WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant buildings part

  1. Plant Landscape Design in Special Space of Ecological Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyong; ZHANG; Xiaogang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discussed the application of plant landscape design in special space of ecological buildings. From the concept of special space of ecological buildings,it elaborated social and ecological benefits of greening projects in special space. It proposed the classification method for special space of ecological building with habitat as the major part and combined with characteristics of building form. On the basis of such classification,it discussed green design method and plant selection principle,in the hope of providing certain reference for garden designers in green design of ecological buildings.

  2. PART BUILDING ORIENTATION OPTIMIZATION METHOD IN STEREOLITHOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the part quality and building time problems in stereolithography (SL) caused by unreasonable building orientation, a part building orientation decision method in SL rapid prototyping (RP) is carried out. Bringing into full consideration of the deformation, stair-stepping effect, overcure effect and building time related to the part fabrication orientation, and using evaluation function method, a multi-objective optimization model for the building orientation is defined. According to the difference in the angles between normal vectors of triangular facets in standard triangulation language (STL) model and z axis, the expressions of deformation area, stair-stepping area, overcure area are established. According to the characteristics in SL process, part building time is divided into four sections, that is, hatching scanning time, outline scanning time, support building time and layer waiting time. Expressions of each building time section are given. Considering the features of this optimization model, genetic algorithm (GA) is used to derive the optimization objective, related software is developed and optimization results are tested through experiments. Application shows that this method can effectively solve the quality and efficiency troubles caused by unreasonable part building orientation, an automatic orientation-determining program is developed and verified through test.

  3. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  4. A Study on Plant Selection for Green Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudinshah Abd. Wahab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches show that incorporating natural elements in design has proven a significant result in balancing building indoor environment. Using plant as part of the design has been widely accepted to contribute good thermal impact as shown in bioclimatic design, green roofing system and living wall elements. As there are so many species of plants for selection, this research was carried out to analyze types of indoor plants that have the potential to contribute thermal comfort to their surrounding. Based on the fact that plant leaves are the part where transpiration and guttation take place, plants are categorized into seven types based on their leaves architecture. They were then tested on their impact on surrounding temperature and humidity. Result shows that Linear, Lanceolate and Oblong shaped leaves categories are good in lowering the relative humidity while the categories that are good in lowering the temperature are Linear, Lanceolate, Cordate and Oblong shaped leaves categories. The study was carried out through series of relative humidity and air temperature monitoring of several room casings that consist with the plants. Both relative humidity and air temperature of the rooms with plants were recorded lower compared with the one without plant. Different categories of plants do give good result in relative humidity and air temperature. Thus, with a good combination of plant installation inside or onto building, it may contribute towards providing a good thermal comfort to the occupants.

  5. CNOOC Builds Bitumen Plant in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ In the petrochemical sector, CNOOC is building a 300,000 tonsper-year bitumen plant in western China, marking its first such investment in the remote but fast developing region, the company said on December 3. CNOOC, which produces 20 per cent of China's domestic bitumen output, will own 88 per cent of the US$36 million project in Sichuan Province and two local firms will own the remaining 12 per cent. Bitumen, or asphalt, production is scheduled to begin by the end of June 2004.

  6. School Building in Early Development. Part 3. Project Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giertz, L. M.; Dijkgraaf, C.

    1977-01-01

    The first two publications in this series dealt generally with school building problems in developing nations. This third part offers more direct guidance. Described in some detail are organizational fundamentals and tools that depend on universal similarities in building practice and have, therefore, been recommended for use internationally. A…

  7. Karakteristik Distribusi Temperatur Build Part pada Proses Pressureless Indirect Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo Adi Widyanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Curling phenomenon on rapid prototyping (RP product is an actual problem which has not been solved clearly, also on MMD-Is product. Previous experiment showed, it was caused dominantly by un-uniformity of temperature distribution in build part system when sintering was executed. Differ to the sintering process in the common commercial RP process, sintering process in MMD-Is is conducted in supporting powder media. The research is aimed to observe the effect of supporting powder materials, particle size and configuration of heater system on temperature distribution of the build part. Temperature distribution was measured by immersing thermocouples into supporting powder in vertical and horizontal formation. The experimental results show that the un-uniformity of the build part temperature is caused by secondary heating phenomenon by piston material at base position.

  8. Upgrading of seismic design of nuclear power plant building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kitada, Yoshio

    1997-03-01

    In Japan seismic design methodology of nuclear power plant (NPP) structures has been established as introduced in the previous session. And yet efforts have been continued to date to upgrade the methodology, because of conservative nature given to the methodology in regard to unknown phenomena and technically-limited modeling involved in design analyses. The conservative nature tends to produce excessive safety margins, and inevitably send NPP construction cost up. Moreover, excessive seismic design can increase the burden on normal plant operation, though not necessarily contributing to overall plant safety. Therefore, seismic engineering has put to many tests and simulation analyses in hopes to rationalize seismic design and enhance reliability of seismic safety of NPPs. In this paper, we describe some studies on structural seismic design of NPP underway as part of Japan`s effort to upgrade existing seismic design methodology. Most studies described here are carried out by NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Company) funded by MITI (the Ministry of International Trade and Industry Japan), though, similar studies with the same motive are also carrying out by nuclear industries such as utilities, NPP equipment and system manufacturers and building constructors. This paper consists of three sections, each introducing studies relating to NPP structural seismic design, new siting technology, and upgrading of the methodology of structural design analyses. (J.P.N.)

  9. Selection of material for building pressure vessels and chemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, P.H.; Retter, A.

    1979-06-01

    The authors give on extensive survey on the materials used in building pressure vessels and chemical plants for a temperature region of -200 to +1000/sup 0/C. The effect of various influences on the material behaviour is critically examined on the existing control plant, where the differences to foreign control are indicated. NE metals also come into consideration apart from steels, especially with low-temperature application.

  10. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  11. Final-part metrology for LIGA springs, Build Group 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Mills, Bernice E.

    2004-03-01

    The LIGA spring is a recently designed part for defense program applications. The Sandia California LIGA team has produced an initial group build of these nickel alloy parts. These are distinctive in having a macroscopic lateral size of about 1 cm, while requiring microscopic dimensional precision on the order of a few micrometers. LIGA technology capabilities at Sandia are able to manufacture such precise structures. While certain aspects of the LIGA process and its production capabilities have been dimensionally characterized in the past, [1-6] the present work is exclusive in defining a set of methods and techniques to inspect and measure final LIGA nickel alloy parts in large prototype quantities. One hundred percent inspection, meaning that every single LIGA part produced needs to be measured, ensures quality control and customer satisfaction in this prototype production run. After a general visual inspection of the parts and an x-ray check for voids, high precision dimensional metrology tools are employed. The acquired data is analyzed using both in house and commercially available software. Examples of measurements illustrating these new metrology capabilities are presented throughout the report. These examples furthermore emphasize that thorough inspection of every final part is not only essential to characterize but also improve the LIGA manufacturing process.

  12. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research paper, the concept and the implementation method of the INBA strategy will be described. Two primary benefits will be further described: (1 early site restoration; and (2 radioactive waste reduction. Several other potential benefits will also be identified. For the estimation of economic benefit, the INBA strategy, with two primary benefits, will be compared with the immediate dismantling strategy. The effect of a short life cycle nuclear power plant in combination with the INBA strategy will be reviewed. Finally, some of the major impediments to the realization of this strategy will be discussed.

  13. Innovative nuclear power plant building arragement in consideration of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jun; Roh, Myung Sub; Kim, Chang Lak [Dept. of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA) strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research paper, the concept and the implementation method of the INBA strategy will be described. Two primary benefits will be further described: (1) early site restoration; and (2) radioactive waste reduction. Several other potential benefits will also be identified. For the estimation of economic benefit, the INBA strategy, with two primary benefits, will be compared with the immediate dismantling strategy. The effect of a short life cycle nuclear power plant in combination with the INBA strategy will be reviewed. Finally, some of the major impediments to the realization of this strategy will be discussed.

  14. Forecasting risk of bankruptcy for machine-building plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telipenko, E.; Zakharova, A.; Sopova, Svetlana

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents an overview of well-known bankruptcy risk forecasting models, elaborated as by Russian so by foreign authors, on the basis of the data about financial and business activities of the biggest machine-building Russian plants. The authors substantiate and confirm appropriateness of a fuzzy set model to the problem of bankruptcy risk forecasting. This model is worked out on the basis of 10 most important factors, which have the greatest influence on sales proceeds as the main financial source for a production plant.

  15. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  16. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  17. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  18. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  19. Plant integration of MITICA and SPIDER experiments with auxiliary plants and buildings on PRIMA site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellin, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fellin@igi.cnr.it; Boldrin, Marco; Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Battistella, Manuela; Bigi, Marco; Palma, Samuele Dal Bello Mauro Dalla; Fiorentin, Aldo; Luchetta, Adriano; Maistrello, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Diego; Ocello, Edoardo; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola; Rizzolo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni; Valente, Matteo; Zanotto, Loris; Calore, Luca; and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Focus on plant integration work supporting the realization of SPIDER and MITICA fusion experiments hosted in PRIMA buildings complex in Padova, Italy. • Huge effort of coordination and integration among many stakeholders, taking into account several constrains coming from experiments requirements (on-going) and precise time schedule and budget on buildings construction. • The paper also deals of interfaces management, coordination and integration of many competences, problems solving to find best solution also considering other aspects like safety and maintenance. - Abstract: This paper presents a description of the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) Plant Integration work, aimed at the construction of PRIMA Buildings, which will host two nuclear fusion test facilities named SPIDER and MITICA, finalized to test and optimize the neutral beam injectors for ITER experiment. These activities are very complex: inputs coming from the experiments design are changing time to time, while the buildings construction shall fulfill precise time schedule and budget. Moreover the decision process is often very long due to the high number of stakeholders (RFX, IO, third parties, suppliers, domestic agencies from different countries). The huge effort includes: forecasting what will be necessary for the integration of many experimental plants; collecting requirements and translating into inputs; interfaces management; coordination meetings with hundreds of people with various and different competences in construction and operation of fusion facilities, thermomechanics, electrical and control, buildings design and construction (civil plants plus architectural and structural aspects), safety, maintenance and management. The paper describes these activities and also the tools created to check and to validate the building design, to manage the interfaces and the organization put in place to achieve the required targets.

  20. Public buildings architecture built between 1868 until 1900: Part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roter-Blagojević Mirjana Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main transformation courses in Serbia and its capital have been portrayed covering the period of the 19th century's last three decades, i.e. the aftermath of the partial national liberation from the centuries lasting Turkish occupation. Political and economic changes in the princedom and later the kingdom of Serbia prompted the capital's swift transformation and the construction of numerous edifices, especially those accommodating government or public institutions. The construction of the Royal Theatre several Ministries, schools, hotels and other public edifices brought to the capital the new building spirit clearly influenced by the European historic style architecture. Through a chronological overview of the major stateowned and public edifices construction and their architectural form analyses, some key characteristics of this period's architecture in Serbia have been elucidated, with reference to some authors` importance and their relationship with the European building art. The emphasis is put on the reflection of certain phases, which the architectural form had undergone at the end of the 19th century. The changes became manifest through the permanent enrichment of the architectural expression and the construction advancement, thereby achieving the European centers standing. The creation of closer links with the adjacent neighborhoods, namely Zemun and Pancevo and subsequently with the broader European surroundings, particularly Budapest and Vienna, where most of the authors came from, introduced the European academic architecture spirit into Serbian architecture. However, in the first period, analysed in part one of this study, by the end of the 60s and during the 70s of the 19th century, because of adverse political and economic times, only a fairly small number of public edifices were built. Distinguished are the Theatre at the Stambol Gate, the new hotel at the Serbian Crown, and the hotel Russia, in whose formal expression the

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 43 families were identified as toxic plants and these were mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae families. The botanical names, poisonous parts, common names, vernacular names, modes of poisoning, antidotes, and poisonous effects are presented in a table.

  2. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  3. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part I. Understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parady, W. Harold; Turner, J. Howard

    1980-06-01

    This is a training program to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic guide, which contains three parts. Part I considers the following: understanding the importance of energy; developing a concern for conserving energy; understanding the use of energy in buildings; care and maintenance of energy-efficient buildings; and developing energy-saving habits. A bibliography is presented.

  4. Wooden floors: part of historical antiseismic building systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laner

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes how wooden floors have been used over the centuries as a means of ensuring greater building solidity to ensure against earthquakes or other events that threaten wall stability.

  5. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  6. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  7. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  8. 13 CFR 120.131 - Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business. 120.131 Section 120.131 Business Credit and Assistance... § 120.131 Leasing part of new construction or existing building to another business. (a) If the...

  9. Regional Energy Study Zahorie, Slovakia. Building energy audits. Part 4. Nafta Gbely office building, Malacky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaan, H.F.

    1995-10-01

    The building was audited by means of a visual inspection of building quality, energy aspects and quality and performance of appliances. Additional information came from drawings, energy bills and design documents. Information about management aspects was obtained by interviews with the management of the building. In general it may be concluded, that energy saving potential is rather high. Energy savings can be obtained in the first place by improving the energy management. However, technical measures are required as well. Some of these do not ask for high investments and should directly be implemented. But high cost measures are required as well. 5 tabs., 1 refs., 1 appendix

  10. Renewable energy for passive house heating - Part I. Building description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Sicre, B. [Computational Physics, Technical University of Chemnitz, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A passive house is a cost-efficient building that can manage throughout the heating period, due to its specific construction design, with more than 10 times less heat energy than the same building designed to standards presently applicable across Europe. Its extended thermal insulation and enhanced air-tightness removes the need for temperatures higher than 50 {sup o}C. This makes renewable energy sources particularly suitable for heating, cooling and domestic hot water production. Modeling of renewable energy usage for space heating requires as a preliminary stage the detailed description of the building structure, of the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning equipment and of the internal heat sources. This paper shows the main data used to model the thermal behavior of a passive house. Details about Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany) are given, as for example, the internal heat sources, including electric appliances, heat and humidity released by human bodies, thermal internal facilities as hot and cold water pipes. All these are quantified by using statistically derived data. A detailed time schedule for a standard German family with two adults and two children was prepared. It takes into account the national celebrations, vacation and weekends among others. (author)

  11. Renewable energy for passive house heating. Part 1. Building description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Polytechnic Univ., Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Sicre, B. [Technical Univ., Chemnitz (Germany). Computational Physics

    2003-12-01

    A passive house is a cost-efficient building that can manage throughout the heating period, due to its specific construction design, with more than 10 times less heat energy than the same building designed to standards presently applicable across Europe. Its extended thermal insulation and enhanced air-tightness removes the need for temperatures higher than 50 {sup o}C. This makes renewable energy sources particularly suitable for heating, cooling and domestic hot water production. Modeling of renewable energy usage for space heating requires as a preliminary stage the detailed description of the building structure, of the HVAC equipment and of the internal heat sources. This paper shows the main data used to model the thermal behavior of a passive house. Details about Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany) are given, as for example, the internal heat sources, including electric appliances, heat and humidity released by human bodies, thermal internal facilities as hot and cold water pipes. All these are quantified by using statistically derived data. A detailed time schedule for a standard German family with two adults and two children was prepared. It takes into account the national celebrations, vacation and weekends among others. (Author)

  12. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Optimal and Sustainable Plant Refurbishment in Historical Buildings: A Study of an Ancient Monastery Converted into a Showroom in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the possibility and sustainability of retrofit and refurbishment design solutions on historical buildings converted to different uses and often clashing with their original purpose and architectural features. The building studied is an ancient monastery located in the historical center of Florence (Italy. Today the original cloister is covered over by a single glazed pitched roof and used as a fashion showroom. Our proposed solution concerns a reversible and sustainable plant design integrated with an active transparent building casing. The existing glazed pitched roof was reconsidered and re-designed as part of the existing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC plant system, based on the functioning of an active thermal buffer to control the high heat flow rates and external thermal loads due to solar radiation. Hourly whole building energy analysis was carried out to check the effectiveness and energy sustainability of our proposed solution. Results obtained showed, from the historical-architectural, energy and environmental points of view, its sustainability due to the building-plant system integration and interaction with its location, the external climatic conditions and defined expected uses, in particular with reference to indoor thermal comfort.

  14. Inventory Management of a Plant Spare Parts Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; ZHOU Zu-de; CHEN You-ping; NI Long-yu

    2007-01-01

    In spare parts industries, firms are dealing with a situation which is more and more uncertain due to the supply chain structure and variable demands. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to forecast demand and subsequently determine the appropriate parameter S of an (S - 1; S) inventory system for controlling plant spare parts. We apply the Bayesian approach in an innovative way to specify the initial prior distributions of the failure rates, using the initial estimates and the failure history of similar items. According to the proposed method, a lower base stock than the one currently used is sufficient to achieve the desired service level.

  15. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.104 Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid...

  16. 栽培植物群落组建理论的研究%The Building Theory of Cultivated Plant Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜心田; 孙敦玄; 马新民; 王同朝

    2001-01-01

    For the development of plant production we studied the stereoscopic cropping by means of investigation and experiment and systematically summarized its theory part.This paper advanced the principles and modes of plant population and commuity composition,generalized the principles and methods of dispasition of spatial and temperal structure,and provided the scientific basis for building the ecological enginearing of cultivated plant community.

  17. CERN awards "Gold CMS Award" to Savyolovsk machine-building Plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The contribution pf Savyolovsk machine-building Plant OJSC into the international program to develop an CMS unit was recognized by the European Nuclear Research Center with "Gold Prize"for 2007. (1 small paragraph)

  18. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  19. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  20. Structural evaluation of existing plutonium buildings and auxiliary structures at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Existing plutonium handling and storage buildings at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant were evaluated for their structural resistance to seismic, tornado, and extreme wind loadings and the impact of tornado-driven missiles. This report presents the summary results of the study for all the buildings included in the study and makes preliminary general recommendations for upgrading where needed. Detailed analyses and backup calculations performed for the several buildings are presented in separate reports.

  1. THE BIOLOGICAL MICROPROCESSOR, OR HOW TO BUILD A COMPUTER WITH BIOLOGICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd HG Moe-Behrens

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemics, a revolutionary paradigm shift in scientific thinking, with applications in systems biology, and synthetic biology, have led to the idea of using silicon computers and their engineering principles as a blueprint for the engineering of a similar machine made from biological parts. Here we describe these building blocks and how they can be assembled to a general purpose computer system, a biological microprocessor. Such a system consists of biological parts building an input / output device, an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, memory, and wires (busses to interconnect these components. A biocomputer can be used to monitor and control a biological system.

  2. Potential energy savings in buildings by an urban tree planting programme in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson

    2003-01-01

    Tree canopy cover data from aerial photographs and building energy simulations were applied to estimate energy savings from existing trees and new plantings in California. There are approximately 177.3 million energy-conserving trees in California communities and 241.6 million empty planting sites. Existing trees are projected to reduce annual air conditioning energy...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110.... 110, App. J Appendix J to Part 110—Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment...

