WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant cell biology

  1. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  2. Plant Systems Biology at the Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc; Pingault, Lise; Zogli, Prince; Schiefelbein, John

    2017-11-01

    Our understanding of plant biology is increasingly being built upon studies using 'omics and system biology approaches performed at the level of the entire plant, organ, or tissue. Although these approaches open new avenues to better understand plant biology, they suffer from the cellular complexity of the analyzed sample. Recent methodological advances now allow plant scientists to overcome this limitation and enable biological analyses of single-cells or single-cell-types. Coupled with the development of bioinformatics and functional genomics resources, these studies provide opportunities for high-resolution systems analyses of plant phenomena. In this review, we describe the recent advances, current challenges, and future directions in exploring the biology of single-cells and single-cell-types to enhance our understanding of plant biology as a system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating cell biology and proteomic approaches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef

    2017-10-03

    Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of

  4. Micrasterias as a model system in plant cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Luetz-Meindl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its extraordinary star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 µm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

  5. Redefining plant systems biology: from cell to ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Dicke, M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Molenaar, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Struik, P.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists typically restrict systems biology to cellular levels. By contrast, ecologists define biological systems as communities of interacting individuals at different trophic levels that process energy, nutrient and information flows. Modern plant breeding needs to increase

  6. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.; Kaji, Noritada; Habuchi, Satoshi; Bianco, Alberto; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912): founder of modern plant cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Dieter; Baluška, František; Menzel, Diedrik

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Strasburger, director of the Botany Institute and the Botanical Garden at the University of Bonn from 1881 to 1912, was one of the most admirable scientists in the field of plant biology, not just as the founder of modern plant cell biology but in addition as an excellent teacher who strongly believed in "education through science." He contributed to plant cell biology by discovering the discrete stages of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in algae and higher plants, describing cytoplasmic streaming in different systems, and reporting on the growth of the pollen tube into the embryo sac and guidance of the tube by synergides. Strasburger raised many problems which are hot spots in recent plant cell biology, e.g., structure and function of the plasmodesmata in relation to phloem loading (Strasburger cells) and signaling, mechanisms of cell plate formation, vesicle trafficking as a basis for most important developmental processes, and signaling related to fertilization.

  8. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e. uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes, the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments. To fully study their biology, we have recently optimized procedures in obtaining root hair cell samples. We culture the plants using an ultrasound aeroponic system maximizing root hair cell density on the entire root systems and allowing the homogeneous treatment of the root system. We then isolate the root hair cells in liquid nitrogen. Isolated root hair yields could be up to 800 to 1000 mg of plant cells from 60 root systems. Using soybean as a model, the purity of the root hair was assessed by comparing the expression level of genes previously identified as soybean root hair specific between preparations of isolated root hair cells and stripped roots, roots devoid in root hairs. Enlarging our tests to include other plant species, our results support the isolation of large quantities of highly purified root hair cells which is compatible with a systems biology approach.

  10. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  11. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  12. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  14. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Proteins from Protists to Humans and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models. Information accumulating from combined molecular database search and experimental verification allows new insights into evolutionary diversification and maintenance of genes/proteins from protozoa on, eventually with orthologs in bacteria. However, proteins have rarely been followed up systematically for maintenance or change of function or intracellular localization, acquirement of new domains, partial deletion (e.g. of subunits), and refunctionalization, etc. These aspects are discussed in this review, envisaging "evolutionary cell biology." Protozoan heritage is found for most important cellular structures and functions up to humans and flowering plants. Examples discussed include refunctionalization of voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels in cilia and replacement by other types during evolution. Altogether components serving Ca 2+ signaling are very flexible throughout evolution, calmodulin being a most conservative example, in contrast to calcineurin whose catalytic subunit is lost in plants, whereas both subunits are maintained up to mammals for complex functions (immune defense and learning). Domain structure of R-type SNAREs differs in mono- and bikonta, as do Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinases. Unprecedented selective expansion of the subunit a which connects multimeric base piece and head parts (V0, V1) of H + -ATPase/pump may well reflect the intriguing vesicle trafficking system in ciliates, specifically in

  15. Model system for plant cell biology: GFP imaging in living onion epidermal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Wyatt, S.; Tsou, P. L.; Robertson, D.; Allen, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to visualize organelle localization and dynamics is very useful in studying cellular physiological events. Until recently, this has been accomplished using a variety of staining methods. However, staining can give inaccurate information due to nonspecific staining, diffusion of the stain or through toxic effects. The ability to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to various organelles allows for specific labeling of organelles in vivo. The disadvantages of GFP thus far have been the time and money involved in developing stable transformants or maintaining cell cultures for transient expression. In this paper, we present a rapid transient expression system using onion epidermal peels. We have localized GFP to various cellular compartments (including the cell wall) to illustrate the utility of this method and to visualize dynamics of these compartments. The onion epidermis has large, living, transparent cells in a monolayer, making them ideal for visualizing GFP. This method is easy and inexpensive, and it allows for testing of new GFP fusion proteins in a living tissue to determine deleterious effects and the ability to express before stable transformants are attempted.

  16. Prequels to Synthetic Biology: From Candidate Gene Identification and Validation to Enzyme Subcellular Localization in Plant and Yeast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureau, E; Carqueijeiro, I; Dugé de Bernonville, T; Melin, C; Lafontaine, F; Besseau, S; Lanoue, A; Papon, N; Oudin, A; Glévarec, G; Clastre, M; St-Pierre, B; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Courdavault, V

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds extracted from microorganisms or plants constitute an inexhaustible source of valuable molecules whose supply can be potentially challenged by limitations in biological sourcing. The recent progress in synthetic biology combined to the increasing access to extensive transcriptomics and genomics data now provide new alternatives to produce these molecules by transferring their whole biosynthetic pathway in heterologous production platforms such as yeasts or bacteria. While the generation of high titer producing strains remains per se an arduous field of investigation, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways as well as characterization of their complex subcellular organization are essential prequels to the efficient development of such bioengineering approaches. Using examples from plants and yeasts as a framework, we describe potent methods to rationalize the study of partially characterized pathways, including the basics of computational applications to identify candidate genes in transcriptomics data and the validation of their function by an improved procedure of virus-induced gene silencing mediated by direct DNA transfer to get around possible resistance to Agrobacterium-delivery of viral vectors. To identify potential alterations of biosynthetic fluxes resulting from enzyme mislocalizations in reconstituted pathways, we also detail protocols aiming at characterizing subcellular localizations of protein in plant cells by expression of fluorescent protein fusions through biolistic-mediated transient transformation, and localization of transferred enzymes in yeast using similar fluorescence procedures. Albeit initially developed for the Madagascar periwinkle, these methods may be applied to other plant species or organisms in order to establish synthetic biology platform. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  18. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  19. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  20. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant

  1. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  2. Plant biology in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzaz, F A

    2001-05-08

    In the beginning of modern plant biology, plant biologists followed a simple model for their science. This model included important branches of plant biology known then. Of course, plants had to be identified and classified first. Thus, there was much work on taxonomy, genetics, and physiology. Ecology and evolution were approached implicitly, rather than explicitly, through paleobotany, taxonomy, morphology, and historical geography. However, the burgeoning explosion of knowledge and great advances in molecular biology, e.g., to the extent that genes for specific traits can be added (or deleted) at will, have created a revolution in the study of plants. Genomics in agriculture has made it possible to address many important issues in crop production by the identification and manipulation of genes in crop plants. The current model of plant study differs from the previous one in that it places greater emphasis on developmental controls and on evolution by differential fitness. In a rapidly changing environment, the current model also explicitly considers the phenotypic variation among individuals on which selection operates. These are calls for the unity of science. In fact, the proponents of "Complexity Theory" think there are common algorithms describing all levels of organization, from atoms all the way to the structure of the universe, and that when these are discovered, the issue of scaling will be greatly simplified! Plant biology must seriously contribute to, among other things, meeting the nutritional needs of the human population. This challenge constitutes a key part of the backdrop against which future evolution will occur. Genetic engineering technologies are and will continue to be an important component of agriculture; however, we must consider the evolutionary implications of these new technologies. Meeting these demands requires drastic changes in the undergraduate curriculum. Students of biology should be trained in molecular, cellular, organismal

  3. Mitochondrial redox biology and homeostasis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; De Paepe, Rosine; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondria are key players in plant cell redox homeostasis and signalling. Earlier concepts that regarded mitochondria as secondary to chloroplasts as the powerhouses of photosynthetic cells, with roles in cell proliferation, death and ageing described largely by analogy to animal paradigms, have been replaced by the new philosophy of integrated cellular energy and redox metabolism involving mitochondria and chloroplasts. Thanks to oxygenic photosynthesis, plant mitochondria often operate in an oxygen- and carbohydrate-rich environment. This rather unique environment necessitates extensive flexibility in electron transport pathways and associated NAD(P)-linked enzymes. In this review, mitochondrial redox metabolism is discussed in relation to the integrated cellular energy and redox function that controls plant cell biology and fate.

  4. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  5. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applications of optical manipulation in plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buer, Charles S.

    Measuring small forces in biology is important for determining basic physiological parameters of a cell. The plant cell wall provides a primary defense and presents a barrier to research. Magnitudes of small forces are impossible to measure with mechanical transducers, glass needles, atomic force microscopy, or micropipet-based force transduction due to the cell wall. Therefore, a noninvasive method of breaching the plant cell wall to access the symplastic region of the cell is required. Laser light provides sub-micrometer positioning, particle manipulation without mechanical contact, and piconewton force determination. Consequently, the extension of laser microsurgery to expand an experimental tool for plant biology encompassed the overall objective. A protocol was developed for precisely inserting microscopic objects into the periplasmic region of plant callus cells using laser microsurgery. Ginkgo biloba and Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used as the model system for developing the optical tweezers and scalpel techniques. Better than 95% survival was achieved after plasmolyzing G. biloba cells, ablating a 2-4 μm hole through the cell wall using a pulsed UV laser beam, trapping and manipulating bacteria into the periplasmic region, and deplasmolyzing the cells. Optical trapping experiments implied a difference existed between the bacteria models. Determining the optical trapping efficiency of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens strains indicated the A. rhizogenes strain, ATCC 11325, was significantly less efficiently trapped than strains A4 and ATCC 15834 and the A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Differences were also found in capsule generation, growth media viscosity, and transmission electron microscopy negative staining implying that a difference in surface structure exists. Calcofluor fluorescence suggests the difference involves an exopolysaccharide. Callus cell plasmolysis revealed Hechtian strands interconnecting the plasma membrane and the cell wall

  7. Methods for plant molecular biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weissbach, Arthur; Weissbach, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    .... Current techniques to carry out plant cell culture and protoplast formation are described as are methods for gene and organelle transfer. The detection of DNA and RNA viruses by molecular probes or ELISA assays and the cloning and transcription of viral RNA complete the volume.

  8. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  9. Biology of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. The regeneration of epidermal cells of Saintpaulia leaves as a new plant-tissue system for cellular radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, F.M.; Laan, F.M. van der; Leenhouts, H.P.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    investigation of the nucleus of epidermal cells of the petioles of Saintpaulia leaves by cytofluorimetry revealed that all cells are in a non-cycling pre DNA synthesis phase. Cultivation of dissected leaves results in a synchronous regeneration process of a defined number of cells. Five days after onset of cultivation the cells reach the first mitosis. The nuclear development during the regeneration process is described. Irradiation of the leaves results in a directly visible inhibition of this regenerating capability which is used to quantify cell survival in a tissue. The data show that the radiation response has a similar shape to that of the survival of single cells in culture. This response can be observed before the first mitosis of the cells and its application as a new plant tissue system for cellular radiation research is discussed. (author)

  11. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  12. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  13. Mesangial cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Hanna E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  14. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  15. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the molecular biology and functional changes in cultured mammalian cells following exposure to x radiation, uv radiation, fission neutrons, or various chemical environmental pollutants alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the separate and combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released during combustion of fossil fuels and ionizing and nonionizing radiations. Sun lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum of near ultraviolet light of 290 nm to 315 nm were used for studies of predictive cell killing due to sunlight. Results showed that exposure to uv light (254 nm) may not be adequate to predict effects produced by sunlight. Data are included from studies on single-strand breaks and repair in DNA of cultured hamster cells exposed to uv or nearultraviolet light. The possible interactions of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DmBA) alone or combined with exposure to x radiation, uv radiation (254 nm) or near ultraviolet simulating sunlight were compared for effects on cell survival

  16. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  17. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  19. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  20. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Christmas, Jacqueline T; Witterick, Eleanor; Fricker, Mark D; Grant, Murray R; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Everson, Richard M; Moger, Julian; Love, John

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the PFCs, PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11) for in vivo plant leaf imaging using four advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image PFCs directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the "negative space" within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  1. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Littlejohn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximise the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labelling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC, perfluorodecalin (PFD enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the perfluorocarbons PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11 for in vivo plant leaf imaging using 4 advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, Two-photon fluorescence (TPF microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image perfluorocarbons directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the negative space within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  2. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  3. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the effects of N-ethyl-maleimide and hydroxyurea on hamster cells in culture; sensitization of synchronized human cells to x rays by N-ethylmaleimide; sensitization of hypoxic mammalian cells with a sulfhydryl inhibitor; damage interaction due to ionizing and nonionizing radiation in mammalian cells; DNA damage relative to radioinduced cell killing; spurious photolability of DNA labeled with methyl- 14 C-thymidine; radioinduced malignant transformation of cultured mouse cells; a comparison of properties of uv and near uv light relative to cell function and DNA damage; Monte Carlo simulation of DNA damage and repair mechanisms; and radiobiology of fast neutrons

  4. Biological effect of radionuclides on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Khal'chenko, V.A.; Polyakova, V.Y.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shejn, G.P.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stated are dosimetry principles and given is an analysis of biological radionuclide effect on plants in aerial and root intakes. A comparative barley radiosensitivity characteristic depending on plant development phases during irradiation is given using LD 50 criteria. Considered is a possibility for using generalized bioinformation parameters as sensitive indications for estimating biological effects due to the influence of low radiation doses. On the grounds of data obtained generalization are forecasted probable losses of crops when getting radionuclides into plants during various vegetation periods

  5. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  6. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B S; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M; Cranston, Karen A; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J; White, Jeffery W; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J; Spalding, Edgar P; Vision, Todd J; Myers, Christopher R; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  7. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Goff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006. iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  8. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H.; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B. S.; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M.; Cranston, Karen A.; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J.; White, Jeffery W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vision, Todd J.; Myers, Christopher R.; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services. PMID:22645531

  9. Molecular biology of the cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Bruce; Walter, Peter; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Lewis, Julian; Johnson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    .... By extracting fundamental concepts and meaning from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers...

  10. Plant pathology: a story about biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas R; Leveau, Johan H J

    2010-01-01

    Disease is a universal feature of life for multicellular organisms, and the study of disease has contributed to the establishment of key concepts in the biological sciences. This implies strong connections between plant pathology and basic biology, something that could perhaps be made more apparent to undergraduate students interested in the life sciences. To that end, we present an instructional narrative that begins with a simple question: Why are there diseases? Responses and follow-up questions can facilitate exploration of such topics as the evolution of parasitism, plant adaptations to parasitism, impacts of parasites on native plant communities, and ways in which human intervention can foster the emergence of aggressive plant pathogens. This approach may help to attract students who would not have found their way to plant pathology through traditional pathways. Packaging the narrative as a game may render it more interesting and accessible, particularly to a younger audience.

  11. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  12. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of the action of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), as an inhibitor of repair of x radioinduced injuries were extended from synchronous Chinese hamster cells to synchronous human HeLa cells. These studies showed a similar mode of action in both cell types lending support to the notion that conclusions may be extracted from such observations that are of fairly general applicability to mammalian cells. Radiation studies with NEM are being extended to hypoxic cells to inquire if NEM is effective relative to oxygen-independent damage. Observations relative to survival, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand elongation resulting from the addition products to DNA when cells were exposed to near uv in the presence of psoralen were extended. (U.S.)

  13. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  14. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  15. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  16. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  17. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines.” Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, ...

  18. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  19. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  20. Plants - biological indicators. Pflanzen - Gradmesser der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The booklet informs briefly and in general on the kinds of damage plants sustain from environmental influences. Subsequently the most important toxic agents in the air (sulfur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, nitrous gases, photosmog, hydrochloric acid), in the soil (de-icing salt, heavy metals) and in water are dealt with in detail, the sources of pollution named and plants presented that may act as biological indicators for the individual pollutants. Hazards from agriculture (over-fertilization, burning of straw) and from tourism are briefly discussed and some hints given as to how the threats to the plant kingdom could be effectively countered.

  1. An initial biochemical and cell biological characterization of the mammalian homologue of a central plant developmental switch, COP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiyang

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1 has been defined as a central regulator of photomorphogenic development in plants, which targets key transcription factors for proteasome-dependent degradation. Although COP1 mammalian homologue has been previously reported, its function and distribution in animal kingdom are not known. Results Here we report the characterization of full-length human and mouse COP1 cDNAs and the genomic structures of the COP1 genes from several different species. Mammalian COP1 protein binds to ubiquitinated proteins in vivo and is itself ubiquitinated. Furthermore, mammalian COP1 is predominately nuclear localized and exists primarily as a complex of over 700 kDa. Through mutagenesis studies, we have defined a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES within the coiled-coil domain of mammalian COP1 and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, which is composed of two clusters of positive-charged amino acids, bridged by the RING finger. Disruption of the RING finger structure abolishes the nuclear import, while deletion of the entire RING finger restores the nuclear import. Conclusions Our data suggest that mammalian COP1, similar to its plant homologue, may play a role in ubiquitination. Mammalian COP1 contains a classic leucine-rich NES and a novel bipartite NLS bridged by a RING finger domain. We propose a working model in which the COP1 RING finger functions as a structural scaffold to bring two clusters of positive-charged residues within spatial proximity to mimic a bipartite NLS. Therefore, in addition to its well-characterized role in ubiquitination, the RING finger domain may also play a structural role in nuclear import.

  2. Modification-specific proteomics in plant biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Jensen, Ole N

    2010-01-01

    and proteomics. In general, methods for PTM characterization are developed to study yeast and mammalian biology and later adopted to investigate plants. Our point of view is that it is advantageous to enrich for PTMs on the peptide level as part of a quantitative proteomics strategy to not only identify the PTM...

  3. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  4. Plant cell culture initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The use of cultured plant cells in either organized or unorganized form has increased vey considerably in the last 10-15 yr. Many new technologies have been developed and applications in both fundamental and applied research have led to the development of some powerful tools for improving our

  5. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  6. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  7. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  8. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  9. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  10. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  11. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  12. Medicinal plants from Mali: Chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-12-24

    Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic

  13. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  14. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  15. My journey from horticulture to plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2009-01-01

    The author describes the circumstances and opportunities that led him to higher education and to pursue a research career in plant biology. He acknowledges the important roles a few individuals played in guiding him in his career. His early work on flowering was followed by studies on the physiological roles and the metabolism of gibberellins and abscisic acid. He describes how collaborations and technical developments advanced his research from measuring hormones by bioassay to their identification and quantification by mass spectrometry and cloning of hormone biosynthetic genes.

  16. Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology investigates the organization, compartmentalization, and biochemistry of eukaryotic cells and the pathology associated...

  17. Automatic detection of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves Da Costa, Caiuby

    1983-01-01

    The present research work has dealt with the analysis of biological cell images in general, and more specially with the cervical cells. This work was carried out in order to develop an automaton leading to a better prevention of cancer through automated mass screening. The device has been implemented on Motorola 68.000 microprocessor system. The automaton carries out cell nucleus analysis in several steps. The main steps are: - First: the automaton focuses on an individual cell nucleus among the smear's cell (about 10.000), - Second: it process each nucleus image. The digital processing yields geometrical of the nucleus (area and perimeter) for each cell. These data are stored in a local memory for further discriminant analysis by a microcomputer. In this way smears are classed in two groups: hale smears and uncertain smears. The automaton uses a wired logic for image acquisition and its software algorithms provide image reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithms are general purpose. Tests have proved that they can reconstruct any two dimensional images independently of its geometrical form. Moreover they can make the reconstruction of any image among the several images present in observation field. The processing times registered during the tests (for different cases) were situated, all of them, below three minutes for 10,000 images (each of them formed by an average of 450 pixels). The interest of the method is generality and speed. The only restriction is the primary device sensor (CCD linear array) length. Thus the automaton application can be extended beyond the biological image field. (author) [fr

  18. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  19. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  20. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  1. Plant ecdysteroids: plant sterols with intriguing distributions, biological effects and relations to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    The present review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones. Plant ecdysteroids (phytoecdysteroids) are natural polyhydroxylated compounds that have a four-ringed skeleton, usually composed of either 27 carbon atoms or 28-29 carbon atoms (biosynthetically derived from cholesterol or other plant sterols, respectively). Their physiological roles in plants have not yet been confirmed and their occurrence is not universal. Nevertheless, they are present at high concentrations in various plant species, including commonly consumed vegetables, and have a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties in mammals, including hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic effects, and anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, without androgenic side-effects. Furthermore, phytoecdysteroids can enhance stress resistance by promoting vitality and enhancing physical performance; thus, they are considered adaptogens. This review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones.

  2. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  3. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  4. Recent advances in plant centromere biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Liu, YaLin; Su, HanDong; Wang, HeFei; Birchler, James; Han, FangPu

    2015-03-01

    The centromere, which is one of the essential parts of a chromosome, controls kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. While centromere function is conserved in eukaryotes, the centromeric DNA sequences evolve rapidly and have few similarities among species. The histone H3 variant CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which mostly exists in centromeric nucleosomes, is a universal active centromere mark in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in centromere identity determination. The relationship between centromeric DNA sequences and centromere identity determination is one of the intriguing questions in studying centromere formation. Due to the discoveries in the past decades, including "neocentromeres" and "centromere inactivation", it is now believed that the centromere identity is determined by epigenetic mechanisms. This review will present recent progress in plant centromere biology.

  5. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial Modeling Tools for Cell Biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Przekwas, Andrzej; Friend, Tom; Teixeira, Rodrigo; Chen, Z. J; Wilkerson, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientific potentials and military relevance of computational biology and bioinformatics have inspired DARPA/IPTO's visionary BioSPICE project to develop computational framework and modeling tools for cell biology...

  7. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-02

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  8. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  9. Vital Autofluorescence: Application to the Study of Plant Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Roshchina

    2012-01-01

    approach to study the autofluorescence of plant living cells—from cell diagnostics up to modelling the cell-cell contacts and cell interactions with fluorescent biologically active substances. It bases on the direct observations of secretions released from allelopathic and medicinal species and the cell-donor interactions with cell-acceptors as biosensors (unicellular plant generative and vegetative microspores. Special attention was paid to the interactions with pigmented and fluorescing components of the secretions released by the cells-donors from plant species. Colored components of secretions are considered as histochemical dyes for the analysis of cellular mechanisms at the cell-cell contacts and modelling of cell-cell interactions. The fluorescence of plant biosensors was also recommended for the testing of natural plant excretions as medical drugs.

  10. Bacterial microcompartments as metabolic modules for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C Raul; Newnham, Sarah E; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are megadalton-sized protein assemblies that enclose segments of metabolic pathways within cells. They increase the catalytic efficiency of the encapsulated enzymes while sequestering volatile or toxic intermediates from the bulk cytosol. The first BMCs discovered were the carboxysomes of cyanobacteria. Carboxysomes compartmentalize the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) with carbonic anhydrase. They enhance the carboxylase activity of RuBisCO by increasing the local concentration of CO2 in the vicinity of the enzyme's active site. As a metabolic module for carbon fixation, carboxysomes could be transferred to eukaryotic organisms (e.g. plants) to increase photosynthetic efficiency. Within the scope of synthetic biology, carboxysomes and other BMCs hold even greater potential when considered a source of building blocks for the development of nanoreactors or three-dimensional scaffolds to increase the efficiency of either native or heterologously expressed enzymes. The carboxysome serves as an ideal model system for testing approaches to engineering BMCs because their expression in cyanobacteria provides a sensitive screen for form (appearance of polyhedral bodies) and function (ability to grow on air). We recount recent progress in the re-engineering of the carboxysome shell and core to offer a conceptual framework for the development of BMC-based architectures for applications in plant synthetic biology. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Heavy ion induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Yu, L.D.; Apavatjrut, P.; Phanchaisri, B.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Brown, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment of biological materials for genetic modification purposes has experienced rapid growth in the last decade, particularly for the direct DNA transfer into living organisms including both plants and bacteria. Attempts have been made to understand the mechanisms involved in ion-bombardment-induced direct gene transfer into biological cells. Here we summarize the present status of the application of low-energy ions for genetic modification of living sample materials

  12. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  13. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work "Pensieri sulla biologia vegetale" (Thoughts on plant biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist it is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science.

