of reflux condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Knut

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies the separation of gas mixtures in a reflux condenser. also called a dephlegmator. Reflux condensation is separation of a gas mixture, in reflux flow with condensing liquid, under continuous heat removal. A numerical model of a dephlegmator for binary mixtures was developed. The model may readily be extended to multi-component mixtures, as the solution method is based on a matrix solver. Separation of a binary mixture in a reflux condenser test rig is demonstrated. The test facility contains a single-tube test section that was designed and built as part of the project. Test mixtures of propane and n-butane were used, and a total of 15 experiments are reported. Limited degree of separation was achieved due to limited heat transfer area and narrow boiling point range of the test mixture. The numerical model reproduces the experimental data within reasonable accuracy. Deviation between calculated and measured properties is less than 6% of the measured temperature and less than 5% of the measured flow rate. The model is based on mechanistic models of physical processes and is not calibrated or tuned to fit the experimental data. The numerical model is applied to a number of separation processes. These case studies show that the required heat transfer area increases rapidly with increments in top product composition (light component). Flooding limits the amount of reflux liquid. The dephlegmator is suitable for separation of feed mixtures that are rich in light components. The gliding temperature in the dephlegmation process enables utilization of top product as refrigerant, with subsequent energy saving as a result. 61 refs., 50 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Bouncing cosmologies from quantum gravity condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Oriti, Daniele; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We show how the large-scale cosmological dynamics can be obtained from the hydrodynamics of isotropic group field theory condensate states in the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. The correct Friedmann equations are recovered in the semi-classical limit for some choices of the parameters in the action for the group field theory, and quantum gravity corrections arise in the high-curvature regime causing a bounce which generically resolves the big-bang and big-crunch singularities.

  9. Dilepton production from the Color Glass Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Gelis, François; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2002-01-01

    We consider dilepton production in high energy proton-nucleus (and very forward nucleus-nucleus) collisions. Treating the target nucleus as a Color Glass Condensate and describing the projectile proton (nucleus) as a collection of quarks and gluons as in the parton model, we calculate the differential cross section for dilepton production in quark-nucleus scattering and show that it is very sensitive to the saturation scale characterizing the target nucleus.

  10. Water condensation for submicronic particles abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzolino, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    Control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from industrial processes is important for protection of human health and the environment. A promising technique for submicron PM abatement is by condensing water vapor onto the particles, which enhances particle growth and improves the performance of traditional particle collection devices. This thesis analyzes the flue gases cleaning process by means of activation heterogeneous water nucleation mechanism on particles surface as a function of work...

  11. Modeling and Optimization of Superhydrophobic Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length. However, achieving optimal surface designs for such behavior requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While comprehensive models have been developed for flat hydrophob...

  12. Simulation of Containment Jet Flows Including Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    HEITSCH Matthias; Baraldi, Daniele; WILKENING Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The validation of a CFD code for light-water reactor containment applications requires among others the presence of steam in the different flow types like jets or buoyant plumes and leads to the need to simulate condensation phenomena. In this context the paper addresses the simulation of two ¿HYJET¿ experiments from the former Battelle Model Containment by the CFD code CFX. These experiments involve jet releases into the multicompartment geometry of the test facility accompani...

  13. Experimental analysis on the use of condensing boilers for centralized production of domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.; Caliari, R. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici)

    1988-11-01

    The monthly performance of pulse combustion condensing boilers has been studied. The boilers are utilized in a plant for the centralized production of domestic hot water. The heating capacity is 112 kW with a daily production of 15 cubic meter of hot waters at 60 degrees centigrade. The analysis has shown the very good seasonal performance of the boilers even without a suitable plant design. The great importance of the heat distribution system has been outlined in order to reach good overall performance.

  14. On the early and developed stages of surface condensation: competition mechanism between interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-10-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the early and developed stages of surface condensation. We find that the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistances depend on the properties of solid and fluid, which are time-independent, while the condensate bulk thermal resistance depends on the condensate thickness, which is time-dependent. There exists intrinsic competition between the interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances in timeline and the resultant total thermal resistance determines the condensation intensity for a given vapor-solid temperature difference. We reveal the competition mechanism that the interfacial thermal resistance dominates at the onset of condensation and holds afterwards while the condensate bulk thermal resistance gradually takes over with condensate thickness growing. The weaker the solid-liquid bonding, the later the takeover occurs. This competition mechanism suggests that only when the condensate bulk thermal resistance is reduced after it takes over the domination can the condensation be effectively intensified. We propose a unified theoretical model for the thermal resistance analysis by making dropwise condensation equivalent to filmwise condensation. We further find that near a critical point (contact angle being ca. 153°) the bulk thermal resistance has the least opportunity to take over the domination while away from it the probability increases.

  15. Ice condensation as a planet formation mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Ros, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    We show that condensation is an efficient particle growth mechanism, leading to growth beyond decimeter-sized pebbles close to an ice line in protoplanetary discs. As coagulation of dust particles is frustrated by bouncing and fragmentation, condensation could be a complementary, or even dominant, growth mode in the early stages of planet formation. Ice particles diffuse across the ice line and sublimate, and vapour diffusing back across the ice line recondenses onto already existing particles, causing them to grow. We develop a numerical model of the dynamical behaviour of ice particles close to the water ice line, approximately 3 AU from the host star. Particles move with the turbulent gas, modelled as a random walk. They also sediment towards the midplane and drift radially towards the central star. Condensation and sublimation are calculated using a Monte Carlo approach. Our results indicate that, with a turbulent alpha-value of 0.01, growth from millimeter to at least decimeter-sized pebbles is possible ...

  16. Majorana fermions in condensed-matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, A. J.

    2016-06-01

    It is an honor and a pleasure to have been invited to give a talk in this conference celebrating the memory of the late Professor Abdus Salam. To my regret, I did not know Professor Salam personally, but I am very aware of his work and of his impact on my area of specialization, condensed matter physics, both intellectually through his ideas on spontaneously broken symmetry and more practically through his foundation of the ICTP. Since I assume that most of this audience are not specialized in condensed-matter physics, I thought I would talk about one topic which to some extent bridges this field and the particle-physics interests of Salam, namely Majorana fermions (M.F.s). However, as we shall see, the parallels which are often drawn in the current literature may be a bit too simplistic. I will devote most of this talk to a stripped-down exposition of the current orthodoxy concerning M.F.s. in condensed-matter physics and their possible applications to topological quantum computing (TQC), and then at the end briefly indicate why I believe this orthodoxy may be seriously misleading.

  17. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  18. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, A; Patella, A; Pica, C

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lesson...

  19. Alpha-particle condensation in light hypernuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, Yasuro, E-mail: funaki@riken.jp [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, Taiichi [Laboratory of Physics, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama 236-8501 (Japan); Hiyama, Emiko; Ikeda, Kiyomi [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Gas-like α-cluster states are investigated in light Λ hypernuclei. The α condensate-type microscopic cluster model wave function is introduced to describe Λ hypernuclei. In particular, the analogous state to the famous Hoyle state, the second 0{sup +} state in {sup 12}C, is investigated in {sup 13}{sub Λ}C, with the use of the new type wave function. The Hoyle state is known to have a gas-like 3α cluster structure, where the 3α particles are condensed into an identical S orbit. The second 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 13}{sub Λ}C is shown to have the 3α+Λ structure. A strong shrinkage effect by adding the Λ particle is seen for the state, reducing the rms radius from 3.8 fm in the Hoyle state to 2.8 fm. In spite of the shrinkage effect, the α condensate fraction of about 60% still survives, though it is reduced by about 20% from the Hoyle state.

  20. Revisiting RG Flow for Kaon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Paeng, Won-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Kaon condensation in compact-star matter can be considered as a quantum critical phenomenon with the kaon mass tuned to zero by the baryon density plus the electron chemical potential that increases at the increase of the density. We approach this problem with a renormalization group flow at one loop of the system of anti-kaons considered as pseudo-Goldstone bosons coupled to nucleonic matter described as a Fermi liquid near its fixed point. While the Weinberg-Tomozawa term in chiral Lagrangians is of leading order in describing kaon-nucleon interactions in chiral perturbation theory, hence widely employed in the literature, it is irrelevant in the RG sense, therefore plays, if any, a less important role in the condensation process. The consequence is that the $\\Lambda (1405)$ resonance which is driven by the Weinberg-Tomozawa term is irrelevant for triggering kaon condensation. On the contrary, the $KN$ sigma term $\\Sigma_{KN}$, subleading in chiral counting, can play a more crucial role in renormalization g...