  4. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 1: Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    During World War 11, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built as part of the Manhattan Project to supply enriched uranium for weapons production. In 1945, Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) was originally used to house a uranium isotope separation process based on electromagnetic separation technology. With the startup of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site gaseous diffusion plant In 1947, Alpha-4 was placed on standby. In 1953, the uranium enrichment process was removed, and installation of equipment for the Colex process began. The Colex process--which uses a mercury solvent and lithium hydroxide as the lithium feed material-was shut down in 1962 and drained of process materials. Residual Quantities of mercury and lithium hydroxide have remained in the process equipment. Alpha-4 contains more than one-half million ft{sup 2} of floor area; 15,000 tons of process and electrical equipment; and 23,000 tons of insulation, mortar, brick, flooring, handrails, ducts, utilities, burnables, and sludge. Because much of this equipment and construction material is contaminated with elemental mercury, cleanup is necessary. The goal of the Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 is to provide a planning document that relates decontamination and decommissioning and waste management problems at the Alpha-4 building to the technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 builds on the methodology transferred by the U.S. Air Force to the Environmental Management organization with DOE and draws from previous technology logic diagram-efforts: logic diagrams for Hanford, the K-25 Site, and ORNL.

  5. JCCL to Build Copper Plant in Zengcheng City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On August 17, Jiangxi Copper Company Lim-ited (JCCL) and Zengcheng City signed an agreement to build a copper project in the Zengcheng Economy and Technology Devel-opment Zone. Representatives from both sides including Zeng Chiming, a member of the Standing Committee of CPC Zengcheng Mu-

  6. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  7. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  8. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts of Senduduk Herb: Extraction Conditions Optimization of Selected Plant Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Nor Helya Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on evaluation of antioxidant properties from flower of Senduduk herb. Natural occurring antioxidant was mostly preferred due to their little or no toxicity compared to the synthetic antioxidants which posses carcinogenic effects. Extraction was done on selected plant parts of Sendududk herb including leaves, stem, flower and berry parts to evaluate their antioxidant potentiality. Flower part of Sendudk herb extracted using acetonic solvent promotes highest antioxidant activity which is 93.97 ± 1.38 % as compared to leaves (92.20 ± 0.20 %, stem (47.94 ± 1.42% and berry (92.88 ± 0.63% using the same extracting solvent. Thus, Senduduk flower was chosen to be continued with screening and optimization process. Single factor experiment using the one factor at a time (OFAT method was done to study the effect of each extraction parameter that was solid to solvent ratio, temperature and solvent concentration. The extraction condition in each parametric study which results in highest antioxidant activity was used as the middle level of optimization process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM coupled with Central Composite Design (CCD. The optimum condition was at 1:20 solid to solvent ratio, 64.61°C temperature and 80.24% acetone concentration which result in antioxidant activity of 96.53%. The verification of RSM showed that the model used to predict the antioxidant activity was valid and adequate with the experimental parameters.

  10. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  11. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more.

  12. For an ecological construction Green Building Challenge (part 1); Pour une construction ecologique Green Building Challenge (premiere partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, M. [Vienna Univ. Technique (Austria)

    2001-10-01

    In the scope of the worldwide project Green Building Challenge, a system for building assessment was developed with the aim to establish the ecological, economic and user related advantages and disadvantages of a building. The GBC handbook of the brick industry proves that brick buildings in particular meet high total quality requirements. (author)

  13. Overview of the ITER Tokamak complex building and integration of plant systems toward construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.cordier@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bak, Joo-Shik [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Baudry, Alain [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Benchikhoune, Magali [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Carafa, Leontin; Chiocchio, Stefano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Darbour, Romaric [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Elbez, Joelle; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Jeannoutot, Thomas; Kotamaki, Miikka; Kuehn, Ingo; Lee, Andreas; Levesy, Bruno; Orlandi, Sergio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Packer, Rachel [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, Laurent; Reich, Jens; Rigoni, Giuliano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Tokamak complex consists of Tokamak, diagnostic and tritium buildings. The Tokamak machine is located in the bioshield pit of the Tokamak building. Plant systems are implemented in the three buildings and are strongly interfacing with the Tokamak. The reference baseline (3D) configuration is a set of over 1000 models that today defines in an exhaustive way the overall layout of Tokamak and plant systems, needed for fixing the interfaces and to complete the construction design of the buildings. During the last two years, one of the main ITER challenges was to improve the maturity of the plant systems layout in order to confirm their integration in the building final design and freeze the interface definitions in-between the systems and to the buildings. The propagation of safety requirements in the design of the nuclear building like confinement, fire zoning and radiation shielding is of first priority. A major effort was placed by ITER Organization together with the European Domestic Agency (F4E) and the Architect Engineer as a joint team to fix the interfaces and the loading conditions to buildings. The most demanding systems in terms of interface definition are water cooling, cryogenic, detritiation, vacuum, cable trays and building services. All penetrations through the walls for piping, cables and other equipment have been defined, as well as all temporary openings needed for the installation phase. Project change requests (PCR) impacting the Tokamak complex buildings have been implemented in a tight allocated time schedule. The most demanding change was to implement a new design of the Tokamak basic machine supporting system. The 18 supporting columns of the cryostat (2001 baseline) were replaced at the end of 2012 by a concrete crown and radial concrete ribs linked to the basemat and to the bioshield surrounding the Tokamak. The change was implemented successfully in the building construction design to allow basemat construction phase being performed

  14. Safety assessment of a nuclear power plant building subjected to an aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thai, Duc-Kien; Kim, Seung-Eock, E-mail: sekim@sejong.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Numerical analysis of a nuclear auxiliary building under aircraft crash is conducted. • The analysis result of impact force is verified using the Riera function. • The safety assessment is performed with regard to different impact scenarios. • Discussions and conclusions on safety of the nuclear building are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents a safety assessment of a nuclear building subjected to an aircraft crash using numerical analysis. For impact simulation, the reinforced concrete (RC) Primary Auxiliary Building (PAB) of the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) is fully modeled and an aircraft model of a Boeing 767-400 is used. The Riera function is used to verify the analysis result of impact force–time history. The IRIS test is used to verify the structural behavior of the RC wall under impact loading. The safety assessment of the building is performed with regard to different impact scenarios. The safety of the nuclear building under aircraft crash, including (1) global structural safety, (2) local structural safety, and (3) vibration safety are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the global and local structural safety of the PAB is ensured in all impact scenarios. However, the vibration safety of the building is not ensured. In accordance, the regulatory guide of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), shutdown of the nuclear power plant is required.

  15. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  16. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and...

  17. Aspects of Production Ecologization of Machine-Building Enterprises as Part of the System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutina, T. V.; Tempel, Yu A.; Tempel, O. A.; Lazutin, N. К

    2017-05-01

    The paper considers the role of the machine-building industry in Russia and the impact of its activities on the ecological situation in the country. As part of the problem we identified areas of environmental pollution from different production industries, including foundry, power, metal working and welding. In addition, the paper presents a strategy for production ecologization, based on a system approach viewed as a set of measures aimed at reducing the danger of technological processes for the environment and people.

  18. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  19. Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in Northern part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... herbal products to maximize the benefits are recommended. Key words: Malam Jabba ...... plants, petioles and even pebbles (personal observa- tion). When the ... who reported few plants species of varied health care from Rawalpindi. ... retailers or pharmaceutical companies or exporters. In this chain the ...

  20. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers.

  1. INFLUENCE OF NON-PERFORATED SCREEN LOCATION ON HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN BUILDING ENCLOSING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended to have a vapor-proof barrier on the internal side of heat insulation system in multi-layer building enclosing parts in order to ensure protection of a heat-insulation layer against humidification because relative humidity of internal air is generally higher than external one and diffusion of water steam is directed from premises outside. While having a barrier with high vapor permeability a part of moisture can be accumulated in the structure and heat insulation core and difference of actual and maximum possible partial pressures leads to condensate formation. In order to improve thermal properties of enclosing parts the necessity arises to create a vapor-proof protection screen. It complies with the design of a panel with a vapor-proof screen in the form of non-perforated aluminium foil. The given screen located at internal panel layer prevents penetration of water vapor from premises into enclosing part and heat insulation layer. In such a case condensation zones and, consequently, their moistening can occur in some layers of enclosing parts according to their thermal and physical characteristics. The paper contains a calculation of thermal and moisture regime of the enclosing parts with vapor-proof layer (non-perforated aluminium foil located in enclosing part core between various layers. An analysis of thermal and moisture regime diagrams for multi-layer external enclosing part demonstrates that the part of non-perforated screen (aluminium foil located between internal concrete layer and perforated heat insulation layer is considered the most rational one. At the same time other screens between separate layers are perforated.

  2. Effects of build parameters on linear wear loss in plastic part produced by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2017-07-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the prominent additive manufacturing technologies for producing polymer products. FDM is a complex additive manufacturing process that can be influenced by many process conditions. The industrial demands required from the FDM process are increasing with higher level product functionality and properties. The functionality and performance of FDM manufactured parts are greatly influenced by the combination of many various FDM process parameters. Designers and researchers always pay attention to study the effects of FDM process parameters on different product functionalities and properties such as mechanical strength, surface quality, dimensional accuracy, build time and material consumption. However, very limited studies have been carried out to investigate and optimize the effect of FDM build parameters on wear performance. This study focuses on the effect of different build parameters on micro-structural and wear performance of FDM specimens using definitive screening design based quadratic model. This would reduce the cost and effort of additive manufacturing engineer to have a systematic approachto make decision among the manufacturing parameters to achieve the desired product quality.

  3. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273—Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority Section 104 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, approved...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants..., as specified in § 50.54(ff), nuclear power plants that have implemented the earthquake...

  5. Virtual Plant Tissue: Building Blocks for Next-Generation Plant Growth Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Dirk; Dzhurakhalov, Abdiravuf; Stijven, Sean; Klosiewicz, Przemyslaw; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Broeckhove, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Computational modeling of plant developmental processes is becoming increasingly important. Cellular resolution plant tissue simulators have been developed, yet they are typically describing physiological processes in an isolated way, strongly delimited in space and time. Results: With plant systems biology moving toward an integrative perspective on development we have built the Virtual Plant Tissue (VPTissue) package to couple functional modules or models in the same framework and across different frameworks. Multiple levels of model integration and coordination enable combining existing and new models from different sources, with diverse options in terms of input/output. Besides the core simulator the toolset also comprises a tissue editor for manipulating tissue geometry and cell, wall, and node attributes in an interactive manner. A parameter exploration tool is available to study parameter dependence of simulation results by distributing calculations over multiple systems. Availability: Virtual Plant Tissue is available as open source (EUPL license) on Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/vptissue/vptissue). The project has a website https://vptissue.bitbucket.io.

  6. Foundation requirements for the buildings of the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vago, I. (Paksi Atomeroemue Vallalat (Hungary))

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the construction of the Paks nuclear plant buildings, the soil mechanics had to be taken into consideration. The investigations needed for the foundation of the power plant are discussed. The strata of the soil under the site were explored. The load bearing capability and the solidity of the soil was investigated using a dynamic probe technique with /sup 137/Cs isotope. The groundwater level was also studied. It was found that the stratification is uniform, the ground subsidence conditions are acceptable and the strata are well loadable. The packing of the grained strata is difficult but the landfilling was constructed to form a dense ground.

  7. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies..., but is not limited to, fermentation vessels (fermenters). The collection of equipment used in...

  8. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  9. Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Servatyari, Karo; Behzadifar, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Bijan; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. With due attention to rapid progress in the phytochemical study of plants, they are becoming popular because of their anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer and study their mechanism of action. In order to gather information the keywords "traditional medicine," "plant compounds," "medicinal plant," "medicinal herb," "toxicity," "anticancer effect," "cell line," and "treatment" were searched in international databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus and national databases such as Magiran, Sid, and Iranmedex, and a total of 228 articles were collected. In this phase, 49 nonrelevant articles were excluded. Enhancement P53 protein expression, reducing the expression of proteins P27, P21, NFκB expression and induction of apoptosis, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and reduction of the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation are the most effective mechanisms of herbal plants that can inhibit cell cycle and proliferation. Common treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause some complications. According to results of this study, herbal extracts have antioxidant compounds that can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation by the investigated mechanisms.

  10. Treatments of plant biomass for cementitious building materials – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Thi To Loan; Navard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The use of plant biomass for developing energy efficient and low cost construction materials is an emerging field in building construction and civil engineering. Although the biomass-based cement and concrete composites have several advantages, such as low densities, low amount of CO2 gas emission, good thermal and acoustic insulation, there are also disadvantages or open questions like the durability of biomass in alkaline cement matrix, the high absorption of water a...

  11. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Amin Gh.R

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 278 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains. Initially, the crude extracts in concentration of 100 μg/ml were tested. Among 278 plant extracts, 201(71.27% of them showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. A wide range of total extracts of different species were shown to have potentially noticeable antifungal effects. The outstanding species were: Mentha longifolia, Saliva multicaulis, Thymus transcaspicus, Zataria multiflora, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hulthemia persica, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Pragnos ferulacea, Pragnos uloptera, and Viola odorata.

  12. Energy performance of building designs: evaluation using the CIBSE Building Code Part 2(a) on a spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.R.; Pedder, K. [South Bank University, London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Systems and Design

    1996-12-31

    The CIBSE Building Energy Code was first published in 1981 but has not been widely used among architects, civil engineers or building services engineers. A full calculation will require about 60 separate data inputs with some 80 calculation steps; perceived complexity and opacity perhaps inevitably lead to reduction in confidence. It is however, an ideal candidate to transferring to spreadsheet format. This paper presents work developed from an educational programme which allows simplified use of an otherwise complex and time-consuming procedure. It also allows the building thermal demand targets to be calculated from first principles. (author)

  13. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  14. Green buildings as a part of the infrastructure: Supporter, symbol or stranger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2002-01-01

    Building green has to balance between fitting into the specific local conditions and being different from them. But being too different leads to conflicts – too much adaptation destroys the greenness of the building. In relation to infrastructure, it is argued that green buildings can have the role...... as supporter, symbol or stranger. Through three case studies of green buildings in Denmark the relation between buildings and infrastructure is explored, and discussed in relation to the future role of green buildings....

  15. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, H

    2002-01-01

    Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering CO2 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25%.

  16. Substantiation of the simplified method of determining heat losses through underground parts of building enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. The approximate calculation of two-dimensional temperature field of the ground outside the underground part of the building is considered using the analytical solution of differential equation of thermal conduction by the method of sources and sinks according to the existing boundary conditions. This problem is a very high-priority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing demands to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the heat losses through the floor situated on the ground. The results of the estimation of thermal resistance of floor areas on the ground are presented on the basis of the obtained temperature field. The comparison of these results with the regulatory requirements specified in SP 50.13330.2012, and with the data of numerical calculations of other authors using finite difference approximation of the thermal conduction equation with consideration of soil freezing is held. It is shown that the requirements of the SP 50.13330.2012 are physically reasonable, and numerical calculations can also be described by the analytical dependence obtained in this paper with appropriate selection of the numerical coefficients with the preservation of engineering form of the calculation procedure. The obtained model is easy to use in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.

  17. Public buildings architecture built in Belgrade between 1868 until 1900 -part two-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roter-Blagojević Mirjana Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this paper subject is analysing of basic characteristics of public buildings built in the last two decades of 19th century. Depression in building at the end of seventies was overrun at the beginning of eighties, when after aclamation of kingdom, Serbian architecture enter a new phase of development. Fast economic advance of country, caused more representative and rich architecture which portrayed general prosperity of country. More rich decorative modeling was support by development of build and craft technique, and easier bringing of various builder materials. In eighties we can see complete authors devotion to European historic styles architecture. Thanks to the new generation of authors, educated in Budapest, Vienna, Zurich and Berlin Serbian architecture crossover differences of their European surrounding. During nineties of 19th century new changes are appearing in modeling of public edifices. In academic conception were brought in some unconsequences and unleash, which reflected a fact that at the same time worked few generations of architects who were representatives of diferent European academic schools. Changes were under the strong influence of a new European centers, at first German architecture, who brought architects educated in Munich, Achen, Carlsruhe and Berlin. Their opinion reflected general Middle European style stream, but between them were significant differences. Some authors followed academic principles more strictly, but others were expressing more a spirit of romanticism. A lot of them nurse both styles, combining them and playing with elements of both styles. They prepared ground for a new young generation, who will, at the beginning of a new century, follow in generally development of earlier period, but more under the influence of modern streams, who appeared in European architecture at the end of 19th century.

  18. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  19. Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek.

  20. Building tomorrow's nuclear power plants with 4{sup +}D VR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Il S.; Yoon, Sang H.; Shim, Kyu W.; Yu, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y. [PhiloSOPhIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    There continues to be an increasing demand of electricity around the globe to fuel the industrial growth and to promote the human welfare. The economic activities have brought about richness in our material and cultural lives, in which process the electric power has been at the heart of the versatile energy sources. In order to timely and competitively respond to rapidly changing energy environment in the twenty-first century there is a growing need to build the advanced nuclear power plants in the unlimited workspace of virtual reality (VR) prior to commissioning. One can then realistically evaluate their construction time and cost per varying methods and options available from the leading-edge technology. In particular a great deal of efforts have yet to be made for time- and cost-dependent plant simulation and dynamically coupled database construction in the VR space. The operator training and personnel education may also benefit from the VR technology. The present work is being proposed in the three-dimensional space and time plus cost coordinates, i. e. four plus dimensional (4{sup +}D) coordinates. The 4{sup +}D VR application will enable the nuclear industry to narrow the technological gap from the other leading industries that have long since been employing the VR engineering. The 4{sup +}D technology will help nurture public understanding of the special discipline of nuclear power plants. The technology will also facilitate public access to the knowledge on the nuclear science and engineering which has so far been monopolized by the academia, national laboratories and the heavy industry. The 4{sup +}D virtual design and construction will open up the new horizon for revitalization of the nuclear industry over the globe in the foreseeable future. Considering the long construction and operation time for the nuclear power plants, the preliminary VR simulation capability for the plants will supply the vital information not only for the actual design and

  1. Improved Management of Part Safety Classification System for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Young; Park, Youn Won; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Hyo Chan [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As, in recent years, many quality assurance (QA) related incidents, such as falsely-certified parts and forged documentation, etc., were reported in association with the supply of structures, systems, components and parts to nuclear power plants, a need for a better management of safety classification system was addressed so that it would be based more on the level of parts . Presently, the Korean nuclear power plants do not develop and apply relevant procedures for safety classifications, but rather the safety classes of parts are determined solely based on the experience of equipment designers. So proposed in this paper is a better management plan for safety equipment classification system with an aim to strengthen the quality management for parts. The plan was developed through the analysis of newly introduced technical criteria to be applied to parts of nuclear power plant.

  2. HOW ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING HELPED TO CONTINUE BUILDING AND UPGRADE OF THE OPOLE POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Principles of ecological engineering were applied for upgrading the Opole Power Plant under construction, complete with modern installation to protect the environment. The modernized project was a subject of „Integrated environmental impact assessment of the Opole Power Plant” developed by the Institute of Environmental Protection in 1981. The main issues covered by the impact assessment were presented and discussed at the national scientific conference attended, among others, by the representatives of local community from Opole. The conference was organized by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering on June 5 and 6, 1992. The main aim of the conference was to identify and deliver as broad as possible analysis of environmental conditions for designing, building and operating coal fired power plants. A secondary goal, though of main concern for the Opole agglomeration, was to evaluate many-sided environmental risks resulting from the construction and operation of the Power Plant. The feasibility of continuing the construction of a power generating facility that meets the requirements of the 21st century was demonstrated by the fact that the Opole Power Plant S.A. was awarded the ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System certificate by the British Standards Institution. Advanced construction of the two consecutive blocks of a combined power of 1800 MW in the Opole Power Plant substantiates the validity and effectiveness of the conference organized in 1992.