  14. Invasive plants affect prairie soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native or exotic plants often cause ecological and environmental damage in ecosystems where they invade and become established. These invasive plants may be the most serious threat to plant diversity in prairies, especially those in scattered remnants, which may be particularly vulnerable to rap...

  15. Laser-mediated perforation of plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Jacobs, Philipp; Esser, Dominik; Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    The functional analysis of plant cells at the cellular and subcellular levels requires novel technologies for the directed manipulation of individual cells. Lasers are increasingly exploited for the manipulation of plant cells, enabling the study of biological processes on a subcellular scale including transformation to generate genetically modified plants. In our setup either a picosecond laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength or a continuous wave laser diode emitting at 405 nm are coupled into an inverse microscope. The beams are focused to a spot size of about 1.5 μm and the tobacco cell protoplasts are irradiated. Optoporation is achieved when targeting the laser focal spot at the outermost edge of the plasma membrane. In case of the picosecond laser a single pulse with energy of about 0.4 μJ was sufficient to perforate the plasma membrane enabling the uptake of dye or DNA from the surrounding medium into the cytosol. When the ultraviolet laser diode at a power level of 17 mW is employed an irradiation time of 200 - 500 milliseconds is necessary to enable the uptake of macromolecules. In the presence of an EYFP encoding plasmid with a C-terminal peroxisomal signal sequence in the surrounding medium transient transformation of tobacco protoplasts could be achieved in up to 2% of the optoporated cells. Single cell perforation using this novel optoporation method shows that isolated plant cells can be permeabilized without direct manipulation. This is a valuable procedure for cell-specific applications, particularly where the import of specific molecules into plant cells is required for functional analysis.

  16. Biological Control of Plant Disease Caused by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases in plants are difficult to control. The emphasis is on preventing the spread of the bacteria rather than curing the diseased plant. Integrated management measures for bacterial plant pathogens should be applied for successfull control. Biological control is one of the control measures viz. through the use of microorganisms to suppress the growth and development of bacterial plant pathogen and ultimately reduce the possibility of disease onset. The study of biological control of bacterial plant pathogen was just began compared with of fungal plant pathogen. The ecological nature of diverse bacterial plant pathogens has led scientists to apply different approach in the investigation of its biological control. The complex process of entrance to its host plant for certain soil-borne bacterial plant pathogens need special techniques and combination of more than one biological control agent. Problem and progress in controlling bacterial plant pathogens biologically will be discussed in more detail in the paper and some commercial products of biological control agents (biopesticides will be introduced.     Penyakit tumbuhan karena bakteri sulit dikendalikan. Penekanan pengendalian adalah pada pencegahan penyebaran bakteri patogen dan bukan pada penyembuhan tanaman yang sudah sakit. Untuk suksesnya pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan diperlukan cara pengelolaan yang terpadu. Pengendalian secara biologi merupakan salah satu cara pengendalian dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme untuk menekan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bakteri patogen tumbuhan dengan tujuan akhir menurunkan kemungkinan timbulnya penyakit. Sifat ekologi bakteri patogen tumbuhan yang berbeda-beda mengharuskan pendekatan yang berbeda pula dalam pengendaliannya secara biologi. Masalah dan perkembangan dalam pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan secara biologi didiskusikan secara detail dalam makalah ini.

  17. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  18. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Ravlić; Renata Baličević

    2014-01-01

    Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated) biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides) or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chem...

  19. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...... language, where each cell is adapted to communicate with one or more other cells in the system, and where the system further comprises a converter program adapted to convert keywords from the DNA language to a binary DNA code; where the self-organisation comprises that the DNA code is transmitted to one...... or more of the cells, and each of the one or more cells is adapted to determine its function in the system; where if a fault occurs in a first cell and the first cell ceases to perform its function, self-maintenance is performed by that the system transmits information to the cells that the first cell has...

  1. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-03-02

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions.

  3. Phytochemical and biological assessment of medicinally important plant ochradenus arabicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, J.

    2014-01-01

    Jabal Al-Akhdar (Oman) is one of diverse floral region of Arabian Peninsula. Ochradenus arabicus, is an important medicinal plant to local people of the area. However, little is known about its potential role in biological activities against various emerging ailments. The collected plant samples were extracted with methanol and fractionated into n-hexane (JOAH), ethyl acetate (JOAE), chloroform (JOAC), n-butanol (JOAB) and water (JOAAQ). Various concentrations of these fractions were tested for their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, phenolics, flavonoids, allopathic and nutrition quality properties. The results showed that fruits and leaves of O. arabicus have higher levels of carbohydrate, crude fats, fibres, proteins, moisture, ash and energy values. In phytotoxic activities, JOAAQ inhibited the lettuce seed germination and growth. The anticancer activities of fractions showed that JOAE, JOAB and JOAAQ are potent to reduce the cancer cell viability of HT29, HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 lines with a concentration of 1000 micro g/ml. JOAB showed a meagre activity of 12% in Glucosidase inhibition assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in JOAE, which also resulted in higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to other fractions and control. JOAE also exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results of current findings suggest that O. arabicus is a potential medicinal plants, which could be subjected to advance column chromatography for lead compounds using a bioassay guided approach. (author)

  4. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  5. Teaching Cell Biology in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francele de Abreu Carlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic concepts of cell biology are essential for scientific literacy. However, because many aspects of cell theory and cell functioning are quite abstract, students experience difficulties understanding them. In this study, we investigated whether diverse teaching resources such as the use of replicas of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope, visualization of cells using an optical microscope, construction of three-dimensional cell models, and reading of a comic book about cells could mitigate the difficulties encountered when teaching cell biology to 8th-grade primary school students. The results suggest that these didactic activities improve students’ ability to learn concrete concepts about cell biology, such as the composition of living beings, growth, and cicatrization. Also, the development of skills was observed, as, for example, the notion of cell size. However, no significant improvements were observed in students’ ability to learn about abstract topics, such as the structures of subcellular organelles and their functions. These results suggest that many students in this age have not yet concluded Piaget’s concrete operational stage, indicating that the concepts required for the significant learning of abstract subjects need to be explored more thoroughly in the process of designing programs that introduce primary school students to cell biology.

  6. Outside-in control -Does plant cell wall integrity regulate cell cycle progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli-Bisceglia, Nora; Hamann, Thorsten

    2018-04-13

    During recent years it has become accepted that plant cell walls are not inert objects surrounding all plant cells but are instead highly dynamic, plastic structures. They are involved in a large number of cell biological processes and contribute actively to plant growth, development and interaction with environment. Therefore, it is not surprising that cellular processes can control plant cell wall integrity while, simultaneously, cell wall integrity can influence cellular processes. In yeast and animal cells such a bi-directional relationship also exists between the yeast/animal extra-cellular matrices and the cell cycle. In yeast, the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism and a dedicated plasmamembrane integrity checkpoint are mediating this relationship. Recent research has yielded insights into the mechanism controlling plant cell wall metabolism during cytokinesis. However, knowledge regarding putative regulatory pathways controlling adaptive modifications in plant cell cycle activity in response to changes in the state of the plant cell wall are not yet identified. In this review, we summarize similarities and differences in regulatory mechanisms coordinating extra cellular matrices and cell cycle activity in animal and yeast cells, discuss the available evidence supporting the existence of such a mechanism in plants and suggest that the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism might also control cell cycle activity in plant cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational Tools for Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qin; Cahan, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    For over half a century, the field of developmental biology has leveraged computation to explore mechanisms of developmental processes. More recently, computational approaches have been critical in the translation of high throughput data into knowledge of both developmental and stem cell biology. In the past several years, a new subdiscipline of computational stem cell biology has emerged that synthesizes the modeling of systems-level aspects of stem cells with high-throughput molecular data. In this review, we provide an overview of this new field and pay particular attention to the impact that single cell transcriptomics is expected to have on our understanding of development and our ability to engineer cell fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioengineering thermodynamics of biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2015-12-01

    Cells are open complex thermodynamic systems. They can be also regarded as complex engines that execute a series of chemical reactions. Energy transformations, thermo-electro-chemical processes and transports phenomena can occur across the cells membranes. Moreover, cells can also actively modify their behaviours in relation to changes in their environment. Different thermo-electro-biochemical behaviours occur between health and disease states. But, all the living systems waste heat, which is no more than the result of their internal irreversibility. This heat is dissipated into the environment. But, this wasted heat represent also a sort of information, which outflows from the cell toward its environment, completely accessible to any observer. The analysis of irreversibility related to this wasted heat can represent a new approach to study the behaviour of the cells themselves and to control their behaviours. So, this approach allows us to consider the living systems as black boxes and analyze only the inflows and outflows and their changes in relation to the modification of the environment. Therefore, information on the systems can be obtained by analyzing the changes in the cell heat wasted in relation to external perturbations. The bioengineering thermodynamics bases are summarized and used to analyse possible controls of the calls behaviours based on the control of the ions fluxes across the cells membranes.

  9. Microbiome studies in the biological control of plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of plant pathogens, although it has been a successful alternative that has allowed to select microorganisms for the generation of bioproducts and to understand multiple biological mechanisms, cannot be considered as a strategy defined only from the selection of a range of cultiva...

  10. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  11. The cell biology of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayflick, L

    1985-02-01

    It is only within the past ten years that biogerontology has become attractive to a sufficient number of biologists so that the field can be regarded as a seriously studied discipline. Cytogerontology, or the study of aging at the cellular level, had its genesis about 20 years ago when the dogma that maintained that cultured normal cells could replicate forever was overturned. Normal human and animal cells have a finite capacity to replicate and function whether they are cultured in vitro or transplanted as grafts in vivo. This phenomenon has been interpreted to be aging at the cellular level. Only abnormal somatic cells are capable of immortality. In recent years it has been found that the number of population doublings of which cultured normal cells are capable is inversely proportional to donor age. There is also good evidence that the number of population doublings of cultured normal fibroblasts is directly proportional to the maximum lifespan of ten species that have been studied. Cultures prepared from patients with accelerated aging syndromes (progeria and Werner's syndrome) undergo far fewer doublings than do those of age-matched controls. The normal human fibroblast cell strain WI-38 was established in 1962 from fetal lung, and several hundred ampules of these cells were frozen in liquid nitrogen at that time. These ampules have been reconstituted periodically and shown to be capable of replication. This represents the longest period of time that a normal human cell has ever been frozen. Normal human fetal cell strains such as WI-38 have the capacity to double only about 50 times. If cultures are frozen at various population doublings, the number of doublings remaining after reconstitution is equal to 50 minus the number of doublings that occurred prior to freezing. The memory of the cells has been found to be accurate after 23 years of preservation in liquid nitrogen. Normal human cells incur many physiologic decrements that herald the approach of their

  12. Targeted enrichment strategies for next-generation plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Cronn; Brian J. Knaus; Aaron Liston; Peter J. Maughan; Matthew Parks; John V. Syring; Joshua. Udall

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic advances offered by modem DNA sequencers continue to redefine the limits of what can be accomplished in comparative plant biology. Even with recent achievements, however, plant genomes present obstacles that can make it difficult to execute large-scale population and phylogenetic studies on next-generation sequencing platforms. Factors like large genome...

  13. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual project report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future, environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain...... of Biomass, 3. DLF-Risø Biotechnology, 4. Plant Genetics and Epidemiology, 5. Biogeochemistry and 6. Plant Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycling. This electronicversion of the annual report from the Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department aims to provide information about the progress in our research. Each...... on the environment. This knowledge will lead to a greater prosperity and welfare for agriculture, industry and consumers in Denmark. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental and the projects areorganized in six research programmes: 1. Plant-Microbe Symbioses, 2. Plant Products and Recycling...

  14. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain...... of Biomass, 3. DLF-Risø Biotechnology, 4. Plant Genetics and Epidemiology, 5. Biogeochemistry and 6. Plant Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycling. This version ofthe annual report from the Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department aims to provide information about the progress in our research. Each programme...... on the environment. This knowledge will lead to a greater prosperity and welfare for agriculture, industry and consumers in Denmark. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental and the projects areorganized in six research programmes: 1. Plant-Microbe Symbioses, 2. Plant Products and Recycling...

  15. Introduction to nuclear techniques in agronomy and plant biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: nature of isotopes and radiation; nuclear reactions; working with radioisotopes; detection systems and instrumentation; radioassay; radioisotopes and tracer principles; stable isotopes as tracers - mainly the use of 15 N; activation analysis for biological samples; x-ray fluorescence spectrography for plants and soils; autoradiography; isotopes in soils studies; isotopic tracers in field experimentation; nuclear techniques in plant science; nuclear techniques for soil water; radiation and other induced mutation in plant breeding. (author)

  16. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough,.

  17. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as w...

  18. Cell biology experiments conducted in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  19. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chemical herbicides are not allowed, if resistant weed species are present or in the integrated pest management against weeds with reduced herbicides doses and other non-chemical measures, but it has certain limitations and disadvantages.

  20. Annual report. (Air quality criteria and plants as biological indicators)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to derive air quality criteria as the basis for establishing emission limits. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of plant species which are important to the economy and public health. Among the specific avenues of investigation have been: the determination of phytotoxic hydrogen fluoride concentrations; studies on the resistance behavior of cultivated plants; fluorine enrichment in plant organs as a function of exposure height and wind speed; development and use of biological methods for detecting atmospheric impurities; detection of sulfur dioxide effects on plants; the use of transplanted lichens as air pollution indicators; grass cultures as indicators of fluorine pollution; biological accumulation of fluorine as a function of HF concentration in air; and the determination of lead and zinc levels in plants. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  1. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  2. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation

  3. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  4. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  5. Electromagnetic effects - From cell biology to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W; Monsees, Thomas; Ozkucur, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In this review we compile and discuss the published plethora of cell biological effects which are ascribed to electric fields (EF), magnetic fields (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF). In recent years, a change in paradigm took place concerning the endogenously produced static EF of cells and tissues. Here, modern molecular biology could link the action of ion transporters and ion channels to the "electric" action of cells and tissues. Also, sensing of these mainly EF could be demonstrated in studies of cell migration and wound healing. The triggers exerted by ion concentrations and concomitant electric field gradients have been traced along signaling cascades till gene expression changes in the nucleus. Far more enigmatic is the way of action of static MF which come in most cases from outside (e.g. earth magnetic field). All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology.

  6. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author)

  7. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  8. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  9. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda.

  10. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...... in the context of stem cell tracking in vivo. This review concludes with a section on the unexpected potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells to contribute to the repair of damaged tissues. The contribution of cell fusion to explain the latter phenomenon is discussed. SUMMARY: Because of exciting discoveries...

  11. Measuring the elasticity of plant cells with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of biological materials impact their functions. This is most evident in plants where the cell wall contains each cell's contents and connects each cell to its neighbors irreversibly. Examining the physical properties of the plant cell wall is key to understanding how plant cells, tissues, and organs grow and gain the shapes important for their respective functions. Here, we present an atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation method for examining the elasticity of plant cells at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue level. We describe the important areas of experimental design to be considered when planning and executing these types of experiments and provide example data as illustration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Introduction to nuclear techniques in agronomy and plant biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A scientific textbook concerning the use of nuclear techniques in agricultural and biological studies has been written. In the early chapters, basic radiation physics principles are described including the nature of isotopes and radiation, nuclear reactions, working with radioisotopes, detection systems and instrumentation, radioassay and tracer techniques. The remaining chapters describe the applications of various nuclear techniques including activation analysis for biological samples, X-ray fluorescence spectrography for plants and soils, autoradiography, isotopes in soils studies, isotopic tracers in field experimentation, nuclear techniques in plant function and soil water studies and radiation-induced mutations in plant breeding. The principles and methods of these nuclear techniques are described in a straightforward manner together with details of many possible agricultural and biological studies which students could perform. (U.K.)

  13. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral polymer phase system consisting of 7.5 percent dextran 40/4.5 percent PEG 6, 0.11 M Na phosphate, 5 percent fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.5, was developed which has a high phase droplet electrophoretic mobility and retains cell viability over many hours. In this and related systems, the drop mobility was a linear function of drop size, at least in the range 4-30 micron diameter. Applications of and electric field of 4.5 v/cm to a system containing 10 percent v/v bottom phase cleared the system more than two orders of magnitude faster than in the absence of the field. At higher bottom phase concentrations a secondary phenomenon intervened in the field driven separations which resulted in an increase in turbidity after clearing had commenced. The increase was associated with a dilution of the phase system in the chamber. The effect depended on the presence of the electric field. It may be due to electroosmotic flow of buffer through the Amicon membranes into the sample chamber and flow of phase system out into the rinse stream. Strategies to eliminate this problem are proposed.

  14. The Virtual Cell: a software environment for computational cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, L M; Schaff, J C

    2001-10-01

    The newly emerging field of computational cell biology requires software tools that address the needs of a broad community of scientists. Cell biological processes are controlled by an interacting set of biochemical and electrophysiological events that are distributed within complex cellular structures. Computational modeling is familiar to researchers in fields such as molecular structure, neurobiology and metabolic pathway engineering, and is rapidly emerging in the area of gene expression. Although some of these established modeling approaches can be adapted to address problems of interest to cell biologists, relatively few software development efforts have been directed at the field as a whole. The Virtual Cell is a computational environment designed for cell biologists as well as for mathematical biologists and bioengineers. It serves to aid the construction of cell biological models and the generation of simulations from them. The system enables the formulation of both compartmental and spatial models, the latter with either idealized or experimentally derived geometries of one, two or three dimensions.

  15. The central dogma of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S

    1981-06-01

    The Continuum Model proposes that preparations for DNA synthesis occur continuously during all phases of the division cycle. Various stimuli activate cell proliferation by changing the rate of initiator (protein) synthesis. Cell division does not initiate any process regulating cell proliferation. Cell division is the end of a process and the beginning of nothing. The alternative model which has cell proliferation regulated in the G1 phase of the division cycle is reexamined and the two types of evidence for this model, G1-variability and G1-arrest are shown to be compatible with the Continuum Model. Here, the Continuum Model is generalized to produce a new look at the logic of the division cycle in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This new view, the Central Dogma of Cell Biology, is presented and two predictions are made. I propose that (i) cell division does not have any regulatory function, and (ii) that DNA synthesis may, indeed, have some affect on the synthesis of initiator.

  16. CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A.; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Daley, George Q.; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population, and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering. PMID:25126793

  17. Phenotype-Based Screening of Small Molecules to Modify Plant Cell Walls Using BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo-Kurihara, Emiko; Matsui, Minami

    2018-01-01

    The plant cell wall is an important and abundant biomass with great potential for use as a modern recyclable resource. For effective utilization of this cellulosic biomass, its ability to degrade efficiently is key point. With the aim of modifying the cell wall to allow easy decomposition, we used chemical biological technology to alter its structure. As a first step toward evaluating the chemicals in the cell wall we employed a phenotype-based approach using high-throughput screening. As the plant cell wall is essential in determining cell morphology, phenotype-based screening is particularly effective in identifying compounds that bring about alterations in the cell wall. For rapid and reproducible screening, tobacco BY-2 cell is an excellent system in which to observe cell morphology. In this chapter, we provide a detailed chemical biological methodology for studying cell morphology using tobacco BY-2 cells.

  18. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  19. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  20. Method and apparatus to image biological interactions in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Bonito, Gregory M.; Reid, Chantal D.; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2015-12-22

    A method to dynamically image the actual translocation of molecular compounds of interest in a plant root, root system, and rhizosphere without disturbing the root or the soil. The technique makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules of interest and to image their distribution in the plant and/or soil. The method allows for the study and imaging of various biological and biochemical interactions in the rhizosphere of a plant, including, but not limited to, mycorrhizal associations in such regions.

  1. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific basis for developing new methods and technology for an environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production in the future. TheDepartment's expertise covers a wide range...... of areas needed to develop crops that meet the demands to increase agricultural production for a growing population, to produce plants with improved nutritional value, to develop crops that deliver renewableresources to the industry, and to generate plants that are adapted to the future climate...

  2. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts. © 2017 The Authors. Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  3. What history tells us XXIX. Transfers from plant biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 6. What history tells us XXIX. Transfers from plant biology: From cross protection to RNA interference and DNA vaccination. Michel Morange. Series Volume 37 Issue 6 December 2012 pp 949-952 ...

  4. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  5. Isoprenoid-derived plant signaling molecules: biosynthesis and biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 247, č. 5 (2018), s. 1051-1066 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Dimethylallyl diphosphate * Isopentenyl diphosphate * Isoprenoids * Phytoecdysteroids * Plant hormones * Terpenoids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  6. Plant glyco-biotechnology on the way to synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eLoos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are increasingly being used for the production of recombinant proteins. One reason is that plants are highly amenable for glycan engineering processes and allow the production of therapeutic proteins with increased efficacies due to optimized glycosylation profiles. Removal and insertion of glycosylation reactions by knock-out/knock-down approaches and introduction of glycosylation enzymes have paved the way for the humanization of the plant glycosylation pathway. The insertion of heterologous enzymes at exactly the right stage of the existing glycosylation pathway has turned out to be of utmost importance for optimal results. To enable such precise targeting chimeric enzymes have been constructed. In this short review we will exemplify the importance of correct targeting of glycosyltransferases, we will give an overview of the targeting mechanism of glycosyltransferases, describe chimeric enzymes used in plant N-glycosylation engineering and illustrate how plant glycoengineering builds on the tools offered by synthetic biology to construct such chimeric enzymes.

  7. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  8. AFM Nanotools for Surgery of Biological Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Gordeev, S N [Department of Physics, Claverton Down, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Guy, R H, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Claverton Down, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    Using a method of electron-beam induced deposition, we have been able to fabricate specialized AFM probes with application as 'nanotools' for the manipulation of biological structures ('nanosurgery'). We describe several such tools, including a 'nanoscalpel', 'nanoneedles' for probing intracellular structures, and a 'nanotome' which can separate surface layers from a biological structure. These applications are demonstrated by performing nanomanipulation on corneocyte cells from the outer layer of human skin.

  9. Implications of Big Data for cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinski, Kara; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2015-01-01

    “Big Data” has surpassed “systems biology” and “omics” as the hottest buzzword in the biological sciences, but is there any substance behind the hype? Certainly, we have learned about various aspects of cell and molecular biology from the many individual high-throughput data sets that have been published in the past 15–20 years. These data, although useful as individual data sets, can provide much more knowledge when interrogated with Big Data approaches, such as applying integrative methods ...

  10. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  11. Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Elisabeth M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Eggert, Ulrike S

    2018-06-20

    Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.

  12. Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.

  13. Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J Z

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Elena; Edwards, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.

  15. The changing world of modern cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misteli, Tom

    2009-01-12

    Change is always ambiguous. There is the enticing prospect of novelty and better times ahead, but at the same time the concern of losing the good of the past. It is with these sentiments that I take over as the Editor-in-Chief from Ira Mellman who for a decade has cleverly and effectively lead the JCB. During this time he directed and oversaw an extensive modernization of the journal and guided it through dramatic changes in the publishing world. Ira lead the journal with unyielding dedication and enthusiasm and we in the cell biology community must thank him profoundly for his service. It is his work, together with the invaluable contribution of the best editorial board and the most dedicated professional editorial staff in the scientific publishing business, that allows me to now take over the stewardship of the JCB with a tremendous sense of excitement and determination to continue and expand the JCB's role as the leading journal in the cell biology community and as a trendsetter in the rapidly changing world of modern cell biology.