  1. Promotion of dropwise condensation of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone by polytetrafluoroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coating condensing surfaces with thin layer of nonpolar Teflon results in dropwise condensation of polar organic vapor. Greater heat transfer coefficients are produced increasing effectiveness of condensing system. Investigation shows that vapors with strong dipole moment tend to condense dropwise.

  2. 40 CFR 405.110 - Applicability; description of the condensed whey subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... condensed whey subcategory. 405.110 Section 405.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.110 Applicability; description of the condensed whey subcategory. The... whey and condensed acid whey....

  3. Observation of interference between two molecular Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohstall, C; Riedl, S; Sanchez Guajardo, E R; Sidorenkov, L A; Hecker Denschlag, J; Grimm, R, E-mail: christoph.kohstall@uibk.ac.at [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    We have observed the interference between two Bose-Einstein condensates of weakly bound Feshbach molecules of fermionic {sup 6}Li atoms. Two condensates are prepared in a double-well trap and, after release from this trap, overlap in expansion. We detect a clear interference pattern that unambiguously demonstrates the de Broglie wavelength of molecules. We verify that only the condensate fraction shows interference. With increasing interaction strength, the pattern vanishes because elastic collisions during overlap remove particles from the condensate wave function. For strong interaction, the condensates do not penetrate each other as they collide hydrodynamically.

  4. Competition between Bose-Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, B; Brewczyk, M; Gajda, M; Gorceix, O; Maréchal, E; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B

    2016-10-28

    We study the impact of spin-exchange collisions on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation by rapidly cooling a chromium multicomponent Bose gas. Despite relatively strong spin-dependent interactions, the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached before the spin degrees of freedom fully thermalize. The increase in density due to Bose-Einstein condensation then triggers spin dynamics, hampering the formation of condensates in spin-excited states. Small metastable spinor condensates are, nevertheless, produced, and they manifest in strong spin fluctuations.

  5. Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2011-05-01

    Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.

  6. Heat Transfer in Flue Gas with Vapor Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾力; 彭晓峰

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines the film model with Nusselt's condensation theory to analyze the effects of water vapor condensation on the heat transfer performance of flue gas flowing through a vertical tube. The analysis compares the condensation and convective heat transfer rates. For the concentration range investigated, the water vapor condensation transfers more energy than the flue gas convection, but the convective heat transfer can not be neglected. The heat transfer intensification due to the condensation increased as the water vapor fraction increased. The theoretical results compared well with experimental data.

  7. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  8. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  9. Droplet condensation on chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Amir; Moosavi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Nucleation and growth of condensing droplets on horizontal surfaces are investigated via a 2-D double distribution function thermal lattice Boltzmann method. First, condensation on completely uniform surface is investigated and different mechanisms which cause dropwise and filmwise condensation are studied. The results reveal the presence of cooled vapor layer instability in the condensation on completely smooth surfaces. In the second step, condensation on chemically heterogeneous surfaces is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniformity in the surface temperature is also studied. The results indicate that the vapor layer instability and the nucleation start from the heterogeneities. The effects of different numbers of heterogeneities, their distance, and hydrophobicity on the condensation are also inspected. It is shown that by increasing the hydrophobicity of the heterogeneities and considering an optimum space between the heterogeneities, maximum condensation performance can be achieved. Finally, condensation on wettability gradient surfaces is studied and the effects of the gradient form and contact angle of the core region on the condensation are studied. It is shown that hydrophobicity of the core region plays a key role in increasing the condensation performance. A heat transfer analysis and flow dynamics of dropwise condensation as a function of time is also presented and it is shown that the results are in good agreements with the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  10. Assessment of TRACE Condensation Model Against Reflux Condensation Tests with Noncondensable Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cheong, Ae Ju; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The TRACE is the latest in a series of advanced, best-estimated reactor systems code developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for analyzing transient and steady-state neutronic-thermal-hydraulic behavior in light water reactors. This special model is expected to replace the default model in a future code release after sufficient testing has been completed. This study assesses the special condensation model of TRACE 5.0-patch4 against the counter-current flow configuration. For this purpose, the predicted results of special model are compared to the experimental and to those of default model. The KAST reflux condensation test with NC gases are used in this assessment. We assessed the special model for film condensation of TRACE 5.0-patch4 against the data of the reflux condensation test in the presence of NC gases. The special condensation model of TRACE provides a reasonable estimate of HTC with good agreement at the low inlet steam flow rate.

  11. A Local Condensation Analysis Representing Two-phase Annular Flow in Condenser/radiator Capillary Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Amir

    1991-01-01

    NASA's effort for the thermal environmental control of the Space Station Freedom is directed towards the design, analysis, and development of an Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). A two phase, flow through condenser/radiator concept was baselined, as a part of the ATCS, for the radiation of space station thermal load into space. The proposed condenser rejects heat through direct condensation of ATCS working fluid (ammonia) in the small diameter radiator tubes. Analysis of the condensation process and design of condenser tubes are based on the available two phase flow models for the prediction of flow regimes, heat transfer, and pressure drops. The prediction formulas use the existing empirical relationships of friction factor at gas-liquid interface. An attempt is made to study the stability of interfacial waves in two phase annular flow. The formulation is presented of a stability problem in cylindrical coordinates. The contribution of fluid viscosity, surface tension, and transverse radius of curvature to the interfacial surface is included. A solution is obtained for Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problem which can be used to determine the critical and most dangerous wavelengths for interfacial waves.

  12. Methods of Thermal Calculations for a Condensing Waste-Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rączka Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the algorithms for a flue gas/water waste-heat exchanger with and without condensation of water vapour contained in flue gas with experimental validation of theoretical results. The algorithms were used for calculations of the area of a heat exchanger using waste heat from a pulverised brown coal fired steam boiler operating in a power unit with a capacity of 900 MWe. In calculation of the condensing part, the calculation results obtained with two algorithms were compared (Colburn-Hobler and VDI algorithms. The VDI algorithm allowed to take into account the condensation of water vapour for flue gas temperatures above the temperature of the water dew point. Thanks to this, it was possible to calculate more accurately the required heat transfer area, which resulted in its reduction by 19 %. In addition, the influence of the mass transfer on the heat transfer area was taken into account, which contributed to a further reduction in the calculated size of the heat exchanger - in total by 28% as compared with the Colburn-Hobler algorithm. The presented VDI algorithm was used to design a 312 kW pilot-scale condensing heat exchanger installed in PGE Belchatow power plant. Obtained experimental results are in a good agreement with calculated values.

  13. A Study of Drop-Microstructured Surface Interactions during Dropwise Condensation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junwei; Charmchi, Majid; Sun, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) on hydrophobic surfaces is attracting attention for its great potential in many industrial applications, such as steam power plants, water desalination, and de-icing of aerodynamic surfaces, to list a few. The direct dynamic characterization of liquid/solid interaction can significantly accelerate the progress toward a full understanding of the thermal and mass transport mechanisms during DWC processes. This work reports a novel Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based method that can quantitatively analyze the interaction between water droplets and micropillar surfaces during different condensation states such as filmwise, Wenzel, and partial Cassie states. A combined nanoimprinting lithography and chemical surface treatment approach was utilized to fabricate the micropillar based superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces on the QCM substrates. The normalized frequency shift of the QCM device together with the microscopic observation of the corresponding drop motion revealed the droplets growth and their coalescence processes and clearly demonstrated the differences between the three aforementioned condensation states. In addition, the transition between Cassie and Wenzel states was successfully captured by this method. The newly developed QCM system provides a valuable tool for the dynamic characterization of different condensation processes.

  14. Scalable graphene coatings for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel J; Mafra, Daniela L; Miljkovic, Nenad; Kong, Jing; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-05-13

    Water vapor condensation is commonly observed in nature and routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat with dropwise condensation on nonwetting surfaces exhibiting heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation on wetting surfaces. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings that either have challenges with chemical stability or are so thick that any potential heat transfer improvement is negated due to the added thermal resistance of the coating. In this work, we show the effectiveness of ultrathin scalable chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene coatings to promote dropwise condensation while offering robust chemical stability and maintaining low thermal resistance. Heat transfer enhancements of 4× were demonstrated compared to filmwise condensation, and the robustness of these CVD coatings was superior to typical hydrophobic monolayer coatings. Our results indicate that graphene is a promising surface coating to promote dropwise condensation of water in industrial conditions with the potential for scalable application via CVD.