  3. Acquisition and statistical analysis of reliability data for I and C parts in plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Byun, S. S.; Han, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lim, J. S.; Oh, S. J.; Park, K. Y.; Song, H. S. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This project has been performed in order to construct I and C part reliability databases for detailed analysis of plant protection system and to develop a methodology for analysing trip set point drifts. Reliability database for the I and C parts of plant protection system is required to perform the detailed analysis. First, we have developed an electronic part reliability prediction code based on MIL-HDBK-217F. Then we have collected generic reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system. Statistical analysis procedure has been developed to process the data. Then the generic reliability database has been constructed. We have also collected plant specific reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3,4 units. Plant specific reliability database for I and C parts has been developed by the Bayesian procedure. We have also developed an statistical analysis procedure for set point drift, and performed analysis of drift effects for trip set point. The basis for the detailed analysis can be provided from the reliability database for the PPS I and C parts. The safety of the KSNP and succeeding NPPs can be proved by reducing the uncertainty of PSA. Economic and efficient operation of NPP can be possible by optimizing the test period to reduce utility's burden. 14 refs., 215 figs., 137 tabs. (Author)

  4. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Carratù

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  5. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    difference in the degree of pollution and the way copper is bound within the soil.The speciation of copper in the soil from a small pilot plant did not show any measurable change during the first seven months of operation. It seems that the number of particles with very a high concentration of copper......Observations were made of copper-polluted soil to see, if any changes in the bonding type of copper in the soil were made during electrodialytic soil remediation. Three different fractions of the copper-polluted soil were used for investigation with infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am...

  6. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  7. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  8. Comparison of test and earthquake response modeling of a nuclear power plant containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor building of a BWR plant was subjected to dynamic testing, a minor earthquake, and a strong earthquake at different times. Analytical models simulating each of these events were devised by previous investigators. A comparison of the characteristics of these models is made in this paper. The different modeling assumptions involved in the different simulation analyses restrict the validity of the models for general use and also narrow the comparison down to only a few modes. The dynamic tests successfully identified the first mode of the soil-structure system.

  9. Analysis of antioxidant prenylflavonoids in different parts of Macaranga tanarius, the plant origin of Okinawan propolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigenori Kumazawa; Masayo Murase; Noboru Momose; Syuichi Fukumoto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the antioxidant prenylflavonoids in different parts of Macaranga tanarius (M. tanarius) (Euphorbiaceae) including the leaf, petiole, stem, leaflet, flower and fruit (only in female plant), and to evaluate their antioxidant properties. Methods: Methanol extracts of each part of M. tanarius were prepared and five prenylflavonoids in them were quantitatively analyzed using HPLC. The fruits from female plant were further separated into seed, pericarp, and glandular trichome. After the quantitative analyses of prenylflavonoids in each part of M. tanarius, antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results: The leaf of M. tanarius contained two prenylflavonoids as main components in both male and female plants. Both flowers (male and female) contained five kinds of prenylflavonoids. In the petiole, stem and leaflet of both male and female plants, the prenylflavonoids were not detected or their amounts were very low. Five kinds of prenylflavonoids were detected in the seed, pericarp and glandular trichome of female M. tanarius. In particular, the glandular trichome had the highest level of total prenylflavonoids (235 mg/g of fresh plant). DPPH radical scavenging activity of all parts was more than 30%. Conclusions: We found that different parts of M. tanarius contained antioxidant prenylflavonoids. In particular, not only the glandular trichome but also the leaf contained prenylflavonoids, which indicated that M. tanarius may be developed as a functional plant, because the leaves of this plant can be easily collected.

  10. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  11. Progress Towards an Interdisciplinary Science of Plant Phenology: Building Predictions Across Space, Time and Species Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has brought renewed interest in the study of plant phenology - the timing of life history events. Data on shifting phenologies with warming have accumulated rapidly, yet research has been comparatively slow to explain the diversity of phenological responses observed across latitudes, growing seasons and species. Here, we outline recent efforts to synthesize perspectives on plant phenology across the fields of ecology, climate science and evolution. We highlight three major axes that vary among these disciplines: relative focus on abiotic versus biotic drivers of phenology, on plastic versus genetic drivers of intraspecific variation, and on cross-species versus autecological approaches. Recent interdisciplinary efforts, building on data covering diverse species and climate space, have found a greater role of temperature in controlling phenology at higher latitudes and for early-flowering species in temperate systems. These efforts have also made progress in understanding the tremendous diversity of responses across species by incorporating evolutionary relatedness, and linking phenological flexibility to invasions and plant performance. Future research with a focus on data collection in areas outside the temperate mid-latitudes and across species' ranges, alongside better integration of how risk and investment shape plant phenology, offers promise for further progress.

  12. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  13. Pretreatment of plant and soil samples: a problem in boron analysis. Part I. Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Possible sources of errors in the determination of boron in plant samples were examined. During drying and grinding neither loss nor contamination of boron was observed. It was found that boron was slightly lost when muffling at temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The addition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ prevented the loss but gave rise to incomplete ashing in many cases. Nitrate salts added in order to enhance oxidation gave rise to boron loss. Wet ashing should be done preferably in a concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid medium at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the shape of the digestion flask is important - long neck flasks are usually safe enough due to their condensating effects. Very high temperatures with foaming demand additional cooling condensors. Borosilicate glass can not be used. Extraction of plant samples with hydrochloric acid is a convenient alternative but no more than 75-94% of the total boron concentration in plants could be extracted.

  14. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  15. 植物与建筑造景模式探讨%Inquiry on plants and building landscaping pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper inquires the plants and building landscaping pattern,analyzes the unification and variation of plants and building landscaping,and describes the application of coordination and comparison in plants and building landscaping,balance and stability%针对植物与建筑造景模式进行了探讨,分析了植物与建筑组景中的统一与变化,并阐述了植物与建筑组景中协调和对比的应用,植物与建筑的均衡和稳定等内容,以期指导环境景观设计工作。

  16. A sensitivity model for energy consumption in buildings. Part 1: Effect of exterior environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple analytical model is developed for the simulation of seasonal heating and cooling loads of any class of buildings to complement available computerized techniques which make hourly, daily, and monthly calculations. An expression for the annual energy utilization index, which is a common measure of rating buildings having the same functional utilization, is derived to include about 30 parameters for both building interior and exterior environments. The sensitivity of a general class building to either controlled or uncontrolled weather parameters is examined. A hypothetical office type building, located at the Goldstone Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California, is selected as an example for the numerical sensitivity evaluations. Several expressions of variations in local outside air temperature, pressure, solar radiation, and wind velocity are presented.

  17. Simulation of the full and part load energy consumption of HVAC system of building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, A.E.; Chia, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    A model based on dynamic heat transfers through the building envelope and between the contents inside the building is developed. This model has been incorporated into the Computer Aided Building Airconditioning Requirement and Environmental Temperature Simulation (CABARETS) program. The model takes into account the interaction between the external excitation, building envelope, contents inside the building, air handling systems and the mechanical equipment. An iterative numerical procedure has been implemented to solve the simultaneous heat transfer equations for the various components of the system. The indoor temperature and humidity variations with or without the operation of the HVAC system are established, and the energy requirements for maintaining the controlled environment are computed. The electrical power requirement for operating the HVAC mechanical equipment is estimated by the model, and the values are compared with the observed electricity consumption for the mechanical services.

  18. Repair and renovation work in the building sector. Part 5 Summary; Korjausrakentaminen 1990 KORVO 90. Osa 5 Yhteenveto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Vainio, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Building Production

    1991-11-01

    The study of repair and renovation in the building sector (KORVO 90) gives a general picture of repair and renovation work in Finland in 1990: the total value of repair and renovation, the age of buildings being under repair, the measures taken the performing sectors and the causes for repairs undertaken. The development of repairs and renovation in the 1990s is forecast with the help of this study. The Building Production Laboratory of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has done a corresponding study concerning the year 1982. The new study inquired more closely into the repair work of flats. Both studies were based on postal questionnaires and interviews. The results of these studies are comparable with each other and evaluate the development of building repair work in the 1980s. The results of the study have been published in five parts. This is the fifth part and it includes a summary of the results. The value of repair and renovation increased by 50 per cent in the 1980s being FIM 21 billion in the year 1990. The repair and renovation of terrace houses, block of flats and business buildings increased most.

  19. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-08-27

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  20. Biomassas de partes aéreas em plantas da caatinga Aboveground biomass of caatinga plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grécia Cavalcanti Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas de partes aéreas de nove espécies da caatinga foram determinadas e relacionadas com as medidas das plantas, cortando-se 30 plantas de cada espécie e separando-as em caule, galhos, ramos e folhas. As espécies foram divididas em dois grupos: seis espécies com plantas grandes e três com plantas menores. Cada grupo foi separado em classes de diâmetro do caule (DAP. As alturas totais (HT dobraram (3,8 a 8,5 m da classe de menor para a de maior diâmetro (Biomass of aboveground parts of nine caatinga species were determined and related to plant measurements. Thirty plants of each species were collected and separated into stems, branches, twigs and leaves. The species were divided in two groups: six species of large plants and three species of smaller plants. Each group was divided into classes of stem diameter (DBH. Plant height (H doubled (3.8 to 8.5 m from the smallest-diameter class to the largest diameter ( 5 cm diameter, 20% of branches from 1 to 5 cm, 5% of twigs < 1 cm and 5% of leaves. DBH was the single variable that best predicted biomass of parts, in both species groups, according to a power equation (B = a DBH b. H and CPA were also significantly related to biomass for some parts and group, but with R² lower than DBH. Combining DBH and H improved estimation but not enough to justify the extra field effort in determining H. Therefore, plant part biomass can be estimated from measurements of stem diameter, in a non-destructive process.

  1. Soil environmental conditions and microbial build-up mediate the effect of plant diversity on soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities in temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Le Roux

    Full Text Available Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively, the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number, and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species, though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification

  2. Advances in Multi-Sensor Scanning and Visualization of Complex Plants: the Utmost Case of a Reactor Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.

    2015-02-01

    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of "as-built virtual reality" for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of the art of scanning tools and methods for industrial plants with very complex architecture. Then, we introduce the inner characteristics of the multi-sensor scanning and visualization of the interior of the most complex building of a power plant: a nuclear reactor building. We introduce several developments that made possible a first complete survey of such a large building, from acquisition, processing and fusion of multiple data sources (3D laser scans, total-station survey, RGB panoramic, 2D floor plans, 3D CAD as-built models). In addition, we present the concepts of a smart application developed for the painless exploration of the whole dataset. The goal of this application is to help professionals, unfamiliar with the manipulation of such datasets, to take into account spatial constraints induced by the building complexity while preparing maintenance operations. Finally, we discuss the main feedbacks of this large experiment, the remaining issues for the generalization of such large scale surveys and the future technical and scientific challenges in the field of industrial "virtual reality".

  3. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  4. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  5. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  6. A decade of building massage therapy services at an academic medical center as part of a healing enhancement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Nancy J; Cutshall, Susanne M; Dion, Liza J; Dreyer, Nikol E; Hauschulz, Jennifer L; Ristau, Crystal R; Thomley, Barb S; Bauer, Brent A

    2015-02-01

    The use of complementary and integrative medicine therapies is steadily becoming an integral part of health care. Massage therapy is increasingly offered to hospitalized patients for various conditions to assist with the management of common symptoms such as pain, anxiety, and tension. This article summarizes a decade of building the massage therapy service at a large tertiary care medical center, from the early pilot studies and research to the current program offerings, and the hopes and dreams for the future.

  7. Comfortable, healthy and intelligent buildings. Part 1. Comparison of buildings in the Netherlands and Germany; Comfortabele, gezonde en intelligente gebouwen. Deel 1. Nederlandse en Duitse gebouwen vergeleken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lony, R.J.M. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Molenaar, D.J.; Rietkerk, J.; Schuiling, D.J.B.W.; Zeiler, W. [Installatietechnologie, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    A comparison was made between four buildings in Germany and four buildings in the Netherlands. In this part 1 attention is paid to the first two comparisons. In part 2, which will be published in this magazine in October the remaining two sets of buildings are compared. The basis of the comparison is the module Keyfactors, developed by the University of Reading in the UK, in which six aspects are compared: site, skin, shell, services, space plan, and stuff (e.g. furniture) [Dutch] De Technische Universiteit Eindhoven heeft een vergelijking gemaakt tussen vier Duitse en vier Nederlandse gebouwen. In dit artikel worden de eerste twee vergelijkingen behandeld, evenals de basis van de vergelijking. De basis voor het vergelijkingsonderzoek, is de module Keyfactors van de Universiteit van Reading. Deze module is gebaseerd op het vergelijken van gebouwen op zes aspecten (de 6 S-vergelijking). Dit zijn site (Iocatie), skin (gevel), shell (constructieopzet), services (installaties), space plan (ruimtelijke opzet) en stuff (meubilair). Gebaseerd op deze zes aspecten kan een vergelijking worden gemaakt tussen gebouwen. In het onderzoek van de TU/E zijn in totaal acht gebouwen paarsgewijs bekeken: de Hoftoren in Den Haag met de Post Tower in Bonn, her Thermostaete-gebouw in Bodegraven met de Landesvertretung in Berlijn (deze vier zijn in het eerste deel besproken). In het tweede en afsluitende artikel, dat wordt gepubliceerd in het oktober-nurnmer van dit tijdschrift, worden de laatste twee vergelijkingen beschreven het Forum-gebouw in Amsterdam met het Spherion in Dusseldorf en het Rijnlandhuis in Leiden met het Energieforum in Berlijn. De Duitse gebouwen zijn doorgaans innovatiever, maar de Nederlandse hebben een betere prijs-kwaliteitverhouding.

  8. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible.

  9. Number and Operations, Part 1: Building a System of Tens Casebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, Deborah; Bastable, Virginia; Russell, Susan Jo

    2016-01-01

    The "Building a System of Tens Casebook" was developed as the key resource for participants' Developing Mathematical Ideas seminar experience. The thirty cases, written by teachers describing real situations and actual student thinking in their classrooms, provide the basis of each session's investigation of specific mathematical…

  10. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  11. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  12. Multi-element concentrations in plant parts and fluids of Malaysian nickel hyperaccumulator plants and some economic and ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Mulligan, David

    2015-04-01

    Information about multi-elemental concentrations in different plant parts of tropical Ni hyperaccumulator species has the potential to provide insight into their unusual metabolism relative to a range of essential and non-essential elements, but this information is scant in the literature. As Ni hyperaccumulation, and possibly co-accumulation of other toxic elements, has been hypothesized to provide herbivore (insect) protection, there is a need to quantify a range of these elements in plant tissues and transport fluids to at least verify the possibility of this explanation. In this study, multiple elements were analyzed in a range of different plant parts and transport fluids from Ni hyperaccumulator species collected from Sabah (Malaysia). The results show preferential accumulation of Ni in leaves over woody parts, but the highest concentrations were found in the phloem tissue (up to 7.9 % in Rinorea bengalensis) and phloem sap (up to 16.9 % in Phyllanthus balgooyi), visible by a bright green coloration in the field fresh material. The amount of Ni contained in one mature R. bengalensis tree was calculated at 4.77 kg. The high Ni concentration in the flowers of Phyllanthus securinegoides could affect insect floral visitors and pollination. High concentrations of Ni in the seeds of this species also could supply the seedling with Ni and aid in herbivory protection during the first stages of development. Foliar Ca and Ni in P. cf. securinegoides and R. bengalensis are positively correlated. Low accumulation of Ca is desirable for phytomining but concentrations of Ca are high in most Ni hyperaccumulators examined, and this could have consequences for the economic viability of Ni extraction from bio ore if these species were to be used as 'metal crops'.

  13. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  14. New GLC analysis of urushiol congeners in different plant parts of poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Waller, C W; Billets, S; Elsohly, M A

    1978-04-01

    Methods are presented for the direct GLC analysis of the catechol C15 alkenyl side-chain congeners contained in the urushiol fraction of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and the C17 homologs of poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum). A number of liquid phases were investigated and demonstrated varying degrees of separation. The methods developed were applied to the analysis of the urushiol fractions obtained from different plant parts of poison ivy. The effects of extraction before and after drying demonstrated tht a larger percentage of urushiol was obtained when the fresh plant material was extracted with ethanol.

  15. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  16. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, A.J.W.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  17. BPM Organization and Personnel. Part 1: Building a BPM Support Group that creates Value

    OpenAIRE

    Boots, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Mature Business Process Management (BPM) is not achieved overnight. Typically, it takes many years of commitment to build mature BPM capability into an organization’s culture. This paper, which is the first in a series of BPM white papers sponsored by the Innovation Value Institute (IVI), will help organizations understand where they are on the BPM maturity curve, where they are trying to go, and how they can get there. Chevron Corporation, where the author worked for 30 years, serves as a...

  18. Collapse Behavior of Steel Columns as Part of Steel Frame Buildings: Experiments and Numerical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Lignos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-induced collapse risk assessment of steel frame buildings requires the use of deterioration models that simulate instabilities that cause strength and stiffness deterioration of structural steel components. In the case of steel columns in addition to cyclic deterioration in flexural strength, such models should capture the axial load – bending interaction, the axial contraction as well as the axial strength deterioration after the formation of local buckling within the column cross...

  19. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part I: Theoretical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    The insertion of steel braces equipped with dissipative devices proves to be very effective in order to enhance the performance of a framed building under horizontal seismic loads. Multi-level design criteria were proposed according to the Performance-Based Design, in order to get, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance objective of the building (e.g., an assigned damage level of either the framed structure or non-structural elements). In this paper a design procedure aiming to proportion braces with hysteretic dampers in order to attain, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance level of the building is proposed. Exactly, a proportional stiffness criterion, which assumes the elastic lateral storey-stiffness due to the braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame, is combined with the Direct Displacement-Based Design, in which the design starts from target deformations. A computer code has been prepared for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, using a step-by-step procedure. Frame members and hysteretic dampers are idealized by bilinear models.