  16. Green light for quantitative live-cell imaging in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Guido; Krebs, Melanie; Maizel, Alexis; Stahl, Yvonne; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Ott, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Plants exhibit an intriguing morphological and physiological plasticity that enables them to thrive in a wide range of environments. To understand the cell biological basis of this unparalleled competence, a number ofmethodologies have been adapted or developed over the last decades that allow

  17. Recombinant biologic products versus nutraceuticals from plants - a regulatory choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Pascal M W; Szeto, Tim H; Paul, Mathew J; Teh, Audrey Y-H; Ma, Julian K-C

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnology has transformed the potential for plants to be a manufacturing source of pharmaceutical compounds. Now, with transgenic and transient expression techniques, virtually any biologic, including vaccines and therapeutics, could be manufactured in plants. However, uncertainty over the regulatory path for such new pharmaceuticals has been a deterrent. Consideration has been given to using alternative regulatory paths, including those for nutraceuticals or cosmetic agents. This review will consider these possibilities, and discuss the difficulties in establishing regulatory guidelines for new pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Pectin: cell biology and prospects for functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willats, W G; McCartney, L; Mackie, W; Knox, J P

    2001-09-01

    Pectin is a major component of primary cell walls of all land plants and encompasses a range of galacturonic acid-rich polysaccharides. Three major pectic polysaccharides (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I and rhamnogalacturonan-II) are thought to occur in all primary cell walls. This review surveys what is known about the structure and function of these pectin domains. The high degree of structural complexity and heterogeneity of the pectic matrix is produced both during biosynthesis in the endomembrane system and as a result of the action of an array of wall-based pectin-modifying enzymes. Recent developments in analytical techniques and in the generation of anti-pectin probes have begun to place the structural complexity of pectin in cell biological and developmental contexts. The in muro de-methyl-esterification of homogalacturonan by pectin methyl esterases is emerging as a key process for the local modulation of matrix properties. Rhamnogalacturonan-I comprises a highly diverse population of spatially and developmentally regulated polymers, whereas rhamnogalacturonan-II appears to be a highly conserved and stable pectic domain. Current knowledge of biosynthetic enzymes, plant and microbial pectinases and the interactions of pectin with other cell wall components and the impact of molecular genetic approaches are reviewed in terms of the functional analysis of pectic polysaccharides in plant growth and development.

  19. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Proteomics in studying cancer stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Onno; Emmink, Benjamin L; Knol, Jaco; van Houdt, Winan J; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Jimenez, Connie R

    2012-06-01

    Normal multipotent tissue stem cells (SCs) are the driving force behind tissue turnover and repair. The cancer stem cell theory holds that tumors also contain stem-like cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis formation. However, very little is known about the regulation of SC maintenance pathways in cancer and how these are affected by cancer-specific genetic alterations and by treatment. Proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool to identify the signaling complexes and pathways that control multi- and pluri-potency and SC differentiation. Here, the authors review the novel insights that these studies have provided and present a comprehensive strategy for the use of proteomics in studying cancer SC biology.

  1. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Radka Staňková; Lucia Godočíková; Tomáš Krajčovič; Štefan Dráb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diff...

  2. An introduction to plant cell culture: the future ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture (PTC) techniques were developed and established as an experimental necessity for solving important fundamental questions in plant biology, but they currently represent very useful biotechnological tools for a series of important applications such as commercial micropropagation of different plant species, generation of disease-free plant materials, production of haploid and doublehaploid plants, induction of epigenetic or genetic variation for the isolation of variant plants, obtention of novel hybrid plants through the rescue of hybrid embryos or somatic cell fusion from intra- or intergeneric sources, conservation of valuable plant germplasm, and is the keystone for genetic engineering of plants to produce disease and pest resistant varieties, to engineer metabolic pathways with the aim of producing specific secondary metabolites or as an alternative for biopharming. Some other miscellaneous applications involve the utilization of in vitro cultures to test toxic compounds and the possibilities of removing them (bioremediation), interaction of root cultures with nematodes or mycorrhiza, or the use of shoot cultures to maintain plant viruses. With the increased worldwide demand for biofuels, it seems that PTC will certainly be fundamental for engineering different plants species in order to increase the diversity of biofuel options, lower the price marketing, and enhance the production efficiency. Several aspects and applications of PTC such as those mentioned above are the focus of this edition.

  3. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl, which connected to the C(1 position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.

  4. Profile of biology prospective teachers’ representation on plant anatomy learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermayanti; Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to obtaining students’ representation ability in understanding the structure and function of plant tissues in plant anatomy course. Thirty students of The Biology Education Department of Sriwijaya University were involved in this study. Data on representation ability were collected using test and observation. The instruments had been validated by expert judgment. Test scores were used to represent students’ ability in 4 categories: 2D-image, 3D-image, spatial, and verbal representations. The results show that students’ representation ability is still low: 2D-image (40.0), 3D-image (25.0), spatial (20.0), and verbal representation (45.0). Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that instructional strategies be developed for plant anatomy course.

  5. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  6. CellNet: network biology applied to stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Daley, George Q; Collins, James J

    2014-08-14

    Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-free synthetic biology: thinking outside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    Cell-free synthetic biology is emerging as a powerful approach aimed to understand, harness, and expand the capabilities of natural biological systems without using intact cells. Cell-free systems bypass cell walls and remove genetic regulation to enable direct access to the inner workings of the cell. The unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the rapid development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems in recent years. These efforts have led to programmed circuits, spatially organized pathways, co-activated catalytic ensembles, rational optimization of synthetic multi-enzyme pathways, and linear scalability from the micro-liter to the 100-liter scale. It is now clear that cell-free systems offer a versatile test-bed for understanding why nature's designs work the way they do and also for enabling biosynthetic routes to novel chemicals, sustainable fuels, and new classes of tunable materials. While challenges remain, the emergence of cell-free systems is poised to open the way to novel products that until now have been impractical, if not impossible, to produce by other means. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biophysical mechanisms complementing "classical" cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W

    2018-01-01

    This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration. Here, coupling into classical biochemical signaling and reactions can be shown by modern microscopy, electronics and bioinformatics. Further, one can follow the triggered reactions seamlessly via molecular biology till into genetics. Direct observation of intracellular electric processes is very difficult because of e.g. shielding through the cell membrane and damping by other structures. Therefore, we have to rely on photonic and photon - phonon coupling phenomena like molecular vibrations, which are addressed within the second part. Molecules normally possess different charge moieties and thus small electromagnetic (EMF) patterns arise during molecular vibration. These patterns can now be measured best within the optical part of the spectrum - much less in the lower terahertz till kHz and lower Hz part (third part of this review). Finally, EMFs facilitate quantum informative processes in coherent domains of molecular, charge and electron spin motion. This helps to coordinate such manifold and intertwined processes going on within cells, tissues and organs (part 4). Because the phenomena described in part 3 and 4 of the review still await really hard proofs we need concerted efforts and a combination of biophysics, molecular biology and informatics to unravel the described mysteries in "physics of life".

  9. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  10. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-06-08

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. © 2015 Helma et al.

  11. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  12. Permanganate Fixation of Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.

    1959-01-01

    In an evaluation of procedures explored to circumvent some of the problems of osmium tetroxide-fixation and methacrylate embedding of plant materials, excised segments of root tips of Zea mays were fixed for electron microscopy in potassium permanganate in the following treatment variations: unbuffered and veronal-acetate buffered solutions of 0.6, 2.0, and 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at pH 5.0, 6.0, 6.7, and 7.5, and temperatures of 2–4°C. and 22°C. After fixation the segments were dehydrated, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned, and observed or photographed. The cells of the central region of the rootcap are described. The fixation procedures employing unbuffered solutions containing 2.0 to 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at a temperature of 22°C. gave particularly good preservation of cell structure and all membrane systems. Similar results were obtained using a solution containing 2.0 per cent KMnO4, buffered with veronal-acetate to pH 6.0, and a fixation time of 2 hours at 22°C. The fixation procedure utilizing veronal-acetate buffered, 0.6 per cent KMnO4 at 2–4°C. and pH 6.7 also gave relatively good preservation of most cellular constituents. However, preservation of the plasma membrane was not so good, nor was the intensity of staining so great, as that with the group of fixatives containing greater concentrations of KMnO4. The other fixation procedures did not give satisfactory preservation of fine structure. A comparison is made of cell structures as fixed in KMnO4 or OsO4. PMID:14423414

  13. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the

  14. The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

    2011-01-01

    Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

  15. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  16. Cell Biology of Astrocyte-Synapse Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicola J; Eroglu, Cagla

    2017-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the mammalian brain, are critical regulators of brain development and physiology through dynamic and often bidirectional interactions with neuronal synapses. Despite the clear importance of astrocytes for the establishment and maintenance of proper synaptic connectivity, our understanding of their role in brain function is still in its infancy. We propose that this is at least in part due to large gaps in our knowledge of the cell biology of astrocytes and the mechanisms they use to interact with synapses. In this review, we summarize some of the seminal findings that yield important insight into the cellular and molecular basis of astrocyte-neuron communication, focusing on the role of astrocytes in the development and remodeling of synapses. Furthermore, we pose some pressing questions that need to be addressed to advance our mechanistic understanding of the role of astrocytes in regulating synaptic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant oligoadenylates: enzymatic synthesis, isolation, and biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devash, Y.; Reichman, M.; Sela, I.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Suhadolnik, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme that converts [ 3 H, 32 P]ATP, with a 3 H: 32 P ratio of 1:1, to oligoadenylates with the same 3 H: 32 P ratio was increased in plants following treatment with human leukocyte interferon or plant antiviral factor or inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. The enzyme was extracted from tobacco leaves, callus tissue cultures, or cell suspension cultures. The enzyme, a putative plant oligoadenylate synthetase, was immobilized on poly(rI) . poly(rC)-agarose columns and converted ATP into plant oligoadenylates. These oligoadenylates were displaced from DEAE-cellulose columns with 350 mM KCl buffer, dialyzed, and further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DEAE-cellulose gradient chromatography. In all steps of purification, the ratio of 3 H: 32 P in the oligoadenylates remained 1:1. The plant oligoadenylates isolated by displacement with 350 mM KCl had a molecular weight greater than 1000. The plant oligoadenylates had charges of 5- and 6-. HPLC resolved five peaks, three of which inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte and wheat germ systems. Partial structural elucidation of the plant oligoadenylates has been determined by enzymatic and chemical treatments. An adenylate with a 3',5'-phosphodiester and/or a pyrophosphoryl linkage with either 3'- or 5'-terminal phosphates is postulated on the basis of treatment of the oligoadenylates with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase and acid and alkaline hydrolyses. The plant oligoadenylates at 8 X 10(-7) M inhibit protein synthesis by 75% in lysates from rabbit reticulocytes and 45% in wheat germ cell-free systems

  18. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathological modifications of plant stem cell destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    In higher plants, the shoot apex contains undifferentiated stem cells that give rise to various tissues and organs. The fate of these stem cells determines the pattern of plant growth as well as reproduction; and such fate is genetically preprogrammed. We found that a bacterial infection can derai...

  20. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  1. Microtubule networks for plant cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de Jeroen; Mulder, B.M.; Janson, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called

  2. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  3. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  4. Cellular and molecular biology of the prostate: stem cell biology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalken, J.A.; Leenders, G.J.L.H. van

    2003-01-01

    The normal prostate shows a high degree of cellular organization. The basal layer is populated by prostate epithelial stem cells and a population of transiently proliferating/amplifying (TP/A) cells intermediate to the stem cells and fully differentiated cells. The luminal layer is composed of fully

  5. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Feedback dynamics and cell function: Why systems biology is called Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Mesarovic, Mihajlo

    2005-05-01

    A new paradigm, like Systems Biology, should challenge the way research has been conducted previously. This Opinion article aims to present Systems Biology, not as the application of engineering principles to biology but as a merger of systems- and control theory with molecular- and cell biology. In our view, the central dogma of Systems Biology is that it is system dynamics that gives rise to the functioning and function of cells. The concepts of feedback regulation and control of pathways and the coordination of cell function are emphasized as an important area of Systems Biology research. The hurdles and risks for this area are discussed from the perspective of dynamic pathway modelling. Most of all, the aim of this article is to promote mathematical modelling and simulation as a part of molecular- and cell biology. Systems Biology is a success if it is widely accepted that there is nothing more practical than a good theory.

  7. Manufacturing economics of plant-made biologics: case studies in therapeutic and industrial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusé, Daniel; Tu, Tiffany; McDonald, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant biologics in plants has received considerable attention as an alternative platform to traditional microbial and animal cell culture. Industrially relevant features of plant systems include proper eukaryotic protein processing, inherent safety due to lack of adventitious agents, more facile scalability, faster production (transient systems), and potentially lower costs. Lower manufacturing cost has been widely claimed as an intuitive feature of the platform by the plant-made biologics community, even though cost information resides within a few private companies and studies accurately documenting such an advantage have been lacking. We present two technoeconomic case studies representing plant-made enzymes for diverse applications: human butyrylcholinesterase produced indoors for use as a medical countermeasure and cellulases produced in the field for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into ethanol as a fuel extender. Production economics were modeled based on results reported with the latest-generation expression technologies on Nicotiana host plants. We evaluated process unit operations and calculated bulk active and per-dose or per-unit costs using SuperPro Designer modeling software. Our analyses indicate that substantial cost advantages over alternative platforms can be achieved with plant systems, but these advantages are molecule/product-specific and depend on the relative cost-efficiencies of alternative sources of the same product.

  8. Manufacturing Economics of Plant-Made Biologics: Case Studies in Therapeutic and Industrial Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tusé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of recombinant biologics in plants has received considerable attention as an alternative platform to traditional microbial and animal cell culture. Industrially relevant features of plant systems include proper eukaryotic protein processing, inherent safety due to lack of adventitious agents, more facile scalability, faster production (transient systems, and potentially lower costs. Lower manufacturing cost has been widely claimed as an intuitive feature of the platform by the plant-made biologics community, even though cost information resides within a few private companies and studies accurately documenting such an advantage have been lacking. We present two technoeconomic case studies representing plant-made enzymes for diverse applications: human butyrylcholinesterase produced indoors for use as a medical countermeasure and cellulases produced in the field for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into ethanol as a fuel extender. Production economics were modeled based on results reported with the latest-generation expression technologies on Nicotiana host plants. We evaluated process unit operations and calculated bulk active and per-dose or per-unit costs using SuperPro Designer modeling software. Our analyses indicate that substantial cost advantages over alternative platforms can be achieved with plant systems, but these advantages are molecule/product-specific and depend on the relative cost-efficiencies of alternative sources of the same product.

  9. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  10. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  11. Biological properties of nitro-fatty acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Padilla, María N; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B

    2018-03-27

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO 2 -FAs) are formed from the reaction between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Knowledge concerning NO 2 -FAs has significantly increased within a few years ago and the beneficial actions of these species uncovered in animal systems have led to consider them as molecules with therapeutic potential. Based on their nature and structure, NO 2 -FAs have the ability to release nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous environments and the capacity to mediate post-translational modifications (PTM) by nitroalkylation. Recently, based on the potential of these NO-derived molecules in the animal field, the endogenous occurrence of nitrated-derivatives of linolenic acid (NO 2 -Ln) was assessed in plant species. Moreover and through RNA-seq technology, it was shown that NO 2 -Ln can induce a large set of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and different antioxidant systems suggesting this molecule may launch antioxidant and defence responses in plants. Furthermore, the capacity of this nitro-fatty acid to release NO has also been demonstrated. In view of this background, here we offer an overview on the biological properties described for NO 2 -FAs in plants and the potential of these molecules to be considered new key intermediaries of NO metabolism in the plant field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  13. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  14. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  15. The emerging age of cell-free synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Wilding, Kristen M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bennett, Anthony M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2014-08-25

    The engineering of and mastery over biological parts has catalyzed the emergence of synthetic biology. This field has grown exponentially in the past decade. As increasingly more applications of synthetic biology are pursued, more challenges are encountered, such as delivering genetic material into cells and optimizing genetic circuits in vivo. An in vitro or cell-free approach to synthetic biology simplifies and avoids many of the pitfalls of in vivo synthetic biology. In this review, we describe some of the innate features that make cell-free systems compelling platforms for synthetic biology and discuss emerging improvements of cell-free technologies. We also select and highlight recent and emerging applications of cell-free synthetic biology. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Plant molecular biology, July 15-20 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  17. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  18. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V

    2011-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.

  19. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine (N)-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth, and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan-processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of β1,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signaling events. In contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review, I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  20. The cell biology of bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J S; Oyajobi, B O; Russell, R G

    1994-02-01

    The field of bone cell biology is clearly of relevance to the problem of stunting in children, as in the final analysis the cells of the growing long bone are the ultimate 'regulators'. It is the alterations in the functions of these cells that manifests as a reduction in height. Normal longitudinal growth is achieved by the coordinated recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, maturation and eventual death of the cells of growth plate and bone. Cellular activity is closely regulated by endocrine factors acting directly or indirectly, with factors produced locally and stored within the bone and cartilage microenvironment having a critical role in intercellular communication. Disruption of any of these processes can lead to growth disturbances, since it only requires a defect in a single gene to have profound effects. Studies in recent years have shed light on the biochemical and molecular effects of cytokines and growth factors and have shown that these regulatory molecules may mediate the effects of certain hormones important in controlling growth. However, the complex interrelationship of these molecules is still not clear. Notwithstanding, understanding of the mechanisms involved in bone remodelling is increasing, as this area attracts much research because of the high incidence of metabolic bone disease in Western society. Although studies of adult bone remodelling are of relevance, there is a requirement for increased research directed specifically at the mechanisms of endochondral ossification and its regulation. Longitudinal bone growth is a challenge to the cell biologist, since it is an accelerated cycle of cellular division and differentiation, within which it is not easy to separate events temporally and spatially. In addition, different regulatory mechanisms are probably important at different stages of growth. Another difficulty impeding progress in this field is the lack of appropriate animal models for research. Much information has come from

  1. Synthesis of plant cell wall oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    Plant cell walls are structurally complex and contain a large number of diverse carbohydrate polymers. These plant fibers are a highly valuable bio-resource and the focus of food, energy and health research. We are interested in studying the interplay of plant cell wall carbohydrates with proteins...... for characterizing protein-carbohydrate binding. The presentation will highlight chemical syntheses of plant cell wall oligosaccharides from the group and provide examples from studies of their interactions with proteins....... such as enzymes, cell surface lectins, and antibodies. However, detailed molecular level investigations of such interactions are hampered by the heterogeneity and diversity of the polymers of interest. To circumvent this, we target well-defined oligosaccharides with representative structures that can be used...

  2. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  3. Engineering and biological characterization of VB6-845, an anti-EpCAM immunotoxin containing a T-cell epitope-depleted variant of the plant toxin bouganin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeau, Jeannick; Grenkow, Danielle M; Brown, Jennifer G; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2009-01-01

    The clinical development of immunotoxins in the treatment of solid tumors has been impeded in part, by the induction of an immune response directed primarily against the toxin moiety. Bouganin, a type I ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd, was mutated to remove the T-cell epitopes while preserving the biological activity of the wild-type molecule. The T-cell epitope-depleted variant of bouganin (de-bouganin) was genetically linked to an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) Fab moiety via a peptidic linker containing a furin proteolytic site to create the fusion construct VB6-845. To determine the optimal construct design for VB6-845, several dicistronic units where de-bouganin was genetically linked to either the N-terminal or C-terminal of either the heavy or light chain were engineered. Only the C-terminal variants expressed the full-length molecule. An in vitro assessment of the biological activity of VB6-845 showed that it bound and selectively killed EpCAM-positive cell lines with a greater potency than many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated using an EpCAM-positive human tumor xenograft model in SCID mice with the majority of the mice treated being tumor free at the end of the study.

  4. A quantitative and dynamic model for plant stem cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geier

    Full Text Available Plants maintain pools of totipotent stem cells throughout their entire life. These stem cells are embedded within specialized tissues called meristems, which form the growing points of the organism. The shoot apical meristem of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana is subdivided into several distinct domains, which execute diverse biological functions, such as tissue organization, cell-proliferation and differentiation. The number of cells required for growth and organ formation changes over the course of a plants life, while the structure of the meristem remains remarkably constant. Thus, regulatory systems must be in place, which allow for an adaptation of cell proliferation within the shoot apical meristem, while maintaining the organization at the tissue level. To advance our understanding of this dynamic tissue behavior, we measured domain sizes as well as cell division rates of the shoot apical meristem under various environmental conditions, which cause adaptations in meristem size. Based on our results we developed a mathematical model to explain the observed changes by a cell pool size dependent regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, which is able to correctly predict CLV3 and WUS over-expression phenotypes. While the model shows stem cell homeostasis under constant growth conditions, it predicts a variation in stem cell number under changing conditions. Consistent with our experimental data this behavior is correlated with variations in cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigate different signaling mechanisms, which could stabilize stem cell number despite variations in cell proliferation. Our results shed light onto the dynamic constraints of stem cell pool maintenance in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis in different environmental conditions and developmental states.

  5. Floral biology and the effects of plant-pollinator interaction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology and patterns of plant-pollinator interaction are fundamental to gene flow, diversity and evolutionary success of plants. Consequently, we examined the magnitude of insect-plant interaction based on the dynamics of breeding systems and floral biology and their effects on pollination intensity, fruit and ...

  6. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

    2002-10-01

    Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts.

  7. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  8. Phytochrome from Green Plants: Properties and biological Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Peter H.

    2014-07-25

    Plants constantly monitor the light environment for informational light signals used to direct adaptational responses to the prevailing conditions. One major such response, the Shade-Avaoidance Response (SAR), triggered when plants sense the presence of competing neighbors, results in enhanced channeling of photosynthetically-fixed carbon into stem elongation at the expense of deposition in reproductive tissues. This response has been selected against in many modern food crops to ensure maximum edible yield (e.g. seeds). Converse enhancement of the SAR, with consequent increased carbon channeling into vegetative cellulose, could contribute to the generation of crops with improved yield of tissues suitable for cellulosic biofuel production. The signal for this response is light enriched in far-red wavelengths. This signal is produced by sunlight filtered through, or reflected from, neighboring vegetation, as a result of preferential depletion of red photons through chlorophyll absorption. The plant phytochrome (phy) photoreceptor system (predominantly phyB) senses this signal through its capacity to switch reversibly, in milliseconds, between two molecular states: the biologically inactive Pr (red-light-absorbing) and biologically active Pfr (far-red-light-absorbing) conformers. The photoequilibrium established between these two conformers in light-grown plants is determined by the ratio of red-to-far-red wavelengths in the incoming signal. The levels of Pfr then dictate the recipient plant’s growth response: high levels suppress elongation growth; low levels promote elongation growth. Studies on seedling deetiolation have advanced our understanding considerably in recent years, of the mechanism by which the photoactivated phy molecule transduces its signal into cellular growth responses. The data show that a subfamily of phy-interacting bHLH transcription factors (PIFs) promote skotomorphogenic seedling development in post-germinative darkness, but that the phy

  9. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  10. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  11. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  12. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  13. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  14. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  15. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H 2 O 2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H 2 O 2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H 2 O 2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H 2 O 2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    , which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined....... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death...

  17. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  18. Alternative Educational Approach to Introducing Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilane T. Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available First year medical students usually have a great  difficulty to visualize a three  dimensional  cell. They also present a series of misconceptions  related to cell biology that seems to begin in the high school. An alternative educational approach  is being tested  with high school students in order to minimize these misconceptions,  and also increase the pupils interest in the subject.  The approach  combines theoretical classes with experimental activities, the  use of models, games, discussions,  and oral presentations by the students at the end of the educational module.  In short,  the experimental activities  are low-cost, easy-to-follow experiments that basically show a few properties  of the living cells, such as membrane transport, enzyme action  as well as the  importance of the  membrane  integrity for life.  A card  game relates  the  functions  of the organnels  by matching  pairs  of cards.  This  game has one card without a matching  pair  that explains  apoptosis;  the  player  that ends up with  this  card  loses the game.   The pupils learn while they play the game.  A 3D model of the membrane  shows the major components  and allows the observation of membrane  assimetry.   After comparing  some panels of photomicrographs of cells and organnels, the students are presented  to a 3D model of a cell as the teacher  tries to relate the panels  with  a three  dimensional  visualization.  They  also have the  opportunity to present their  own models.  The opinion of high school teachers  about  the different activities  will be shown.  The aim of this educational module is to promote  learning while different abilities, according to Gardners  Multiple Intelligences  Theory,  such as the visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and naturalistic are being developed.  We believe that the diversity  of approaches  is one of the most important

  19. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  1. Hot cell design in the vitrification plant China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yubo; Wang Guangkai; Zhang Wei; Liang Runan; Dou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In the area of reprocessing and radioactive waste management, gloveboxes and cells are a kind of non-standard equipments providing an isolated room to operate radioactive material inside, while the operator outside with essential biological shield and protection. The hot cell is a typical one, which could handle high radioactive material with various operating means and tight enclosure. The dissertation is based on Vitrification Plant China, a cooperation project between China and Germany. For the sino-western difference in design philosophy, it was presented how to draft an acceptable design proposal of applicable huge hot cells by analysing the design requirements, such as radioprotection, observation, illumination, remote handling, transportation, maintenance and decontamination. The construction feasibility of hot cells was also approved. Thanks to 3D software Autodesk Inventor, digital hot cell was built to integrate all the interfaces inside, which validated the design by checking the mechanical interference. (author)

  2. Mast cells: potential positive and negative roles in tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Thomas; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    Mast cells are immune cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues. Upon activation by diverse mechanisms, mast cells can secrete a broad array of biologically active products that either are stored in the cytoplasmic granules of the cells (e.g., histamine, heparin, various proteases) or are produced de novo upon cell stimulation (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors). Mast cells are best known for their effector functions during anaphylaxis and acute IgE-associated allergic reactions, but they also have been implicated in a wide variety of processes that maintain health or contribute to disease. There has been particular interest in the possible roles of mast cells in tumor biology. In vitro studies have shown that mast cells have the potential to influence many aspects of tumor biology, including tumor development, tumor-induced angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling, and the shaping of adaptive immune responses to tumors. Yet, the actual contributions of mast cells to tumor biology in vivo remain controversial. Here, we review some basic features of mast cell biology with a special emphasis on those relevant to their potential roles in tumors. We discuss how using in vivo tumor models in combination with models in which mast cell function can be modulated has implicated mast cells in the regulation of host responses to tumors. Finally, we summarize data from studies of human tumors that suggest either beneficial or detrimental roles for mast cells in tumors. ©2013 AACR.