  15. Quantification of chromatin condensation level by image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, Jerome; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2014-03-01

    The level of chromatin condensation is related to the silencing/activation of chromosomal territories and therefore impacts on gene expression. Chromatin condensation changes during cell cycle, progression and differentiation, and is influenced by various physicochemical and epigenetic factors. This study describes a validated experimental technique to quantify chromatin condensation. A novel image processing procedure is developed using Sobel edge detection to quantify the level of chromatin condensation from nuclei images taken by confocal microscopy. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB and used to quantify different levels of chromatin condensation in chondrocyte nuclei achieved through alteration in osmotic pressure. The resulting chromatin condensation parameter (CCP) is in good agreement with independent multi-observer qualitative visual assessment. This image processing technique thereby provides a validated unbiased parameter for rapid and highly reproducible quantification of the level of chromatin condensation.

  16. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with ...... extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes....

  17. Comparison of Heat Transfer Coefficients of Silver Coated and Chromium Coated Copper Tubes of Condenser in Dropwise Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Shivesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries steam is being used in power generating system. The steam leaving the power unit is reconverted into water in a condenser designed to transfer heat from the steam to the cooling water as rapidly and as efficiently as possible. The efficiency of condenser depends on rate of condensation and mode of condensation of steam in the condenser. The increase in efficiency of the condenser enhances the heat transfer co-efficient which in turn results in economic design of condenser and reduced pumping power for a desired output. Higher heat transfer coefficient in condensers is beneficial in the industrial applications e.g., Sugar industry, ships propulsion, nuclear power reactor, power generating system, production of Liquefied petroleum gases, liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen. In the present experimental study, comparison of heat transfer coefficients of silver coated and chromium coated copper tubes of condenser have been performed. it has been observed that inside heat transfer coefficient (hᵢ, outside heat transfer coefficient (h₀ and overall heat transfer coefficient (U associated with silver coated condenser made of copper is more than that of chromium coated condenser made of copper. It is also observed that all the three types of heat transfer coefficient increases with increase of steam pressure [1].

  18. The effect of condensate inundation on steam condensation heat transfer in a tube bundle

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Steven K.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Steam-condensation heat-transfer measurements were made using a 5-tube in-line test condenser with an additional perforated tube to simulate up to 30 active tubes. Results were obtained for smooth tubes, wire-wrapped tubes and dropwise-coated tubes. The average outside heat-transfer coefficient for 30 smooth tubes was 0.64 times the Nusselt coefficient for the first tube. A total of eight wirediameter and wire-pitc...

  19. Tachyon condensation due to domain-wall annihilation in Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Tsubota, Makoto; Nitta, Muneto

    2012-12-14

    We show theoretically that a domain-wall annihilation in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates causes tachyon condensation accompanied by spontaneous symmetry breaking in a two-dimensional subspace. Three-dimensional vortex formation from domain-wall annihilations is considered a kink formation in subspace. Numerical experiments reveal that the subspatial dynamics obey the dynamic scaling law of phase-ordering kinetics. This model is experimentally feasible and provides insights into how the extra dimensions influence subspatial phase transition in higher-dimensional space.

  20. A tale of two condensates: the odd "Bose - Einstein" condensation of atomic Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The recent report of the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic Hydrogen, characterized by an "anomalous" density spectrum, is shown to be in agreement with the prediction of the existence of two condensates for temperatures lower than a well defined temperature (which for Hydrogen is $ 105~ \\mu K $), based on the QED coherent interaction in a gas of ultracold atoms at a density $n > n_0 (n_0=(1/\\lambda)^3, \\lambda$ being the wave-length of the e.m. modes resonantly coupled to th...

  1. K-65-12.8 condensing steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.; Shekhter, M. V.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    A new condensing steam turbine K-65-12.8 is considered, which is the continuation of the development of the steam turbine family of 50-70 MW and the fresh steam pressure of 12.8 MPa, such as twocylinder T-50-12.8 and T-60/65-12.8 turbines. The turbine was developed using the modular design. The design and the main distinctive features of the turbine are described, such as a single two-housing cylinder with the steam flow loop; the extraction from the blading section for the regeneration, the inner needs, and heating; and the unification of some assemblies of serial turbines with shorter time of manufacture. The turbine uses the throttling steam distribution; steam from a boiler is supplied to a turbine through a separate valve block consisting of a central shut-off valve and two side control valves. The blading section of a turbine consists of 23 stages: the left flow contains ten stages installed in the inner housing and the right flow contains 13 stages with diaphragm placed in holders installed in the outer housing. The disks of the first 16 stages are forged together with a rotor, and the disks of the rest stages are mounted. Before the two last stages, the uncontrolled steam extraction is performed for the heating of a plant with the heat output of 38-75 GJ/h. Also, a turbine has five regenerative extraction points for feed water heating and the additional steam extraction to a collector for the inner needs with the consumption of up to 10 t/h. The feasibility parameters of a turbine plant are given. The main solutions for the heat flow diagram and the layout of a turbine plant are presented. The main principles and features of the microprocessor electro hydraulic control and protection system are formulated.

  2. Tunneling Dynamics Between Atomic and Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-Yong

    2004-01-01

    Tunneling dynamics of multi-atomic molecules between atomic and multi-atomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with Feshbach resonance is investigated.It is indicated that the tunneling in the two Bose-Einstein condensates depends on not only the inter-atomic-molecular nonlinear interactions and the initial number of atoms in these condensates,but also the tunneling coupling between the atomic condensate and the multi-atomic molecular condensate.It is discovered that besides oscillating tunneling current between the atomic condensate and the multi-atomic molecular condensate,the nonlinear multi-atomic molecular tunneling dynamics sustains a self-locked population imbalance:a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect.The influence of de-coherence caused by non-condensate atoms on the tunneling dynamics is studied.It is shown that de-coherence suppresses the multi-atomic molecular tunneling.Moreover,the conception of the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate,which is different from the conventional single-atomic Bose-Einstein condensate,is specially emphasized in this paper.

  3. Condensation theory for finite, closed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Edward; Gibbs, Julian H.

    1981-03-01

    The applicability of Mayer's cluster integral formulation of statistical mechanics in the canonical ensemble has been restricted to the gas phase by two difficulties: the enormous labor required for the calculation of cluster integrals from realistic intermolecular potentials and the divergence of the cluster integral expansions of thermodynamic observables and n-particle correlation functions prior to condensation. In this paper the divergence of the cluster expansions is shown to be due to the way in which the limit of a system of infinite size is taken, implicitly, when the partition function, written as a sum over all the cluster size distributions attainable by the closed system, is approximated by its maximum term alone. The use in condensation theory of this ''maximum term approximation,'' and of the particular infinite limit it entails, are obviated herein by demonstration that the full theory with use of all the terms in the partition function, can be solved conveniently and exactly by recurrence relation (or formal power series) methods. The cluster size distributions thus found, since they describe finite systems, can have no associated divergences. Because no realistic set of volume dependent cluster integrals is known, we demonstrate the new formalism and the use of the recurrence relations in the case of cluster integrals obtained in the infinite volume limit from the virial expansion determined by the van der Waals equation of state. At low densities these are seen to predict correctly the ideal, imperfect, and metastable states of the homogeneous gas phase. Beyond the spinodal density, they predict bimodal cluster size distributions distinctive of coexisting vapor and liquid; the corresponding pressure isotherms are found to be constant, rather than diverging or displaying a van der Waals loop. Because the sole approximation made is the replacement of the volume dependent cluster integrals by their infinite volume limits, this evidently is the cause

  4. Computational Theory of Warm Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T W; Surh, M P; Benedict, L X

    2001-02-25

    We have developed an improved computational theory of condensed matter in the regime where T {le} T{sub Fermi}. Previous methods of calculating the equation of state (EOS) relied on interpolation between low-temperature (solid) and high-temperature (plasma) limits, or employed severe approximations. Recent theoretical and experimental developments have highlighted the need for accurate EOS and opacity data in the intermediate temperature range and offer the opportunity to test theoretical models. We describe our results for EOS and optical properties for temperatures up to 10{sup 6} K, and describe directions for future work.

  5. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  6. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified. A statistically significant decreasing trend was identified for ISO unreliability. The magnitude of the trend indicated a 1.5 percent decrease in system unreliability over the last 10 years.

  7. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the ISO results.

  8. Exhaled breath condensate pH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Airway pH is central to the physiologic function and cellular biology of the airway. The causes of airway acidification include (1) hypopharyngeal gastric acid reflux with or without aspiration through the vocal cords, (2) inhalation of acid fog or gas (such as chlorine), and (3) intrinsic airway acidification caused by altered airway pH homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory disease processes. The recognition that relevant airway pH deviations occur in lung diseases is opening doors to new simple and inexpensive therapies. This recognition has resulted partly from the ability to use exhaled breath condensate as a window on airway acid-base balance.