  20. The robustness of buildings and installations. Part 2; Robuustheid van gebouwen en installaties. Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijten, J.L. [Afdeling Climate Design and Environment, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R. [Apogeum Indoor Environment Consult, Gouda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    In a previous article of this magazine (January 2007) attention was paid to the hypothesis of the robustness of a building. Since then, the hypothesis has been extended and refined. The robustness of an office building was defined as the measure by which the building lives up to its design purpose in a real life situation. In the refined hypothesis more attention is given to the way occupants react to the indoor environment as a whole. Robustness is expected to be particularly increased when the environmental 'Gestalt', the total working environment as perceived by occupants, promotes acceptance of the indoor environment. [Dutch] Een voorgaand artikel in dit tijdschrift (januari 2007) behandelde de gebouwrobuustheidshypothese, waarin de robuustheid van een kantoorgebouw werd gedefinieerd als de mate waarin het binnenmileu in het gerealiseerde gebouw in de praktijk voldoet aan zijn ontwerpdoelstelling. Sindsdien is de hypothese uitgebreid en verfijnd met speciale aandacht voor de manier waarop gebruikers reageren op het binnenmilieu als geheel. De verwachting is dat de robuustheid van een gebouw verder zal toenemen wanneer de omgevings-Gestalt de acceptatie van het binnenmilieu bevordert. De omgevings-Gestalt is het geheel van de werkomgeving zoals de gebruikers die ervaren.

  1. Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    An empirical study was undertaken with 31 organisations submitting data to the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) in order to explore the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge generated through a process of learning. The results show that of the three constructs of knowledge (experience, data/information, and theory), experience has the greatest influence on building waste knowledge, nearly twice that of data/information and three times that of theory. Together the three constructs account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Respondents from municipalities and private waste organisations reflect two distinct sub-groups in the data set. While the theoretical model remains the same for the two sub-groups, the way in which knowledge is constructed, and the variance in knowledge explained by the model, differs for the two. A mixed methods research design, combining quantitative statistical analysis and rich qualitative data, contributes to a comprehensive interpretation of the role of waste data in building knowledge in South Africa. While waste data has a minor influence on building knowledge, respondents acknowledge that waste data does have a positive impact on the way their organisations manage waste. However, it is not the data, but rather the resultant waste knowledge and raised level of awareness that causes the operational response. Experience is obtained predominantly through learning from others. Respondents in municipalities, emphasised learning from consultants, landfill site contractors, and colleagues in city-twinning programmes, while respondents in private waste companies, emphasised learning from experienced, senior colleagues.

  2. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.

  3. Comfortable, healthy and intelligent buildings. Part 2. Comparison of buildings in the Netherlands and Germany; Comfortabele, gezonde en intelligente gebouwen. Deel 2. Nederlandse en Duitse gebouwen vergeleken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lony, R.J.M. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Molenaar, D.J.; Rietkerk, J.; Schuiling, D.J.B.W.; Zeiler, W. [Installatietechnologie, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    A comparison was made between four buildings in Germany and four buildings in the Netherlands. In part 1, published in this magazine in July-August, attention was paid to the first two comparisons. In this article the remaining two sets of buildings are compared. The basis of the comparison is the module Keyfactors, developed by the University of Reading in the UK, in which six aspects are compared: site, skin, shell, services, space plan, and stuff (e.g. furniture) [Dutch] De Technische Universiteit Eindhoven heeft een vergelijking gemaakt tussen vier Duitse en vier Nederlandse gebouwen. In het eerste artikel, dat is gepubliceerd in het juli-augustus-nurnmer van dit tijdschrift, zijn de eerste twee vergelijkingen behandeld, evenals de basis van de vergelijking. De basis voor het vergelijkingsonderzoek, is de module Keyfactors van de Universiteit van Reading. Deze module is gebaseerd op het vergelijken van gebouwen op zes aspecten (de 6 S-vergelijking). Dit zijn site (Iocatie), skin (gevel), shell (constructieopzet), services (installaties), space plan (ruimtelijke opzet) en stuff (meubilair). Gebaseerd op deze zes aspecten kan een vergelijking worden gemaakt tussen gebouwen. In het onderzoek van de TU/E zijn in totaal acht gebouwen paarsgewijs bekeken: de Hoftoren in Den Haag met de Post Tower in Bonn, her Thermostaete-gebouw in Bodegraven met de Landesvertretung in Berlijn (deze vier zijn in het eerste deel besproken), . In dit tweede en afsluitende artikel worden de laatste twee vergelijkingen beschreven het Forum-gebouw in Amsterdam met het Spherion in Dusseldorf en het Rijnlandhuis in Leiden met het Energieforum in Berlijn. De Duitse gebouwen zijn doorgaans innovatiever, maar de Nederlandse hebben een betere prijs-kwaliteitverhouding.

  4. Separate process wastewaters, part A: Contaminated flow collection and treatment system for the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assist the agency in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as it applies to modification of ongoing groundwater treatment at DOE`s Kansas City Plant (KCP), located about 19 km (12 miles) south of the central business district of Kansas City, Missouri. The KCP is currently owned by DOE and is operated by the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. The plant manufactures nonnuclear components for nuclear weapons. The purpose of and need for the DOE action is to treat identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater at the KCP to ensure that human health and the environment are protected and to comply with groundwater treatment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3008(h) Administrative Order on Consent and the discharge requirements of the Kansas City, Missouri, ordinances for the city sewer system. Four source streams of toxic organic contaminated groundwater have been identified that require treatment prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The toxic organic contaminants of concern consist of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in the groundwater and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) predominantly associated with some soils near the Main Manufacturing Building. The no-action alternative is to continue with the current combination of treatment and nontreatment and to continue operation of the KCP groundwater treatment system in its current configuration at Building 97 (B97). The DOE proposed action is to collect and treat all identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The proposed action includes constructing an Organics Collection System and Organics Treatment Building, moving and expanding the existing groundwater treatment system, and operating the new groundwater treatment facility.

  5. Investigation into the influence of build parameters on failure of 3D printed parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Giacomo

    Additive manufacturing, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), is transforming the built world and engineering education. Deep understanding of parts created through FDM technology has lagged behind its adoption in home, work, and academic environments. Properties of parts created from bulk materials through traditional manufacturing are understood well enough to accurately predict their behavior through analytical models. Unfortunately, Additive Manufacturing (AM) process parameters create anisotropy on a scale that fundamentally affects the part properties. Understanding AM process parameters (implemented by program algorithms called slicers) is necessary to predict part behavior. Investigating algorithms controlling print parameters (slicers) revealed stark differences between the generation of part layers. In this work, tensile testing experiments, including a full factorial design, determined that three key factors, width, thickness, infill density, and their interactions, significantly affect the tensile properties of 3D printed test samples.

  6. Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions as Part of Plant Defense and Animal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof De Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system consists of a complex network of cells and molecules that interact with each other to initiate the host defense system. Many of these interactions involve specific carbohydrate structures and proteins that specifically recognize and bind them, in particular lectins. It is well established that lectin-carbohydrate interactions play a major role in the immune system, in that they mediate and regulate several interactions that are part of the immune response. Despite obvious differences between the immune system in animals and plants, there are also striking similarities. In both cases, lectins can play a role as pattern recognition receptors, recognizing the pathogens and initiating the stress response. Although plants do not possess an adaptive immune system, they are able to imprint a stress memory, a mechanism in which lectins can be involved. This review will focus on the role of lectins in the immune system of animals and plants.

  7. Protein-carbohydrate interactions as part of plant defense and animal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Kristof; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-05-19

    The immune system consists of a complex network of cells and molecules that interact with each other to initiate the host defense system. Many of these interactions involve specific carbohydrate structures and proteins that specifically recognize and bind them, in particular lectins. It is well established that lectin-carbohydrate interactions play a major role in the immune system, in that they mediate and regulate several interactions that are part of the immune response. Despite obvious differences between the immune system in animals and plants, there are also striking similarities. In both cases, lectins can play a role as pattern recognition receptors, recognizing the pathogens and initiating the stress response. Although plants do not possess an adaptive immune system, they are able to imprint a stress memory, a mechanism in which lectins can be involved. This review will focus on the role of lectins in the immune system of animals and plants.

  8. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty E. Acquah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage. Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability

  9. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  10. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. N Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  14. On the effectiveness of smart technologies in the seismic protection of existing buildings Part II: Reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, A.; Ramundo, F.; Spina, G.

    2008-07-01

    The second part of a study concerning innovative intervention techniques for seismic protection of existing buildings is presented in this paper. The case of an existing framed r.c. structure, not designed for horizontal forces and extremely vulnerable to seismic action, is analyzed both in terms of maximum response reduction and energy dissipation. The proposed intervention approach, based on steel braces linked to the existing structure by passive or smart devices comes out appropriate and effective in the case of this type of buildings. The adopted control strategy produces a significant reducing effect on the elastic strain energy transmitted by the external perturbation to the structure, which is itself a fundamental safeguard aspect. The results prove the significantly improved capability of the system to dissipate input energy without structural damage, regardless of the specific seismic input.

  15. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  16. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M.A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N.M.F; Abdullah Aziz; Latif, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  17. Urban and railway policies: towards the building of new parts of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For some time, contemporary city has undertaken the promotion of a new quality of life and urban spaces through specific policies concerning the existing city, which are oriented to its renewal and change. In this framework, railway stations have a critical role in setting new spatial and functional rearrangements of cities and territories and contributing to spread more sustainable ways of mobility. The territory of Emilia-Romagna and especially the railway node of Bologna are emblematic examples of this continuous research of a balance between urban and railway policies in order to build and manage the complex place of railway station.

  18. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

  19. Air conditioning and energy conservation. Improved space HVAC systems. Case studies: Office buildings, hotels, shopping centers, skyscrapers, industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiner, H.

    1988-08-01

    Rising energy prices and an increasing demand for comfortable rooms account for the importance attached to the windows and glass used for office buildings, hotels and industrial plants. Both windows and glass have a considerable influence on the thermal behavior and air conditioning of buildings. Among the latest developments are precious metal-coated insulating panes. Selected gases allow to reduce the total thickness of insulating glass and improve noise insulation. The case studies presented refer to the energy-saving air conditioning and space heating, heat recovery and cooling of rooms as well as to the respective control systems. Investigations into the specific energy consumption of building shells reveal the considerable space/tap water heating energy conservation potentials remaining to be utilized.

  20. CAL--ERDA program manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, B. D.; Diamond, S. C.; Bennett, G. A.; Tucker, E. F.; Roschke, M. A.

    1977-10-01

    A set of computer programs, called Cal-ERDA, is described that is capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings. A new user-oriented input language, named the Building Design Language (BDL), has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. This manual provides the user with information necessary to understand in detail the Cal-ERDA set of computer programs. The new computer programs described include: an EXECUTIVE Processor to create computer system control commands; a BDL Processor to analyze input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; a LOADS analysis program that calculates peak (design) zone and hourly loads and the effect of the ambient weather conditions, the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; a Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS analysis program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components including fans, coils, economizers, humidifiers, etc.; 16 standard configurations and operated according to various temperature and humidity control schedules. A plant equipment program models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical generation equipment (diesel or turbines), heat storage apparatus (chilled or heated water), and solar heating and/or cooling systems. An ECONOMIC analysis program calculates life-cycle costs. A REPORT program produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-specified formats. A set of WEATHER ANALYSIS programs manipulates, summarizes and plots weather data. Libraries of weather data, schedule data, and building data were prepared.

  1. CAL--ERDA users manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graven, R. M.; Hirsch, P. R.

    1977-10-30

    A new set of computer programs capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings is described. The Building Design Language (BDL) has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. Programs presented in this manual include: (1) a Building Design Language program to analyze the input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform data assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; (2) a LOADS analysis program which calculates peak (design) loads and hourly space loads due to ambient weather conditions and the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; (3) a HEATING, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components, including fans, coils, economizers, and humidifiers; (4) a PLANT equipment program which models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical-generation equipment (e.g., diesel engines or turbines), heat-storage apparatus (e.g., chilled or heated water) and solar heating and/or cooling systems; (5) an ECONOMICS analysis program which calculates life-cycle costs; (6) a REPORT program which produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-selected formats; and (7) an EXECUTIVE processor to create computer-system control commands. Libraries of weather data, typical schedule data, and data on the properties of walls, roofs, and floors are available.

  2. Using Semiotic Resources to Build Images When Teaching the Part-Whole Model of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration into the use of a combination of semiotic resources when teaching the part-whole model of fractions. The study involved a single case study of one class teacher and six students in an Australian primary classroom. Using video as the predominate research tool it was possible to describe how gesture and language…

  3. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus: A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie C Schai-Braun

    Full Text Available European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA such as linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein, and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  4. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  5. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in different parts of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae, a potential hyperaccumulator plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and accumulation of 10 heavy metals was observed in plant parts of species S. tragus, a native representative of Serbian flora. According to high bioaccumulation values (BAF, more than a half of the analyzed elements were bioaccumulated in roots, as well as in the aerial part of the plant. Translocation factor (TF value was calculated, showing the ratio between the concentration of metals in roots and aerial parts of the plant. The results indicate that S. tragus may accumulate significant amounts of Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. Concentrations of some of the individual elements are shown to be statistically different depending on the sampled plant parts. Potential capacity of S. tragus for hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and possible utilization of this plant for phytoremediation is discussed.

  7. Building and Researching the Bidding Model Based on the Cost of Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春申; 叶春; 赵景峰

    2004-01-01

    A bidding model of neural network was presented to pursue the largest benefit according to the policy of separating power plants from network and bidding transaction. This model bases on the cost of power plant and its research object is a power plant in the market. The market clearing price (MCP) can be predicted and an optimized load curve can be decided in this model. The model may provide technical support for the power plant.

  8. Antioxidative activity of different parts of the plant Lepidium sativum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jency Malar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium sativum Linn. has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of bronchial asthma, diabetes, local and rheumatic pain. An ethanolic extract of cress (L. sativum L. shoot, leaf, stem and seed has been studied for antioxidative active against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total glutathione S-transferase assay, reduced glutathione activity, reducing power (Fe3+–Fe2+ Transformation Ability, and ascorbic acid is also estimated. The percentage yields of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH obtained for different ethanolic extracts of L. sativum. Supreme scavenging activity was detected in shoot (12.19 ± 02% and least in stem (2.69 ± 05%. The activity of total glutathione S-transferase enzyme was found to be more in seed (9600 ± 56.3 μg/ml than other plant parts. The reduced glutathione content of the ethanolic extracts of L. sativum was found to be more in leaf (9 ± 0.2 μg/ml. In the reducing power assay, ethanolic extracts gives the optical density in increasing concentration in all plant parts it shows that it has the reducing ability of Fe3+–Fe2+. Presence of vitamin C was tested. It was found that the shoot extract has highest amount of vitamin C. The results of present data were shown that the ethanolic extract of L. sativum L. plant parts have contributed high potential in vitro antioxidant activity.

  9. Building Worlds and Learning Astronomy on Facebook Part III: Testing, Launch, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J.; Hines, D.; Vidugiris, E.; Goldman, K. H.

    2015-11-01

    James Harold (SSI), Dean Hines (STScI/SSI) and a team at the National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute are developing Starchitect, an end-to-end stellar and planetary evolution game for the Facebook platform. Supported by NSF and NASA, and based in part on a prototype presented at ASP several years ago, Starchitect uses the “sporadic play” model of games such as Farmville, where players might only take actions a few times a day, but may continue playing for months. This paper is an update to a presentation at last year's ASP conference.

  10. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2017-09-27

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to

  11. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium ful

  12. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grbić Maja; Antić Radoslav; Ponoćko Jelena; Mikulović Jovan; Đurišić Željko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade...

  13. The influence of modified water chemistries on metal oxide films, activity build-up and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of actuated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for {sup 60}Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (orig.) 127 refs.

  14. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-09-29

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0.

  15. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  16. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  17. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  18. Supramolecular catalysis. Part 1: non-covalent interactions as a tool for building and modifying homogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Matthieu; Ballester, Pablo; Vidal-Ferran, Anton; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2014-03-01

    Supramolecular catalysis is a rapidly expanding discipline which has benefited from the development of both homogeneous catalysis and supramolecular chemistry. The properties of classical metal and organic catalysts can now be carefully tailored by means of several suitable approaches and the choice of reversible interactions such as hydrogen bond, metal-ligand, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The first part of these two subsequent reviews will be dedicated to catalytic systems for which non-covalent interactions between the partners of the reaction have been designed although mimicking enzyme properties has not been intended. Ligand, metal, organocatalyst, substrate, additive, and metal counterion are reaction partners that can be held together by non-covalent interactions. The resulting catalysts possess unique properties compared to analogues lacking the assembling properties. Depending on the nature of the reaction partners involved in the interactions, distinct applications have been accomplished, mainly (i) the building of bidentate ligand libraries (intra ligand-ligand), (ii) the building of di- or oligonuclear complexes (inter ligand-ligand), (iii) the alteration of the coordination spheres of a metal catalyst (ligand-ligand additive), and (iv) the control of the substrate reactivity (catalyst-substrate). More complex systems that involve the cooperative action of three reaction partners have also been disclosed. In this review, special attention will be given to supramolecular catalysts for which the observed catalytic activity and/or selectivity have been imputed to non-covalent interaction between the reaction partners. Additional features of these catalysts are the easy modulation of the catalytic performance by modifying one of their building blocks and the development of new catalytic pathways/reactions not achievable with classical covalent catalysts.

  19. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  20. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  1. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. D. Végh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (cANS is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantation, when the heart is denervated. Interest in the origin of the autonomic nerve system has renewed since the role of autonomic function in disease progression was recognized, and some plasticity in autonomic regeneration is evident. As with many pathological processes, autonomic dysfunction based on pathological innervation may be a partial recapitulation of the early development of innervation. As such, insight into the development of cardiac innervation and an understanding of the cellular background contributing to cardiac innervation during different phases of development is required. This review describes the development of the cANS and focuses on the cellular contributions, either directly by delivering cells or indirectly by secretion of necessary factors or cell-derivatives.

  2. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshi Mainen J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%, bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%, malaria (14 plants; 28.6%, gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%, gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%, hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%, viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%, chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%, diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%, cancer (2 plants; 4.1%, inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism, HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%. Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0% of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system

  3. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. • The concepts of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. • Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) were performed and updated. • This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate safety issues using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) proposed by Generation IV Forum Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO). In ongoing nuclear energy research such as Generation IV fission power plant (GEN-IV), new methodology based on Technology-Neutral Framework (TNF) has been applied for safety assessment. In this methodology, design and regulatory requirements for safety of nuclear power plants are considered simultaneously. The design based on regulatory requirements can save resource, time, and manpower while maintaining high level safety. ISAM is one of the options to apply TNF in K-DEMO. We have performed safety studies for K-DEMO using Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) which are constitutive part of ISAM. Considering the design phase of K-DEMO, the current study focused on PIRT and OPT for K-DEMO. Results have been reviewed and updated by Korean fusion advisory group after considering the views of specialists from domestic universities, industries, and national institutes in South Korea.

  4. Consideration of hazardous and especially hazardous hydrometeorological impacts in design of buildings and structures of nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available External impacts of the hydrometeorological origin have a significant influence on the safety level of objects of use of atomic energy (OUAE, including nuclear power plants (NPP. Therefore, the existing NPP-related safety regulations demand to consider such impacts at all stages of the NPP life cycle. It is important to make decisions on considering or ignoring certain external impacts while designing NPP buildings and structures. The main criterion for such decisions is the probability of a non-project accident associated with the release of radionuclides into the environment when an extreme phenomena occurs. The aim of this study is to develop a concept for refinement regulatory requirements, considering hydrometeorological factors in organization of NPP engineering protection. Criteria for consideration of hazardous and especially hazardous hydrometeorological impacts for design of NPP buildings and structures were analyzed, and recommendations for refinement of regulatory requirements, considering hydrometeorological factors in organization of NPP engineering protection, were developed.