  3. Plant ecdysteroids: plant sterols with intriguing distributions, biological effects and relations to plant hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 244, č. 3 (2016), s. 545-555 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Phytoecdysteroids * Ecdysteroids * 20-Hydroxyecdysone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  4. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  5. Important biological factors for utilizing native plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren E. Wiesner

    1999-01-01

    Native plant species are valuable resources for revegetation of disturbed ecosystems. The success of these plantings is dependent on the native species selected, quality of seed used, condition of the soil, environmental conditions before and after planting, planting equipment used, time of planting, and other factors. Most native species contain dormant seed. Dormancy...

  6. Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Vogler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The size, shape and stability of a plant depend on the flexibility and integrity of its cell walls, which, at the same time, need to allow cell expansion for growth, while maintaining mechanical stability. Biomechanical studies largely vanished from the focus of plant science with the rapid progress of genetics and molecular biology since the mid-twentieth century. However, the development of more sensitive measurement tools renewed the interest in plant biomechanics in recent years, not only to understand the fundamental concepts of growth and morphogenesis, but also with regard to economically important areas in agriculture, forestry and the paper industry. Recent advances have clearly demonstrated that mechanical forces play a crucial role in cell and organ morphogenesis, which ultimately define plant morphology. In this article, we will briefly review the available methods to determine the mechanical properties of cell walls, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and microindentation assays, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. But we will focus on a novel methodological approach, called cellular force microscopy (CFM, and its automated successor, real-time CFM (RT-CFM.

  7. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zooming In on Plant Hormone Analysis: Tissue- and Cell-Specific Approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Napier, R.; Ljung, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2017 (2017), s. 323-348 ISSN 1543-5008 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Biosensor * Cell biology * Mass spectrometry * Phytohormone * Resolution * Sensitivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 22.808, year: 2016

  9. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corey; Fardad, Shima; Sincore, Alex; Vangheluwe, Marie; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique for controlling and studying fundamental behavior of single cells with their environment without having "many-body" interference. The development of such an instrument for optical diagnostics (including Raman and fluorescence for molecular diagnostics) via laser spectroscopy with either the "trapping" beam or secondary beams is still in progress. This paper shows the development of modular multi-spectral imaging optical tweezers combining Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells.

  10. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ?entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  11. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  12. Osmosis in Poisoned Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatina, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes two simple laboratory exercises that allow students to test hypotheses concerning the requirement of cell energy for osmosis. The first exercise involves osmotically-caused changes in the length of potato tubers and requires detailed quantitative observations. The second exercise involves osmotically-caused changes in turgor of Elodea…

  13. Biology and biotechnological advances in Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.

    2009-10-31

    Increasing global demand for energy, the impending depletion of fossil fuels, and concern over global climate change have lead to a resurgence in the development of alternative energy sources. Bio-fuels and bio-energy encompass a wide range of alternative sources of energy of biological origin, and offer excellent, environmentally friendly opportunities to address these issues. The recognition that Jatropha oil can yield high quality biodiesel has led to a surge of interest in Jatropha across the globe, more so in view of the potential for avoiding the dilemma of food vs fuel. Hardiness, rapid growth, easy propagation, short gestation period, wide adaptation, and optimum plant size combine to make this species suitable for sustainable cultivation on wastelands. Besides biodiesel from the seed, the plant produces several useful products that also have commercial value. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha as a source of bio-fuel. The limited knowledge of the genetics of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a bio-fuel crop. Despite the optimal protein content and composition of the pressed cake, the presence of phorbol esters makes it unsuitable for consumption by livestock. A non-toxic variety with low or no phorbol ester content has been identified from Mexico, and the utility of pressed cake from this variety as livestock feed has been demonstrated successfully. In the absence of any morphological differences, identification of linked markers for toxic/non-toxic varieties will add value to the crop and facilitate further improvement. This chapter discusses current efforts towards assessing the diversity and phylogeny of Jatropha, identification of specific markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties, and aspects of micropropagation and genetic

  14. The biology of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to

  15. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools......, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...... regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal...

  16. Inducible cell death in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during vegetative and reproductive plant growth, as typified by autumnal leaf senescence and the terminal differentiation of the endosperm of cereals which provide our major source of food. PCD also occurs in response to environmental stress and pathogen attack......, and these inducible PCD forms are intensively studied due their experimental tractability. In general, evidence exists for plant cell death pathways which have similarities to the apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic forms described in yeast and metazoans. Recent research aiming to understand these pathways...

  17. Space stress and genome shock in developing plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper I review symptoms of stress at the level of the nucleus in cells of plants grown in space under nonoptimized conditions. It remains to be disclosed to what extent gravity "unloading" in the space environment directly contributes to the low mitotic index and the chromosomal anomalies and damage that is frequently, but not invariably, demonstrable in space-grown plants. Evaluation of the available facts indicates that indirect effects play a major role and that there is a significant biological component to the susceptibility to stress damage equation as well. Much remains to be learned on how to provide strictly controlled, optimal environments for plant growth in space. Only after optimized controls become possible will one be able to attribute any observed space effects to lowered gravity or to other significant but more indirect effects of the space environment.

  18. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  19. Unraveling the response of plant cells to cytotoxic saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Macovei, Anca; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Raimondi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of pharmacological properties are ascribed to natural saponins, in addition to their biological activities against herbivores, plant soil-borne pathogens and pests. As for animal cells, the cytotoxicity and the chemopreventive role of saponins are mediated by a complex network of signal transduction pathways which include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The involvement of other relevant components of the saponin-related signaling routes, such as the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α, the interleukin (IL)-6 and the Nuclear Transcription FactorκB (NFκB), has been highlighted in animal cells. By contrast, information concerning the response of plant cells to saponins and the related signal transduction pathways is almost missing. To date, there are only a few common features which link plant and animal cells in their response to saponins, such as the early burst in ROS and NO production and the induction of metallothioneins (MTs), small cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. This aspect is discussed in the present paper in view of the recent hypothesis that MTs and NO are part of a novel signal transduction pathway participating in the cell response to oxidative stress. PMID:21673512

  20. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  2. Cell-free synthetic biology for environmental sensing and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karig, David K

    2017-06-01

    The fields of biosensing and bioremediation leverage the phenomenal array of sensing and metabolic capabilities offered by natural microbes. Synthetic biology provides tools for transforming these fields through complex integration of natural and novel biological components to achieve sophisticated sensing, regulation, and metabolic function. However, the majority of synthetic biology efforts are conducted in living cells, and concerns over releasing genetically modified organisms constitute a key barrier to environmental applications. Cell-free protein expression systems offer a path towards leveraging synthetic biology, while preventing the spread of engineered organisms in nature. Recent efforts in the areas of cell-free approaches for sensing, regulation, and metabolic pathway implementation, as well as for preserving and deploying cell-free expression components, embody key steps towards realizing the potential of cell-free systems for environmental sensing and remediation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Biology at a single cell level

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ://www.regenexx.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/IPS-cell-problems.jpg Induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated in culture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ECllrIzTKbA&feature=related Transfecting neuroblastomas Neuroblastoma ? Brain cells ? 80 ? 120 billion neurons in human... brain ? Non- renewing cell type ? Neurons difficult to transfect with established protocols ? Susceptible to degenerative disorders: - Parkinson?s disease - Multiple sclerosis - Alzheimer's disease http...

  4. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  5. Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genes and signaling pathways that determine the differentiation and fate of a cell is a central goal of developmental biology. Using that information to gain mastery over the fates of cells presents new approaches to cell transplantation and drug discovery for human diseases including diabetes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    1105 Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Luiz H...fungal community and micropropagated clones of E. purpurea was re-established after acclimatization to soil and the endophytic fungi produced compounds...Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Grones, Peter; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Vain, Thomas; Milani, Pascale; Krupinski, Pawel; Zagórska-Marek, Beata; Viotti, Corrado; Jönsson, Henrik; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Hamant, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie

    2017-11-06

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells. Combining genetics, atomic force microscopy, and immunolabeling, we demonstrate that contiguous cell walls indeed exhibit hybrid mechanochemical properties. Such biochemical wall heterogeneities precede wall bending. Altogether, this provides a possible mechanism for the generation of complex plant cell shapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  9. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  10. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  11. [New materia medica project: synthetic biology based bioactive metabolites research in medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2017-03-25

    In the last decade, synthetic biology research has been gradually transited from monocellular parts or devices toward more complex multicellular systems. The emerging plant synthetic biology is regarded as the "next chapter" of synthetic biology. The complex and diverse plant metabolism as the entry point, plant synthetic biology research not only helps us understand how real life is working, but also facilitates us to learn how to design and construct more complex artificial life. Bioactive compounds innovation and large-scale production are expected to be breakthrough with the redesigned plant metabolism as well. In this review, we discuss the research progress in plant synthetic biology and propose the new materia medica project to lift the level of traditional Chinese herbal medicine research.

  12. Concise Review: Stem Cell Population Biology: Insights from Hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Adam L; Lo Celso, Cristina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are fundamental to human life and offer great therapeutic potential, yet their biology remains incompletely-or in cases even poorly-understood. The field of stem cell biology has grown substantially in recent years due to a combination of experimental and theoretical contributions: the experimental branch of this work provides data in an ever-increasing number of dimensions, while the theoretical branch seeks to determine suitable models of the fundamental stem cell processes that these data describe. The application of population dynamics to biology is amongst the oldest applications of mathematics to biology, and the population dynamics perspective continues to offer much today. Here we describe the impact that such a perspective has made in the field of stem cell biology. Using hematopoietic stem cells as our model system, we discuss the approaches that have been used to study their key properties, such as capacity for self-renewal, differentiation, and cell fate lineage choice. We will also discuss the relevance of population dynamics in models of stem cells and cancer, where competition naturally emerges as an influential factor on the temporal evolution of cell populations. Stem Cells 2017;35:80-88. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Plant cells : immobilization and oxygen transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The study described in this thesis is part of the integrated project 'Biotechnological production of non-persistent bioinsecticides by means of plant cells invitro ' and was done in close cooperation with the research Institute Ital within the framework

  14. Plant Cell Culture Initiation: practical tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of cultured plant cells in either organized or unorganized form has increased vey considerably in the last 10-15 yr. Many new technologies have been developed and applications in both fundamental and applied research have led to the development of some powerful tools for improving our

  15. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  16. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  17. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the…

  18. Special Issue: International Congress of Cell Biology 2016, Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stick, R.; Dráber, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2017), s. 1141-1142 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-25159S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cellular structures and functions, ,, , * tubulin isotypes * actin * transcription regulation * signaling pathways Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  19. Glycoengineering in CHO cells: Advances in systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejwani, Vijay; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Nam, Jong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    are not well understood. A systems biology approach combining different technologies is needed for complete understanding of the molecular processes accounting for this variability and to open up new venues in cell line development. In this review, we describe several advances in genetic manipulation, modeling......For several decades, glycoprotein biologics have been successfully produced from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The therapeutic efficacy and potency of glycoprotein biologics are often dictated by their post translational modifications, particularly glycosylation, which unlike protein synthesis....... Recently, CHO cells have also been explored for production of therapeutic glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin), which presents similar challenges as producing glycoproteins biologics. Approaches to controlling heterogeneity in CHO cells and directing the biosynthetic process toward desired glycoforms...

  20. Cell Division and Evolution of Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Arcenegui-Siemens, Xavier; Schliecker, Gudrun

    A tissue is a geometrical, space-filling, random cellular network; it remains in this steady state while individual cells divide. Cell division (fragmentation) is a local, elementary topological transformation which establishes statistical equilibrium of the structure. Statistical equilibrium is characterized by observable relations (Lewis, Aboav) between cell shapes, sizes and those of their neighbours, obtained through maximum entropy and topological correlation extending to nearest neighbours only, i.e. maximal randomness. For a two-dimensional tissue (epithelium), the distribution of cell shapes and that of mother and daughter cells can be obtained from elementary geometrical and physical arguments, except for an exponential factor favouring division of larger cells, and exponential and combinatorial factors encouraging a most symmetric division. The resulting distributions are very narrow, and stationarity severely restricts the range of an adjustable structural parameter

  1. Glycoprotein component of plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.B.; Chen, J.A.; Varner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary wall surrounding most dicotyledonous plant cells contains a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) component named extensin. A small group of glycopeptides solubilized from isolated cell walls by proteolysis contained a repeated pentapeptide glycosylated by tri- and tetraarabinosides linked to hydroxyproline and, by galactose, linked to serine. Recently, two complementary approaches to this problem have provided results which greatly increase the understanding of wall extensin. In this paper the authors describe what is known about the structure of soluble extensin secreted into the walls of the carrot root cells

  2. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  3. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  4. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  5. The biology of human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I performed studies to investigate the contribution of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in maintaining the mucosal homeostasis, initiating and/or propagating inflammatory responses, but also - when not properly regulated - how these cells contribute to immunopathology. First I

  6. Dendritic cells: biology of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebak, M.J.; Gibbs, S.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Scheper, R.J.; Rustemeyer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis results from a T-cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response induced by allergens. Skin dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of allergic skin responses. Following encounter with an allergen, DCs become activated and undergo

  7. Finding and defining the natural automata acting in living plants: Toward the synthetic biology for robotics and informatics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Tomonori; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano

    2012-11-01

    The automata theory is the mathematical study of abstract machines commonly studied in the theoretical computer science and highly interdisciplinary fields that combine the natural sciences and the theoretical computer science. In the present review article, as the chemical and biological basis for natural computing or informatics, some plants, plant cells or plant-derived molecules involved in signaling are listed and classified as natural sequential machines (namely, the Mealy machines or Moore machines) or finite state automata. By defining the actions (states and transition functions) of these natural automata, the similarity between the computational data processing and plant decision-making processes became obvious. Finally, their putative roles as the parts for plant-based computing or robotic systems are discussed.

  8. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-10-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities.

  9. Cells, targets, and molecules in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cellular damage and repair are discussed with regard to inactivation models, dose-effect curves and cancer research, repair relative to damage accumulation, potentially lethal damage, repair of potentially lethal vs. sublethal damage, cell killing and DNA damage due to nonionizing radiation, and anisotonicity vs. lethality due to nonionizing radiation. Other topics discussed are DNA damage and repair in cells exposed to ionizing radiation, kinetics of repair of single-strand DNA breaks, effects of actinomycin D on x-ray survival curve of hamster cells, misrepair and lethality, and perspective and prospects

  10. Neural crest cells: from developmental biology to clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotent cells, which are specified in embryonic ectoderm in the border of neural plate and epiderm during early development by interconnection of extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors. Neural crest cells are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous cells, which supports their promise for cell therapy. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of wide aspects of neural crest cells from their developmental biology to applicability in medical research. We provide a simplified model of neural crest cell development and highlight the key external stimuli and intrinsic regulators that determine the neural crest cell fate. Defects of neural crest cell development leading to several human disorders are also mentioned, with the emphasis of using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model neurocristopathic syndromes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plant cells oxidize hydroxylamines to NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümer, Stefan; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Kaiser, Werner M.

    2009-01-01

    Plants are known to produce NO via the reduction of nitrite. Oxidative NO production in plants has been considered only with respect to a nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Here it is shown that tobacco cell suspensions emitted NO when hydroxylamine (HA) or salicylhydroxamate (SHAM), a frequently used AOX inhibitor, was added. NG-hydroxy-L-arginine, a putative intermediate in the NOS-reaction, gave no NO emission. Only a minor fraction (≤1%) of the added HA or SHAM was emitted as NO. Production of NO was decreased by anoxia or by the addition of catalase, but was increased by conditions inducing reactive oxygen (ROS) or by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Cell-free enzyme solutions generating superoxide or hydrogen peroxide also led to the formation of NO from HA or (with lower rates) from SHAM, and nitrite was also an oxidation product. Unexpectedly, the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to cell suspensions stimulated NO formation from hydroxylamines, and SOD alone (without cells) also catalysed the production of NO from HA or SHAM. NO production by SOD plus HA was higher in nitrogen than in air, but from SOD plus SHAM it was lower in nitrogen. Thus, SOD-catalysed NO formation from SHAM and from HA may involve different mechanisms. While our data open a new possibility for oxidative NO formation in plants, the existence and role of these reactions under physiological conditions is not yet clear. PMID:19357430

  12. Quantitative stem cell biology: the threat and the glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Steven M

    2016-11-15

    Major technological innovations over the past decade have transformed our ability to extract quantitative data from biological systems at an unprecedented scale and resolution. These quantitative methods and associated large datasets should lead to an exciting new phase of discovery across many areas of biology. However, there is a clear threat: will we drown in these rivers of data? On 18th July 2016, stem cell biologists gathered in Cambridge for the 5th annual Cambridge Stem Cell Symposium to discuss 'Quantitative stem cell biology: from molecules to models'. This Meeting Review provides a summary of the data presented by each speaker, with a focus on quantitative techniques and the new biological insights that are emerging. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  14. Editorial Introduction [to Female Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an editorial introduction to the special issue of utation Research, titled, emale Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic isk, which is an attempt to present a collection of papers that emphasize the distinct properties of female germ cells and their characteristic response to mu...

  15. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  16. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  17. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  18. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. © 2015 Richardson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Micro and nano-platforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some technological platforms developed for biological cell analysis will be presented and compared to existing systems. In brief, we present a novel micro cell culture chamber based on diffusion feeding of cells, into which cells can be introduced and extracted after culturing using...... from the cells, while passive modifications involve the presence of a peptide nanotube based scaffold for the cell culturing that mimics the in vivo environment. Two applications involving fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and cancer cell sorting are presented, as examples of further...... analysis that can be done after cell culturing. A platform able to automate the entire process from cell culturing to cell analysis by means of simple plug and play of various self-contained, individually fabricated modules is finally described....

  20. Substrate utilisation by plant-cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M W

    1982-01-01

    Plant cell cultures have been grown on a wide range of carbon sources in addition to the traditional ones of sucrose and glucose. Biomass yields and growth rates vary greatly between the different carbon sources and there is a variation in response between different cell cultures to individual carbon sources. Some attempts have been made to grow cell cultures on 'waste' and related carbon sources, such as lactose, maltose, starch, molasses and milk whey. Only maltose was found to support growth to anything near the levels observed with glucose and sucrose. In the case of molasses carbon source cell growth was either non-existent or only just measurable. All the data point to glucose as being the most suitable carbon source, principally on the grounds of biomass yield and growth rate. It should be noted, however, that other carbon sources do appear to have a major (positive) influence on natural product synthesis. Uptake into the cell is an important aspect of carbohydrate utilisation. There is strong evidence that from disaccharides upwards, major degradation to smaller units occurs before uptake. In some cases the necessary enzymes appear to be excreted into the culture broth, in others they may be located within the cell wall; invertase that hydrolyses sucrose is a good example. Once the products of carbohydrate degradation and mobilisation enter the cell they may suffer one of two fates, oxidation or utilisation for biosynthesis. The precise split between these two varies depending on such factors as cell growth rate, cell size, nutrient broth composition and carbohydrate status of the cells. In general rapidly growing cells have a high rate of oxidation, whereas cells growing more slowly tend to be more directed towards biosynthesis. Carbohydrate utilisation is a key area of study, underpinning as it does both biomass yield and natural product synthesis. (Refs. 13).

  1. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  2. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Camila F; Fernandes, Stephanie A; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F; Keith Okamoto, Oswaldo; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  4. Synthetic biology of cyanobacterial cell factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of microbial biotechnology rational design approaches are employed for the generation of microbial cells with desired functions, such as the ability to produce precursor molecules for biofuels or bioplastics. In essence, that is the introduction of a (new) biosynthetic pathway into a

  5. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  6. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells

  7. Relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors in the context of animals and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.A.; Kocher, D.C.; Real, A.G.; Chambers, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation weighting factors have long been employed to modify absorbed dose as part of the process of evaluating radiological impact to humans. Their use represents an acknowledgement of the fundamental difference in energy deposition patterns of charged and uncharged particles, and how this can translate into varying degrees of biological impact. Weighting factors used in human radiation protection are derived from a variety of endpoints taken from in-vitro experiments that include human and animal cell lines, as well as in-vivo experiments with animals. Nonetheless, the application of radiation weighting factors in the context of dose assessment of animals and plants is not without some controversy. Specifically, radiation protection of biota has largely focused on limiting deterministic effects, such as reduced reproductive fitness. Consequently, the application of conventional stochastic-based radiation weighting factors (when used for human protection) appears inappropriate. While based on research, radiation weighting factors represent the parsing of extensive laboratory studies on relative biological effectiveness. These studies demonstrate that the magnitude of a biological effect depends not just on dose, but also on other factors including the rate at which the dose is delivered, the type and energy of the radiation delivering the dose, and, most importantly, the endpoint under consideration. This article discusses the efforts taken to develop a logical, transparent, and defensible approach to establishing radiation weighting factors for use in assessing impact to non-human biota, and the challenges found in differentiating stochastic from deterministic impacts.

  8. High-dimensional single-cell cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Jonathan M; Doxie, Deon B

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells are distinguished from each other and from healthy cells by features that drive clonal evolution and therapy resistance. New advances in high-dimensional flow cytometry make it possible to systematically measure mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and therapy resistance on millions of cells from human tumors. Here we describe flow cytometry techniques that enable a "single-cell " view of cancer. High-dimensional techniques like mass cytometry enable multiplexed single-cell analysis of cell identity, clinical biomarkers, signaling network phospho-proteins, transcription factors, and functional readouts of proliferation, cell cycle status, and apoptosis. This capability pairs well with a signaling profiles approach that dissects mechanism by systematically perturbing and measuring many nodes in a signaling network. Single-cell approaches enable study of cellular heterogeneity of primary tissues and turn cell subsets into experimental controls or opportunities for new discovery. Rare populations of stem cells or therapy-resistant cancer cells can be identified and compared to other types of cells within the same sample. In the long term, these techniques will enable tracking of minimal residual disease (MRD) and disease progression. By better understanding biological systems that control development and cell-cell interactions in healthy and diseased contexts, we can learn to program cells to become therapeutic agents or target malignant signaling events to specifically kill cancer cells. Single-cell approaches that provide deep insight into cell signaling and fate decisions will be critical to optimizing the next generation of cancer treatments combining targeted approaches and immunotherapy.

  9. Stem cell biology and cell transplantation therapy in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masayo

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, in spite of this restriction in potential, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed and returned to the naive state of pluripotency found in the early embryo simply by forcing expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are molecularly and functionally equivalent to ES cells and provide powerful in vitro models for development, disease, and drug screening, as well as material for cell replacement therapy. Since functional impairment results from cell loss in most central nervous system (CNS) diseases, recovery of lost cells is an important treatment strategy. Although adult neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions, the CNS has poor potential for regeneration to compensate for cell loss. Thus, cell transplantation into damaged or diseased CNS tissues is a promising approach to treating various neurodegenerative disorders. Transplantation of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from human ES cells can restore some visual function. Patient-specific iPS cells may lead to customized cell therapy. However, regeneration of retinal function will require a detailed understanding of eye development, visual system circuitry, and retinal degeneration pathology. Here, we review the current progress in retinal regeneration, focusing on the therapeutic potential of pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Biological Influence of Deuterium on Procariotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Biologic influence of deuterium (D) on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates are investigated at growth on media with heavy water (D2О). The method of step by step adaptation technique of cells to D2О was developed, consisting in plating of cells on 2 % agarose nutrient media containing increasing gradient of concentration of ...