  9. Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models

    CERN Document Server

    Kärger, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.

  10. Thermophysics of condensed media. Teplofizika kondensirovannykh sred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I.I.

    1985-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume deal with the properties of the condensed state of crystalline and amorphous solids and liquids. Topics discussed include a thermodynamic analysis of dissipative inhomogeneities in a continuum; the effect of plastic deformation of the electrical resistance of niobium; a study of the fine crystal structure, spinodal decomposition mechanism, and phase transformations in alloys based on Fe-Cr and Mu-Cu; and the optimal temperature of superplasticity. Papers are also included on the electron-photon interaction in Ti-V-Mo alloys, elastic properties and the nonlinear parameter of porous media, and hydrogen kinetics in a nickel-base amorphous alloy.

  11. Condensate Accretion in Shock Tube's Expansion Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezonlin, Ephrem-Denis; DeSilva, Upul P.; Hunte, F.; Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that turbulence and temperature influence the droplet sizes in expansion fan induced condensation by studying the Rayleigh scattering from one port in our shock tube's test section. We have modified our set-up so as to allow, using two ports, the real time measurement of the influence of turbulence and temperature on the rate at which these droplets grow. To do this, we looked at the Rayleigh scattering from two different ports for ten Reynolds numbers at five different temperatures. We modeled the time of flight of droplets, using the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics and the measured shock wave speed in shock tube's driven section.

  12. Boson Condensation in an Einstein Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Altaie, M B; Malkawi, Ehab

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of massive spin-1 particles in an Einstein universe. The system is considered under relativistic conditions taking into consideration the possibility of particle-antiparticle pair production. An exact expression for the charge density is obtained, then certain approximations are employed in order to obtain the solutions in closed form. A discussion of the approximations employed in this and other work is given. The effects of finite-size and spin-curvature coupling are emphasized.

  13. Polaron in Bose-Einstein-Condensation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bei-Bing; WAN Shao-Long

    2009-01-01

    We consider the motion of an impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate system at T=0 K with the contact interactions for boson-boson and boson-impurity.Under the forward-scattering approximation,we obtain a Fr(o)hlich-like Hamiltonian for this system,which means that a polaron can be formed.The effective mass,the phonon number and the energy to form a polaron are obtained.We also discuss the validity of the forwardscattering approximation for this system.

  14. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  15. Precipitating Condensation Clouds in Substellar Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Marley, Mark S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present a method to calculate vertical profiles of particle size distributions in condensation clouds of giant planets and brown dwarfs. The method assumes a balance between turbulent diffusion and precipitation in horizontally uniform cloud decks. Calculations for the Jovian ammonia cloud are compared with previous methods. An adjustable parameter describing the efficiency of precipitation allows the new model to span the range of predictions from previous models. Calculations for the Jovian ammonia cloud are found to be consistent with observational constraints. Example calculations are provided for water, silicate, and iron clouds on brown dwarfs and on a cool extrasolar giant planet.

  16. Construction of the blowdown and condensation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Song, Chul Kyung; Cho, Seok; Chun, S. Y.; Chung, Moon Ki

    1997-12-01

    The blowdown and condensation loop (B and C loop) has been constructed to get experimental data for designing the safety depressurization system (SDS) and steam sparger which are considered to implement in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In this report, system description on the B and C loop is given in detail, which includes the drawings and technical specification of each component, instrumentation and control system, and the operational procedures and the results of the performance testing. (author). 7 refs., 11 tabs., 48 figs.

  17. The dielectric function of condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Keldysh, LV; Kirzhnitz, DA

    1989-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the understanding of the general properties of the dielectric function and in the calculation of this quantity for many classes of media. This volume gathers together the considerable information available and presents a detailed overview of the present status of the theory of electromagnetic response functions, whilst simultaneously covering a wide range of problems in its application to condensed matter physics.The following subjects are covered:- the dielectric function of the homogeneous electron gas, of crystalline systems, and of inh

  18. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  19. HADRONIC SCATTERING IN THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    2005-05-15

    Multi-particle production in QCD is dominated by higher twist contributions. The operator product expansion is not very effective here because the number of relevant operators grow rapidly with increasing twist. The Color Glass Condensate (CGC) provides a framework in QCD to systematically discuss ''classical'' (multiple scattering) and ''quantum'' evolution (shadowing) effects in multi-particle production. The apparently insuperable problem of nucleus-nucleus scattering in QCD simplifies greatly in the CGC. A few examples are discussed with emphasis on open problems.

  20. Kaon condensation and multi-strange matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2010-04-01

    We report on dynamical calculations of multi- K¯ hypernuclei, which were performed by adding K¯ mesons to particle-stable configurations of nucleons, Λ and Ξ hyperons. The K¯ separation energy as well as the baryonic densities saturate with the number of antikaons. We demonstrate that the saturation is a robust feature of multi- K¯ hypernuclei. Because the K¯ separation energy B does not exceed 200 MeV, we conclude that kaon condensation is unlikely to occur in finite strong-interaction self-bound {N,Λ,Ξ} strange hadronic systems.

  1. Vector condensate model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cynolter, G

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that the Higgs is not seen we proposed a version of the standard model where the scalar doublet is replaced by a doublet of vector fields. The neutral member of the doublet forms a nonvanishing condensate generating masses for the weak gauge bosons. The phenomenology of the model is studied in high energy e+e- colliders and in the formalism of the parameters S,T,U. The experiments recquire heavy new particles at least 200 GeV which can be produced at the next generation of colliders.

  2. Anderson localization in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modugno, Giovanni, E-mail: modugno@lens.unifi.i [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, and INO-CNR Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    The understanding of disordered quantum systems is still far from being complete, despite many decades of research on a variety of physical systems. In this review we discuss how Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms in disordered potentials have opened a new window for studying fundamental phenomena related to disorder. In particular, we direct our attention to recent experimental studies on Anderson localization and on the interplay of disorder and weak interactions. These realize a very promising starting point for a deeper understanding of the complex behaviour of interacting, disordered systems.

  3. Experimental study of condensation heat transfer in the presence of noncondensable gas on the vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yeong-Jun; Choi, Dong-Jae; Lee, Yeon-Gun [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sin [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) that will be introduced in the next generation nuclear power plant removes released energy to containment through the condensation heat transfer phenomenon in the event of the loss of coolant accident(LOCA) or main steam line break(MSLB). The released steam is mixed with the air inside the containment and condensed on the tube bundle's outer surface of PCCS. In this study, an experimental study is performed to investigate the condensation heat transfer in the presence of noncondensable gas on vertical tube. Experiments were conducted using a tube with 1000 mm in length and 40 mm in outer diameter tube. The experimental data are obtained at pressure of 2, 3, 4 bar and the air mass fraction varied from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results are compared to the prediction of existing correlations. In a vertical tube with 40 mm in O.D. and 1000 mm in height, three sets of experiments to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient are performed at 2, 3, 4 bar. Experimental results show that the condensation heat transfer coefficient reduces with an increase of the noncondensable mass fraction. The results are compared with the prediction of existing correlations by Uchida, Tagami and Dehbi. The compared result shows that these correlations underestimate the experimental results. That's because Uchida's and Tagami's correlations do not reflect all the effects of primary physical parameters and Dehbi's experiment did not maintain the uniform gas mixtures state inside chamber and has significant wall temperature gradient along the tube height. As further works, a new correlation will be proposed based on the experimental results. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement by using a finned tube is to be experimentally investigated.

  4. An integrated approach to steam condensation studies inside reactor containments: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Mahesh Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Khandekar, Sameer, E-mail: samkhan@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Sharma, Pavan K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Occurrence of severe accidents, such as the Fukushima incident in 2011, is unlikely with a probability of 10{sup −5} per reactor per year. However, such kinds of accidents have serious consequences on both, short term as well as on long term public health, environment and energy policy and security. They also adversely affect the progress of nuclear power industry. Thus, despite such a low probability of occurrence, a need arises to review the safety standards of nuclear power plants, especially in the light of the Fukushima accident. Apart from other systems, a review of thermal-hydraulics and safety system for the reactor containment is vital, as it is the last barrier to radioactive leakage. Main threats to the containment integrity include over-pressurization, not only due to steam alone, but its coupling with the possibility of local hydrogen combustion, depending on the local mixture composition of steam-air-hydrogens. It must be emphasized that steam condensation rate affects the local mixture composition and presence of hydrogen significantly deteriorates the condensation rate. This intrinsic coupling needs to be understood. In this paper, steam condensation and related issues, including basics of condensation, modeling approaches, parameters affecting condensation and experiments performed (in both separate effect and integral test facilities) are critically reviewed, in the light of coupled issues of hydrogen transport and combustion. Such studies are necessary for correlation development and/or to find out the local distribution of steam-hydrogen-air mixture within the containment to locate the possible hydrogen combustion location(s) and hence, deployment of active/passive safety systems. In addition, it is important that future studies, both experimental and numerical modeling, focus on the coupled nature of the problem in a comprehensive manner for ensuring long term safety.