  5. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  6. The exploitation of an ant-defended host plant by a shelter-building herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Micky D; Nesci, Kimberly A; Petersen, Mette K; Liu, Zhiwei; Sanchez, Horacio Bonfil

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of a Polyhymno species (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) feed on the ant-defended acacia, Acacia cornigera, in the tropical lowlands of Veracruz, Mexico. Polyhymno larvae construct sealed shelters by silking together the pinna or pinnules of acacia leaves. Although larval density and larval survival are higher on acacias not occupied by ants, shelters serve as a partial refuge from the ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which defends A. cornigera plants; thus, shelters provide Polyhymno larvae access to an ant-defended host plant. P. ferruginea ants act as the primary antiherbivore defense of A. cornigera plants, which lack the chemical and mechanical defenses of non-ant-defended acacias. Thus, defeating the ant defense of A. cornigera provides Polyhymno larvae access to an otherwise poorly defended host plant. Damage caused by Polyhymno larval feeding reaches levels which can kill A. cornigera plants.

  7. Nuclear emergency buildings of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; Centros alternativos de emergencias de las centrales nucleares de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuet, J.; Sabater, J.; Mirallas Esteban, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Nuclear Emergency Buildings sited at Asco and Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are designed to safety manage emergencies in extreme situations, beyond the design basis of the Nuclear Power Plants. Designed in accordance with the requirements of the Spanish Nuclear Regulator (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear-CSN) these buildings are ready to operate over a period of 72 hours without external assistance and ensure habitability for crews of 120 and 70 people respectively. This article describes the architectural conception, features and major systems of the Nuclear Emergency Buildings sited at Asco and Vandellos II. (Author)

  8. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority H Appendix H to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. H Appendix H to Part 110—Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority G Appendix G to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. G Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and...

  10. Building collaborative relationships with distributors in the Dutch potted flower and plant industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the impact of the information network and trust on collaborative relationships as well as the impact of the collaboration on the performance of suppliers (i.e. growers). Combining network and trust, growers can build collaborative efforts, namely joint actio

  11. Arrival of the cold box for the cryogenic refrigeration plant and installation in building SHL5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Goran Perinic

    2002-01-01

    The pictures show the arrival of the cold box and the installation of both the cold box and the valve panel in building SHL5. The installation was achieved by lowering the components through an opening in the roof which had been specially forseen for this operation.

  12. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  13. Building relationships between plant traits and leaf spectra to reduce uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite climate projections, there is uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to warming temperatures and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Earth system models are used to determine how ecosystems will respond in the future, but there is considerable variation in how plant traits are represented within these models. A potential approach to reducing uncertainty is the establishment of spectra-trait linkages among plant species. These relationships allow the accurate estimation of biochemical characteristics of plants from their shortwave spectral profiles. Remote sensing approaches can then be implemented to acquire spectral data and estimate plant traits over large spatial and temporal scales. This paper describes a greenhouse experiment conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in which spectra-trait relationships were investigated for 8 different plant species. This research was designed to generate a broad gradient in plant traits, using a range of species grown in different sized pots with different soil type. Fertilizer was also applied in different amounts to generate variation in plant C and N status that will be reflected in the traits measured, as well as the spectra observed. Leaves were sampled at different developmental stages to increase variation. Spectra and plant traits were then measured and a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling approach was used to establish spectra-trait relationships. Despite the variability in growing conditions and plant species, our PLSR models could be used to accurately estimate plant traits from spectral signatures, yielding model calibration R2 and root mean square error (RMSE) values, respectively, of 0.85 and 0.30 for percent nitrogen by mass (Nmass%), R2 0.78 and 0.75 for carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, 0.87 and 2.39 for leaf mass area (LMA), and 0.76 R2 and 15.16 for water (H2O) content. This research forms the basis for establishing new and more comprehensive spectra

  14. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  15. Testing of energy assessment of technical plants, in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, EPBD; Testing av Energivurdering av tekniske anlegg iht Bygningsenergidirektivet, EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkeland, Harald

    2008-06-15

    The consulting company Norwegian Energy has previously worked out proposals for inspection systems for technical plants, in accordance with the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, abbreviated EPBD. This project has consisted in practice testing of the proposed inspection systems. In this respect agreements have been made with a number of companies working with heating boiler inspections as well as ventilation and cooling. Testing experiences have been summed up in this report. The most important experiences from this project concern practical matters: The main challenge is to find data and documentation on the plant. Use of time and resources is part of this challenge. The forms must be simplified, with less information to fill in. Some adjustments have been proposed to the previously proposed procedure. The content of the inspection should be clearly defined, without any options for simplifications. Eligibility requirements: There is clearly a need for training and certification procedures for companies/persons which are permitted to carry out inspections according to the EPBD. A proposal for such procedures has been worked out. The inspection should contain both a declaration of impartiality and a guarantee from the inspector that all identified points of improvement have been described. (EW)

  16. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 1: International availability data exchange for thermal generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, G.S.; Deschaine, R. [Black and Veatch (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 1 (WG1). WG1's primary focus is to analyse the best ways to measure, evaluate, and apply power plant performance and availability data to promote plant performance improvements worldwide. The paper explores the specific work activities of 2004-2007 to extend traditional analysis and benchmarking frameworks. It is divided into two major topics: Overview of current electric supply industry issues/trends; and, Technical Methods/Tools to evaluate performance in today's ESI.

  17. Sustainable energy planning with efficient office buildings and cogeneration plants in Frankfurt am Main.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Wendelin; Neumann, Werner

    2004-06-01

    Sustainable development of a city not only is determined through the amount of protected areas, but it is also an important task to integrate sustainable development in urban energy planning. In the last 10 years, many new areas for offices and residential buildings have been developed in Frankfurt am Main. In this context, the municipality has taken over a new role as organizer for the integrated energy planning. This article gives an overview of the achievements.

  18. V-Model based Configuration Management Program for New-Build Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Kyungik [PartDB Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon Sang [KHNP Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Freeland, Kent R. [Industrial Analysts Incorporated, New Hampshire (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As NPP operators undertook design basis reconstitution efforts, they began to realize that the design basis is a foundation for Configuration Management (CM). This realization was made evident in the magnitude of the problems that were being observed. This experience also raised serious questions about how the information being developed to produce the design basis documents would be kept up to date in the future. A process to reconstitute the design basis is likely to be ineffective if CM controls are not in place. The right IT solution for CM depends upon a number of factors, including the nuclear power plant culture, budget, target technology, and the nuclear power plant owner/operator's standards, requirements and limitations for its generating fleet. Comprehensive CM Program for NPP is the single greatest strategy to meet the commitment to nuclear excellence. The safety and viability of nuclear power, particularly at the fleet level, depends upon the development of positive design control and design basis to better understanding plant operating dynamics and margin management, along with technology to control the realization of such design in the physical plant. However the most of plant facilities are modified many times, often without suitable support needed to confirm with their design base and to update their engineering data, maintenance rules and operating procedures. This lack of equilibrium between the requirements, design information and physical plant still remains a important issue. This study focuses on how to manage the configuration information of NPP using systems engineering V-model approach, and proposes data model to manage the configuration information in relation to manage their life cycle. Comprehensive CM Program and IMS for NPP life cycle support is the greatest strategy to meet the commitment to nuclear safety.

  19. A Model for Optimization and Analysis of Energy Flexible Boiler Plants for Building Heating Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    This doctoral thesis presents a model for optimization and analysis of boiler plants. The model optimizes a boiler plant with respect to the annual total costs or with respect to energy consumption. The optimum solution is identified for a given number of energy carriers and defined characteristics of the heat production units. The number of heat production units and the capacity of units related to each energy carrier or the capacity of units related to the same energy carrier can be found. For a problem comprising large variation during a defined analysis period the model gives the operating costs and energy consumption to be used in an extended optimization. The model can be used to analyse the consequences with respect to costs and energy consumption due to capacity margins and shifts in the boundary conditions. The model is based on a search approach comprising an operational simulator. The simulator is based on a marginal cost method and dynamic programming. The simulation is performed on an hourly basis. A general boiler characteristic representation is maintained by linear energy or cost functions. The heat pump characteristics are represented by tabulated performance and efficiency as function of state and nominal aggregate capacities. The simulation procedure requires a heat load profile on an hourly basis. The problem of the presence of capacity margins in boiler plants is studied for selected cases. The single-boiler, oil-fired plant is very sensitive to the magnitude of the losses present during burner off-time. For a plant comprising two oil-fired burners, the impact of a capacity margin can be dampened by the selected capacity configuration. The present incentive, in Norway, to install an electric element boiler in an oil-fired boiler plant is analysed. 77 refs., 74 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. 某核电厂生产办公楼的建筑设计%Production office building design of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车新路; 赵书娴

    2016-01-01

    Combining with the general horizontal layout scheme of the production office building of the nuclear power plant,introduces its spatial composite features,describes matters needing attention in the production office building design of the nuclear power plant from aspects of the of-fice building design demands,the relationship between the nuclear power plant production office building and the nuclear power plant workshop, office building space features,with a view to realize the office building serving targets of “convenient management and safe production”.%结合某核电厂生产办公楼的总平面布局方案,介绍了其平面空间组合特点,并从办公楼的设计要求、办公楼与厂区关系、办公空间特质等方面,阐述了核电厂生产办公楼设计的注意要点,旨在实现办公楼“便于管理、安全生产”的服务目标。

  1. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  2. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  3. “PROCESS”: A systems code for fusion power plantsPart 2: Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovari, M., E-mail: michael.kovari@ccfe.ac.uk; Fox, F.; Harrington, C.; Kembleton, R.; Knight, P.; Lux, H.; Morris, J.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • PROCESS is an optimising systems code for fusion reactors. • It allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore. • Multiple constraints greatly restrict the parameter space of the optimised model. • For example, when coil current is increased greatly, major radius hardly changes. - Abstract: PROCESS is a reactor systems code – it assesses the engineering and economic viability of a hypothetical fusion power station using simple models of all parts of a reactor system. PROCESS allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore, so when evaluating the results it is vital to study the list of constraints used. New algorithms submitted by collaborators can be incorporated – for example safety, first wall erosion, and fatigue life will be crucial and are not yet taken into account. This paper describes algorithms relating to the engineering aspects of the plant. The toroidal field (TF) coils and the central solenoid are assumed by default to be wound from niobium-tin superconductor with the same properties as the ITER conductors. The winding temperature and induced voltage during a quench provide a limit on the current density in the TF coils. Upper limits are placed on the stresses in the structural materials of the TF coil, using a simple two-layer model of the inboard leg of the coil. The thermal efficiency of the plant can be estimated using the maximum coolant temperature, and the capacity factor is derived from estimates of the planned and unplanned downtime, and the duty cycle if the reactor is pulsed. An example of a pulsed power plant is given. The need for a large central solenoid to induce most of the plasma current, and physics assumptions that are conservative compared to some other studies, result in a large machine, with a cryostat 36 m in diameter. Multiple constraints, working together, restrict the parameter space of the optimised model. For example, even when the ratio of

  4. Construction of a new wastewater treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue through until February 2009.

  5. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  6. CHP plants in residential buildings: Environmental potential and economic feasibility when combined with thermal solar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicre, B.; Buehring, A.; Vetter, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The expected high fuel conversion factor of residential combined heat and power plants (rCHP) means that they present a more environmentally friendly option for heating and simultaneous electricity generation than separate systems with decentralised heat generation, e.g. with a gas-fuelled boiler, and electricity from central power stations. As the investment costs for rCHP plants are still high, measures such as investment subsidies and/or higher tariffs for the exported electricity are needed to support the market introduction, as are the longest possible operating times. The consequence is that simultaneous investment in a thermal solar system becomes less attractive, as the heat that it provides shortens the operation time for the rCHP, so that the price paid for electric power increases. Provided that investments have been made in both a thermal solar system and a rCHP, an operation mode which is strongly determined by the electricity generation profile can dramatically reduce the heating energy yield from the solar system. Within a joint project, Fraunhofer ISE has investigated the possible displacement mechanisms concerning thermal applications of solar energy, and has identified ways of financially supporting decentralised rCHP plants without hindering the thermal use of solar energy. The most important results of this work will be presented in this paper. (orig.)

  7. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  9. Technology simulation set: Multi-layered glazing. A part of an IEA working document. IEA Task 13 ``Advanced solar low-energy buildings``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report gives an overview and some hints about the possibilities for simulating multi-layered glazing systems in building simulation programs. The thermal and optical processes taking part in the energy transport through a window are discussed in separate sections in this report. Most programs calculate the losses through a window in a routine differing from the routine calculating the gains through a window as these are two completely different physical processes that describe the two types of energy transport. The part of the window-model dealing with gains from transmitted solar energy is the one which is subject to the largest uncertainties in the simple routines which most programs use. Therefore, this problem is given the major emphasis in this report. The work is meant as a support to the IEA task XIII ``Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings`` for simulating advanced and innovative energy conservation features in future buildings. (au)

  10. MOBILE MORTAR CONCRETE PLANTS FOR BUILDING COMPLEX OF BELARUS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main advantages and disadvantages of mobile mortar concrete plants in comparison with stationary concrete mixing units. The main idea of the mobility is to provide quick movement. In its turn, this approach imposes some restrictions on dimensions and weights of concrete mixing equipment. However in the context of the concrete mixing equipment and construction site as whole the mobility concept is considered in the form of three components: minimum expenses on site preparation for assembly of a mortar concrete plant, transportability, reduction in installation and startand-adjustment periods. In this regard processing chain for production of concrete and mortar mixes is divided in separate complete operations. Then it is necessary to develop modules which are performing the required operations. Every module is developed in accordance with the size of a shipping container in order to make transportation convenient. Detachable connections are stipulated in the place of module linkages, electrical wiring, pipelines for supply water and chemical admixtures, pneumatics. Henceforth, these connections make it possible to reduce time for on-site assembly and disassembly of the equipment.The paper presents a mobile mortar concrete unit of block-module arrangement which has been developed within the framework of the State Scientific Research Programme at the BNTU. The unit has been manufactured using production capacities of JSC “Viprotekh” and it has been successfully introduced in production process. One of the promising directions is to use the mobile mortar concrete plants which are located and which are operating directly on construction sites. Their economic efficiency becomes higher with an increase of distance to the nearest stationary mortar concrete unit and scope of concreting works. Mobile mortar concrete plants are mainly intended for construction organizations which are realizing construction projects away from urban

  11. Building Footprints, Building footprints are not county-wide. Only certain communities participated in a "buy-up" program to obtain building footprints as part of our 2010 aerial orthophotogrpahy program., Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Footprints dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  12. Establishment of morphology simulation model for above-ground part of cotton plant%棉花地上部形态模拟模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 潘学标; 张立祯; 庞艳梅; 刘琰琰

    2012-01-01

    were made on the dimensions and biomass of above-ground plant organs for each phytomer throughout the seasons. Growth stage-specific target files (a description of plant part weight and dimension based on plant topological structure) were established from the measured data. The relationship between biomass and morphology of the above-ground cotton plant parts was analyzed and used to establish a cotton simulation model for above-ground parts. This algorithm improved the development and morphogenesis modules in COTGROW. A preliminary model calibration was carried out using the experimental data for 2008 and 2009, and the model was validated using independent experimental data for 2010. The results showed that the simulated values agreed well with the measured ones. Correlation coefficient (R) and root mean squared error (RMSE) between the measured and simulated values of morphological parameters were determined. The determined R for plant height, main stem node number, fruiting branch number, fruiting branch node number, internode length, internode diameter, leaf blade length, leaf blade width, petiole length, petiole diameter, boll length and boll diameter were 0.99, 0.99, 0.99, 0.92, 0.95, 0.93, 0.75, 0.71, 0.81, 0.62, 0.98 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding determined RMSE for the above parameters were 3.85 cm, 0.64, 0.52, 0.66, 1.00 cm, 0.15 cm, 1.58 cm, 2.39 cm, 2.54 cm, 0.05 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.10 cm, respectively. The results indicated that the model achieved a good performance in simulating the growth processes of the above-ground parts of cotton plant. It was further possible to build a visual plant model from the above model.%为构建基于生理生态过程的棉花虚拟生长模型,本研究以棉花模型COTGROW为基础,利用棉花品种“美棉33B”的3年田间密度试验数据,分析了棉株器官生物量-形态的关系,改进了COTGROW模型中的发育和形态发生模块,建立了基于生理生态过程的棉花地上部分形态模

  13. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants.

  14. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 2: Thermal Generating Plant Unavailability Factors and Availability Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curley, G. Michael [North American Electric Reliability Corporation (United States); Mandula, Jiri [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 2 (WG2). WG2's main task is to facilitate the collection and input on an annual basis of power plant performance data (unit-by-unit and aggregated data) into the WEC PGP database. The statistics will be collected for steam, nuclear, gas turbine and combined cycle, hydro and pump storage plant. WG2 will also oversee the ongoing development of the availability statistics database, including the contents, the required software, security issues and other important information. The report is divided into two sections: Thermal generating, combined cycle/co-generation, combustion turbine, hydro and pumped storage unavailability factors and availability statistics; and nuclear power generating units.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

  17. Evaluation of CNS depressant activity of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sanjita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level.

  18. "PROCESS": a systems code for fusion power plants - Part 2:Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Harrington, C; Kembleton, R; Knight, P; Lux, H; Morris, J

    2016-01-01

    PROCESS is a reactor systems code - it assesses the engineering and economic viability of a hypothetical fusion power station using simple models of all parts of a reactor system. PROCESS allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore, so when evaluating the results it is vital to study the list of constraints used. New algorithms submitted by collaborators can be incorporated - for example safety, first wall erosion, and fatigue life will be crucial and are not yet taken into account. This paper describes algorithms relating to the engineering aspects of the plant. The toroidal field (TF) coils and the central solenoid are assumed by default to be wound from niobium-tin superconductor with the same properties as the ITER conductors. The winding temperature and induced voltage during a quench provide a limit on the current density in the TF coils. Upper limits are placed on the stresses in the structural materials of the TF coil, using a simple two-layer model of the inboard leg of ...

  19. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  20. Variation in the volatile constituents of different plant parts of Ligusticopsis wallichiana from western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2012-08-01

    The essential oil composition of the leaves, stem, flowers and roots of Ligusticopsis wallichiana (DC.) Pimenov & Kljuykov were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Forty-five constituents, forming 93.2%-97.8% of the oil compositions, were dominated by acetylenic (31.5%-92.8%) compounds and sesquiterpenoids (0.3%-44.4%). The leaf essential oil was mainly composed 3,5-nonadiyne (35.8%), beta-selinene (20.9%), alpha-funebrene (10.1%) and (Z)-falcarinol (6.1%). The stem oil was dominated by acetylenic compounds (73.8%) represented by 3,5-nonadiyne (67.8%) and (Z)-falcarinol (5.7%). On the contrary, the major components of the flower essential oil were sesquiterpenoids (37.5%), such as germacrene D (16.6%), alpha-funebrene (7.4%), and acetylenic compounds (31.5%), such as (Z)-falcarinol (21.0%) and 3,5-nonadiyne (10.0%). Monoterpenoids constituted 23.9% of the flower oil with limonene (19.9%) as the single major constituent. The essential oil of the roots was dominated by 3,5-nonadiyne (90.5%). The results showed considerable qualitative and quantitative variations in the essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of L. wallichiana. (Z)-Falcarinol (1.9%-21.0%) and alpha-funebrene (0.1%-10.1%) were reported for the first time from the essential oils of L. wallichiana.