  11. Plant gum exudates (Karau) and mucilages, their biological sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years those polymers derived from plants have evoke tremendous interest because of their industrial applications as diluent binders, thickening agents, smoothening, emulsifiers, gelling agents and stabilizers. This increasing research in this group of these plant materials are clear indications of their increasing ...

  12. Plant cortical microtubule dynamics and cell division plane orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakrabortty, Bandan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work aimed at a better understanding of the molecular basis of oriented cell division in plant cell. As, the efficiency of plant morphogenesis depends on oriented cell division, this work should contribute towards a fundamental understanding of the molecular basis of efficient plant

  13. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: The cell-wall corral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eMartinière

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  14. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  15. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  16. Determining the bacterial cell biology of Planctomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Christian; Schüler, Margarete; Reintjes, Greta; Jeske, Olga; van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Jogler, Mareike; Rast, Patrick; Borchert, Daniela; Devos, Damien P; Kucklick, Martin; Schaffer, Miroslava; Kolter, Roberto; van Niftrik, Laura; Engelmann, Susanne; Amann, Rudolf; Rohde, Manfred; Engelhardt, Harald; Jogler, Christian

    2017-04-10

    Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes have been previously reported to possess several features that are typical of eukaryotes, such as cytosolic compartmentalization and endocytosis-like macromolecule uptake. However, recent evidence points towards a Gram-negative cell plan for Planctomycetes, although in-depth experimental analysis has been hampered by insufficient genetic tools. Here we develop methods for expression of fluorescent proteins and for gene deletion in a model planctomycete, Planctopirus limnophila, to analyse its cell organization in detail. Super-resolution light microscopy of mutants, cryo-electron tomography, bioinformatic predictions and proteomic analyses support an altered Gram-negative cell plan for Planctomycetes, including a defined outer membrane, a periplasmic space that can be greatly enlarged and convoluted, and an energized cytoplasmic membrane. These conclusions are further supported by experiments performed with two other Planctomycetes, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Rhodopirellula baltica. We also provide experimental evidence that is inconsistent with endocytosis-like macromolecule uptake; instead, extracellular macromolecules can be taken up and accumulate in the periplasmic space through unclear mechanisms.

  17. Molecular biological features of male germ cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIROSE, MIKA; TOKUHIRO, KEIZO; TAINAKA, HITOSHI; MIYAGAWA, YASUSHI; TSUJIMURA, AKIRA; OKUYAMA, AKIHIKO; NISHIMUNE, YOSHITAKE

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell differentiation is required throughout the life of a multicellular organism to maintain homeostasis. In contrast, germ cells have only one specific function; to preserve the species by conveying the parental genes to the next generation. Recent studies of the development and molecular biology of the male germ cell have identified many genes, or isoforms, that are specifically expressed in the male germ cell. In the present review, we consider the unique features of male germ cell differentiation. (Reprod Med Biol 2007; 6: 1–9) PMID:29699260

  18. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  19. Arabinogalactan-proteins and the research challenges for these enigmatic plant cell surface proteoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Showalter, Allan M.; Egelund, Jack; Hernandez-Sanchez, Arianna; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony

    2012-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are complex glycoconjugates that are commonly found at the cell surface and in secretions of plants. Their location and diversity of structures have made them attractive targets as modulators of plant development but definitive proof of their direct role(s) in biological processes remains elusive. Here we overview the current state of knowledge on AGPs, identify key challenges impeding progress in the field and propose approaches using modern bioinformatic, (bio)chemical, cell biological, molecular and genetic techniques that could be applied to redress these gaps in our knowledge. PMID:22754559

  20. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Biology and flow cytometry of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan A; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development, hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life, this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative "endothelial progenitor cells" that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multidisciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology, and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and BM. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Deepak; Bergmann, Frank T; Sauro, Herbert M

    2009-01-01

    Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD) is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API). TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at . Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled and analyzed computationally. TinkerCell can readily

  3. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API. TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled

  4. Introducing Mammalian Cell Culture and Cell Viability Techniques in the Undergraduate Biology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowey-Dellinger, Kristen; Dixon, Luke; Ackerman, Kristin; Vigueira, Cynthia; Suh, Yewseok K; Lyda, Todd; Sapp, Kelli; Grider, Michael; Crater, Dinene; Russell, Travis; Elias, Michael; Coffield, V McNeil; Segarra, Verónica A

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students learn about mammalian cell culture applications in introductory biology courses. However, laboratory modules are rarely designed to provide hands-on experience with mammalian cells or teach cell culture techniques, such as trypsinization and cell counting. Students are more likely to learn about cell culture using bacteria or yeast, as they are typically easier to grow, culture, and manipulate given the equipment, tools, and environment of most undergraduate biology laboratories. In contrast, the utilization of mammalian cells requires a dedicated biological safety cabinet and rigorous antiseptic techniques. For this reason, we have devised a laboratory module and method herein that familiarizes students with common cell culture procedures, without the use of a sterile hood or large cell culture facility. Students design and perform a time-efficient inquiry-based cell viability experiment using HeLa cells and tools that are readily available in an undergraduate biology laboratory. Students will become familiar with common techniques such as trypsinizing cells, cell counting with a hemocytometer, performing serial dilutions, and determining cell viability using trypan blue dye. Additionally, students will work with graphing software to analyze their data and think critically about the mechanism of death on a cellular level. Two different adaptations of this inquiry-based lab are presented-one for non-biology majors and one for biology majors. Overall, these laboratories aim to expose students to mammalian cell culture and basic techniques and help them to conceptualize their application in scientific research.

  5. Plant Cell Adaptive Responses to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla; Talalaev, Alexandr

    Microgravity is an abnormal environmental condition that plays no role in the functioning of biosphere. Nevertheless, the chronic effect of microgravity in space flight as an unfamiliar factor does not prevent the development of adaptive reactions at the cellular level. In real microgravity in space flight under the more or less optimal conditions for plant growing, namely temperature, humidity, CO2, light intensity and directivity in the hardware angiosperm plants perform an “reproductive imperative”, i.e. they flower, fruit and yield viable seeds. It is known that cells of a multicellular organism not only take part on reactions of the organism but also carry out processes that maintain their integrity. In light of these principles, the problem of the identification of biochemical, physiological and structural patterns that can have adaptive significance at the cellular and subcellular level in real and simulated microgravity is considered. Cytological studies of plants developing in real and simulated microgravity made it possible to establish that the processes of mitosis, cytokinesis, and tissue differentiation of vegetative and generative organs are largely normal. At the same time, under microgravity, essential reconstruction in the structural and functional organization of cell organelles and cytoskeleton, as well as changes in cell metabolism and homeostasis have been described. In addition, new interesting data concerning the influence of altered gravity on lipid peroxidation intensity, the level of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant system activity, just like on the level of gene expression and synthesis of low-molecular and high-molecular heat shock proteins were recently obtained. So, altered gravity caused time-dependent increasing of the HSP70 and HSP90 levels in cells, that may indicate temporary strengthening of their functional loads that is necessary for re-establish a new cellular homeostasis. Relative qPCR results showed that

  6. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, other biologically active compounds impair health by ... of essential elements through different mechanisms and giving astringent taste, odor, ... The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to ...

  7. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G; Brewster, Robert C; Phillips, Rob

    2016-04-18

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features as a means to enable their theoretical description. Here, synthetic biology goes beyond previous efforts to engineer nature and becomes a tool to bend nature to understand it. We discuss various recent and classic experiments featuring applications of this synthetic approach to the elucidation of problems ranging from bacteriophage infection, to transcriptional regulation in bacteria and in developing embryos, to evolution. In all of these examples, synthetic biology provides the opportunity to turn cells into the equivalent of a test tube, where biological phenomena can be reconstituted and our theoretical understanding put to test with the same ease that these same phenomena can be studied in the in vitro setting.

  8. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  9. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Justen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  10. Genome annotation in a community college cell biology lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, C Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning skills. Additionally, the project strengthens student understanding of the scientific method and contributes to student learning gains in curricular objectives centered around basic molecular biology, specifically, the Central Dogma. Importantly, inclusion of this project in the laboratory course provides students with a positive learning environment and allows for the use of cooperative learning strategies to increase overall student success. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A novel approach for studying programmed cell death in living plant tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina

    to traditional approaches. Future applications of this type of setup could be used for other types of plant tissues such as leaves or germinating embryos for studying the effects of e.g. biotic and abiotic stresses or for screening of compounds for biological effects. Due to the ease of use and many......Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are killed as part of developmental programmes or as defence mechanisms against pathogens, but the process is less well understood in plant cells compared to animal cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD...... in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCDhas not yet been fully elucidated due to the involvement of complex signalling networks. Elucidation of these mechanisms and signalling pathways will allow manipulation of cell death in plants, which could help to improve yield...

  12. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  13. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  14. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  15. Cell biological study on ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigeru; Katsura, Tadahiko; Shimada, Morimi; Shima, Akihiro; Chishiro, Hiroko; Kasahara, Yoshitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnosis of ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) has largely been dependent on the clinical findings such as cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasia, and immunological deficiency. However, diagnosis of AT by these ordinary criteria is sometimes not sufficient because of the lack of immunological abnormalities. We examined three cases of AT by ordinary clinical criteria and also by X-ray sensitivity of cultured skin fibroblasts. Case 1, a 9-year-old boy, revealed typical clinical features of AT. However, he had no abnormality in serum IgA or IgE. Case 2, a 10-year-old boy, showed decreased serum IgA level. Case 3, a 19-year-old female, had typical clinical features of AT with normal serum IgA, and developed papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid which was surgically removed. Fibroblast strains derived from these three cases of AT and from the parents of Case 3 were examined with regard to X-ray sensitivity. Three fibroblast strains derived from AT patients (AT homozygotes) showed remarkable hypersensitivity to X-ray. Fibroblast strains derived from the parents (AT heterozygotes) of Case 3, however, showed normal X-ray sensitivity. Recently, AT fibroblasts have been known to show hypersensitivity also to some mutagen like neocarzinostazin as reported by Shiloh et al. Fibroblasts from Case 3 revealed hypersensitivity to neocarzinostazin. However, the sensitivity of the strains from AT heterozygotes (the parents of Case 3) showed no apparent difference from that of control cells. The assay system for mutagen is quite unstable and proper conditioning of the seeding cell number is important for the carrier detection. However, the diagnosis of AT homozygotes was definitely established by X-ray irradiation to cultured fibroblasts from patients. (author)

  16. Biological Evaluation of Single Cell Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, I.A.; Mohamed, N.E.; El-Sayed, E.A.; Younis, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the nutritional value of single cell protein (SCP) was evaluated as a non conventional protein source produced by fermenting fungal local strains of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium funiculosum with alkali treated sugar cane bagasse. Amino acid analysis revealed that the produced SCP contains essential and non essential amino acids. Male mice were fed on normal (basal) diet which contains 18% conventional protein and served as control group. In the second (T1) and the third (T2) group, the animals were fed on a diet in which 15% and 30% of conventional protein source were replaced by SCP, respectively. At intervals of 15, 30, 45 and 60 days, mice were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected for the biochemical evaluation. The daily averages of body weight were significantly higher with group T2 than group T1. Where as, the kidney weights in groups (T1) and (T2) were significantly increased as compared with control. A non significant difference between the tested groups in the enzyme activities of AST, ALT and GSH content of liver tissue were recorded. While, cholesterol and triglycerides contents showed a significant decrease in both (T1) and (T2) groups as compared with control. The recorded values of the serum hormone (T4), ALP activities, albumin and A/G ratio did not changed by the previous treatments. Serum levels of total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid were higher for groups (T1) and (T2) than the control group. In conclusion, partial substitution of soy bean protein in mice diet with single cell protein (15%) improved the mice growth without any adverse effects on some of the physiological functions tested

  17. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  18. Investigating the role of retinal Müller cells with approaches in genetics and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Suhua; Zhu, Meili; Ash, John D; Wang, Yunchang; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Müller cells are major macroglia and play many essential roles as a supporting cell in the retina. As Müller cells only constitute a small portion of retinal cells, investigating the role of Müller glia in retinal biology and diseases is particularly challenging. To overcome this problem, we first generated a Cre/lox-based conditional gene targeting system that permits the genetic manipulation and functional dissection of gene of interests in Müller cells. To investigate diabetes-induced alteration of Müller cells, we recently adopted methods to analyze Müller cells survival/death in vitro and in vivo. We also used normal and genetically altered primary cell cultures to reveal the mechanistic insights for Müller cells in biological and disease processes. In this article, we will discuss the applications and limitations of these methodologies, which may be useful for research in retinal Müller cell biology and pathophysiology.

  19. Cell biology, biophysics, and mechanobiology: From the basics to Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    2017-04-29

    Cell biology, biomechanics and biophysics are the key subjects that guide our understanding in diverse areas of tissue growth, development, remodeling and homeostasis. Novel discoveries such as molecular mechanism, and mechanobiological mechanism in cell biology, biomechanics and biophysics play essential roles in our understanding of the pathogenesis of various human diseases, as well as in designing the treatment of these diseases. In addition, studies in these areas will also facilitate early diagnostics of human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this special issue, we collected 10 original research articles and 1 review...

  20. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  1. Level of Awareness of Biology and Geography Students Related to Recognizing Some Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Caner; Kaya, Bastürk; Dinç, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness of the geography and biology students about recognizing some plants which they see frequently around them in accordance with the information they gained during their education process. The sample of the study consists of 37 biology and 40 geography students studying at the Ahmet Kelesoglu…

  2. Biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Results are reported for a Danish project on biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants. The purpose of the project was to provide an up-to-date knowledge of biological effects of cooling water discharge and of organization and evaluation of recipient investigations in planned and established areas. (BP)

  3. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Sabatini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into

  4. "Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells. However, many fundamental questions of satellite cell biology remain to be answered, including their emergence as a specific lineage, the degree and significance of heterogeneity within the satellite cell population, the roles of their interactions with other resident and infiltrating cell types during homeostasis and regeneration, and the relative roles of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors that may contribute to satellite cell dysfunction in the context of aging or disease. This review will address the current state of these open questions in satellite cell biology. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Emerging Role of PEDF in Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahy, Mina; Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Dass, Crispin R.

    2012-01-01

    Encoded by a single gene, PEDF is a 50 kDa glycoprotein that is highly conserved and is widely expressed among many tissues. Most secreted PEDF deposits within the extracellular matrix, with cell-type-specific functions. While traditionally PEDF is known as a strong antiangiogenic factor, more recently, as this paper highlights, PEDF has been linked with stem cell biology, and there is now accumulating evidence demonstrating the effects of PEDF in a variety of stem cells, mainly in supporting stem cell survival and maintaining multipotency. PMID:22675247

  6. Clinical relevance and biology of circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer patients die due to metastases, and the early onset of this multistep process is usually missed by current tumor staging modalities. Therefore, ultrasensitive techniques have been developed to enable the enrichment, detection, isolation and characterization of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that the presence of these cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis related to metastatic progression in the bone and other organs. This review focuses on investigations regarding the biology and clinical relevance of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. PMID:22114869

  7. Remediation of toxic ad hazardous wastes: plants as biological agents to mitigate heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz, Nina M.; Principe, Eduardo B.

    2005-01-01

    This papers introduced the plants as biological agents to control heavy metal pollution and the process used the green plants to clean contaminated soils or to render the toxic ions harmless is a new technology called phytoremediation with two levels, the phytostabilization and phytoextraction

  8. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  9. Physics and the molecular revolution in plant biology: union needed for managing the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lüttge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The question was asked if there is still a prominent role of biophysics in plant biology in an age when molecular biology appears to be dominating. Mathematical formation of theory is essential in systems biology, and mathematics is more inherent in biophysics than in molecular biology. A survey is made identifying and briefly characterizing fields of plant biology where approaches of biophysics remain essential. In transport at membranes electrophysiology and thermodynamics are biophysical topics. Water is a special molecule. Its transport follows the physical laws of osmosis and gradients of water potential on the background of physics of hydraulic architecture. Photobiology needs understanding of the physics of electro-magnetic radiation of quantitative nature in photosynthesis and of qualitative nature in perception by the photo-sensors cryptochromes, phototropins and phytochrome in environmental responses and development. Biophysical oscillators can play a role in biological timing by the circadian clock. Integration in the self-organization of modules, such as roots, stems and leaves, for the emergence of whole plants as unitary organisms needs storage and transport of information where physical modes of signaling are essential with cross talks between electrical and hydraulic signals and with chemical signals. Examples are gravitropism and root-shoot interactions in water relations. All of these facets of plant biophysics overlie plant molecular biology and exchange with it. It is advocated that a union of approaches of plant molecular biology and biophysics needs to be cultivated. In many cases it is already operative. In bionics biophysics is producing output for practical applications linking biology with technology. Biomimetic engineering intrinsically uses physical approaches. An extreme biophysical perspective is looking out for life in space. Sustained and increased practice of biophysics with teaching and research deserves strong

  10. Isotopic techniques for measuring the biological activity in plant rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of 14 C made it possible to separate root respired CO 2 and microbial CO 2 resulting from exudates utilisation by the rhizosphere microflora. Measurements were done after wheat plants grown under axenic and non axenic conditions were placed during short period of time in an atmosphere contaning 14 CO 2 . Under axenic conditions evolution of 14 CO 2 follows a bell shaped curve due to the brief appearance of labelled compounds translocated from the aerial part of the plants to the roots. In the presence of microorganisms, the maximum of activity due to root respiration is identical but immediately followed by a second peak of 14 CO 2 evolution that was attributed to the decomposition of labelled exudates by the microflora. The same observations resulted from the labelling of a grassland vegetation sampled with its soil and placed in the laboratory. Preliminary results obtained using this method of short term labelling of plants are presented here [fr

  11. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  12. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our understanding of some phenolic compounds in the last few decades has greatly improved. However, their biological, ecological and agronomical significance in the rhizosphere of most symbiotic legumes is much less clear. Further understanding of these biomolecules will increase our knowledge of their contribution in ...

  13. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective. PMID:29312339

  14. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective.

  15. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrendra Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo perspective.

  16. Cell-free synthetic biology for in vitro prototype engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; MacDonald, James T; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-06-15

    Cell-free transcription-translation is an expanding field in synthetic biology as a rapid prototyping platform for blueprinting the design of synthetic biological devices. Exemplar efforts include translation of prototype designs into medical test kits for on-site identification of viruses (Zika and Ebola), while gene circuit cascades can be tested, debugged and re-designed within rapid turnover times. Coupled with mathematical modelling, this discipline lends itself towards the precision engineering of new synthetic life. The next stages of cell-free look set to unlock new microbial hosts that remain slow to engineer and unsuited to rapid iterative design cycles. It is hoped that the development of such systems will provide new tools to aid the transition from cell-free prototype designs to functioning synthetic genetic circuits and engineered natural product pathways in living cells. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions: advances in genetics of biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Zachow, Christin; Berg, Gabriele; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Trichoderma spp. are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. Understanding these mechanisms at the molecular level would help in developing strains with superior biocontrol properties. In this article, we review our current understanding of the genetics of interactions of Trichoderma with plants and plant pathogens.

  19. Cell biology of the Koji mold Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has been used for the production of sake, miso, and soy sauce for more than one thousand years in Japan. Due to the importance, A. oryzae has been designated as the national micro-organism of Japan (Koku-kin). A. oryzae has been intensively studied in the past century, with most investigations focusing on breeding techniques and developing methods for Koji making for sake brewing. However, the understanding of fundamental biology of A. oryzae remains relatively limited compared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we have focused on studying the cell biology including live cell imaging of organelles, protein vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and Woronin body functions using the available genomic information. In this review, I describe essential findings of cell biology of A. oryzae obtained in our study for a quarter of century. Understanding of the basic biology will be critical for not its biotechnological application, but also for an understanding of the fundamental biology of other filamentous fungi.

  20. Navigating the plant cell: intracellular transport logistics in the green kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitmann, Anja; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular transport in plant cells occurs on microtubular and actin arrays. Cytoplasmic streaming, the rapid motion of plant cell organelles, is mostly driven by an actin-myosin mechanism, whereas specialized functions, such as the transport of large cargo or the assembly of a new cell wall during cell division, are performed by the microtubules. Different modes of transport are used, fast and slow, to either haul cargo over long distances or ascertain high-precision targeting, respectively. Various forms of the actin-specific motor protein myosin XI exist in plant cells and might be involved in different cellular functions. © 2015 Geitmann and Nebenführ. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PLANT PROTEIN AND VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fisenko G. V.; Koshchaeva O. V.; Luneva A. V.; Petenko I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Results of the use of plant protein feed additives containing pumpkin paste and soybean seeds of different varieties for quail are presented in the article. It was established that the use of such additives on the basis of Valens soybean allowed to receive higher growth parameters than groups treated with Vilan soybean additive

  2. Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

  3. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough, many related ...

  4. Reproductive biology in the medicinal plant, Plumbago zeylanica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plumbago zeylanica L. is an important medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Phenology from seed germination via vegetative growth to reproductive development was studied under glasshouse and nursery conditions. Seeds rapidly germinated on a mixture of nursery soil and cattle dung in ...

  5. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  6. The biologic effects of cigarette smoke on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobus, Samantha L; Warren, Graham W

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is one of the largest preventable risk factors for developing cancer, and continued smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased toxicity, recurrence, risk of second primary cancer, and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of chemicals, including many known carcinogens. The carcinogenic effects of CS are well established, but relatively little work has been done to evaluate the effects of CS on cancer cells. In this review of the literature, the authors demonstrate that CS induces a more malignant tumor phenotype by increasing proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and by activating prosurvival cellular pathways. Significant work is needed to understand the biologic effect of CS on cancer biology, including the development of model systems and the identification of critical biologic mediators of CS-induced changes in cancer cell physiology. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  7. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  8. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…

  9. The time is right: proteome biology of stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whetton, A.D.; Williamson, A.J.K.; Krijgsveld, J.; Lee, B.H.; Lemischka, I.; Oh, S.; Pera, M.; Mummery, C.L.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    In stem cell biology, there is a growing need for advanced technologies that may help to unravel the molecular mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation. Proteomics, the comprehensive analysis of proteins, is such an emerging technique. To facilitate interactions between specialists in

  10. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has

  11. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  12. Very-large-scale production of antibodies in plants: The biologization of manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2017-07-01

    Gene technology has facilitated the biologization of manufacturing, i.e. the use and production of complex biological molecules and systems at an industrial scale. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the major class of biopharmaceutical products, but they are typically used to treat specific diseases which individually have comparably low incidences. The therapeutic potential of mAbs could also be used for more prevalent diseases, but this would require a massive increase in production capacity that could not be met by traditional fermenter systems. Here we outline the potential of plants to be used for the very-large-scale (VLS) production of biopharmaceutical proteins such as mAbs. We discuss the potential market sizes and their corresponding production capacities. We then consider available process technologies and scale-down models and how these can be used to develop VLS processes. Finally, we discuss which adaptations will likely be required for VLS production, lessons learned from existing cell culture-based processes and the food industry, and practical requirements for the implementation of a VLS process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals in plant cell and organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Diego; Sanchez, Raul; Lalaleo, Liliana; Bonfill, Mercedes; Corchete, Purificacion; Palazon, Javier

    2018-03-09

    Plant biofactories are biotechnological platforms based on plant cell and organ cultures used for the production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, although to date only a few of these systems have successfully been implemented at an industrial level. Metabolic engineering is possibly the most straightforward strategy to boost pharmaceutical production in plant biofactories, but social opposition to the use of GMOs means empirical approaches are still being used. Plant secondary metabolism involves thousands of different enzymes, some of which catalyze specific reactions, giving one product from a particular substrate, whereas others can yield multiple products from the same substrate. This trait opens plant cell biofactories to new applications, in which the natural metabolic machinery of plants can be harnessed for the bioconversion of phytochemicals or even the production of new bioactive compounds. Synthetic biological pipelines involving the bioconversion of natural substrates into products with a high market value may be established by the heterologous expression of target metabolic genes in model plants. To summarize the state of the art of plant biofactories and their applications for the pipeline production of cosme-, pharma- and biopharmaceuticals. In order to demonstrate the great potential of plant biofactories for multiple applications in the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, this review broadly covers the following: plant biofactories based on cell and hairy root cultures; secondary metabolite production; biotransformation reactions; metabolic engineering tools applied in plant biofactories; and biopharmaceutical production. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology: Lessons Learnt from Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhao Jiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC comprise the natural killer (NK cells and ILC1 which reside within peripheral tissues. Several different ILC1 subsets have recently been characterised, however no unique markers to define these subsets have been identified. Whether ILC1 and NK cells are in fact distinct lineages, or alternately exhibit transitional molecular programs, that allow them to adapt to different tissue niches remains an open question. NK cells are the prototypic member of the Group 1 ILC and have been historically assigned the functions of what now appears to be a multi-subset family that are distributed throughout the body. This raises the question of whether each of these populations mediate distinct functions during infection and tumour immunosurveillance. Here, we review the diversity in the Group 1 ILC subsets with regards to their transcriptional regulation, localization, mobility and receptor expression and highlight the challenges in unraveling the individual functions of these different populations of cells.