  5. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  6. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2009-03-11

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.

  8. Nonresonant optical control of a spinor polariton condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askitopoulos, A.; Kalinin, K.; Liew, T. C. H.; Cilibrizzi, P.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, P. G.; Berloff, N. G.; Lagoudakis, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the spin dynamics of polariton condensates spatially separated from and effectively confined by the pumping exciton reservoir. We obtain a strong correlation between the ellipticity of the nonresonant optical pump and the degree of circular polarization (DCP) of the condensate at the onset of condensation. With increasing excitation density we observe a reversal of the DCP. The spin dynamics of the trapped condensate are described within the framework of the spinor complex Ginzburg-Landau equations in the Josephson regime, where the dynamics of the system are reduced to a current-driven Josephson junction. We show that the observed spin reversal is due to the interplay between an internal Josephson coupling effect and the detuning of the two projections of the spinor condensate via transition from a synchronized to a desynchronized regime. These results suggest that spinor polariton condensates can be controlled by tuning the nonresonant excitation density offering applications in electrically pumped polariton spin switches.

  9. Condensates in Quantum Chromodynamics and the Cosmological Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert

    2009-05-08

    Casher and Susskind have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon QCD condensates are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the AdS/CFT correspondence, and the Bethe-Salpeter/Dyson-Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of 'in-hadron' condensates by Roberts et al., using the Bethe-Salpeter/Dyson-Schwinger formalism for QCD bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, since all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.

  10. Entropy generation in a condenser and related correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askowski Rafał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of relations describing entropy generation in a condenser of a steam unit. Connections between entropy generation, condenser ratio, and heat exchanger effectiveness, as well as relations implied by them are shown. Theoretical considerations allowed to determine limits of individual parameters which describe the condenser operation. Various relations for average temperature of the cold fluid were compared. All the proposed relations were verified against data obtained using a simulator and actual measurement data from a 200 MW unit condenser. Based on data from a simulator it was examined how the sum of entropy rates, steam condenser effectiveness, terminal temperature difference and condenser ratio vary with the change in the inlet cooling water temperature, mass flow rate of steam and the cooling water mass flow rate.

  11. CFD modelling of condensers for freeze-drying processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miriam Petitti; Antonello A Barresi; Daniele L Marchisio

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present research is the development of a computational tool for investigating condensation processes and equipment with particular attention to freeze-dryers. These condensers in fact are usually operated at very low pressures, making it difficult to experimentally acquire quantitative knowledge of all the variables involved. Mathematical modelling and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are used here to achieve a better comprehension of the flow dynamics and of the process of ice condensation and deposition in the condenser, in order to evaluate condenser efficiency and gain deeper insights of the process to be used for the improvement of its design. Both a complete laboratory-scale freeze-drying apparatus and an industrial-scale condenser have been investigated in this work, modelling the process of water vapour deposition. Different operating conditions have been considered and the influence exerted by the inert gas as well as other parameters has been investigated.

  12. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  13. The Planck Scale from Top Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yang; Ponton, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which the Planck scale is dynamically linked to the electroweak scale induced by top condensation. The standard model field content, without the Higgs, is promoted to a 5D warped background. The only additional ingredient is a 5D fermion with the quantum numbers of the right-handed top. Localization of the zero-modes leads, at low energies, to a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that also stabilizes the radion field dynamically thus explaining the hierarchy between the Planck scale and v_EW = 174 GeV. The top mass arises dynamically from the electroweak breaking condensate. The other standard model fermion masses arise naturally from higher-dimension operators, and the fermion mass hierarchies and flavor structure can be explained from the localization of the zero-modes in the extra dimension. The model is easily consistent with the electroweak precision data, since the Kaluza-Klein scale is predicted to be about two orders of magnitude above the electroweak scale. This little hierarchy is a d...

  14. Equation of state of warm condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W., III; Young, D.A.; Rogers, F.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent advances in computational condensed matter theory have yielded accurate calculations of properties of materials. These calculations have, for the most part, focused on the low temperature (T=0) limit. An accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature also requires knowledge of the behavior of the electron and ion thermal pressure as a function of T. Current approaches often interpolate between calculated T=0 results and approximations valid in the high T limit. Plasma physics-based approaches are accurate in the high temperature limit, but lose accuracy below T{approximately}T{sub Fermi}. We seek to ``connect up`` these two regimes by using ab initio finite temperature methods (including linear-response[1] based phonon calculations) to derive an equation of state of condensed matter for T{<=}T{sub Fermi}. We will present theoretical results for the principal Hugoniot of shocked materials, including carbon and aluminum, up to pressures P>100 GPa and temperatures T>10{sup 4}K, and compare our results with available experimental data.

  15. Condensation energy of the superconducting bilayer cuprates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govind; Ajay; S K Joshi

    2002-05-01

    In the present work, we report the interplay of single particle and Cooper pair tunnelings on the superconducting state of layered high-c cuprate superconductors. For this we have considered a model Hamiltonian incorporating the intra-planar interactions and the contributions arising due to the coupling between the planes. The interplanar interactions include the single particle tunneling as well as the Josephson tunneling of Cooper pairs between the two layers. The expression of the out-of-plane correlation parameter which describes the hopping of a particle from one layer to another layer in the superconducting state is obtained within a Bardeen–Cooper–Schriefer (BCS) formalism using the Green’s function technique. This correlation is found to be sensitive to the various parameter of the model Hamiltonian. We have calculated the out-of-plane contribution to the superconducting condensation energy. The calculated values of condensation energy are in agreement with those obtained from the specific heat and the -axis penetration depth measurements on bilayer cuprates.

  16. The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P. M.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1 the thermal spectrum, (2 limb darkening, (3 solar collapse, (4 the solar density, (5 seismic activity, (6 mass displacement, (7 the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8 shape, (9 surface activity, (10 photospheric/coronal flows, (11 photospheric imaging, (12 the solar dynamo, and (13 the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.

  17. GAS CONDENSATION IN THE GALACTIC HALO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, M. Ryan; Bryan, Greg L.; Putman, Mary E., E-mail: moo@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamic simulations of vertically stratified hot halo gas, we examine the conditions under which clouds can form and condense out of the hot halo medium to potentially fuel star formation in the gaseous disk. We find that halo clouds do not develop from linear isobaric perturbations. This is a regime where the cooling time is longer than the Brunt-Vaeisaelae time, confirming previous linear analysis. We extend the analysis into the nonlinear regime by considering mildly or strongly nonlinear perturbations with overdensities up to 100, also varying the initial height, the cloud size, and the metallicity of the gas. Here, the result depends on the ratio of cooling time to the time required to accelerate the cloud to the sound speed (similar to the dynamical time). If the ratio exceeds a critical value near unity, the cloud is accelerated without further cooling and gets disrupted by Kelvin-Helmholtz and/or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. If it is less than the critical value, the cloud cools and condenses before disruption. Accreting gas with overdensities of 10-20 is expected to be marginally unstable; the cooling fraction will depend on the metallicity, the size of the incoming cloud, and the distance to the galaxy. Locally enhanced overdensities within cold streams have a higher likelihood of cooling out. Our results have implications on the evolution of clouds seeded by cold accretion that are barely resolved in current cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and absorption line systems detected in galaxy halos.

  18. Condensation of Pluto's Minor Atmospheric Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Erika L.

    2017-04-01

    The New Horizons missions has brought us many new insights into conditions in Pluto's atmosphere. Trace species such as C2H6, C2H2, C2H4 and HCN have been confirmed. Given the entry and exit temperature profiles measured by the spacecraft as well as the abundances of these species, each (along with CH4) will be highly supersaturated near Pluto's surface. A Pluto version of CARMA (Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres) has been constructed to model the ices formed when these species condense onto haze particles present in the atmosphere. All of the above listed species will nucleate onto the haze particles for the entry temperature profile, whereas only C2H6, C2H2, and HCN nucleate using the higher surface temperature exit profile. HCN ices form at the highest altitudes 15 km above the surface. C2H6 and C2H2 ices form at similar altitudes, 8-10 km at the entry site and below 5 km at the exit site. CH4 and C2H4 ices only form near the surface at the entry site. The cold temperatures near Pluto's surface play an important role in the efficiency of the nucleation and subsequent condensation processes, controlling the number and size of the ice particles.