  1. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb.

  2. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an economic analysis of the project is performed.

  3. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  4. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory for the use of action research as a tool of evidence based practice for information literacy instruction in school libraries. The emerging theory is intended to capture the complex phenomenon of information skills teaching as it is embedded in school curricula. Such a theory is needed to support research on the integrated approach to teaching information skills and knowledge construction within the framework of inquiry learning. Part 1 of this paper, in the previous issue, built a foundation for emerging theory, which established user‐centric information behavior and constructivist learning theory as the substantive theory behind evidence based library instruction in schools. Part 2 continues to build on the Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry as foundational to studying the information‐to‐knowledge connection and the concepts of help and intervention characteristic of 21st century school library instruction.Methods – This paper examines the purpose and methodology of action research as a tool of evidence based instruction. This is accomplished through the explication of three components of theory‐building: paradigm, substantive research, and metatheory. Evidence based practice is identified as the paradigm that contributes values and assumptions about school library instruction. It establishes the role of evidence in teaching and learning, linking theory and practice. Action research, as a tool of evidence based practice is defined as the synthesis of authentic learning, or performance‐based assessment practices that continuously generate evidence throughout the inquiry unit of instruction and traditional data collection methods typically used in formal research. This paper adds social psychology theory from Lewin’s work, which contributes methodology from Gestalt psychology, field theory, group dynamics, and change theory. For Lewin the purpose of action

  5. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 1: Building a Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Part I of this paper aims to create a framework for an emerging theory of evidence based information literacy instruction. In order to ground this framework in existing theory, a holistic perspective views inquiry as a learning process that synthesizes information searching and knowledge building. An interdisciplinary approach is taken to relate user-centric information behavior theory and constructivist learning theory that supports this synthesis. The substantive theories that emerge serve as a springboard for emerging theory. A second objective of this paper is to define evidence based information literacy instruction by assessing the suitability of performance based assessment and action research as tools of evidence based practice.Methods – An historical review of research grounded in user-centered information behavior theory and constructivist learning theory establishes a body of existing substantive theory that supports emerging theory for evidence based information literacy instruction within an information-to-knowledge approach. A focused review of the literature presents supporting research for an evidence based pedagogy that is performance assessment based, i.e., information users are immersed in real-world tasks that include formative assessments. An analysis of the meaning of action research in terms of its purpose and methodology establishes its suitability for structuring an evidence based pedagogy. Supporting research tests a training model for school librarians and educators which integrates performance based assessment, as well as action research. Results – Findings of an historical analysis of information behavior theory and constructivist teaching practices, and a literature review that explores teaching models for evidence based information literacy instruction, point to two elements of evidence based information literacy instruction: the micro level of information searching behavior and the macro level of

  6. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathways are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have only been recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss in detail the recent strategies and achievements used in the reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes in an effort to be able to attain higher amounts of the desired flavonoids and stilbenoids exploiting their beneficial properties as analyzed extensively in Part I of this review.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  9. Bioreactor plant for the reproducible building of biofilms; Bioreaktoranlage zur reproduzierbaren Bildung von Biofilmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheen, J. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltforschung

    1998-10-01

    Biofilms frequently appear, they are sometimes useful and sometimes disturbing. For the investigation of biofilms, it was necessary to reproduce them in specific bioreactors. Furthermore, useful media and analytical methods have to define the influence of biocides and other substances. The gravimetric analysis of microbe-formed polysaccharides in water samples and biofilm makes it possible to recognise successful treatments. These conditions are described here. Using these instruments it was possible to build up reproducible biofilms, to test and optimise them in lab examinations. In view of the expected EU Biocide Directive, this process offers possibilities for searching and verifying the suitability of biocides and other substances. (orig.) [Deutsch] Biofilme treten vielfach, sowohl nuetzlich - als auch stoerend, auf. Fuer die Untersuchungen an Biofilmen wurde eine Bioreaktoranlage, ein synthetisches Medium und eine aussagekraeftige Analytik entwickelt. Mit der gravimetrischen Messung von mikrobiell gebildeten Exopolysacchariden, aus der waessrigen Phase und direkt aus dem Biofilm heraus, konnte die Bildung von Biofilmen verfolgt werden. Mit diesem Instrumentarium war es moeglich, Biofilme reproduzierbar zu bilden und die nuetzlichen als auch schaedlichen Eigenschaften von Biofilmen im Labor zu testen und zu optimieren. Dadurch koennen Foerder- als auch Vermeidungsmethoden durch z.B. Biozide oder andere Wirkstoffe besser beurteilt werden. Im Hinblick auf die zu erwartende EU-Biozid-Richtlinie bieten sich guenstige Untersuchungsmoeglichkeiten von Bioziden auf ihre Praxistauglichkeit an. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using plant parts and topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbula, Snezana M; Miljkovic, Dusanka Dj; Kovacevic, Renata M; Ilic, Ana A

    2012-02-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) was evaluated as a possible bioindicator of airborne heavy metal pollution, which originates from mining and pyrometallurgical copper production in Bor (Eastern Serbia). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in different plant organs (washed/unwashed leaves, branches, roots) and topsoil of R. pseudoacacia by ICP-AES and by AAS. Sampling was carried out during 2008 at ten selected sites distributed in five zones with different levels of pollution. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg did not exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (MAC) in soils at any of the sampling sites. Cu and As were present only at two sites within the MAC, whereas Zn exceeded the MAC at two sampling sites. Although present in the soil, As, Cd and Hg were below limit of detection in all parts of R. pseudoacacia. The rest of the studied elements, collected at the sites closest to the copper smelter or in the directions of the prevailing winds, were found to be at high levels. The higest Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in branches of R. pseudoacacia at the site Krivelj in the rural zone (6418.2±355.4 mg kg⁻¹ and 4699.8±320.8 mg kg⁻¹, respectively). Pb was present in similar amounts in all parts of R. pseudoacacia in the concentration ranging from 4.9 ± 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in washed leaves, at tourist zone) to 66.9±5.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in roots, at urban-industrial zone). According to the mobility ratio, leaves and branches of R. pseudoacacia acted as excluders of Cu, Zn and Pb, except for the branches which acted as indicators of Zn. Although As is present in high concentrations in the air and topsoil of the examined area, results show that R. pseudoacacia is not a suitable indicator of environmental pollution with As. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MANAGING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS AS PART OF THE MECHANISM OF STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Gusev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have proven that, at present one of the priority research areas as part of the Development Strategy of the Food Processing Industry of the Russian Federation until 2020 is to develop effective mechanisms for sustainable socio-economic development of industrial enterprises. This article investigated the logic of strategic planning within the framework of sustainable economic growth, analyzed the structure of strategic planning, study the subject of strategic planning in the management of sustainable development of enterprises, justified the basic principles of strategic planning for the effective management of sustainable development of industrial enterprises, as well as the complex of organizational tactical activities of operational management strategy for sustainable development of the enterprise. The observation revealed that currently there was a high need for the framework of the branch, departmental and state programs implemented in industrial management of scientific and methodological approaches of strategic planning. Studies have shown that these approaches in its conceptual entity should be based on the growth potential of the sustainable development of meat processing plants in space and time in order to achieve high competitive advantages. Conducted a systematic analysis of industry conditions proved that the problem of sustainable operation and development of meat processing enterprises as a problem of management and control is relatively new, unexplored and highly relevant. On the contrary, it is the basis of modern management strategy and management is a concept and methodology of the so-called adaptive enterprise development under the action of various external and internal factors, risks that may threaten its economic stability and sustainability.

  12. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), part 1: Distance from build plate and part size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing–microstructure–properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a geometry developed to allow investigation of the following two intra-build processing parameters: distance from the build plate and part size. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. Microstructure and mechanical properties, including microhardness, were not found to vary as a function of distance from the build plate, which was hypothesized to be influenced by the build plate preheating associated with the EBM process. Part size, however, was found to influence ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) by less than 2% over the size range investigated. A second order effect of thermal mass might also have influenced these results. Differences were observed between the EBM Ti–6Al–4V microstructure of this work and the expected acicular or Widmanstätten microstructure normally achieved through annealing above the β transus. Therefore, a different relationship between α lath thickness and mechanical properties might be expected.

  13. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  14. Analysis of Environmental Contamination resulting from Catastrophic Incidents: Part two: Building Laboratory Capability by Selecting and Developing Analytical Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples with analytically diverse types including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface resid...

  15. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407978208

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  16. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  17. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

  18. Plant-derived antimalarial agents: new leads and efficient phythomedicines. Part I. Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde B. Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the most serious world health problem and the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions. Brazil is among the 30 high-burden countries and most of the cases occur in the Legal Amazonian Region. New chemotherapeutical agents are needed for the treatment of malaria. Many plant species are used in traditional medicines of malarious countries and a relatively few number of these have been investigated for evaluation of their antimalarial effect. Still lower is the number of those that have had the active natural compounds isolated and the toxicity determined. This area is, then, of great research interest. discovery project of antimalarial natural products from plants traditionally used to treat malaria must include in vitro and in vivo assays as well as bioguided isolation of active compounds. The final products would be antimalarial chemical entities, potential new drugs or templates for new drugs development, and/or standardized antimalarial extracts which are required for pre-clinical and clinical studies when the aim is the development of effective and safe phythomedicines. This review discusses these two approaches, presents briefly the screening methodologies for evaluation of antimalarial activity and focuses the activity of alkaloids belonging to different structural classes as well as its importance as new antimalarial drugs or leads and chemical markers for phytomedicines.A malária ainda é um dos mais sérios problemas de saúde pública e a principal causa de mortalidade e morbidade nas regiões endêmicas. O Brasil está entre os 30 países com maior incidência de malária e a maior parte dos casos ocorre na Amazônia Legal. Novos agentes terapêuticos são necessários para o tratamento da malária. Muitas espécies vegetais são utilizadas na medicina tradicional de vários países endêmicos mas é relativamente reduzido o número daquelas que já foram investigadas quanto à sua atividade

  19. Evaluation of phenolic content and antioxidant potency in various parts of Cassia auriculata L.: a traditionally valued plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, K N; Annegowda, H V; Sathish, N K; Ramesh, B; Mansor, S M

    2014-01-01

    Presence of polyphenolic content in various part of the plant exhibit wide pharmacological activities including antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoid and tannins) and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of flower, leaf, pod, bark and root obtained from Cassia auriculata. Ethanolic extracts of various parts of C. auriculata obtained by sonication extraction techniques are studied for their phenolic contents and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay as well as total antioxidant assays using UV visible spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant studied, bark showed significant content of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins followed by the root, leaf, flower and pod. Even bark extract exhibited highest antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay followed by root, leaf, flower and pod with a value of 766.7, 679.3, 644.9, 572.5 and 474.7 mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (mg VCEAC)/sample, respectively. In addition, mg VCEAC values obtained from the total antioxidant assay was in the increasing order of bark > root > leaf > flower > pod. Moreover, a strong correlation was also found between phenolic contents and antioxidant values indicating their influence in the found antioxidant activity, hence the bark extract can be employed as an ideal candidate for herbal based pharmaceutical product. Results of the present study also emphasize variation in the chemical composition as well as biological activity ensuring the importance of proper selection of particular part of the plant to evaluate their therapeutic potency.

  20. Wild food plants and fungi used by Ukrainians in the western part of the Maramureş region in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild food and fungi use in the countryside has always been an important part of human-nature relationships. Due to social changes in most rural areas of Europe this part of traditional ecological knowledge is shrinking. The aim of our study was to record the use of wild foods and plants among the Ukrainian (Carpatho-Rusyns minority in the western part of Romanian Maramureş. We carried out 64 interviews in two villages. Voucher specimens were collected and DNA barcoding was used to identify most fungi taxa. We recorded the use of 44 taxa of plants altogether (including 8 taxa used only for herbal teas and 24 taxa of fungi. On average 7.7 species of plants and 9.7 species of fungi were listed per interview. Edible fungi are thus an important part of local cuisine and they are eagerly gathered by everyone. The use of a few woodland bracket fungi is worth pointing out. No signs of degeneration of this knowledge were observed. Wild fruits are less collected now and wild greens are rarely collected nowadays. This pattern is typical of many places in Central Europe.

  1. Seismic soil–structure interaction analysis of a nuclear power plant building founded on soil and in degraded concrete stiffness condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Reza V., E-mail: reza.farahani@rizzoassoc.com; Dessalegn, Tewodros M., E-mail: tewodros.dessalegn@rizzoassoc.com; Vaidya, Nishikant R., E-mail: nish.vaidya@rizzoassoc.com; Bazan-Zurita, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.bazanz@rizzoassoc.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Three dimensional finite element modeling of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) building founded on soil is described. • A simplified technique to consider degraded stiffness of concrete members in seismic analysis of NPP buildings is presented. • The effect of subsurface profiles on the seismic response of a NPP building is investigated. - Abstract: This study describes three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) modeling and seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Diesel Generator Building (DGB) that is founded on soil in degraded concrete stiffness condition. A new technique is presented that uses two horizontal and vertical FE models to consider the concrete stiffness reduction of NPP buildings subjected to orthogonal ground motion excitations, in which appropriate stiffness reduction factors, based on the input motion orientation, are applied. Seismic SSI analysis is performed for each model separately, and dynamic responses are calculated in the three global directions. The results of the analysis for the two FE models are then combined, using the square-root-of-the-sum-of-squares (SRSS) combination rule. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate the subsurface profile effect on the In-Structure (acceleration) Response Spectra (ISRS) of the building when subjected to site-specific Foundation Input Response Spectra (FIRS) that exhibit high spectral amplifications in the high-frequency range. The sensitivity analysis considers three strain-compatible subsurface profiles that represent Lower-Bound (LB), Best-Estimate (BE), and Upper-Bound (UB) conditions at the DGB site. The sensitivity analysis results indicate that the seismic response of the DGB founded on soil highly depends on the subsurface profile; i.e., each of the LB, BE, and UB subsurface profiles can maximize building seismic response when subjected to FIRS that exhibit high spectral amplifications in the high-frequency range

  2. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  3. Pseudohypericin and Hyperforin in Hypericum perforatum from Northern Turkey: Variation among Populations, Plant Parts and Phenological Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt ?irak; Jolita Radusiene; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2008-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial medicinal plant known as "St. John's wort" in Western Europe and has been used in the treatment of several diseases for centuries. In the present study, morphologic, phenologic and population variability in pseudohypericin and hyperforin concentrations among H. perforatum populations from Northern Turkey was investigated for the first time. The aerial parts of H. perforatum plants representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering from 10 sites of Northern Turkey to search the regional variation in the secondary metabolits concentrations. For morphologic and phenologic sampling, plants from one site were gathered in five phenological stages: vegetative,floral budding, full flowering, fresh fruiting and mature fruiting. The plant materials were air-dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography. Secondary metabolite concentrations ranged from traces to 2.94mg/g dry weight (DW) for pseudohypedcin and traces -6.29mg/g DW for hyperforin. The differences in the secondary metabolite concentrations among populations of H. perforatum were found to be significant. The populations varied greatly in hyperforin concentrations, whereas they produced a similar amount of pseudohypericin. Concentrations of both secondary metabolites in all tissues increased with advancing of plant development and higher accumulation levels were reached at flowering. Among different tissues, full opened flowers were found to be superior to stems, leaves and the other reproductive parts with regard to pseudohypericin and hyperforin accumulations. The present findings might be useful to optimize the processing methodology of wild-harvested plant material and obtain Increased concentrations of these secondary metabolites.

  4. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Dakshina R. Seal; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether ...

  5. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Cliff G. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether ...

  6. Buildings cover a part of the own power needs; 'Gebaeude produzieren Teil des Strombedarfs selbst'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the topic of 'Smart Grids', as dealt with in the USA. The author notes that the topic is mostly the subject of work groups and the Administration, but that many interest groups are dealing with this 'innovation of the century'. It is, however, not always clear what exactly is meant by the term 'Smart Grid'. The article deals with the combination of a smart grid with a smart building, with interaction between the power supply and building technical services. In particular the BAC-Net system in the smart grid environment is dealt with in an interview with H. Michael Newmann of Cornell University, New York as well as with Steven T. Bushby and David Holmberg of the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST. Topics discussed include interest shown by power utilities, state and market support, the integration of power-pricing data in the BAC-Net protocol, power 'stock exchanges' and electricity pricing as well as interaction between the utility and building management systems. Also, smart grids for normal households are discussed, as are a road map for the introduction of the technology and financial advantages for building managers

  7. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbabazi Pamela K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33 plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies. Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species followed by roots (13 species while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further

  8. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FACTORS WHICH LEAD TO THE DESTRUCTION OF ORTHODOX CHURCH BUILDINGS AND THEIR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYKHOHRAI V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. The main characteristic of the buildings, including Orthodox churches, is a reliability index. It depends on the service condition and includes reliability, durability, effective age of a structure and suitability of buildings and their separate elements to repairs [4; 10]. Despite the fact that the greatest losses Ukrainian architectural heritage have suffered from the policy of the communist regime and utilitarian, equally important factor was the low cultural standard of living. A number of lost churches as a result of neglect and "unconscious vandalism" is equal to the losses that were caused by the First and Second World Wars [2; 9]. As a result of the increase, the intensity of the adverse factors impact on Orthodox churches building their reliability is reduced. Since the dominant number of scientific publications dealing with technical condition and methods of restoration only for particular buildings, it is still no common data on the primary cause of the destruction of Orthodox churches. The main unexplored issues include the following: 1 what kinds of structural destructions have a mass character; 2 what kinds of what factors have a critical role in reducing building reliability index; 3 what are the main causes of the loss of interior decoration of churches. Research in this area will help to prioritize the development of constructive and technological solutions for the restoration of Ukrainian sacral architectural heritage. The purpose of the article. To identify factors which have the most impact on the durability of supporting structures of stone Orthodox churches (including which were built before 1917 and preserve their interior decoration on the basis of the expert survey. Conclusion. According to the results of expert evaluation and calculations, found that: cupolas, vaults (domes and vertical bearing structures suffered the most significant losses; the main destructive factors of Orthodox churches can be

  9. Selenium and its species distribution in above-ground plant parts of selenium enriched buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogrincic, Maja; Cuderman, Petra; Kreft, Ivan; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-11-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was foliarly sprayed with a water solution containing 10 mg Se(VI) L(-1) at the beginning of flowering. The total Se content in plant parts in the untreated group was low, whereas in the Se-sprayed group it was approximately 50- to 500-fold higher, depending on the plant part (708-4231 ng Se g(-1) DM(-1) (DM: dry matter)). We observed a similar distribution of Se in plant parts in both control and treated groups, with the highest difference in Se content being in ripe seeds. Water-soluble Se compounds were extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with protease XIV, resulting in above 63% of soluble Se from seeds, approximately 14% from stems, leaves and inflorescences and less than 1% from husks. Se-species were determined in enzymatic extracts using HPLC-UV-HG-AFS (HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with UV treatment). The main Se species found in seeds was SeMet ( approximately 60% according to total Se content), while in stems, leaves and inflorescences the only form of soluble Se present was Se(VI) (up to 10% of total Se). In husks no Se-species were detected. We observed an instability of Se(IV) in seed extracts as a possible consequence of binding to the matrix components. Therefore, special care concerning sample extraction and the storage time of the extracts should be taken.