  15. Cell physiology of plants growing in cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, Cornelius

    2010-08-01

    The life of plants growing in cold extreme environments has been well investigated in terms of morphological, anatomical, and ecophysiological adaptations. In contrast, long-term cellular or metabolic studies have been performed by only a few groups. Moreover, a number of single reports exist, which often represent just a glimpse of plant behavior. The review draws together the literature which has focused on tissue and cellular adaptations mainly to low temperatures and high light. Most studies have been done with European alpine plants; comparably well studied are only two phanerogams found in the coastal Antarctic. Plant adaptation in northern polar regions has always been of interest in terms of ecophysiology and plant propagation, but nowadays, this interest extends to the effects of global warming. More recently, metabolic and cellular investigations have included cold and UV resistance mechanisms. Low-temperature stress resistance in plants from cold environments reflects the climate conditions at the growth sites. It is now a matter of molecular analyses to find the induced genes and their products such as chaperones or dehydrins responsible for this resistance. Development of plants under snow or pollen tube growth at 0 degrees C shows that cell biology is needed to explain the stability and function of the cytoskeleton. Many results in this field are based on laboratory studies, but several publications show that it is not difficult to study cellular mechanisms with the plants adapted to a natural stress. Studies on high light and UV loads may be split in two parts. Many reports describe natural UV as harmful for the plants, but these studies were mainly conducted by shielding off natural UV (as controls). Other experiments apply additional UV in the field and have had practically no negative impact on metabolism. The latter group is supported by the observations that green overwintering plants increase their flavonoids under snow even in the absence of

  16. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  17. Hydraulic fracturing in cells and tissues: fracking meets cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it. Here we review recent evidence that poroelastic pressures and flows can fracture essential biological barriers such as the nuclear envelope, the cellular cortex, and epithelial layers. This type of fracture is known in engineering literature as hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ovary and fimbrial stem cells: biology, niche and cancer origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Annie; Barker, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The mammalian ovary is covered by a single-layered epithelium that undergoes rupture and remodelling following each ovulation. Although resident stem cells are presumed to be crucial for this cyclic regeneration, their identity and mode of action have been elusive. Surrogate stemness assays and in vivo fate-mapping studies using recently discovered stem cell markers have identified stem cell pools in the ovary and fimbria that ensure epithelial homeostasis. Recent findings provide insights into intrinsic mechanisms and local extrinsic cues that govern the function of ovarian and fimbrial stem cells. These discoveries have advanced our understanding of stem cell biology in the ovary and fimbria, and lay the foundations for evaluating the contribution of resident stem cells to the initiation and progression of human epithelial ovarian cancer.

  19. DCD – a novel plant specific domain in proteins involved in development and programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerks Tobias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of microbial pathogens by plants triggers the hypersensitive reaction, a common form of programmed cell death in plants. These dying cells generate signals that activate the plant immune system and alarm the neighboring cells as well as the whole plant to activate defense responses to limit the spread of the pathogen. The molecular mechanisms behind the hypersensitive reaction are largely unknown except for the recognition process of pathogens. We delineate the NRP-gene in soybean, which is specifically induced during this programmed cell death and contains a novel protein domain, which is commonly found in different plant proteins. Results The sequence analysis of the protein, encoded by the NRP-gene from soybean, led to the identification of a novel domain, which we named DCD, because it is found in plant proteins involved in development and cell death. The domain is shared by several proteins in the Arabidopsis and the rice genomes, which otherwise show a different protein architecture. Biological studies indicate a role of these proteins in phytohormone response, embryo development and programmed cell by pathogens or ozone. Conclusion It is tempting to speculate, that the DCD domain mediates signaling in plant development and programmed cell death and could thus be used to identify interacting proteins to gain further molecular insights into these processes.

  20. Influence of cell printing on biological characters of chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Miao; Gao, Xiaoyan; Hou, Yikang; Shen, Congcong; Xu, Yourong; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Hengjian; Xu, Haisong; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    To establish a two-dimensional biological printing technique of chondrocytes and compare the difference of related biological characters between printed chondrocytes and unprinted cells so as to control the cell transfer process and keep cell viability after printing. Primary chondrocytes were obtained from human mature and fetal cartilage tissues and then were regularly sub-cultured to harvest cells at passage 2 (P2), which were adjusted to the single cell suspension at a density of 1×10(6)/mL. The experiment was divided into 2 groups: experimental group P2 chondrocytes were transferred by rapid prototype biological printer (driving voltage value 50 V, interval in x-axis 300 μm, interval in y-axis 1500 μm). Afterwards Live/Dead viability Kit and flow cytometry were respectively adopted to detect cell viability; CCK-8 Kit was adopted to detect cell proliferation viability; immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR was employed to identify related markers of chondrocytes; control group steps were the same as the printing group except that cell suspension received no printing. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses showed that there was no significant difference between experimental group and control group in terms of cell viability. After 7-day in vitro culture, control group exhibited higher O.D values than experimental group from 2nd day to 7th day but there was no distinct difference between these two groups (P>0.05). Inverted microscope observation demonstrated that the morphology of these two groups had no significant difference either. Similarly, Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays also showed that there was no significant difference in the protein and gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan between these two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Cell printing has no distinctly negative effect on cell vitality, proliferation and phenotype of chondrocytes. Biological printing technique may provide a novel approach

  1. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eEbine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biology and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazza, Loris; Mocellin, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was the first cytokine to be used in humans for cancer therapy. However, its role in the treatment of cancer patients is debated. Most uncertainties in this field stem from the knowledge that the pathways directly activated or indirectly affected upon TNF engagement with its receptors can ultimately lead to very different outcomes in terms of cell survival. In this article, we summarize the fundamental molecular biology aspects of this cytokine. Such a basis is a prerequisite to critically approach the sometimes conflicting preclinical and clinical findings regarding the relationship between TNF, tumor biology and anticancer therapy. Although the last decade has witnessed remarkable advances in this field, we still do not know in detail how cells choose between life and death after TNF stimulation. Understanding this mechanism will not only shed new light on the physiological significance of TNF-driven programmed cell death but also help investigators maximize the anticancer potential of this cytokine.

  3. Plasma cell leukemia: update on biology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Roberto; D'Agostino, Mattia; Cerrato, Chiara; Gay, Francesca; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, but very aggressive, plasma cell dyscrasia, representing a distinct clinicopathological entity as compared to multiple myeloma (MM), with peculiar biological and clinical features. A hundred times rarer than MM, the disease course is characterized by short remissions and poor survival. PCL is defined by an increased percentage (>20%) and absolute number (>2 × 10 9 /l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. PCL is defined as 'primary' when peripheral plasmacytosis is detected at diagnosis, 'secondary' when leukemization occurs in a patient with preexisting MM. Novel agents have revolutionized the outcomes of MM patients and have been introduced also for the treatment of PCL. Here, we provide an update on biology and treatment options for PCL.

  4. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tomography studies of biological cells on polymer scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurner, P; Mueller, B; Sennhauser, U; Hubbell, J; Mueller, R

    2004-01-01

    Advances in cell biology and tissue engineering rely heavily on performing 2D cell culture experiments. Analysis of these is conventionally done with 2D imaging techniques such as light (LM) or electron microscopy (SEM), since they are readily available. Cells, however, might act significantly differently when cultured in 2D or 3D environments. In order to analyse cells in a 3D arrangement, new imaging techniques are necessary not only in order to visualize the periphery of the cell culture in reflection mode but also to perform qualitative and quantitative investigations of the inner parts. Synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) using hard x-rays was shown to be a promising tool that can be used for 3D cell culture visualization. SRμCT allows not only visualization of cell cultures in their native 3D environment but also use of the volumetric nature of this imaging procedure to evaluate the cells quantitatively. In our approach, cells were seeded on polymer yarns, stained and measured with SRμCT in absorption and in differential absorption contrast mode. A new segmentation procedure was developed and the measured volumetric data were quantitatively assessed. Quantification parameters included total cell volume, total yarn volume, cell volume density, which is the ratio of cell to yarn volume, and the radial cell mass distribution. The applied variation of the staining parameter of gold enhancement incubation time was shown to have significant influence on the cell volume density. Differential absorption contrast mode was found to provide similar but no additional information on the investigated sample. Using novel approaches of hierarchical volumetric imaging allows closure of the gap between imaging of whole organs and single cells and might be expanded to even higher resolutions, offering investigation of the cell machinery in closer detail

  6. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  7. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxx, T.S.; Tierney, G.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance

  8. Collective biology of neoplastic disease in dicotyledonous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-07-01

    We discuss the two different responses from the angiosperms to the specific molecular mechanisms of the tumor-inducing agent contained in the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This is done in terms of the collective variables for expressing genetic response to a continuously varying supply of energy from metabolic pathways. We are led to the conjecture that the expression of the recessive oncogenes may not be restricted to humans (retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma), but may also occur in plants (crown gall), and be expressed through a heat-shock. (author). 11 refs

  9. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  10. Differential Interaction of Synthetic Glycolipids with Biomimetic Plasma Membrane Lipids Correlates with the Plant Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Lins, Laurence; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Ongena, Marc; Dorey, Stephan; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine; Clément, Christophe; Bouquillon, Sandrine; Haudrechy, Arnaud; Sarazin, Catherine; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Nott, Katherine; Deleu, Magali

    2017-09-26

    Natural and synthetic amphiphilic molecules including lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharides, and glycolipids are able to induce defense mechanisms in plants. In the present work, the perception of two synthetic C14 rhamnolipids, namely, Alk-RL and Ac-RL, differing only at the level of the lipid tail terminal group have been investigated using biological and biophysical approaches. We showed that Alk-RL induces a stronger early signaling response in tobacco cell suspensions than does Ac-RL. The interactions of both synthetic RLs with simplified biomimetic membranes were further analyzed using experimental and in silico approaches. Our results indicate that the interactions of Alk-RL and Ac-RL with lipids were different in terms of insertion and molecular responses and were dependent on the lipid composition of model membranes. A more favorable insertion of Alk-RL than Ac-RL into lipid membranes is observed. Alk-RL forms more stable molecular assemblies than Ac-RL with phospholipids and sterols. At the molecular level, the presence of sterols tends to increase the RLs' interaction with lipid bilayers, with a fluidizing effect on the alkyl chains. Taken together, our findings suggest that the perception of these synthetic RLs at the membrane level could be related to a lipid-driven process depending on the organization of the membrane and the orientation of the RLs within the membrane and is correlated with the induction of early signaling responses in tobacco cells.

  11. New frontiers in human cell biology and medicine: can pluripotent stem cells deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2012-11-12

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide enormous opportunities to treat disease using cell therapy. But human stem cells can also drive biomedical and cell biological discoveries in a human model system, which can be directly linked to understanding disease or developing new therapies. Finally, rigorous scientific studies of these cells can and should inform the many science and medical policy issues that confront the translation of these technologies to medicine. In this paper, I discuss these issues using amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as an example.

  12. Laser microbeams for the manipulation of plant cells and subcellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Laser microsurgery has been used in plants to study physiological, cell biological and genetical questions for over 10 years. More recently, the optical trap became available as an additional tool. Specific areas of research include membrane physiology, motility, transformation and protoplast fusion. Compared to the data reported in animal systems, the contributions of laser microbeam manipulations in plant biology are rather limited. However, with increased awareness of the enormous potential of the technology and better accessibility to less expensive and more user-friendly equipment, the next decade should be more productive. (author)

  13. Engineering Therapeutic T Cells: From Synthetic Biology to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esensten, Jonathan H; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Lim, Wendell A

    2017-01-24

    Engineered T cells are currently in clinical trials to treat patients with cancer, solid organ transplants, and autoimmune diseases. However, the field is still in its infancy. The design, and manufacturing, of T cell therapies is not standardized and is performed mostly in academic settings by competing groups. Reliable methods to define dose and pharmacokinetics of T cell therapies need to be developed. As of mid-2016, there are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved T cell therapeutics on the market, and FDA regulations are only slowly adapting to the new technologies. Further development of engineered T cell therapies requires advances in immunology, synthetic biology, manufacturing processes, and government regulation. In this review, we outline some of these challenges and discuss the contributions that pathologists can make to this emerging field.

  14. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel; Majeti, Ravindra

    2017-03-23

    Evidence of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs) was first reported nearly 2 decades ago through the identification of rare subpopulations of engrafting cells in xenotransplantation assays. These AML LSCs were shown to reside at the apex of a cellular hierarchy that initiates and maintains the disease, exhibiting properties of self-renewal, cell cycle quiescence, and chemoresistance. This cancer stem cell model offers an explanation for chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse and implies that approaches to treatment must eradicate LSCs for cure. More recently, a number of studies have both refined and expanded our understanding of LSCs and intrapatient heterogeneity in AML using improved xenotransplant models, genome-scale analyses, and experimental manipulation of primary patient cells. Here, we review these studies with a focus on the immunophenotype, biological properties, epigenetics, genetics, and clinical associations of human AML LSCs and discuss critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenberg Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.. A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Results We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a

  16. Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, MI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available . Very little, however, is known about the biological significance and origin of cis-isomers. Here we show for the first time the accumulation of cis-5-caffeoylquinic acid in cultured tobacco cells treated with different inducers of plant defence...

  17. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  18. Emerging concepts and future challenges in innate lymphoid cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, David

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology. In particular, recent work has highlighted key new questions regarding how these cells communicate with their environment and other cell types during health and disease. This review summarizes new findings in this rapidly developing field that showcase the critical role ILCs play in directing immune responses through their ability to interact with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. In addition, we define remaining challenges and emerging questions facing the field. Finally, this review discusses the potential application of basic studies of ILC biology to the development of new treatments for human patients with inflammatory and infectious diseases in which ILCs play a role. PMID:27811053

  19. A universal fluid cell for the imaging of biological specimens in the atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasas, Sandor; Radotic, Ksenja; Longo, Giovanni; Saha, Bashkar; Alonso-Sarduy, Livan; Dietler, Giovanni; Roduit, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Recently, atomic force microscope (AFM) manufacturers have begun producing instruments specifically designed to image biological specimens. In most instances, they are integrated with an inverted optical microscope, which permits concurrent optical and AFM imaging. An important component of the set-up is the imaging chamber, whose design determines the nature of the experiments that can be conducted. Many different imaging chamber designs are available, usually designed to optimize a single parameter, such as the dimensions of the substrate or the volume of fluid that can be used throughout the experiment. In this report, we present a universal fluid cell, which simultaneously optimizes all of the parameters that are important for the imaging of biological specimens in the AFM. This novel imaging chamber has been successfully tested using mammalian, plant, and microbial cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Integration of Plant Defense Traits with Biological Control of Arthropod Pests: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Julie A; Ode, Paul J; Oliveira-Hofman, Camila; Harwood, James D

    2016-01-01

    Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP) traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  1. Integration of plant defense traits with biological control of arthropod pests: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Peterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically-, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically-mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  2. Chimeric animal models in human stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.

  3. Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Raphael; Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Caraballo-Rodriguez, Andrés Mauricio; Melo, Weilan Gomes da Paixão; do Nascimento, Andréa Mendes; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Krogh, Renata; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2016-06-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. 100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2017-01-01

    100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation. (topical review)

  5. Artificial cell mimics as simplified models for the study of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Ces, Oscar; Elani, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Living cells are hugely complex chemical systems composed of a milieu of distinct chemical species (including DNA, proteins, lipids, and metabolites) interconnected with one another through a vast web of interactions: this complexity renders the study of cell biology in a quantitative and systematic manner a difficult task. There has been an increasing drive towards the utilization of artificial cells as cell mimics to alleviate this, a development that has been aided by recent advances in artificial cell construction. Cell mimics are simplified cell-like structures, composed from the bottom-up with precisely defined and tunable compositions. They allow specific facets of cell biology to be studied in isolation, in a simplified environment where control of variables can be achieved without interference from a living and responsive cell. This mini-review outlines the core principles of this approach and surveys recent key investigations that use cell mimics to address a wide range of biological questions. It will also place the field in the context of emerging trends, discuss the associated limitations, and outline future directions of the field. Impact statement Recent years have seen an increasing drive to construct cell mimics and use them as simplified experimental models to replicate and understand biological phenomena in a well-defined and controlled system. By summarizing the advances in this burgeoning field, and using case studies as a basis for discussion on the limitations and future directions of this approach, it is hoped that this minireview will spur others in the experimental biology community to use artificial cells as simplified models with which to probe biological systems.

  6. Plant Molecular Biology 2008 Gordon Research Conference - July 13-18, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Amasino

    2009-08-28

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2008 conference will continue in that tradition. There will be sessions on metabolism; new methods to study genomes, proteomes and metabolomes; plant-microbe interactions; plant hormones; epigenetics. A new topic for the conference this year will be bioenergy. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines to foster the exchange ideas and to permit the participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner.

  7. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  8. Metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: Biology and implications for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple advances have been made in systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC, metastatic RCC remains incurable. In the current review, we focus on the underlying biology of RCC and plausible mechanisms of metastasis. We further outline evolving strategies to combat metastasis through adjuvant therapy. Finally, we discuss clinical patterns of metastasis in RCC and how distinct systemic therapy approaches may be considered based on the anatomic location of metastasis.

  9. Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis XF-1 reveals mechanisms for biological control and multiple beneficial properties in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shengye; Li, Xingyu; He, Pengfei; Ho, Honhing; Wu, Yixin; He, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis XF-1 is a gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium that stimulates plant growth and produces secondary metabolites that suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. In particular, it is especially highly efficient at controlling the clubroot disease of cruciferous crops. Its 4,061,186-bp genome contains an estimated 3853 protein-coding sequences and the 1155 genes of XF-1 are present in most genome-sequenced Bacillus strains: 3757 genes in B. subtilis 168, and 1164 in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Analysis using the Cluster of Orthologous Groups database of proteins shows that 60 genes control bacterial mobility, 221 genes are related to cell wall and membrane biosynthesis, and more than 112 are genes associated with secondary metabolites. In addition, the genes contributed to the strain's plant colonization, bio-control and stimulation of plant growth. Sequencing of the genome is a fundamental step for developing a desired strain to serve as an efficient biological control agent and plant growth stimulator. Similar to other members of the taxon, XF-1 has a genome that contains giant gene clusters for the non-ribosomal synthesis of antifungal lipopeptides (surfactin and fengycin), the polyketides (macrolactin and bacillaene), the siderophore bacillibactin, and the dipeptide bacilysin. There are two synthesis pathways for volatile growth-promoting compounds. The expression of biosynthesized antibiotic peptides in XF-1 was revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

  10. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  11. Immunoregulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Manrreza, Marta E.; Montesinos, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages and that can be isolated from various tissues and easily cultivated in vitro. Currently, MSCs are of considerable interest because of the biological characteristics that confer high potential applicability in the clinical treatment of many diseases. Specifically, because of their high immunoregulatory capacity, MSCs are used as tools in cellular therapies for clinical protocols involving immune system alterations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the capacity of MSCs for the immunoregulation of immunocompetent cells and emphasize the effects of MSCs on T cells, principal effectors of the immune response, and the immunosuppressive effects mediated by the secretion of soluble factors and membrane molecules. We also describe the mechanisms of MSC immunoregulatory modulation and the participation of MSCs as immune response regulators in several autoimmune diseases, and we emphasize the clinical application in graft versus host disease (GVHD). PMID:25961059

  12. Theories and models on the biological of cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.; Klaus, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of observations on cells in space, admittedly made under constraining and unnatural conditions in may cases, have led to experimental results that were surprising or unexpected. Reproducibility, freedom from artifacts, and plausibility must be considered in all cases, even when results are not surprising. The papers in symposium on 'Theories and Models on the Biology of Cells in Space' are dedicated to the subject of the plausibility of cellular responses to gravity -- inertial accelerations between 0 and 9.8 m/sq s and higher. The mechanical phenomena inside the cell, the gravitactic locomotion of single eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the effects of inertial unloading on cellular physiology are addressed in theoretical and experimental studies.

  13. Synthetic biology in cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Wong, Wilson W

    2015-08-01

    The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells with cancer-targeting receptors has shown tremendous promise for eradicating tumors in clinical trials. This form of cellular immunotherapy presents a unique opportunity to incorporate advanced systems and synthetic biology approaches to create cancer therapeutics with novel functions. We first review the development of synthetic receptors, switches, and circuits to control the location, duration, and strength of T cell activity against tumors. In addition, we discuss the cellular engineering and genome editing of host cells (or the chassis) to improve the efficacy of cell-based cancer therapeutics, and to reduce the time and cost of manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Scancar, Janez; Jacimovic, Radojko; Simcic, Jurij; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  15. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  16. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  17. Recent advances in the cell biology of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayflick, L

    1980-01-01

    Cultured normal human and animal cells are predestined to undergo irreversible functional decrements that mimic age changes in the whole organism. When normal human embryonic fibroblasts are cultured in vitro, 50 +/- 10 population doublings occur. This maximum potential is diminished in cells derived from older donors and appears to be inversely proportional to their age. The 50 population doubling limit can account for all cells produced during a lifetime. The limitation on doubling potential of cultured normal cells is also expressed in vivo when serial transplants are made. There may be a direct correlation between the mean maximum life spans of several species and the population doubling potential of their cultured cells. A plethora of functional decrements occurs in cultured normal cells as they approach their maximum division capability. Many of these decrements are similar to those occurring in intact animals as they age. We have concluded that these functional decrements expressed in vitro, rather than cessation of cell division, are the essential contributors to age changes in intact animals. Thus, the study of events leading to functional losses in cultured normal cells may provide useful insights into the biology of aging.

  18. From Charles Darwin's botanical country-house studies to modern plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Briggs, W R

    2009-11-01

    As a student of theology at Cambridge University, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) attended the lectures of the botanist John S. Henslow (1796-1861). This instruction provided the basis for his life-long interest in plants as well as the species question. This was a major reason why in his book On the Origin of Species, which was published 150 years ago, Darwin explained his metaphorical phrase 'struggle for life' with respect to animals and plants. In this article, we review Darwin's botanical work with reference to the following topics: the struggle for existence in the vegetable kingdom with respect to the phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance response; the biology of flowers and Darwin's plant-insect co-evolution hypothesis; climbing plants and the discovery of action potentials; the power of movement in plants and Darwin's conflict with the German plant physiologist Julius Sachs; and light perception by growing grass coleoptiles with reference to the phototropins. Finally, we describe the establishment of the scientific discipline of Plant Biology that took place in the USA 80 years ago, and define this area of research with respect to Darwin's work on botany and the physiology of higher plants.

  19. The role of cell hydration in realization of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2015-09-01

    The weak knowledge on the nature of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological effects of NIR such as static magnetic field, infrasound frequency of mechanical vibration, extremely low frequency of electromagnetic fields and microwave serves as a main barrier for adequate dosimetry from the point of Public Health. The difficulty lies in the fact that the biological effects of NIR depend not only on their thermodynamic characteristics but also on their frequency and intensity "windows", chemical and physical composition of the surrounding medium, as well as on the initial metabolic state of the organism. Therefore, only biomarker can be used for adequate estimation of biological effect of NIR on organisms. Because of the absence of such biomarker(s), organizations having the mission to monitor hazardous effects of NIR traditionally base their instruction on thermodynamic characteristics of NIR. Based on the high sensitivity to NIR of both aqua medium structure and cell hydration, it is suggested that cell bathing medium is one of the primary targets and cell hydration is a biomarker for NIR effects on cells and organisms. The purpose of this article is to present a short review of literature and our own experimental data on the effects of NIR on plants' seeds germination, microbe growth and development, snail neurons and heart muscle, rat's brain and heart tissues.