  19. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  20. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth.

  1. Dropwise Condensation on a Radial Gradient Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2013-11-01

    In transient dropwise condensation from steam onto a cool surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. This study examines how surface functionalization affects drop growth and coalescence. Surfaces are treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact-angle (hydrophilic, neutral, and hydrophobic) or a radial gradient of contact-angles. The time evolution of number-density and associated drop-size distributions are reported. For a typical condensation experiment on a uniform angle surface, the number-density curves show two regimes: an initial increase in number-density as a result of nucleation and a subsequent decrease in number-density as a result of larger scale coalescence events. Without a removal mechanism, the fractional coverage, regardless of treatment, approaches unity. For the same angle-surface, the associated drop-size distributions progress through four different shapes along the growth curve. In contrast, for a radial gradient surface where removal by sweeping occurs, the number-density increases and then levels off to a value close to the maximum number-density that is well below unity coverage and only two shapes of distributions are observed. Implications for heat transfer will be discussed. This work was supported by a NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  2. Gravity, holography and applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Baggioli, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Momentum relaxation is an ever-present and unavoidable ingredient of any realistic condensed matter system. In real-world materials the presence of a lattice, impurities or disorder forces momentum to dissipate and leads to relevant physical effects such as the finiteness of the DC transport properties, i.e. conductivities. The main purpose of this thesis is the introduction of momentum dissipation and its consequent effects into the framework of AdS/CMT, namely the applications of the gauge-gravity duality to condensed matter. A convenient and effective way of breaking the translational symmetry associated to such a conservation law is provided by massive gravity (MG) bulk theories. We consider generic massive gravity models embedded into asymptotically Anti de Sitter spacetime and we analyze them using holographic techniques. We study in detail their consistency and stability. We then focus our attention on the transport properties of the CFT duals. A big part of our work is devoted to the analysis of the e...

  3. Nonlinear phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a medley of results from the last three years on nonlinear phenomena in BECs [1]. These include exact dynamics of multi-component condensates in optical lattices [2], vortices and ring solitons [3], macroscopic quantum tunneling [4], nonlinear band theory [5], and a pulsed atomic soliton laser [6]. 1. Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment, ed. P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag, 2008). 2. R. Mark Bradley, James E. Bernard, and L. D. Carr, e-print arXiv:0711.1896 (2007). 3. G. Herring, L. D. Carr, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, Phys. Rev. A in press, e-print arXiv:0709.2193 (2007); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. A v. 74, p.043613 (2006); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. Lett. v. 97, p.010403 (2006). 4. L. D. Carr, M. J. Holland, and B. A. Malomed, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., v.38, p.3217 (2005) 5. B. T. Seaman, L. D. Carr, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. A, v. 71, p.033622 (2005). 6. L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. A, v.70, p.033607 (2004); L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett., v.92, p.040401 (2004).

  4. Chaos in Chiral Condensates in Gauge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Murata, Keiju; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-12-01

    Assigning a chaos index for dynamics of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem because the notion of a Lyapunov exponent, which is useful for singling out chaotic behavior, works only in classical systems. We address the issue by using the AdS /CFT correspondence, as the large Nc limit provides a classicalization (other than the standard ℏ→0 ) while keeping nontrivial quantum condensation. We demonstrate the chaos in the dynamics of quantum gauge theories: The time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates ⟨q ¯q ⟩ and ⟨q ¯γ5q ⟩ in an N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the S U (Nc) gauge group at large Nc and at a large 't Hooft coupling λ ≡NcgYM2 exhibits a positive Lyapunov exponent. The chaos dominates the phase space for energy density E ≳(6 ×1 02)×mq4(Nc/λ2), where mq is the quark mass. We evaluate the largest Lyapunov exponent as a function of (Nc,λ ,E ) and find that the N =2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller Nc.

  5. Armatures in thermal power plants; Armaturen in Waermekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Moenning, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book includes contributions on the following issues: (1) Fundamentals: Stop valves - minimal power loss due to full transmission. Safety valves - reliable overpressure protection. Indispensible feature of thermal power plant safety systems: the turbine bypass station. Condensate drain - safe discharge of harmful condensate. Safety armatures for gas consumption facilities. Electric actuators - automation of almost all armatures in power plants. (2) Case studies: Drainage armatures for power plant use. Steam cooling and saturation in thermal power plants - established techniques and solutions. Isolation flap for cooling water systems. Regulatory requirements and their practical implementation.

  6. INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT- AND MASS TRANSFER IN EVAPORATION - CONDENSATION DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Kulakov

    2005-01-01

    Results of investigation of capillary structure properties used in evaporation – condensation devices are presented.Constructive solutions for intensification of heat transfer in evaporation and condensation heat exchangers are offered. The obtained heat transfer experimental data at film-type vapor conden-sation are generalized in criterion form.Description of general rule of heat and mass transfer processes in miniature heat pipes with three various capillary structures at wide range of ope...

  7. Condensation Heat Transfer Inside a Tube in a Microgravity Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYuke; WangWeicheng

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for studying condensation heat transfer inside a tube in microgravity environment.The model assumes laminar flow in the condensate film and an annular flow pattern,The local heat transfer coefficinet is the calculated by gravitational acceleration,g,from 0 to 9.8m/s2.the model was tested indirectly by measuring condensation heat transfer inside a vertical tube in a normal gravity environment through experiments.

  8. Interactions of Ultracold Impurity Particles with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0141 INTERACTIONS OF ULTRACOLD IMPURITY PARTICLES WITH BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES Georg Raithel UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final...SUBTITLE Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0453 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0453 Reporting Period: 8/15/2010 to 2/14

  9. Augmentation of Condensation Heat Transger by Finning of Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes experimental and theoretical studies that have been performed in our laboratory to enhance condensation heat transfer on horizontal tubes and tube bundles by use of fins. Use of a drainge strip is proved to be very effective in further enhancing condensation heat transfer on the horizontal finned tube. Effects of fin geometry and tube arrangement on the condensation heat transfer performance of the tube bundle are investigated. A theoretical model is proposed to predict ...

  10. Capacity of a condenser whose plates are circular arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, D.

    2006-01-01

    We find an asymptotic formula for the conformal capacity of a plane condenser both plate of which are concentric circular arcs as the distance between them vanishes. This result generalizes the formula for the capacity of parallel linear plate condenser found by Simonenko and Chekulaeva in 1972 and sheds light on the problem of finding an asymptotic formula for the capacity of condenser whose plates are arbitrary parallel curves. This problem was posed and partially solved by R. K\\"{u}hnau in...

  11. Synthesis of Substituted Stilbenes via the Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shar Saad Al-Shihry

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Knoevenagel condensations between aldehydes and substrates containing active methylene groups were carried out in ethanol at room temperature, in the presence of potassium phosphate, to afford unsymmetrical olefins. These condensations have been shown to afford only the E-isomers in greater than 80% yields. Salicylaldehyde first produces the Knoevenagel condensation products, which undergo a subsequent heterocyclization to give coumarin derivatives. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established on the basis of UV, IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Tunneling Dynamics of Two-Species Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-Min; YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the tunneling dynamics of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates. It is shown that the population difference and the Josephson-like tunneling current between the two condensates exhibit oscillation behaviors and there exists macroscopic quantum self-trapping, which strongly depends on the initial state, interatomic nonlinear self-interaction, interspecies nonlinear interaction, and the total number of atoms in the two condensates.

  13. An Elementary Proof of Dodgson's Condensation Method for Calculating Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Mitch; Donor, Micah; Harwood, R. Corban

    2016-01-01

    In 1866, Charles Ludwidge Dodgson published a paper concerning a method for evaluating determinants called the condensation method. His paper documented a new method to calculate determinants that was based on Jacobi's Theorem. The condensation method is presented and proven here, and is demonstrated by a series of examples. The condensation method can be applied to a number of situations, including calculating eigenvalues, solving a system of linear equations, and even determining the differ...

  14. Tunable Magnetic Alignment between Trapped Exciton-Polariton Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohadi, H.; del Valle-Inclan Redondo, Y.; Dreismann, A.; Rubo, Y. G.; Pinsker, F.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, P. G.; Baumberg, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    Tunable spin correlations are found to arise between two neighboring trapped exciton-polariton condensates which spin polarize spontaneously. We observe a crossover from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic pair state by reducing the coupling barrier in real time using control of the imprinted pattern of pump light. Fast optical switching of both condensates is then achieved by resonantly but weakly triggering only a single condensate. These effects can be explained as the competition between spin bifurcations and spin-preserving Josephson coupling between the two condensates, and open the way to polariton Bose-Hubbard ladders.