  10. Whether Plant Responses to Microgravity are Adaptive in Full or in Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth

    F1.1 Microgravity is well known to be an unusual factor for plant but plants grow and develop in space flight from seed-to-seed, as it has been perfectly shown in the experiments aboard shut-tle Columbia (STS-87) and ISS. Under the more or less optimal conditions for plant growing, namely temperature, humidity, CO2, light intensity and directivity, in the hardware, high-quality seeds germinate one hundred percent.. Cytological studies of plants developing in real and simulated microgravity made it possible to establish that the processes of mitosis, cytoki-nesis, and tissue differentiation of vegetative and generative organs are largely normal. The patterns of histogenesis and cell differentiation established for root caps in microgravity lead to the conclusion that the graviperceptive apparatus of the intact embryonic roots has formed but does not function in the absence of a gravitational vector. Normal space orientation of plant organs is provided by autotropism and phototropism. At the same time, under micro-gravity, essential reconstruction in the structural and functional organization of cell organelles and cytoskeleton, as well as changes in cell metabolism and homeostasis have been described. In addition, new interesting data concerning the influence of altered gravity on lipid peroxi-dation intensity, the level of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant system activity, just like on the level of gene expression and synthesis of low-molecular and high-molecular heat shock proteins were recently obtained Available experimental data are discussed in the light of notions on adaptive syndrome in plants. The dynamics of the observable patterns demonstrate that adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems within the physiological response limits.. However, a delay in synthesis of storage nutrients and the lower level its accumulation in seeds in microgravty, as well as the formation of seeds with anomalous embryos in some cases made it

  11. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  12. Maintenance of industrial plants as a part of corporate social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Brukmajster, D. [ZIRN - Interdisciplinary Research Unit on Risk Governance and Sustainable Technology Development, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    The paper deals with the change of role of maintenance of industrial plant along the corresponding change of priorities in the operation of plants. It looks at the role of maintenance in the actual concepts of operation in which the highest priority is often not any more at the technical and engineering aspects ('the plant must run and produce'), or the economic aspects ('yes, but at an affordable price and costs'), but at the 'socially responsible production'. Taking the currently accepted 'measures' like KPI's and indices like GRI or those proposed in the EU project like NEEDS as the basis for the analysis, the paper shows how, where and how much maintenance can contribute to better performance of a plant according to the above 'measures'. In particular, the paper highlights those KPI's and indices which can be of a particular interest for the maintenance of the fossil fuel power plants. (orig.)

  13. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  14. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Waste Water Treatment Plants - also included in local buildings layer, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described...

  15. Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meydbray, J.; Riley, E.; Dunn, L.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    As described in Part 1 of this two-part series, thermopile pyranometers and photovoltaic (PV) reference cells can both be used to measure irradiance; however, there are subtle differences between the data that are obtained. This two-part article explores some implications of uncertainty and subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field. Part 2 of the series shows how reference cells can be used to more confidently predict PV performance, but how this could best be accomplished if historic irradiance data could be available in PV-technology-specific formats.

  16. Some prospects for the use of ash and slag wastes of coal power plants for production of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPP generate large amounts of ash and slag wastes (ASW, therefore ecological problems related to ASW storage and disposal for such power plants come to the fore. To obtain new data on ASW properties analysis of a number of ASW samples from ash dump No. 4 of Cherepet’ TPP was carried out as part of engineering surveys. The purpose of this study included determiantion of the ASW granulometrical and mineralogical composition, as well as their physical and chemical properties. During field works 4 ASW samples were taken from the surface layer of the ash dump plus one sample of ash froth for further laboratory analysis. Laboratory analysis enabled determination of the granulometrical, mineralogical and chemical composition of ASW. Assessment of the ASW corrosiveness toward various materials determined necessary limitations in utilization of ASW-based bulding materiasls in contact with steel and aluminum. The content of natural radionuclides of K40, Ra226, Th232 and man-made Cs137 in ASW was determined. The detected increased activity of Ra226 and Th232 necessitates additional studies of radon and thoron emissions from ASW. Microspheres recovered from ash froth during ASW utilization have special usage value.

  17. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  18. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  19. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in

  20. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in

  1. [Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

    1986-04-01

    In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from

  2. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be

  3. Performance enhancement in coal fired thermal power plants. Part IV: overall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Mandi, R.P.; Jothibasu, S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Trivandrum (India). Energy Research Centre

    1999-11-01

    An analysis is presented of the overall performance of 22 coal-fired power plants. The net overall efficiency is in the range 19.23-30.69%. The effects of ash in coal, contaminations in feed water, leakage, incondensables, etc., have been quantified. Ways of minimizing secondary oil consumption have been provided. The techniques for performance improvement, low cost as well as capital intensive, have been described. The role of overhauling the plant and associated opportunities for performance improvement are also discussed. It is concluded that achieving a high annual plant load factor will bring about all round improvement in the unit performance. Unless the pressing in problems of high ash in coal, inadequate contaminant control and leakage/ingress are solved, mere repowering by equipment of higher-efficiency may not yield the desired results. Design margins of 10-20% are essential for both repowered and new units. In the long term, it is economical to de-commission all units below 210 MW and only three sizes need be retained: 210, 500 and 1000 MW. Automation of the DM water plant provides maximum economic advantage. Considerable opportunity exists for energy conservation through introduction of information technology and variable frequency drives in all units. 15 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Largest fluidized bed power plant unit for power and district heat supply for Berlin (Part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G.; Bade, H.; Bietz, K.H.; Jahn, P. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulating atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The basis for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public.

  5. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-04-01

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  6. Effects of plant species, age and part on the disappearance of sevin, nuvacron and malathion residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawash, I A; Gaaboub, I A; El-Gayar, F M; El-Shazli, A Y

    1975-05-01

    Residues as determined by bioassay using Daphnia or mosquito larvae were in agreement with each other in most cases except sevin residues at 1 h and 8 days after treatment of mallow. The mosquito larvae failed to record nuvacron, sevin and malathion on 45-day-old plants on the 8th, 12th and 24th day, respectively, whereas residues on younger plants continued to affect mosquitoes up to the 12th day and disappeared only on the 24th day. Daphnia continued to show toxicity up to the 24th day on younger and older plants. Insecticide residues of nuvacron, malathion and sevin, found on the leaves 30- and 45-day-old plants of cotton, Jew's mallow and kidney beans after 1 h, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 days were estimated biologically by C. pipiens larvae and D. magna. Residues of insecticides disappeared more readily on bean pods than on bean leaves. Residues of sevin, malathion and nuvacron found on the pods 12 days after treatment as indicated by Daphnia were 0.189, 0.055 and 0.059 ppm respectively. They are far less than the corresponding residues on bean leaves. The 1-hour residue was higher on younger bean leaves than on mallow and cotton with very few exceptions (nuvacron, malathion and sevin: 2.125, 11.75 and 95 ppm on cotton leaves; 2.25 and 145 ppm on Jew's mallow and 3.750, 32.500 and 250 ppm on common bean leaves, respectively). These data were obtained with C. pipiens larvae. The picture was completely reversed on 45-day-old plants. 1-h deposits of malathion were higher on mallow than on cotton or beans (nuvacron, malathion and sevin; 2.3, 200 and 140 ppm on cotton leaves, 1.90, 191.15 and 92.86 ppm on mallow leaves, 2.25, 21.5 and 137.5 ppm on common bean leaves, respectively). These data were obtained with C. pipiens larvae. Nuvacron residues on 45-day-old mallow were less on mallow than on cotton or beans. Sevin was higher in 1-h residues on cotton and beans than on mallow. Mallow did not retain insecticides as long as did cotton and beans. The initial concentration

  7. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part III. Panallergens and breeding of hypoallergenic cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-04-01

    In addition to major allergens, also minor allergens, i.e. panallergens have been shown to be responsible for many IgE cross-reactions even between unrelated pollen and plant food allergen sources. It can be explained also by cross-allergenicity underlying the T cell response to conserved regions of panallergens. In this article, we focus on known panallergens which presently comprise a few protein families, including non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) (PR-14), thaumatin like proteins (TLP) (PR-5), profilins, and polcalcins. Food allergy has an impact on the quality of life of an allergic patient. The way of developing novel plant cultivars with decreased allergenicity and possibility of down-regulating the expression of an allergen by genetic modification are discussed.

  8. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies.

  9. Base isolation system for earthquake protection and vibration isolation of structures. (Part 10). ; Vibration isolation chracteristics of Toshin 24 Omori building. Tatemono no menshin boshin koho no kenkyu kaihatsu. 10. ; Toshin 24 Omori building no boshin seino ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    As a part of the development of base isolation systems for earthquake protection of structures, the result of railway vibration measurements was reported of a 9-story base-isolated building along a railway. Isolation characteristics of railway vibration were measured in several stages of construction for 2.5 years from planning to completion of the building to determine the followings; the difference between measured vibration isolation data and those estimated from vibration accelerations on the ground, the loss of vibration input into the building, the difference between vibration responses of the same floor in the intermediate stage and final stage of construction, and the effect of studs and dampers. As a result, although the base isolation system slightly multiplied 10-13 Hz components of vibration acceleration, it greatly reduced those at higher frequencies indicating to be effective preventive measures of solid sound. The estimated vibration isolation data well agreed with measured ones permitting to propose an estimation method. 11 refs., 19 figs.

  10. Devising an energy saving technology for a biogas plant as a part of the cogeneration system

    OpenAIRE

    Чайковська, Євгенія Євстафіївна

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests an operation technology for a biogas plant that allows setting a heating medium temperature at the inlet to the heat exchanger built in a digester and measuring the heating medium temperature at the outlet. An integrated system for assessing the varied temperature of digestion (that is based on mathematical and logical modeling within the cogeneration system) secures a continuous gas outlet, a timely unloading of fermented mash and loading of a fresh matter. For this purpos...

  11. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of three malian medicinal plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, François; Koné, Donatien; Dicko, Amadou; Soulimani, Rachid; Younos, Chafique

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP-HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic)] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight (dw), expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g(-1) dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g(-1) dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml(-1)) required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC(50)) and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC(50) values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml(-1) of a solution of 50% (v/v) methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity.

  12. Part 1: Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Thai plants in the family Acanthaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchai, Panarat; Vajrodaya, Srunya; Somprasong, Winai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-11-01

    Crude extracts (CH(2)Cl(2) and MeOH) of 20 plants in the family Acanthaceae were screened for their antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities. These plants included Asystasia nemorum, Barleria cristata, B. strigosa, Dicliptera burmanni, Eranthemum tetragonum, Hygrophila ringens, Justicia balansae, J. procumbens, Lepidagathis incurva, Peristrophe lanceolaria, Phaulopsis dorsiflora, Ruellia kerrii, Strobilanthes auriculata, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. dimorphotricha, S. karensium, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of A. nemorum, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii, as well as MeOH extracts of J. balansae and J. procumbens, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 10-100 µg/mL. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of nine plants including D. burmanni, H. ringens, J. balansae, J. procumbens, L. incurva, P. lanceolaria, P. dorsiflora, S. corrugata, and S. maxwellii showed cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 3.5-46.0 µg/mL. MeOH extracts (at 100 µg/mL) of R. kerrii and S. auriculata could effectively scavenge DPPH free radicals (82-83% inhibition) and superoxide anion radicals (79% and 88% inhibition). In the ORAC antioxidant assay, MeOH extracts of B. cristata, J. procumbens, R. kerrii, and S. auriculata exhibited activity with ORAC units of 3.1-3.9.

  13. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Malian Medicinal Plant Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Muanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP–HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g−1 dry weight (dw, expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g−1 dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g−1 dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml−1 required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC50 and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml−1 of a solution of 50% (v/v methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity.

  14. Phytostabilization of gold mine tailings, New Zealand. Part 1: Plant establishment in alkaline saline substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, D; Craw, D; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C M S

    2006-01-01

    Tailings from the Macraes mine, southern New Zealand, are prone to wind erosion. Use of a vegetation cover for physical stabilization is one potential solution to this environmental problem. This study used field trials contained in lysimeters to 1), test the ability of different plant species to grow in un/amended tailings and 2), provide background information on the nutrient and chemical content of waters in tailings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and rye corn (Secale cereale) were trialed, using Superphosphate fertilizer and sewage sludge as amendments. Rye corn grew well in fertilizer-amended tailings, but poorly in unamended tailings; barley growth was similar in amended and unamended tailings; blue lupins grew poorly overall The tailings had alkaline pH (7-8.5) and water rapidly (< 1 mo) interacted with the tailings to become strongly saline. Minor acid generation was neutralized by calcite, with associated release of calcium and carbonate ions. Leachate waters were supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Dissolved sodium concentrations were up to 1000 mg L(-1), but elevated Ca2+ calcium and Mg2+ ensured that sodicity was lower than plant-toxic levels. Rye corn is a potentially useful plant for rapid phytostabilization of tailings, with only minor phosphate amendment required.

  15. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  16. Antioxidant Property of Aerial Parts and Root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an Important Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC50 of aerial part (ethanolic 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe3+-Fe2+ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant.

  17. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  18. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Cast Steels for Creep-resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium ironalloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  1. Cast Steels for Creep-Resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium iron alloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  2. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  3. Insecticide and antifeedant activity of different plant parts of Melia azedarach on Xanthogaleruca luteola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, M; Valladares, G; Banchio, E; Carpinella, C; Palacios, S

    2006-12-01

    In laboratory choice and no-choice bioassays, treatment of elm leaves with extracts obtained from unripe fruits and green or senescent leaves of Melia azedarach at 1-10% concentration significantly deterred feeding by adults of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola. Also, in no-choice tests, adults fed on leaves treated with 2, 5 or 10% extract showed a dramatic increase in mortality rates. Extracts from the different plant structures were similarly active, and starvation as a consequence of their strong antifeedant activity could play a significant role in the high mortality values observed.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Aerial Part Crude Extracts from the Saharan plant Anabasis aretioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of several crude extracts from the aerial parts of Anabasis aretioides was investigated by the disc diffusion method. The S. aureus, C. albicans and S. cereviceae Bacteria showed good efficiency in bacterial activity with most of the tested extract.

  5. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically excluded from any requirements in this subpart: application of mold sealing and release agents; mold stripping and cleaning; repair of parts that you did not manufacture, including non-routine... casting; and closed molding operations (except for compression/injection molding). Note that the...

  6. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  7. [Vegetarian nutrition: Preventive potential and possible risks. Part 1: Plant foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Today vegetarian nutrition is more accepted and widespread in Europe than in former years. For a long time scientific research on vegetarian diets has focused mostly on malnutrition, whereas nowadays research centers increasingly on the preventive potential of plant-based diets. We followed a nutritive and a metabolic-epidemiological approach to obtain dietary recommendations. A MEDLINE research was performed for all plant food groups relevant for a vegetarian diet (key words: all relevant food groups, "vegetarian diet", "chronic disease", "cancer", "cardiovascular disease", "diabetes mellitus", "osteoporosis"). All relevant food groups were characterized regarding their nutrient content and rated with respect to the available metabolic-epidemiological evidence. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAO, cancer risk reduction by a high intake of vegetables and fruits is assessed as probable or possible, while a lowered risk of cardiovascular disease is convincing and a lowered risk of osteoporosis is probable. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible, whereas it is probable relating to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. There is an insufficient risk-reducing effect of legumes like soja relating to epithelial tumours and cardiovascular disease. The evidence of a risk-reducing effect of nuts to cardiovascular disease is assessed as probable, and in relation to cholelithiasis and diabetes mellitus type 2 as possible and insufficient, respectively. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts can lower the risk for several chronic diseases.

  8. MANAGING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS AS PART OF THE MECHANISM OF STRATEGIC PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Gusev

    2015-01-01

    Studies have proven that, at present one of the priority research areas as part of the Development Strategy of the Food Processing Industry of the Russian Federation until 2020 is to develop effective mechanisms for sustainable socio-economic development of industrial enterprises. This article investigated the logic of strategic planning within the framework of sustainable economic growth, analyzed the structure of strategic planning, study the subject of strategic planning in the management ...

  9. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  10. Steady-state evaporator models of Solar Sea Power Plants. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetyei, S. A.; Neuman, C. P.

    1976-08-01

    Previously, a methodology was developed for modeling the dynamic and steady-state behavior of Solar Sea Power Plants (SSPP). Here, the pertinent physical laws of heat transfer and mass balance are applied to develop a lumped parameter, steady-state model for tube-and-shell evaporators incorporating falling films. This model is analyzed to investigate the assumption of constant heat transfer coefficients in modeling the steady-state behavior of smooth-tube evaporators operated in the turbulent flow regime. It is concluded that, for all practical purposes, the local heat transfer coefficient on the working fluid side of the evaporator tube is constant for both fixed and +-10% changes in the inlet working fluid flow rate. The overall objective is to develop simulation models of a complete SSPP as tools of design and optimization.

  11. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  12. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Flavonoids (Quercetin, Gallic acid and Rutin from Catharanthus roseus Plant Parts using Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nisar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green technology is the most important topic in the pharmaceutical field because it reduces the cost of medicines and minimizes the environmental impact of the field and is better for human health and safety. Green chemistry emphasizes that the solvent should be nontoxic, safe, cheap, green, readily available, recyclable, and biodegradable. Deep eutectic solvents, a new type of green solvent, have some renowned properties—for instance, high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, low cost, biodegradability, and high viscosity. In this study, deep eutectic solvents made up of choline chloride-glycerol (1:2 were used for the extraction and isolation of flavonoid (rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin from Catharanthus roseus plant parts, flower petal, leaves, stem, and root. The amounts of rutin and quercetin in flower petal are 29.46 and 6.51%, respectively, whereas, rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin amounts in leaves are 25.16, 8.57, and 10.47%, respectively. In stem the amounts of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin are 13.02, 5.89, and 7.47%, respectively. In root, only quercetin has been obtained that is 13.49%. The HPLC is an analytical method, which was found to be an excellent technique for determination of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin using deep eutectic solvent extraction from plant parts of Catharanthus roseus.