  20. Influence of fly dust from coking plants on some biological processes of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, V

    1972-03-01

    The influence of three typical samples of fly dust from a coking plant on enzymatic reactions, photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration in leaves of bean plants was studied. The hydrolysis of starch with amylases and of the albumen with pepsin at 37 C and the inversion of sacharosis by invertase in a buffered environment were also examined. None of the three dust samples had a significant effect on enzymatic reactions. Applying the dust samples to the leaves of young bean plants reduced the intensity of photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration. In aqueous extracts, the dust samples liberated only small quantities of nutrients, plants which were grown in a dust suspension showed no increase of dry substance and growth rate. A stimulating effect of the dust samples on root growth was determined. Mixing the dust samples with the soil influenced the accessibility of water to plants. 17 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Extracellular Trapping of Soil Contaminants by Root Border Cells: New Insights into Plant Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Hawes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water pollution by metals and other toxic chemicals is difficult to measure and control, and, as such, presents an ongoing global threat to sustainable agriculture and human health. Efforts to remove contaminants by plant-mediated pathways, or “phytoremediation”, though widely studied, have failed to yield consistent, predictable removal of biological and chemical contaminants. Emerging research has revealed that one major limitation to using plants to clean up the environment is that plants are programmed to protect themselves: Like white blood cells in animals, border cells released from plant root tips carry out an extracellular trapping process to neutralize threats and prevent injury to the host. Variability in border cell trapping has been found to be correlated with variation in sensitivity of roots to aluminum, and removal of border cell results in increased Al uptake into the root tip. Studies now have implicated border cells in responses of diverse plant roots to a range of heavy metals, including arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. A better understanding of border cell extracellular traps and their role in preventing toxin uptake may facilitate efforts to use plants as a nondestructive approach to neutralize environmental threats.

  2. Agrobacterium -induced hypersensitive necrotic reaction in plant cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High necrosis and poor survival rate of target plant tissues are some of the major factors that affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer into plant cells. These factors may be the result of, or linked to, hypersensitive defense reaction in plants to Agrobacterium infection, which may involve the recognition ...

  3. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND THERMAL TRANSFORMED SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATION ON MANGANESE CONTENT IN PLANTS AND SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Koncewicz-Baran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of sewage sludge treatment methods, due to the agent (chemical, biological, thermal leads to the formation of varying ‘products’ properties, including the content of heavy metals forms. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of biologically and thermally transformed sewage sludge on the manganese content in plants and form of this element in the soil. The study was based on a two-year pot experiment. In this study was used stabilized sewage sludge collected from Wastewater Treatment Plant Krakow – ”Płaszów” and its mixtures with wheat straw in the gravimetric ratio 1:1 in conversion to material dry matter, transformed biologically (composting by 117 days in a bioreactor and thermally (in the furnace chamber with no air access by the following procedure exposed to temperatures of 130 °C for 40 min → 200 °C for 30 min. In both years of the study biologically and thermally transformed mixtures of sewage sludge with wheat straw demonstrated similar impact on the amount of biomass plants to the pig manure. Bigger amounts of manganese were assessed in oat biomass than in spring rape biomass. The applied sewage sludge and its biologically and thermally converted mixtures did not significantly affect manganese content in plant biomass in comparison with the farmyard manure. The applied fertilization did not modify the values of translocation and bioaccumulation ratios of manganese in the above-ground parts and roots of spring rape and oat. No increase in the content of the available to plants forms of manganese in the soil after applying biologically and thermally transformed sewage sludge mixtures with straw was detected. In the second year, lower contents of these manganese forms were noted in the soil of all objects compared with the first year of the experiment.

  4. Biological Effects of Potato Plants Transformation with Glucose Oxidase Gene and their Resistance to Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Grabelnych

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that regulation of plant tolerance to adverse environmental factors is connected with short term increase of the concentration of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are signalling molecules for the induction of protective mechanisms. Introduction and expression of heterologous gox gene, which encodes glucose oxidase enzyme in plant genome, induce constantly higher content of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissues. It is not known how the introduction of native or modified gox gene affects the plant resistance to high-temperature stress, one of the most commonly used model for the study of stress response and thermal tolerance. In this study, we investigated biological effects of transformation and evaluated the resistance to temperature stress of potato plants with altered levels of glucose oxidase expression. Transformation of potato plants by gox gene led to the more early coming out from tuber dormancy of transformed plants and slower growth rate. Transformants containing the glucose oxidase gene were more sensitive to lethal thermal shock (50 °C, 90 min than the transformant with the empty vector (pBI or untransformed plants (CK. Pre-heating of plants at 37 °C significantly weakened the damaging effect of lethal thermal shock. This attenuation was more significant in the non-transformed plants.

  5. Ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation of plant cells: effects on morphology and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Xu, Lin; Zhong, Wenjing; Yu, Alfred C H

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between ultrasound pulses and microbubbles is known to generate acoustic cavitation that may puncture biological cells. This work presents new experimental findings on the bioeffects of ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation in plant cells with emphasis on direct observations of morphological impact and analysis of viability trends in tobacco BY-2 cells that are widely studied in higher plant physiology. The tobacco cell suspensions were exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound pulses in the presence of 1% v/v microbubbles (10% duty cycle; 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency; 70 mm between probe and cells; 1-min exposure time). Few bioeffects were observed at low peak negative pressures (cavitation presumably occurred. In contrast, at 0.9 MPa peak negative pressure (with more inertial cavitation activities according to our passive cavitation detection results), random pores were found on tobacco cell wall (observed via scanning electron microscopy) and enhanced exogenous uptake into the cytoplasm was evident (noted in our fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran uptake analysis). Also, instant lysis was observed in 23.4% of cells (found using trypan blue staining) and programmed cell death was seen in 23.3% of population after 12 h (determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling [TUNEL]). These bioeffects generally correspond in trend with those for mammalian cells. This raises the possibility of developing ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation into a targeted gene transfection paradigm for plant cells and, conversely, adopting plant cells as experimental test-beds for sonoporation-based gene therapy in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  7. Thematic minireview series: cell biology of G protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Henrik G

    2015-03-13

    This thematic series is on the topic of cell signaling from a cell biology perspective, with a particular focus on G proteins. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also known as seven-transmembrane receptors) are typically found at the cell surface. Upon agonist binding, these receptors will activate a GTP-binding G protein at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Additionally, there is growing evidence that G proteins can also be activated by non-receptor binding partners, and they can signal from non-plasma membrane compartments. The production of second messengers at multiple, spatially distinct locations represents a type of signal encoding that has been largely neglected. The first minireview in the series describes biosensors that are being used to monitor G protein signaling events in live cells. The second describes the implementation of antibody-based biosensors to dissect endosome signaling by G proteins and their receptors. The third describes the function of a non-receptor, cytoplasmic activator of G protein signaling, called GIV (Girdin). Collectively, the advances described in these articles provide a deeper understanding and emerging opportunities for new pharmacology. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ARTHROSPIRA CELL FACTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpan Klanchui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of Arthrospira, the development of Arthrospira factories can now be accelerated by means of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach. Here, we review recent research involving the use of Arthrospira cell factories for industrial applications, as well as the exploitation of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach for studying Arthrospira. The current status of genomics and proteomics through the development of the genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. At the end, the perspective and future direction on Arthrospira cell factories for industrial biotechnology are presented.

  9. Nanoscopical dissection of ancestral nucleoli in Archaea: a case of study in Evolutionary Cell Biology

    KAUST Repository

    Islas Morales, Parsifal

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary cell biology (ECB) has raised increasing attention in the last decades. Is this a new discipline and an historical opportunity to combine functional and evolutionary biology towards the insight that cell

  10. Biological indices for classification of water quality around Mae Moh power plant, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsarun Junshum and Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The algal communities and water quality were monitored at eight sampling sites around Mae Moh power plant during January-December 2003. Three biological indices, viz. algal genus pollution index, saprobic index, and Shannon-Weaver index, were adopted to classify the water quality around the power plant in comparison with the measured physico-chemical water quality. The result shows that the Shannon-Weaver diversity index appears to be much more applicable and interpretable for the classification of water quality around the Mae Moh power plant than the algal genus pollution index and the saprobic index.

  11. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusov, G.D.; Kudryashova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  12. A dynamical model for plant cell wall architecture formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.M.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a dynamical mathematical model to explain cell wall architecture in plant cells. The highly regular textures observed in cell walls reflect the spatial organisation of the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs), the most important structural component of cell walls. Based on a geometrical theory

  13. Plant programmed cell death, ethylene and flower senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Jong, de A.; Hoeberichts, F.A.; Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina, V.

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) applies to cell death that is part of the normal life of multicellular organisms. PCD is found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms; it is an active process in which a cell suicide pathway is activated resulting in controlled disassembly of the cell. Most cases of PCD

  14. Animal and plant stem cells concepts, propagation and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlović, Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a multifaceted look into the world of stem cells and explains the similarities and differences between plant and human stem cells. It explores the intersection between animals and plants and explains their cooperative role in bioengineering studies. The book treats both theoretical and practical aspects of stem cell research. It covers the advantages and limitations of many common applications related to stem cells: their sources, categories, engineering of these cells, reprogramming of their functions, and their role as novel cellular therapeutic approach. Written by experts in the field, the book focuses on aspects of stem cells ranging from expansion-propagation to metabolic reprogramming. It introduces the emergence of cancer stem cells and different modalities in targeted cancer stem cell therapies. It is a valuable source of fresh information for academics and researchers, examining molecular mechanisms of animal and plant stem cell regulation and their usage for therapeutic applicati...

  15. Molecular biology of mycoplasmas: from the minimum cell concept to the artificial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Caio M M; Hoeltgebaum, Daniela L; Machado, Laís D P N; Santos, Larissa Dos

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a large group of bacteria, sorted into different genera in the Mollicutes class, whose main characteristic in common, besides the small genome, is the absence of cell wall. They are considered cellular and molecular biology study models. We present an updated review of the molecular biology of these model microorganisms and the development of replicative vectors for the transformation of mycoplasmas. Synthetic biology studies inspired by these pioneering works became possible and won the attention of the mainstream media. For the first time, an artificial genome was synthesized (a minimal genome produced from consensus sequences obtained from mycoplasmas). For the first time, a functional artificial cell has been constructed by introducing a genome completely synthesized within a cell envelope of a mycoplasma obtained by transformation techniques. Therefore, this article offers an updated insight to the state of the art of these peculiar organisms' molecular biology.

  16. Large Scale Proteomic Data and Network-Based Systems Biology Approaches to Explore the Plant World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvestre, Dario; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Bellini, Edoardo; Mauri, PierLuigi

    2018-06-03

    The investigation of plant organisms by means of data-derived systems biology approaches based on network modeling is mainly characterized by genomic data, while the potential of proteomics is largely unexplored. This delay is mainly caused by the paucity of plant genomic/proteomic sequences and annotations which are fundamental to perform mass-spectrometry (MS) data interpretation. However, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques are contributing to filling this gap and an increasing number of studies are focusing on plant proteome profiling and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) identification. Interesting results were obtained by evaluating the topology of PPI networks in the context of organ-associated biological processes as well as plant-pathogen relationships. These examples foreshadow well the benefits that these approaches may provide to plant research. Thus, in addition to providing an overview of the main-omic technologies recently used on plant organisms, we will focus on studies that rely on concepts of module, hub and shortest path, and how they can contribute to the plant discovery processes. In this scenario, we will also consider gene co-expression networks, and some examples of integration with metabolomic data and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to select candidate genes will be mentioned.

  17. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydahl, Maja G; Fangel, Jonatan U; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Johansen, I Elisabeth; Andreas, Amanda; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2015-01-01

    The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. Ultimately, these activities create specific cell wall structural domains that regulate the prime force of expansion, internally generated turgor pressure. The precise organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying mechanics of the cell wall in a single plant cell.

  18. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  19. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-04-22

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.

  20. Advancing cell biology through proteomics in space and time (PROSPECTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamond, A.I.; Uhlen, M.; Horning, S.

    2012-01-01

    a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU......-funded project that brings together leading European research groups, spanning from instrumentation to biomedicine, in a collaborative five year initiative to develop new methods and applications for the functional analysis of cellular proteins. This special issue of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics presents 16...... quantification of protein levels. Manuscripts in this issue exemplify approaches for performing quantitative measurements of cell proteomes and for studying their dynamic responses to perturbation, both during normal cellular responses and in disease mechanisms. Here we present a perspective on how...

  1. Some Contributions for a Pedagogical Treatment of Alternative Conceptions in Biology: An Example from Plant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Adelaine Neto; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the alternative conceptions of students in a biology and geology teacher education course regarding plant nutrition. Data were collected from first year and final year students using a questionnaire that had both multiple choice and descriptive items. Findings indicate common features related to the…

  2. Recent developments in systems biology and metabolic engineering of plant microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant-microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant microbe interactions using gene editing and system biology tools towards the comprehension in improvement of plant traits. Further, system biology tools like FBA, OptKnock and constrain based modeling helps in understanding such interactions as a whole. In addition, various gene editing tools have been summarized and a strategy has been hypothesized for the development of disease free plants. Furthermore, we have tried to summarize the predictions through data retrieved from various types of sources such as high throughput sequencing data (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detection, RNA-seq, proteomics and metabolic models have been reconstructed from such sequences for species communities. It is well known fact that systems biology approaches and modeling of biological networks will enable us to learn the insight of such network and will also help further in understanding these interactions.

  3. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  4. Effects of biological control agents and exotic plant invasion on deer mouse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...

  5. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  6. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Bottlenecks in the generation and maintenance of morphogenic banana cell suspensions and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis therefrom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schoofs, H.; Panis, B.; Strosse, H.; Mosqueda, A. M.; Torres, J. L.; Roux, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2001), s. 3-7 ISSN 0989-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : banana cell suspensions * plant regeneration Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  8. Mobile Applications in Cell Biology Present New Approaches for Cell Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mayara Lustosa; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology apps were surveyed in order to identify whether there are new approaches for modelling cells allowed by the new technologies implemented in tablets and smartphones. A total of 97 apps were identified in 3 stores surveyed (Apple, Google Play and Amazon), they are presented as: education 48.4%, games 26.8% and medicine 15.4%. The apps…

  9. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James F

    2015-10-26

    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured 'traits', from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms-even plants-exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging, root

  10. Effect of Planting Date and Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Phenology and Physiological Indices of Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an annual herbaceous plant in Fabaceae which grown in tropical to temperate regions worldwide for extracting its seed oil and nut consumption. Select the optimum planting date is one of the most important agricultural techniques that comply with the seed yield is maximized . For instance, delay planting date can reduce the number of fertile nodes and the number of pods per plant. The delay in planting date reduces total dry matter (TDM, leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR and yield in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Daneshian et al., (2008 reported that the delay in planting date reduced sunflower (Helianthus annuus yield due to high temperatures in early growth which shortened flowering time and reduced solar radiation. On the other hand, due to increase importance of environmental issues has been attending biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers has formed by beneficial bacteria and fungi that each of them are produced for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate, potassium and iron ions of insoluble compound. The use of nitrogen fertilizer with slow-releasing ability stimulated shoot growth in soybean (Glycine max and be created more LAI in the reproductive process, particularly during grain filling stage and finally increased seed yield . Therefore, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the interaction of biological and chemical fertilizers in the purpose of achieving sustainable agriculture with emphasis of the effects of various planting dates on physiological parameters and growth of peanut in Hamadan. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of planting date on important physiological indices of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. under the influence of biological and chemical fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted in the research farm of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan during 2013 growing season. This study was

  11. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Noninvasive Assessment of Cell Fate and Biology in Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Federico; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, molecular imaging has become a conditio sine qua non for cell-based regenerative medicine. Developments in molecular imaging techniques, such as reporter gene technology, have increasingly enabled the noninvasive assessment of the fate and biology of cells after cardiovascular applications. In this context, bioluminescence imaging is the most commonly used imaging modality in small animal models of preclinical studies. Here, we present a detailed protocol of a reporter gene imaging approach for monitoring the viability and biology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplanted in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  13. Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam eBaskar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET, total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE. In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.

  14. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  15. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  16. Influence of Nano-Crystal Metals on Texture and Biological Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilov, G.; Ivanycheva, J.; Kiryshin, V.

    2015-11-01

    When treating the plants seeds with nano-materials there are some quality and quantity changes of polysaccharides, the molecular mass increase and monosaccharides change that leads to the increase of physiological and pharmacological activity of carbohydrates got from medicinal plants. We have got water soluble polysaccharides and nano-metals combinations containing 0.000165-0.000017 mg/dm3 of the metal. In a case of induced anemia the blood composition has practically restored on the 10th day of the treatment with nanocomposites. The use of pectin polysaccharides (that are attributed to modifiers of biological respond) to get nano-structured materials seems to be actual relative to their physiological activity (radio nuclides persorption, heavy metals ions, bacteria cells and their toxins; lipids metabolism normalization; bowels secreting and motor functions activation and modulation of the endocrine system.

  17. Prospects for the use of plant cell cultures in food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M; Deroles, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell cultures can offer continuous production systems for high-value food and health ingredients, independent of geographical or environmental variations and constraints. Yet despite many improvements in culture technologies, cell line selection, and bioreactor design, there are few commercial successes. This is principally due to the culture yield and market price of food products not being sufficient to cover the plant cell culture production costs. A better understanding of the underpinning biological mechanisms that control the target metabolite biosynthetic pathways may allow the metabolic engineering of cell lines to provide for economically competitive product yields. However, uncertainty around the regulatory and public acceptance of products derived from engineered cell cultures presents a barrier to the uptake of the technology by food product companies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant cell tissue culture: A potential source of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Dougall, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Higher plants produce many industrially important products. Among these are drugs and medicinal chemicals, essential oils and flavors, vegetable oils and fats, fine and specialty chemicals, and even some commodity chemicals. Although, currently, whole-plant extraction is the primary means of harvesting these materials, the advent of plant cell tissue culture could be a much more effective method of producing many types of phytochemicals. The use of immobilized plant cells in an advanced bioreactor configuration with excretion of the product into the reactor medium may represent the most straightforward way of commercializing such techniques for lower-value chemicals. Important research and development opportunities in this area include screening for plant cultures for nonmedical, lower-value chemicals; understanding and controlling plant cell physiology and biochemistry; optimizing effective immobilization methods; developing more efficient bioreactor concepts; and perfecting product extraction and purification techniques. 62 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  1. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Badosa, Esther; Francés, Jesús; Montesinos, Emilio; Bonaterra, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH) conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  2. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Daranas

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  3. The plant secretory pathway seen through the lens of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meene, A M L; Doblin, M S; Bacic, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Secretion in plant cells is often studied by looking at well-characterised, evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins associated with particular endomembrane compartments. Studies using live cell microscopy and fluorescent proteins have illuminated the highly dynamic nature of trafficking, and electron microscopy studies have resolved the ultrastructure of many compartments. Biochemical and molecular analyses have further informed about the function of particular proteins and endomembrane compartments. In plants, there are over 40 cell types, each with highly specialised functions, and hence potential variations in cell biological processes and cell wall structure. As the primary function of secretion in plant cells is for the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and apoplastic transport complexes, it follows that utilising our knowledge of cell wall glycosyltransferases (GTs) and their polysaccharide products will inform us about secretion. Indeed, this knowledge has led to novel insights into the secretory pathway, including previously unseen post-TGN secretory compartments. Conversely, our knowledge of trafficking routes of secretion will inform us about polarised and localised deposition of cell walls and their constituent polysaccharides/glycoproteins. In this review, we look at what is known about cell wall biosynthesis and the secretory pathway and how the different approaches can be used in a complementary manner to study secretion and provide novel insights into these processes.

  4. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures. 

  5. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  6. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  7. Alkali-treated titanium selectively regulating biological behaviors of bacteria, cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guifang; Wang, Donghui; Wu, Qianju; Jiang, Xinquan; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-15

    Many attentions have been paid to the beneficial effect of alkali-treated titanium to bioactivity and osteogenic activity, but few to the other biological effect. In this work, hierarchical micro/nanopore films were prepared on titanium surface by acid etching and alkali treatment and their biological effects on bacteria, cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells were investigated. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and human cholangiocarcinoma cell line RBE were used to investigate whether alkali-treated titanium can influence behaviors of bacteria and cancer cells. Responses of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) to alkali-treated titanium were also subsequently investigated. The alkali-treated titanium can potently reduce bacterial adhesion, inhibit RBE and BMMSCs proliferation, while can better promote BMMSCs osteogenesis and angiogenesis than acid-etched titanium. The bacteriostatic ability of the alkali-treated titanium is proposed to result from the joint effect of micro/nanotopography and local pH increase at bacterium/material interface due to the hydrolysis of alkali (earth) metal titanate salts. The inhibitory action of cell proliferation is thought to be the effect of local pH increase at cell/material interface which causes the alkalosis of cells. This alkalosis model reported in this work will help to understand the biologic behaviors of various cells on alkali-treated titanium surface and design the intended biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  9. Biological methanation of hydrogen within biogas plants: A model-based feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensmann, A.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Heyer, R.; Kohrs, F.; Benndorf, D.; Reichl, U.; Sundmacher, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation study about direct methanation of hydrogen within biogas plants. • In stationary operation two limitations, namely biological and transfer limit. • Biological limit at 4m H2 3 /m CO2 3 due to stoichiometry. • Dynamic behaviour shows three qualitatively different step responses. • A simple control scheme to meet the output quality was developed. - Abstract: One option to utilize excess electric energy is its conversion to hydrogen and the subsequent methanation. An alternative to the classical chemical Sabatier process is the biological methanation (methanogenesis) within biogas plants. In conventional biogas plants methane and carbon dioxide is produced. The latter can be directly converted to methane by feeding hydrogen into the reactor, since hydrogenotrophic bacteria are present. In the present contribution, a comprehensive simulation study with respect to stationary operating conditions and disturbances is presented. It reveals two qualitative different limitations, namely a biological limit (appr. at 4m H2 3 /m CO2 3 corresponds to 4.2m H2,STP 3 /m liq 3 /d) as well as a transfer limit. A parameter region for a safe operation was defined. The temporary operation with stationary unfeasible conditions was analysed and thereby three qualitatively different disturbances can be distinguished. In one of these the operation for several days is possible. On the basis of these results, a controller was proposed and tested that meets the demands on the conversion of hydrogen and also prevents the washout of the microbial community due to hydrogen overload

  10. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  11. Why plants make puzzle cells, and how their shape emerges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapala, Aleksandra; Runions, Adam; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Das Gupta, Mainak; Hong, Lilan; Hofhuis, Hugo; Verger, Stéphane; Mosca, Gabriella; Li, Chun-Biu; Hay, Angela; Hamant, Olivier; Roeder, Adrienne Hk; Tsiantis, Miltos; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Smith, Richard S

    2018-02-27

    The shape and function of plant cells are often highly interdependent. The puzzle-shaped cells that appear in the epidermis of many plants are a striking example of a complex cell shape, however their functional benefit has remained elusive. We propose that these intricate forms provide an effective strategy to reduce mechanical stress in the cell wall of the epidermis. When tissue-level growth is isotropic, we hypothesize that lobes emerge at the cellular level to prevent formation of large isodiametric cells that would bulge under the stress produced by turgor pressure. Data from various plant organs and species support the relationship between lobes and growth isotropy, which we test with mutants where growth direction is perturbed. Using simulation models we show that a mechanism actively regulating cellular stress plausibly reproduces the development of epidermal cell shape. Together, our results suggest that mechanical stress is a key driver of cell-shape morphogenesis. © 2018, Sapala et al.

  12. Raman imaging to investigate ultrastructure and composition of plant cell walls : distribution of lignin and cellulose in black spruce wood (Picea mariana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the structural organization of the cell wall of vascular plants is important from both the perspectives of plant biology and chemistry and of commercial utilization. A state-of-the-art 633-nm laser-based confocal Raman microscope was used to determine the distribution of cell wall components in the cross section of black spruce wood in situ...

  13. Potentials of single-cell biology in identification and validation of disease biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Furong; Wang, Diane C; Lu, Jiapei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-09-01

    Single-cell biology is considered a new approach to identify and validate disease-specific biomarkers. However, the concern raised by clinicians is how to apply single-cell measurements for clinical practice, translate the message of single-cell systems biology into clinical phenotype or explain alterations of single-cell gene sequencing and function in patient response to therapies. This study is to address the importance and necessity of single-cell gene sequencing in the identification and development of disease-specific biomarkers, the definition and significance of single-cell biology and single-cell systems biology in the understanding of single-cell full picture, the development and establishment of whole-cell models in the validation of targeted biological function and the figure and meaning of single-molecule imaging in single cell to trace intra-single-cell molecule expression, signal, interaction and location. We headline the important role of single-cell biology in the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers with a special emphasis on understanding single-cell biological functions, e.g. mechanical phenotypes, single-cell biology, heterogeneity and organization of genome function. We have reason to believe that such multi-dimensional, multi-layer, multi-crossing and stereoscopic single-cell biology definitely benefits the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  15. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  16. Vacuolar processing enzyme: an executor of plant cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Nakaune, Satoru; Kuroyanagi, Miwa; Nishimura, Mikio

    2005-08-01

    Apoptotic cell death in animals is regulated by cysteine proteinases called caspases. Recently, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) was identified as a plant caspase. VPE deficiency prevents cell death during hypersensitive response and cell death of limited cell layers at the early stage of embryogenesis. Because plants do not have macrophages, dying cells must degrade their materials by themselves. VPE plays an essential role in the regulation of the lytic system of plants during the processes of defense and development. VPE is localized in the vacuoles, unlike animal caspases, which are localized in the cytosol. Thus, plants might have evolved a regulated cellular suicide strategy that, unlike animal apoptosis, is mediated by VPE and the vacuoles.