  15. Dropwise condensation heat transfer of steam on a polytethefluoroethylene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuehu; Tao, Bai; Chen, Jiabin; Xu, Dunqi; Lin, Jifang

    2001-07-01

    Excellent dropwise condensation of steam was observed on a polytethefluoroethylene (PTFE) coated plate. The experimental results indicated that the condensation heat transfer performance was increased by 30 to 47 times when compared with film condensation values at the same surface subcooling degrees. The random fluctuation of the surface temperature was resulted from the high thermal conductivity of the copper substrate and the ultra thin coated polymer film with lower surface free energy. The effect of the steam temperature for pressures near atmospheric pressure on the dropwise condensation heat transfer characteristics was investigated as well.

  16. Flow condensation on copper-based nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresin, Daniele; Tiwari, Manish K; Del Col, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation with high droplet mobility, leading to enhanced surface thermal transport. To date, however, it is unclear how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions of saturated vapor at high temperature, which can affect superhydrophobicity. Here, we investigate this issue employing "all-copper" superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled nanostructuring for minimal thermal resistance. Flow condensation tests performed with saturated vapor at a high temperature (110 °C) showed the condensing drops penetrate the surface texture (i.e., attain the Wenzel state with lower droplet mobility). At the same time, the vapor shear helped ameliorate the mobility and enhanced the thermal transport. At the high end of the examined vapor velocity range, a heat flux of ~600 kW m(-2) was measured at 10 K subcooling and 18 m s(-1) vapor velocity. This clearly highlights the excellent potential of a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface in flow condensation applications. The surfaces sustained dropwise condensation and vapor shear for five days, following which mechanical degradation caused a transition to filmwise condensation. Overall, our results underscore the need to investigate superhydrophobic surfaces under stringent and realistic flow condensation conditions before drawing conclusions regarding their performance in practically relevant condensation applications.

  17. Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer of Steam on a Polytethefluoroethylene Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xuehu; Tao Bai; Chen Jiabin; Xu Dunqi; Lin Jifang

    2001-01-01

    Excellent dropwise condensation of steam was observed on a polytethefluoroethylene (PTFE) coated plate. The experimental results indicated that the condensation heat transfer performance was increased by 30 to 47 times when compared with film condensation values at the same surface subcooling degrees. The random fluctuation of the surface temperature was resulted from the high thermal conductivity of the copper substrate and the ultra thin coated polymer film with lower surface free energy. The effect of the steam temperature for pressures near atmospheric pressure on the dropwise condensation heat transfer characteristics was investigated as well.

  18. Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel; Enright, Ryan; Limia, Alexander; Wang, Evelyn

    2013-11-01

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of surface energy into kinetic energy. This frequent out-of-plane droplet jumping has the potential to enhance condensation heat and mass transfer. In this work, we demonstrated that these jumping droplets accumulate positive charge that can be used to further increase condensation heat transfer via electric fields. We studied droplet jumping dynamics on silanized nanostructured copper oxide surfaces. By characterizing the droplet trajectories under various applied external electric fields (0 - 50 V/cm), we show that condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces results in a buildup of negative surface charge (OH-) due to dissociated water ion adsorption on the superhydrophobic coating. Consequently, the opposite charge (H3O +) accumulates on the coalesced jumping droplet. Using this knowledge, we demonstrate electric-field-enhanced jumping droplet condensation whereby an external electric field opposes the droplet vapor flow entrainment towards the condensing surface to increase the droplet removal rate and overall surface heat transfer by 100% when compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement through the passive charging of condensed droplets, but promises a low cost approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification.

  19. Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G. C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Muniz, S. R.; Spehler, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid 4He , a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.

  20. Condenser Design for the Proposed AM600 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Abdallah, Khaled Atya Ahmed; Field, Robert M. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The design goals are to make the condenser more robust and compact with a reduced component count. The AM600 condenser design also has new features as described below. Considering that the minimum heat sink temperature for potentially emergent nuclear countries is on the order of 21.deg. C or higher, a turbine design with a single low pressure rotor can be considered without sacrificing thermal efficiency. The condenser back pressure range for the considered markets is on the order of 2 to 3 in-HgA. With these boundary conditions, the AM600 condenser duty can be met with a single pressure zone design with a total of eight (8) titanium tube bundles (four (4) per pass) divided into four isolable sections. Due to the compact design (i.e., accepting exhaust from only one low pressure cylinder), both axial ends of the condenser are unobstructed and available for attachment of extended flash chambers, diverting inflows away from the tube bundles. The single shell design of this condenser then allows for an innovative design feature, namely the extended flash chambers. This permits the routing of dump, drain, vent, and bypass flows directly to these chambers, bypassing the condenser shell. Within the condenser shell, this design eliminates impingement plates, impingement boxes, and spargers. Failure of these components represents an ongoing source of condenser tube damage in operating nuclear units, requiring significant resources for outage inspections. The extended flash chamber approach also has a number of other advantages as delineated above.

  1. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  2. Circulation Condition of Two-component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the report we point out that there exists an intrinsic difference in the internal symmetry of the two components spin-1/2 Bose condensates from that of spinor Bose condensates of the atoms with hyperfine states of nonzero integer-spins,which gives rise to a new topological constrain on the circulation for this two-component spin-1/2 Bose condensates.It is shown that the SU(2) symmetry of the spin-1/2 Bose condensate implies a

  3. Lattice Calculation of the Decay of Primordial Higgs Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Enqvist, Kari; Rusak, Stanislav; Weir, David

    2015-01-01

    We study the resonant decay of the primordial Standard Model Higgs condensate after inflation into $SU(2)$ gauge bosons on the lattice. We find that the non-Abelian interactions between the gauge bosons quickly extend the momentum distribution towards high values, efficiently destroying the condensate after the onset of backreaction. For the inflationary scale $H = 10^8$ GeV, we find that 90% of the Higgs condensate has decayed after $n \\sim 10$ oscillation cycles. This differs significantly from the Abelian case where, given the same couplings strengths, most of the condensate would persist after the resonance.

  4. Lattice calculation of the decay of primordial Higgs condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Rusak, Stanislav; Weir, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We study the resonant decay of the primordial Standard Model Higgs condensate after inflation into SU(2) gauge bosons on the lattice. We find that the non-Abelian interactions between the gauge bosons quickly extend the momentum distribution towards high values, efficiently destroying the condensate after the onset of backreaction. For the inflationary scale H = 108 GeV, we find that 90% of the Higgs condensate has decayed after n~ 10 oscillation cycles. This differs significantly from the Abelian case where, given the same coupling strengths, most of the condensate would persist after the resonance.

  5. The Study of the Phase of Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-Ji; WANG Yi-Qiu; LI Wei-Dong

    2001-01-01

    We first propose to study the phase of Bose-Einstein condensate in the phase space. The mcan value of the phase and the phase fluctuation of Bose-Einstein condensate are considered, and their explicit expressions are given with the Thomas-Fermi approximation. For a finite atom number, we find that the phase of condensate is determined by the oscillation frequency of the harmonic confining potential at certain time. The effects of the atom number and time on the phase of condensate are also discussed for the same kinds of atoms.``

  6. Superfluid stiffness of a driven dissipative condensate with disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Alexander; Hyart, Timo; Eastham, Paul R; Rosenow, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    Observations of macroscopic quantum coherence in driven systems, e.g. polariton condensates, have strongly stimulated experimental as well as theoretical efforts during the last decade. We address the question of whether a driven quantum condensate is a superfluid, allowing for the effects of disorder and its nonequilibrium nature. We predict that for spatial dimensions d<4 the superfluid stiffness vanishes once the condensate exceeds a critical size, and treat in detail the case d=2. Thus a nonequilibrium condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems.