  17. Mapping the Metal Uptake in Plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Allison [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentinetolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  18. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Daniel D. [Integrative Genetics and Genomics, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Villarreal, Fernando D.; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng, E-mail: cmtan@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-09

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems.

  20. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Daniel D.; Villarreal, Fernando D.; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems.

  1. Probing the biology of cell boundary conditions through confinement of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasmic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Jessica G; Chen, Hui; Einstein, Lily C; Good, Matthew C

    2017-01-01

    Cell-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Xenopus eggs and embryos have for decades provided a biochemical system with which to interrogate complex cell biological processes in vitro. Recently, the application of microfabrication and microfluidic strategies in biology has narrowed the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies by enabling formation of cell-size compartments containing functional cytoplasm. These approaches provide numerous advantages over traditional biochemical experiments performed in a test tube. Most notably, the cell-free cytoplasm is confined using a two- or three-dimensional boundary, which mimics the natural configuration of a cell. This strategy enables characterization of the spatial organization of a cell, and the role that boundaries play in regulating intracellular assembly and function. In this review, we describe the marriage of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasm and confinement technologies to generate synthetic cell-like systems, the recent biological insights they have enabled, and the promise they hold for future scientific discovery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Biological 2-Input Decoder Circuit in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions. PMID:24694115

  3. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience.

  4. Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2014-08-15

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.

  5. Evolving cell models for systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongqing; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; Heeb, Stephan; Cámara, Miguel; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2010-03-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for the automated design of cell models for systems and synthetic biology. Our modelling framework is based on P systems, a discrete, stochastic and modular formal modelling language. The automated design of biological models comprising the optimization of the model structure and its stochastic kinetic constants is performed using an evolutionary algorithm. The evolutionary algorithm evolves model structures by combining different modules taken from a predefined module library and then it fine-tunes the associated stochastic kinetic constants. We investigate four alternative objective functions for the fitness calculation within the evolutionary algorithm: (1) equally weighted sum method, (2) normalization method, (3) randomly weighted sum method, and (4) equally weighted product method. The effectiveness of the methodology is tested on four case studies of increasing complexity including negative and positive autoregulation as well as two gene networks implementing a pulse generator and a bandwidth detector. We provide a systematic analysis of the evolutionary algorithm's results as well as of the resulting evolved cell models.

  6. Sub-terahertz resonance spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana; Sizov, Igor; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-05-01

    Recently we introduced a Sub-THz spectroscopic system for characterizing vibrational resonance features from biological materials. This new, continuous-wave, frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor operates at room temperature between 315 and 480 GHz with spectral resolution of at least 1 GHz and utilizes the source and detector components from Virginia Diode, Inc. In this work we present experimental results and interpretation of spectroscopic signatures from bacterial cells and their biological macromolecule structural components. Transmission and absorption spectra of the bacterial protein thioredoxin, DNA and lyophilized cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as spores of Bacillus subtillis and B. atrophaeus have been characterized. Experimental results for biomolecules are compared with absorption spectra calculated using molecular dynamics simulation, and confirm the underlying physics for resonance spectroscopy based on interactions between THz radiation and vibrational modes or groups of modes of atomic motions. Such interactions result in multiple intense and narrow specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 3 GHz. The results of this study indicate diverse relaxation dynamic mechanisms relevant to sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy, including long-lasting processes. We demonstrate that high sensitivity in resolved specific absorption fingerprints provides conditions for reliable detection, identification and discrimination capability, to the level of strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. Additionally, it creates the basis for the development of new types of advanced biological sensors through integrating the developed system with a microfluidic platform for biomaterial samples.

  7. 2009 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Research Conference-August 2-7,2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnen, Debra [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2009-08-07

    Plant cell walls are a complex cellular compartment essential for plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stress and a major biological resource for meeting our future bioenergy and natural product needs. The goal of the 2009 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Research Conference is to summarize and critically evaluate the current level of understanding of the structure, synthesis and function of the whole plant extracellular matrix, including the polysaccharides, proteins, lignin and waxes that comprise the wall, and the enzymes and regulatory proteins that drive wall synthesis and modification. Innovative techniques to study how both primary and secondary wall polymers are formed and modified throughout plant growth will be emphasized, including rapid advances taking place in the use of anti-wall antibodies and carbohydrate binding proteins, comparative and evolutionary wall genomics, and the use of mutants and natural variants to understand and identify wall structure-function relationships. Discussions of essential research advances needed to push the field forward toward a systems biology approach will be highlighted. The meeting will include a commemorative lecture in honor of the career and accomplishments of the late Emeritus Professor Bruce A. Stone, a pioneer in wall research who contributed over 40 years of outstanding studies on plant cell wall structure, function, synthesis and remodeling including emphasis on plant cell wall beta-glucans and arabinogalactans. The dwindling supply of fossil fuels will not suffice to meet our future energy and industrial product needs. Plant biomass is the renewable resource that will fill a large part of the void left by vanishing fossil fuels. It is therefore critical that basic research scientists interact closely with industrial researchers to critically evaluate the current state of knowledge regarding how plant biomass, which is largely plant cell walls, is synthesized and utilized by the plant. A final

  8. Biological fluidized-bed treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, G.M.; Scheible, O.K.; Maiello, J.A.; Guarini, W.J.; Sutton, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bench- and pilot-scale biological treatability studies were performed as part of a comprehensive study for developing an on-site treatment system for contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site. The bench-scale work, which included evaluations of activated sludge and fluidized-bed biological processes, indicated that a carbon-based fluidized-bed process was most appropriate. The process was then demonstrated on a pilot level at the site. The bench and pilot studies demonstrated significant reductions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and all target organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  9. Computational Biology Methods for Characterization of Pluripotent Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent cells are a powerful tool for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Several techniques have been developed to induce pluripotency, or to extract pluripotent cells from different tissues and biological fluids. However, the characterization of pluripotency requires tedious, expensive, time-consuming, and not always reliable wet-lab experiments; thus, an easy, standard quality-control protocol of pluripotency assessment remains to be established. Here to help comes the use of high-throughput techniques, and in particular, the employment of gene expression microarrays, which has become a complementary technique for cellular characterization. Research has shown that the transcriptomics comparison with an Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) of reference is a good approach to assess the pluripotency. Under the premise that the best protocol is a computer software source code, here I propose and explain line by line a software protocol coded in R-Bioconductor for pluripotency assessment based on the comparison of transcriptomics data of pluripotent cells with an ESC of reference. I provide advice for experimental design, warning about possible pitfalls, and guides for results interpretation.

  10. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anthropogenic climate change and allergen exposure: The role of plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; Beggs, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic gases, particularly CO(2), is likely to have 2 fundamental effects on plant biology. The first is an indirect effect through Earth's increasing average surface temperatures, with subsequent effects on other aspects of climate, such as rainfall and extreme weather events. The second is a direct effect caused by CO(2)-induced stimulation of photosynthesis and plant growth. Both effects are likely to alter a number of fundamental aspects of plant biology and human health, including aerobiology and allergic diseases, respectively. This review highlights the current and projected effect of increasing CO(2) and climate change in the context of plants and allergen exposure, emphasizing direct effects on plant physiologic parameters (eg, pollen production) and indirect effects (eg, fungal sporulation) related to diverse biotic and abiotic interactions. Overall, the review assumes that future global mitigation efforts will be limited and suggests a number of key research areas that will assist in adapting to the ongoing challenges to public health associated with increased allergen exposure. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. A method for evaluation of UV and biologically effective exposures to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, A.V.; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD; Wong, J.C.F.; Galea, V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating the UV and biologically effective exposures to a plant canopy during the irradiation of soybean with supplemental levels of UV radiation in a greenhouse study. The method employs four materials as dosimeters that allow evaluation of the UV spectra. The exposures evaluated at three growth stages were less by factors of 0.44, 0.49 and 0.56 compared to the ambient exposures. At the end of the irradiation period, the ambient biologically effective exposure for generalized plant response was higher by 180% compared to that calculated over the canopy. This is the magnitude of the error in UV studies that provide the ambient exposure as a measure of the UV incident on the plant. Additionally, the difference between the ambient and canopy exposures varied during the growth stages. These results indicate that the dosimetric technique applied to evaluating the UV exposures over a plant canopy is a more accurate representation of the UV exposure incidence on a plant than any obtained by measuring the ambient exposures only. (Author)

  13. Cells from icons to symbols: molecularizing cell biology in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2011-12-01

    Over centuries cells have been the target of optical and electronic microscopes as well as others technologies, with distinctive types of visual output. Whilst optical technologies produce images 'evident to the eye', the electronic and especially the molecular create images that are more elusive to conceptualization and assessment. My study applies the semiotic approach to the production of images in cell biology to capture the shift from microscopic images to non-traditional visual technologies around 1980. Here I argue that the visual shift that coincides with the growing dominance of molecular biology involves a change from iconic to symbolic forms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Systems biology perspectives on minimal and simpler cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Rocha, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  16. Recombinant biologic products versus nutraceuticals from plants – a regulatory choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Pascal M. W.; Szeto, Tim H.; Paul, Mathew J.; Teh, Audrey Y.‐H.

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology has transformed the potential for plants to be a manufacturing source of pharmaceutical compounds. Now, with transgenic and transient expression techniques, virtually any biologic, including vaccines and therapeutics, could be manufactured in plants. However, uncertainty over the regulatory path for such new pharmaceuticals has been a deterrent. Consideration has been given to using alternative regulatory paths, including those for nutraceuticals or cosmetic agents. This review will consider these possibilities, and discuss the difficulties in establishing regulatory guidelines for new pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies. PMID:27297459

  17. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  18. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  19. History on the biological nitrogen fixation research in graminaceous plants: special emphasis on the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, José I; Baldani, Vera L D

    2005-09-01

    This review covers the history on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in Graminaceous plants grown in Brazil, and describes research progress made over the last 40 years, most of which was coordinated by Johanna Döbereiner. One notable accomplishment during this period was the discovery of several nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as the rhizospheric (Beijerinckia fluminensis and Azotobacter paspali), associative (Azospirillum lipoferum, A. brasilense, A. amazonense) and the endophytic (Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia brasilensis and B. tropica). The role of these diazotrophs in association with grasses, mainly with cereal plants, has been studied and a lot of progress has been achieved in the ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. The mechanisms of colonization and infection of the plant tissues are better understood, and the BNF contribution to the soil/plant system has been determined. Inoculation studies with diazotrophs showed that endophytic bacteria have a much higher BNF contribution potential than associative diazotrophs. In addition, it was found that the plant genotype influences the plant/bacteria association. Recent data suggest that more studies should be conducted on the endophytic association to strengthen the BNF potential. The ongoing genome sequencing programs: RIOGENE (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus) and GENOPAR (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) reflect the commitment to the BNF study in Brazil and should allow the country to continue in the forefront of research related to the BNF process in Graminaceous plants.

  20. Application of atmospheric plasma sources in growth and differentiation of plant and mammalian stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac, Nevena

    2014-10-01

    The expansion of the plasma medicine and its demand for in-vivo treatments resulted in fast development of various plasma devices that operate at atmospheric pressure. These sources have to fulfill all demands for application on biological samples. One of the sources that meet all the requirements needed for treatment of biological material is plasma needle. Previously, we have used this device for sterilization of planctonic samples of bacteria, MRSA biofilm, for improved differentiation of human periodontal stem cells into osteogenic line and for treatment of plant meristematic cells. It is well known that plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that strongly affect metabolism of living cells. One of the open issues is to correlate external plasma products (electrons, ions, RNS, ROS, photons, strong fields etc.) with the immediate internal response which triggers or induces effects in the living cell. For that purpose we have studied the kinetics of enzymes which are typical indicators of the identity of reactive species from the plasma created environment that can trigger signal transduction in the cell and ensue cell activity. In collaboration with Suzana Zivkovicm, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; Nenad Selakovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade; Milica Milutinovic, Jelena Boljevic, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; and Gordana Malovic, Zoran Lj. Petrovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade. Grants III41011, ON171037 and ON173024, MESTD, Serbia.

  1. Influence of lead upon the plant cell. [Lactuca sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekerka, V; Bobak, M

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to study the influence of tetramethyl lead upon the mitotic activity of cells, structural changes of the chromosomes, upon the mitotic apparatus and the ultrastructure of the cells in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Tetramethyl lead is an antidetonant additive to the gasoline of automobiles. The authors have found that the Pb ions are toxic for the plant cell, its toxicity increases with an increasing concentration and the prolonged time of action of the Pb solution. Tetramethyl lead influences the cell division causing especially different disturbances of the chromosomes and of the dividing figure during karykinesis and evoking damages of the submicroscopic structure of the plant cell. First of all, the following organels are damaged: the nucleus, the mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmatic reticulum and the proplastids. A considerable number of formations similar to translosomes arises in the plant cells at the same time.

  2. Radiation-induced cell death in embryogenic cells of coniferous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Yukawa, Masae; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Sasamoto, Hamako; Takahagi, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive processes are particularly radiosensitive in plant development, which was clearly illustrated in reduction of seed formation in native coniferous plants around Chernobyl after the nuclear accident. For the purpose to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on embryonic formation in coniferous plants, we used an embryo-derived embryogenic cell culture of a Japanese native coniferous plant, Japanese cedar (Cryplomeria japonica). The embryogenic cells were so radiosensitive that most of the cells died by X-ray irradiation of 5 Gy. This indicated that the embryogenic cells are as radiosensitive as some mammalian cells including lymphocytes. We considered that this type of radiosensitive cell death in the embryogenic cells should be responsible for reproductive damages of coniferous plants by low dose of ionizing radiation. The cell death of the embryogenic cells was characteristic of nuclear DNA fragmentation, which is typically observed in radiation-induced programmed cell death, i.e. apoptosis, in mammalian cells. On the other hand, cell death with nuclear DNA fragmentation did not develop by X-ray irradiation in vegetative cells including meristematic cells of Japanese cedar. This suggests that an apoptosis-like programmed cell death should develop cell-specifically in embryogenic cells by ionizing radiation. The abortion of embryogenic cells may work to prevent transmission of radiation-induced genetic damages to the descendants. (author)

  3. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBardin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the Cydia pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss i.e. modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents.

  4. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmunder, F. K.; Nordau, C. G.; Tschopp, A.; Huber, B.; Cogoli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a miniaturized cell cultivation instrument for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab is presented (Dynamic cell culture system: DCCS). The cell chamber is completely filled and has a working volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with a self-powered osmotic pump (flowrate 1 microliter h-1). The reservoir volume of culture medium is 230 microliters. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Hamster kidney (Hak) cells growing on Cytodex 3 microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. Growth characteristics in the DCCS, as judged by maximal cell density, glucose consumption, lactic acid secretion and pH, were similar to those in cell culture tubes.

  5. Plant cell engineering: current research, application and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunqing; Liu Luxiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current status of basic research in plant cell engineering, highlighted the application of embryo culture, double haploid (DH) technology, protoplast culture and somatic hybridization, somaclonal variation, rapid propagation, and bio-products production of plant-origin, and t he prospects. (authors)

  6. Synthesis and Application of Plant Cell Wall Oligogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch

    The plant cell walls represent almost 50% of the biomass found in plants and are therefore one of the main targets for biotechnological research. Major motivators are their potential as a renewable energy source for transport fuels, as functional foods, and as a source of raw materials to generate...

  7. Role of proline in cell wall synthesis and plant development and its implications in plant ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLAVARAPU BILHAN KAVI KISHOR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline is a proteogenic amino acid and accumulates both under stress and non-stress conditions as a beneficial solute in plants. Recent discoveries point out that proline plays an important role in plant growth and differentiation across life cycle. It is a key determinant of many cell wall proteins that plays important roles in plant development. The role of extensins (EXTs, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs and hydroxyproline- and proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs as important components of cell wall proteins that play pivotal roles in cell wall signal transduction cascades, plant development and stress tolerance is discussed in this review. Molecular insights are also provided here into the plausible roles of proline transporters modulating key events in plant development. In addition, the roles of proline during seed developmental transitions including storage protein synthesis are discussed.

  8. Apoptotic induction of skin cancer cell death by plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuncharoen, Walairat; Chulasiri, Malin; Nilwarangkoon, Sirinun; Nakamura, Yukio; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plant extracts on cancer apoptotic induction. Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA), was maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 degrees C, 5% carbon dioxide (CO2). Plant extract solutions were obtained from S & J international enterprises public company limited. These plant extracts include 50% hydroglycol extracts from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Smith (torch ginger; EE), Rosa damascene (damask rose; DR) and Rafflesia kerrii Meijer (bua phut; RM). The cell viability, time and dose dependency were determined by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. A431 cells were treated with the plant extracts and stained with Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining dye. Cell viability was demonstrated by the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The anti-proliferative effects were shown to be dependent on time and dose. Typical characteristics of apoptosis which are cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation were clearly observed. The plant extracts was shown to be effective for anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis cell death in skin cancer cells. Therefore, mechanisms underlying the cell death and its potential use for treatment of skin cancer will be further studied.

  9. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  10. Synthetic biology approaches for the production of plant metabolites in unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Mehrshahi, Payam; Smith, Alison G; Goossens, Alain

    2017-07-10

    Synthetic biology is the repurposing of biological systems for novel objectives and applications. Through the co-ordinated and balanced expression of genes, both native and those introduced from other organisms, resources within an industrial chassis can be siphoned for the commercial production of high-value commodities. This developing interdisciplinary field has the potential to revolutionize natural product discovery from higher plants, by providing a diverse array of tools, technologies, and strategies for exploring the large chemically complex space of plant natural products using unicellular organisms. In this review, we emphasize the key features that influence the generation of biorefineries and highlight technologies and strategic solutions that can be used to overcome engineering pitfalls with rational design. Also presented is a succinct guide to assist the selection of unicellular chassis most suited for the engineering and subsequent production of the desired natural product, in order to meet the global demand for plant natural products in a safe and sustainable manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. MODELLING OF RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE SYSTEM OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BIOLOGICAL PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Кутлахмедов

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration of radionuclide coming from nuclear power plant into the system of biological pondsand then into the water reservoir-cooler is considered in the article. The theme of the work ismodeling of radionuclide migration process in the system of biological ponds on the example of thePivdennoukrainska nuclear power plant using chamber models method. Typical water ecosystemconsisting of three chambers (chamber-water, chamber-biota and chamber-bed silt was the basistaken by the authors. Application of chamber models method allowed authors to develop thedynamic chamber model of radionuclide migration in nuclear power plant biological ponds. Thismodel allows to forecast values and dynamics of radioactive water pollution based on limitedecosystem monitoring data. Thus, parameters of radioactive capacity of nuclear power plantbiological ponds system and water reservoir-cooler were modeled by authors, the estimation andprognosis of radionuclide distribution and accumulation in the system of nuclear power plantbiological ponds were done. Authors also explain the roles of basin water, biomass and bed silt inradionuclide deposition

  12. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Maja Gro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion...... have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying......The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. Ultimately, these activities create specific cell wall structural domains that regulate the prime force of expansion, internally generated turgor pressure. The precise...

  13. Assessing the status of biological control as a management tool for suppression of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariades, Costas; Paterson, Iain D.; Strathie, Lorraine W.; Hill, Martin P.; van Wilgen, Brian W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biological control of invasive alien plants (IAPs) using introduced natural enemies contributes significantly to sustained, cost-effective management of natural resources in South Africa. The status of, and prospects for, biological control is therefore integral to National Status Reports (NSRs) on Biological Invasions, the first of which is due in 2017. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the status of, and prospects for, biological control of IAPs in South Africa. We discuss...

  14. Molecular infection biology : interactions between microorganisms and cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacker, Jörg (Jörg Hinrich); Heesemann, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    ... and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Investigators, specialists, clinicians, and graduate students in biology, pharmacy, and medicine will find Molecular Infection Biology an invaluable addition to their professional libraries...

  15. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  16. Discovery of HeLa Cell Contamination in HES Cells: Call for Cell Line Authentication in Reproductive Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Douglas A; Summerfield, Taryn L

    2014-08-01

    Continuous cell lines are used frequently in reproductive biology research to study problems in early pregnancy events and parturition. It has been recognized for 50 years that many mammalian cell lines contain inter- or intraspecies contaminations with other cells. However, most investigators do not routinely test their culture systems for cross-contamination. The most frequent contributor to cross-contamination of cell lines is the HeLa cell isolated from an aggressive cervical adenocarcinoma. We report on the discovery of HeLa cell contamination of the human endometrial epithelial cell line HES isolated in our laboratory. Short tandem repeat analysis of 9 unique genetic loci demonstrated molecular identity between HES and HeLa cells. In addition, we verified that WISH cells, isolated originally from human amnion epithelium, were also contaminated with HeLa cells. Inasmuch as our laboratory did not culture HeLa cells at the time of HES cell derivations, the source of contamination was the WISH cell line. These data highlight the need for continued diligence in authenticating cell lines used in reproductive biology research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. cellPACK: a virtual mesoscope to model and visualize structural systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Al-Alusi, Mostafa; Goodsell, David S; Sanner, Michel F; Olson, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    cellPACK assembles computational models of the biological mesoscale, an intermediate scale (10-100 nm) between molecular and cellular biology scales. cellPACK's modular architecture unites existing and novel packing algorithms to generate, visualize and analyze comprehensive three-dimensional models of complex biological environments that integrate data from multiple experimental systems biology and structural biology sources. cellPACK is available as open-source code, with tools for validation of models and with 'recipes' and models for five biological systems: blood plasma, cytoplasm, synaptic vesicles, HIV and a mycoplasma cell. We have applied cellPACK to model distributions of HIV envelope protein to test several hypotheses for consistency with experimental observations. Biologists, educators and outreach specialists can interact with cellPACK models, develop new recipes and perform packing experiments through scripting and graphical user interfaces at http://cellPACK.org/.

  18. Glucose Transport in Cultured Animal Cells: An Exercise for the Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…

  19. Biological and Chemical Aspects of Natural Biflavonoids from Plants: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Vanessa Silva; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Viegas, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Biflavonoids belong to a subclass of the plant flavonoids family and are limited to several species in the plant kingdom. In the literature, biflavonoids are extensively reported for their pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and antiprotozoal activity. These activities have been discovered from the small number of biflavonoid structures that have been investigated, although the natural biflavonoids library is likely to be large. In addition, many medicinal properties and traditional use of plants are attributed to the presence of bioflavonoids among their secondary metabolites. Structurally, biflavonoids are polyphenol compounds comprising of two identical or non-identical flavonflavonoid units joined in a symmetrical or unsymmetrical manner through an alkyl or an alkoxy-based linker of varying length. Due to their chemical and biological importance, several bioprospective phytochemical studies and chemical approaches using coupling and molecular rearrangement strategies have been developed to identify and synthesize new bioactive biflavonoids. In this brief review, we present some basic structural aspects for classification and nomenclature of bioflavonoids and a compilation of the literature data published in the last 7 years, concerning the discovery of new natural biflavonoids of plant origin and their pharmacological and biological properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Plants from The Genus Daphne: A Review of its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological and Pharmacological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovrlić Miroslav M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have an important role in maintaining people’s health and improving the quality of human life. They are an important component of people’s diet, but they are also used in other spheres of human life as a therapeutic resources, ingredients of cosmetic products, paints and others. The Daphne genus belongs to family Thymeleaceae which includes 44 families with approximately 500 herbal species. The plant species of the genus Daphne are used in the traditional medicine in China and tropical part of Africa for the treatment of various conditions. Previous studies showed significant biological potential of these species as a source of pharmacologically active compounds. This indicates that this genus possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-ulcerogenic, abortive, hypocholesterolemic and hemostatic effects. Additionally, Daphne plants are the source of valuable bioactive phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and different classes of terpenes. Different parts of the Daphne plants contain specific bioactive metabolites and can represent a source of new, natural, pharmacologically active compounds, which may potentially be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.