  7. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  8. Degradation of finned tubes heat exchangers in presence of non condensable gases and aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose L Munoz-Cobo; Pena, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Camino de Vera 14, Valencia 46022 (Spain); Luis E Herranz [CIEMAT, Departmen of Nuclear Fision, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: If a severe accident occurs in a nuclear power plant, then large amounts of steam and aerosols will enter to the containment, increasing the pressure and the temperature inside the containment building. To reduce these thermal and pressure loads, the next generation of European Passive Nuclear Power Plants, incorporates into the containment passive heat exchangers (HX) driven by natural circulation. These passive HX condense the steam inside the containment and transport by natural circulation the heat to a large pool with capability to act as a heat sink at least during 72 hours. These innovative passive systems consist of several units of horizontal or slightly inclined finned tubes bundles internally cooled by water. The cooling water is heated inside the tubes by the condensation heat removed from the containment and moves by natural circulation to a large pool located outside the containment. The main problem that arises in this kind of HX, is the degradation in the heat transfer produced by the non-condensable gases and the aerosols that are present in large amounts after a severe accident inside the containment. This degradation can increase the containment loads after a severe accident and we must be able to predict this effect as better as possible. This paper presents a mechanistic model to predict the steam condensation on containment finned tube heat exchangers in the presence of non-condensable gases (NC) and aerosols. The total thermal resistance from the bulk gas to the coolant is formulated as a parallel combination of the convective and condensation gas resistances coupled in series to those of condensate layer, the aerosol fouling layer, the wall, and the coolant. The condensate layer thermal resistance is calculated by means of an Adamek-based condensation model. The aerosol fouling layer is computed based on diffusiophoresis, settling and impaction mechanisms. The gas mixture (Steam plus NC) thermal resistance

  9. Application of Evaporative Cooling for the Condensation of Water Vapors from a Flue Gas Waste Heat Boilers CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study are boilers that burn organic fuel and the recovery boilers (RB of the combined cycle plant (CCP, which are al-so working on the products of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The purpose of research is to find technologies that increase efficiency of the thermal power plant (TPP and technologies that reduce the environmental impact on the environment by burning fossil fuels. The paper deals with the technology of the boilers burning hydrocarbon fuel with condensation of water vapor from the exhaust flue gases. Considered the problems caused by using of this technology. Research shows that the main problem of this technology in the boilers is the lack of reliable methods of calculation of heat exchangers, condensers. Particular attention is paid to the application of this technology in the recovery boilers combined-cycle plants, which are currently gaining increasing use in the generation of electricity from the combustion of gas in power plants. It is shown that the application of technology of condensation of water vapor in RB CCP, the temperature decreases of exhaust gases from 100 to 40 °С, allows increasing the effi-ciency of the RB with 86.2 % to 99.5 %, i.e. at 12.3 %, and increase the ef-ficiency of the CCP at 2.8 %.

  10. Precipitating Condensation Clouds in Substellar Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, A S; Ackerman, Andrew S; Marley, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a method to calculate vertical profiles of particle size distributions in condensation clouds of giant planets and brown dwarfs. The method assumes a balance between turbulent diffusion and sedimentation in horizontally uniform cloud decks. Calculations for the Jovian ammonia cloud are compared with results from previous methods. An adjustable parameter describing the efficiency of sedimentation allows the new model to span the range of predictions made by previous models. Calculations for the Jovian ammonia cloud are consistent with observations. Example calculations are provided for water, silicate, and iron clouds on brown dwarfs and on a cool extrasolar giant planet. We find that precipitating cloud decks naturally account for the characteristic trends seen in the spectra and colors of L- and T-type ultracool dwarfs.

  11. Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castañeda Valle, David, E-mail: casvada@gmail.com; Mielke, Eckehard W., E-mail: ekke@xanum.uam.mx

    2013-09-15

    Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose–Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM ‘bullets’ observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein–Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two ‘lump’ type solitons. -- Highlights: •An axion model of dark matter is considered. •Collision of axion type solitons are studied in a two dimensional toy model. •Relations to dark matter collisions in galaxy clusters are proposed.

  12. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  13. Purging of dropwise condensate by electrowetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kaviany, M.

    2007-05-01

    The onset of motion of a dropwise condensate (on inclined substrate) under applied direct current potential (with an overhanging electrode) is studied experimentally and described based on overcoming of the static three-phase contact line (TCL) friction by electrowetting. Electrowetting phenomenon exerts a radial electrostatic force on the TCL, causing an imbalance in the TCL surface tension forces, thus initiating the surface droplet motion (by an applied threshold, local electric field intensity). The experimental results using overhanging wire electrodes have identified three regimes (gravity dominated, intermediate, and surface force dominated) and show significant lowering of the critical inclination angle for the liquid droplet. In the intermediate Bond number regime (both gravity and surface liquid-gas tension are significant), the critical (for onset of motion) electrostatic potential is predicted and good agreement is found with experiments.

  14. Charged Condensate and Helium Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen or heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat -- the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  15. PAC Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Brudanin, V B; Kochetov, O I; Korolev, N A; Milanov, M; Ostrovsky, I V; Pavlov, V N; Salamatin, A V; Timkin, V V; Velichkov, A I; Fomicheva, L N; Tsvyaschenko, A V; Akselrod, Z Z

    2005-01-01

    A four-detector spectrometer of perturbed angular $\\gamma \\gamma $ correlations is developed for investigation of hyperfine interactions in condensed matter. It allows measurements with practically any types of detectors. A unique circuit design involving a specially developed Master PAC unit combined with a computer allows a substantially higher efficiency, reduced setup time and simpler operation in comparison with traditional PAC spectrometers. A cryostat and a high-temperature oven allow measurements in the temperature range from 120 to 1300 K. An encased electromagnet makes it possible to generate a magnetic field up to 2 T on a sample. The measurement system includes a press with a specially designed high-pressure chamber allowing on-line PAC measurements in samples under pressure up to 60 GPa.

  16. Differential Neutrino Condensation onto Cosmic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao-Ran; Inman, Derek; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Yuan, Shuo; Teng, Huan-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Xuelei; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Du, Yunfei; Zhang, Lilun; Lu, Yutong; Liao, XiangKe

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical techniques have pioneered the discovery of neutrino mass properties. Current cosmological observations give an upper bound on neutrino masses by attempting to disentangle the small neutrino contribution from the sum of all matter using precise theoretical models. We discover the differential neutrino condensation effect in our TianNu N-body simulation. Neutrino masses can be inferred using this effect by comparing galaxy properties in regions of the universe with different neutrino relative abundance (i.e. the local neutrino to cold dark matter density ratio). In "neutrino-rich"' regions, more neutrinos can be captured by massive halos compared to "neutrino-poor" regions. This effect differentially skews the halo mass function and opens up the path to independent neutrino mass measurements in current or future galaxy surveys.

  17. Holographic duality in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...

  18. Statistical mechanics and applications in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This innovative and modular textbook combines classical topics in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body theory with the latest developments in condensed matter physics research. Written by internationally renowned experts and logically structured to cater for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers, it covers the underlying theoretical principles and includes numerous problems and worked examples to put this knowledge into practice. Three main streams provide a framework for the book; beginning with thermodynamics and classical statistical mechanics, including mean field approximation, fluctuations and the renormalization group approach to critical phenomena. The authors then examine quantum statistical mechanics, covering key topics such as normal Fermi and Luttinger liquids, superfluidity and superconductivity. Finally, they explore classical and quantum kinetics, Anderson localization and quantum interference, and disordered Fermi liquids. Unique in providing a bridge between ...

  19. Sulphur condensation influence in Claus catalyst performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, R L

    2000-12-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H(2)S from acid gas streams and this is widely practised in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulphur recovery from the Claus unit in order to minimise sulphur-containing effluent. The most widely used Claus catalyst in sulphur recovery units is non-promoted spherical activated alumina. Properties associated with optimum non-promoted Claus catalyst performance include high surface area, appropriate pore size distribution and enhanced physical properties. The objective of this paper is to outline a procedure in order to estimate Claus catalyst effectiveness after pore plugging due to sulphur condensation. Catalyst deactivation due to pore plugging by sulphur is modelled employing a Bethe lattice and its corresponding performance is described by means of a modified effectiveness factor. Model results show an improvement in the modified effectiveness factor due to modifications in catalyst porous structure.

  20. The microscopic dynamics of condensed parahydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Celli, M; Colognesi, D

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the almost-pure incoherent scattering function of liquid and solid parahydrogen, using inelastic neutron scattering. The experiments were carried out on TOSCA, a time-of-flight, inverse-geometry, crystal-analyzer spectrometer, operating on the pulsed neutron source at ISIS (UK). The experiments have been planned taking advantage of the intrinsic incoherence introduced in the scattering process by the rotational transitions. The measured double-differential cross section gives a direct experimental access to the microscopic dynamics of condensed hydrogen. From the high-energy region of the spectrum, where the impulse approximation for the center of mass motion applies, we have been able to extract the translational mean kinetic energy. In the low-energy region, using the Gaussian approximation, we compare the experimental data in the liquid phase with the results of a model for the velocity autocorrelation function. The results are encouraging, but suggest further work. (orig.)