  14. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  15. Exergoeconomic performance optimization of an endoreversible intercooled regenerated Brayton cogeneration plant. Part 1: Thermodynamic model and parameter analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen, Bo Yang, Fengrui Sun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton heat and power cogeneration plant coupled to constant-temperature heat reservoirs is established by using finite time thermodynamics in Part 1 of this paper. The heat resistance losses in the hot-, cold- and consumer-side heat exchangers, the intercooler and the regenerator are taken into account. The finite time exergoeconomic performance of the cogeneration plant is investigated. The analytical formulae about dimensionless profit rate and exergetic efficiency are derived. The numerical examples show that there exists an optimal value of intercooling pressure ratio which leads to an optimal value of dimensionless profit rate for the fixed total pressure ratio. There also exists an optimal total pressure ratio which leads to a maximum profit rate for the variable total pressure ratio. The effects of intercooling, regeneration and the ratio of the hot-side heat reservoir temperature to environment temperature on dimensionless profit rate and the corresponding exergetic efficiency are analyzed. At last, it is found that there exists an optimal consumer-side temperature which leads to a double-maximum dimensionless profit rate. The profit rate of the model cycle is optimized by optimal allocation of the heat conductance of the heat exchangers in Part 2 of this paper.

  16. Hospital ships adrift? Part 2: the role of US Navy hospital ship humanitarian assistance missions in building partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licina, Derek; Mookherji, Sangeeta; Migliaccio, Gene; Ringer, Cheryl

    2013-12-01

    US Navy hospital ships are used as a foreign policy instrument to achieve various objectives that include building partnerships. Despite substantial resource investment by the Department of Defense (DoD) in these missions, their impact is unclear. The purpose of this study was to understand how and why hospital ship missions influence partnerships among the different participants. An embedded case study was used and included the hospital ship Mercy's mission to Timor-Leste in 2008 and 2010 with four units of analysis: the US government, partner nation, host nation, and nongovernmental organizations. Key stakeholders representing each unit were interviewed using open-ended questions that explored the experiences of each participant and their organization. Findings were analyzed using a priori domains from a proposed partnership theoretical framework. A documentary review of key policy, guidance, and planning documents was also conducted. Fifteen themes related to how and why hospital ship missions influence partnerships emerged from the 37 interviews and documentary review. The five most prominent included: developing relationships, developing new perspectives, sharing resources, understanding partner constraints, and developing credibility. Facilitators to joining the mission included partner nations seeking a regional presence and senior executive relationships. Enablers included historical relationships and host nation receptivity. The primary barrier to joining was the military leading the mission. Internal constraints included the short mission duration, participant resentment, and lack of personnel continuity. External constraints included low host nation and United States Agency for International Development (USAID) capacity. The research finds the idea of building partnerships exists among most units of analysis. However, the results show a delay in downstream effects of generating action and impact among the participants. Without a common partnership

  17. Analgesic, antipyretic, nephritic and antioxidant effects of the aerial parts of Bassia eriophora (Family: Chenopodiaceae plant on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study analgesic, antipyretic, renal and antioxidant effects of the aerial parts of Bassia eriophora (Family: Chenopodiaceae (B. eriophora, a wild plant in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Alcoholic extract (90% of the aerial parts of B. eriophora was tested for analgesic, antipyretic, nephritic and antioxidant activities, to show their therapeutic potential. For analgesic effect, hot plate and writhing methods were used while for antipyretic effect, rectal temperature method was used. The renal protective effects and antioxidant properties were determined through CCl4-intoxicated animal method. Results: Animals treated with dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, after 90 min showed significant analgesic effect (8.10 ± 0.18 and 8.10 ± 0.12 respectively, comparable to indomethacin (9.18 ± 0.22 in hot plate method, while in writhing method, the percentage reduction accounted for 55.14% and 68.38% at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The antipyretic effect using rectal temperature method after 90 min, at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight was 35.66 ± 0.13, comparatively more effective than indomethacin (35.10 ± 0.22. The significant reduction of CCl4 on elevated creatinine, urea, uric acid, Ca, Na and K as well as increase on the depleted total protein after administration of the plant extract, indicated the safe use in kidney dysfunctions. The normalization of changed CCl4 intoxication, malondialdehyde and nonprotein sulfhydryls levels designated antioxidant nature of this plant. The histopathological evaluation of the kidney also revealed that B. eriophora alcoholic extract may prevent the occurrence of kidney lesions. Conclusions: B. eriophora may have analgesic, antipyretic and antioxidant activities, and may be safely used in renal toxicity conditions. Furthermore, pharmacological and clinical studies were required before therapeutic use.

  18. Total synthesis of woodrosin I--part 1: preparation of the building blocks and evaluation of the glycosylation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois; Jeanjean, Fabien; Razon, Patrick; Wirtz, Conny; Mynott, Richard

    2003-01-03

    The preparation of three building blocks required for the total synthesis of woodrosin I (1) is outlined, a complex resin glycoside bearing a macrolide ring which spans four of the five sugars of its oligosaccharide backbone. Key steps involve the enantioselective, titanium-catalyzed addition of dipentylzinc to 5-hexenal, the glycosylation of the resulting alcohol 18 with the glucose-derived trichloroacetimidate 7, and further elaboration of the resulting product 19 into disaccharide 22 on treatment with the orthogonally protected glycosyl donor 15. The trichloroacetimidate method is also used for the formation of the second synthon represented by disaccharide 38. A model study shows that the assembly of the pentasaccharidic perimeter of 1 depends critically on the phasing of the glycosylation events between fragments 22, 38 and the rhamnosyl donor 27 due to the severe steric hindrance in the product. A particularly noteworthy finding is the fact that diol 22 can be regioselectively glycosylated at the 3'-OH group in high yield without protection of the neighboring 2'-OH function.

  19. How tests of lubricating and transformer oils became part of power plant chemistry in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Lubricating, hydraulic and transformer oils based on refined crude oil are used in nearly all power station components, such as gear, turbines, hydraulic stations, feed pumps and transformers. The function of these components totally depends on the condition of the oils and their properties. Seen from this point one may wonder why examination and evaluation of oils did not become part of the power station chemistry within the ELSAM utility area until during the middle of the eighties. We started to examine the properties of lubricating oils at the time when several steam turbines experienced serious problems with formation of deposits in their hydraulic control circuits. This work was intensified in connection with the significant number of CHPs and wind turbines erected within the Danish electricity sector during the past 10 years or so. The majority of the CHPs are natural gas fired turbines or motors, equipment which severely stresses the lubricating oil. In collaboration with KEMA, the Netherlands, we have carried through with a large examination of lubricating oils in gas turbines and we have found suitable oil types. The objectives of our work with lubricating and transformer oils have been to link together the laboratory measurements with operational experience. Only by doing this is it possible to utilize the laboratory measurements in a correct way. It must be remembered that the main part of all oil specifications concerns the properties of new oils. Only very little is published about the requirements concerning used oils. (EG)

  20. Responses of ephemeral plant germination and growth to water and heat conditions in the southern part of Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xueqing; JIANG Jin; WANG Yuanchao; LUO Weilin; SONG Chunwu; CHEN Junjie

    2006-01-01

    Ephemeral plants in the southern part of Gurbantunggut Desert were systematically monitored from 2002 to 2004 and the meteorological data and soil moisture during the same period were analyzed.The results show that the ephemeral plants germination and growth are sensitive to the changes of water and heat condition. The time for daily temperature over 0℃ in early spring in 2003 was delayed nearly 10 d compared with that in 2002, while the soil water changed little in the same period. Observation showed that there were 28 ephemeral species germinated in 2002, their life period was about 70 d in spring, and the maximum cover of ephemeral synusia reached 46.4%. However, only 17 ephemeral species germinated in 2003, their life period was about 50 d in spring, and their maximum cover was only 20.8%.The height of ephemeral plants was significantly higher in 2002 than that in 2003. It can be seen that ephemeral plant germination and growth in spring are strongly dependent on temperature. The changes of water conditions can affect ephemerals germination and growth as well. Because no heavy precipitation occurred during summer in 2002, only a few ephemerophytes were observed in autumn after ephemerals completed their life circle in early spring. However,about 60 mm precipitation was recorded from July to August both in 2003 and in 2004. Some ephemerals such as Erodium oxyrrhynchum and Carex physodes,etc. covered the dune surface rapidly with a cover >10%. Therefore, the ephemerals not only germinate in autumn after the early spring, some species may germinate in summer if adequate rainfall occurs. The study on responses of ephemerals growth to water and heat conditions not only has a certain ecological significance but also contributes a better understanding to the effect of climate changes on the desert surface stability.

  1. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina R. Seal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peppers (Capsicum spp. are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm. However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  2. Plant-derived antimalarial agents: new leads and efficient phythomedicines. Part I. Alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Alaíde B. de; Maria Fâni Dolabela; Fernão C. Braga; Rose L.R.P. Jácome; Varotti,Fernando P.; Marinete M Póvoa

    2009-01-01

    A malária ainda é um dos mais sérios problemas de saúde pública e a principal causa de mortalidade e morbidade nas regiões endêmicas. O Brasil está entre os 30 países com maior incidência de malária e a maior parte dos casos ocorre na Amazônia Legal. Novos agentes terapêuticos são necessários para o tratamento da malária. Muitas espécies vegetais são utilizadas na medicina tradicional de vários países endêmicos mas é relativamente reduzido o número daquelas que já foram investigadas quanto à ...

  3. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part B. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were produced as a by-product from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The composition of the tar produced varies depending on many factors; these include the temperature of production and the type of retort used. As different production processes produce different tars, a comprehensive database of the compounds present within coal tars from different production processes is a valuable resource. Such a database would help to understand how their chemical properties differ and what hazards the compounds present within these tars might pose. This study focuses on the aliphatic and aromatic compounds present in a database of 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 198 individual aliphatic and 951 individual aromatic compounds were detected within 16 tar samples produced by five different production processes. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of coal tars varies greatly depending on the production process used to obtain the tars and this is clearly demonstrated within the results. The aliphatic composition of the tars provided an important piece of analytical information that would have otherwise been missed with the detection of petrogenic compounds such as alkyl cyclohexanes. The aromatic compositions of the tar samples varied greatly between the different production processes investigated and useful analytical information was obtained about the individual production process groups. Alkyl cyclohexanes were detected in all samples from sites known to operate Carbureted Water Gas plants and not detected in

  4. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  5. The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings; Integracion de calderas y calentadores individuales en las instalaciones de ACS con energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. V.; Garcia, R.; Lopez de Subijana, R.; Casado, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings with individual heating and domestic water facilities has some problems which must be solved by the manufacturers of boilers and individual heaters; the most important is the water temperature in the entrance to the individual equipment because of solar heating. Therefore, we must care about materials in boilers and heaters, and temperature control systems of domestic water production. We analyse the technical conditions which appear in these equipment in the usual schemes: Centralized accumulation, distributed accumulation, serial heating, etc., and propose some elements which can be integrated in these facilities to obtain a better operation. (Author)

  6. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Sheen, Dong Hoon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA.

  7. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  8. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  9. Occupational exposure to heavy metals in a metal-mechanical auto part manufacturing plant in Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F Romero-Zarazua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The concentration of Cd, Cr, Al and Pb present in inhalable air and deposited dust in a metal-mechanical parts manufacturing plant in Puebla, México were determined in order to assess the occupational exposure of workers in this plant. Materials and Methods: Fourteen air samples, six from the metal welding (MW and eight from the metal forming (MF areas, as well as metal dust accumulated on the floor of an auto part manufacturing plant, were collected. Sampling and analysis followed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH recommended methods for metals in inhalable air. Results: The average concentration of Al and Cd determined in a volume of inhalable air were adequate under NIOSH maximal exposure concentration limits in both sampled sites. Average concentrations of 0.001 (MF sampling site and 0.105 μg/L (MW sampling site for Al; 0.003 (MF and 0.0005 (MW μg/L for Cd, with respect to the NIOHS limits, 10 and 0.005 μg/L, for Al and Cd, respectively. However, Cr and Pb concentrations exceeded or were close to the limits recommended by NIOHS in both places (0.5 and 0.05 μg/L for Cr and Pb, respectively. Average concentrations of 0.345 (MF and 0.77 (MW μg/L for Cr and 0.153 (MF and 0.649 (MW μg/L for Pb, were determined. Levels of metal content (Cd, Cr and Pb in powder samples collected in both sampling sites were also higher than the suggested limits. Conclusion: The average concentration of Cr and Pb exceeded the limits recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and NIOSH for inhalable air in the workplace. Workers may be on risk of heavy metal occupational exposure. It is endorsed to implement safety measurements to avoid the breathing of contaminated air and also industrial level systems for dust and aerosol particle filtering or precipitation, altogether with stricter policies to regulate heavy metal exposure at these industries.

  10. Building a better foundation: improving root-trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M Luke; Guo, Dali; Iversen, Colleen M; Chen, Weile; Eissenstat, David M; Fernandez, Christopher W; Li, Le; Ma, Chengen; Ma, Zeqing; Poorter, Hendrik; Reich, Peter B; Zadworny, Marcin; Zanne, Amy

    2017-07-01

    Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science. These include assessment of spatiotemporal variation in fine-root traits, integration of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root-trait frameworks, and the need for improved scaling of traits measured on individual roots to ecosystem-level processes. Progress in each of these areas is providing opportunities to revisit how below-ground processes are represented in terrestrial biosphere models. Targeted measurements of fine-root traits with clear linkages to ecosystem processes and plant responses to environmental change are strongly needed to reduce empirical and model uncertainties. Further identifying how and when suites of root and whole-plant traits are coordinated or decoupled will ultimately provide a powerful tool for modeling plant form and function at local and global scales. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  12. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  13. Studies on the production of building material grade slag from hazardous-waste incineration plants; Untersuchungen zur Herstellung einer Schlacke mit Baustoffqualitaet aus Sondermuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J.; Herbel, J.D.; Pasel, C. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    In an attempt to restore the competitive power of hazardous-waste incineration within the present legal framework, plant operators have in some cases lowered disposal prices below the break-even point; in this respect there is no further room for improvement. One approach towards a new marketable solution could be to use rotary kilns not only for disposal but also as production plants. This could be achieved by means of input control and loading materials. If, for example, the slag remaining after combustion could be made to meet building material specifications, thus providing a marketable product, then rotary kilns would be able to serve as production plants for a secondary raw material. If it should prove possible in the course of manufacturing campaigns to develop slags from hazardous-waste incineration plants to a marketable product, then operators will thus have complied to the demand of the Law on Recycling and Waste Management for waste avoidance and that of the Emission Control Law for residue recycling. Targeted use of suitable loading materials for quality improvement could enable operators of hazardous-waste incineration plants to secure a new strategic position on the market as building material manufacturers and utilise existing plant capacities. [Deutsch] Um die Sonderabfallverbrennung im Rahmen der rechtlichen Vorgaben wieder konkurrenzfaehig zu machen, haben die Anlagenbetreiber die Entsorgungspreise teilweise unter die Grenze der Kostendeckung zurueckgenommen; hier besteht kein Spielraum mehr. Ein neuer, marktgerechter Ansatz koennte sich dann ergeben, wenn die Drehrohroefen statt als Beseitigungsaggregate durch Inputsteuerung und Zuschlaege eventuell auch als Produktionsanlagen einzusetzen waeren. Wenn z.B. die Schlacke, als Rueckstand aus der Verbrennung, als ein im Baustoffmarkt absetzbares Produkt nach Qualitaetskriterien gezielt hergestellt wuerde, koennte der Drehrohrofen als Produktionsanlage fuer einen Sekundaerrohstoff betrieben werden

  14. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  15. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

  16. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Dutkiewicz; Barbara Mackiewicz; Marta Kinga Lemieszek; Marcin Golec; Janusz Milanowski

    2016-01-01

    [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing...

  17. Teaching Building Retrofitted from the Plant%厂房改造为生态教学楼的探究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清华; 夏斐

    2015-01-01

    The design of the waste plant transformation for ecological teaching building is reviewed. The formation of the atrium by increasing the partition and removing the intermediate half span floor, to solve the natural ventilation and natural lighting of the teaching building. The general classrooms are in the south side, laboratory and office are in the north side. The monotonous facade is retrofitted to show China classical charm. After reconstruction, the teaching building is full of cultural charm and graceful taste. The rainwater collection device, combined with the green roofs, will collect and filter the rainwater on the roof to the water collecting tank for irrigating plants on the roof.%通过介绍了废旧厂房改造为生态教学楼的设计。增加隔墙和中间去除半跨楼板形成中庭,解决了教学楼的自然通风和自然采光问题,将普通教室布置在南侧,实验室和办公室布置在北侧;将单调的立面改造成具有中国古典韵味的立面,改造后的教学楼充满文化感,典雅又不失情趣。利用屋顶绿化和雨水接收相结合的装置,收集雨水,并对雨水进行层层过滤,收集在屋顶集水箱内,用收集的雨水浇灌屋面上的植物。

  18. Design of joints in steel and composite structures Eurocode 3 : design of steel structures : part 1-8 : design of joints, Eurocode 4 : design of composite steel and concrete structures : part 1-1 : general rules and rules for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Jaspart, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book details the basic concepts and the design rules included in Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1-8 Design of joints. Joints in composite construction are also addressed through references to Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete structures Part 1-1 General rules and rules for buildings. Attention has to be duly paid to the joints when designing a steel or composite structure, in terms of the global safety of the construction, and also in terms of the overall cost, including fabrication, transportation and erection. Therefore, in this book, the design of the joints themselves is widely detailed, and aspects of selection of joint configuration and integration of the joints into the analysis and the design process of the whole construction are also fully covered. Connections using mechanical fasteners, welded connections, simple joints, moment-resisting joints and lattice girder joints are considered. Various joint configurations are treated, including beam-to-column, beam-to-beam, ...

  19. Draft forecast of the final report for the comparison to 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.; Gomez, L.S.; Rechard, R.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes, which have been generated by defense programs, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The WIPP Project will assess compliance with the requirements of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This report forecasts the planned 1992 document, Comparison to 40 CFR, Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 130 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. A Three-Part Electricity Price Mechanism for Photovoltaic-Battery Energy Storage Power Plants Considering the Power Quality and Ancillary Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of solar abandoning, which is accompanied by the rapid development of photovoltaic (PV power generation, a demonstration of a photovoltaic-battery energy storage system (PV-BESS power plant has been constructed in Qinghai province in China. However, it is difficult for the PV-BESS power plant to survive and develop with the current electricity price mechanism and subsidy policy. In this paper, a three-part electricity price mechanism is proposed based on a deep analysis of the construction and operation costs and economic income. The on-grid electricity price is divided into three parts: the capacity price, graded electricity price, and ancillary service price. First, to ensure that the investment of the PV-BESS power plant would achieve the industry benchmark income, the capacity price and benchmark electricity price are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. Then, the graded electricity price is calculated according to the grade of the quality of grid-connected power. Finally, the ancillary service price is calculated based on the graded electricity price and ancillary service compensation. The case studies verify the validity of the three-part electricity price mechanism. The verification shows that the three-part electricity price mechanism can help PV-BESS power plants to obtain good economic returns, which can promote the development of PV-BESS power plants.

  1. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  2. CYP703 is an ancient cytochrome P450 in land plants catalyzing in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid to provide building blocks for sporopollenin synthesis in pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Schaller, Hubert; Pinot, Franck; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Bak, Søren

    2007-05-01

    CYP703 is a cytochrome P450 family specific to land plants. Typically, each plant species contains a single CYP703. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP703A2 is expressed in the anthers of developing flowers. Expression is initiated at the tetrad stage and restricted to microspores and to the tapetum cell layer. Arabidopsis CYP703A2 knockout lines showed impaired pollen development and a partial male-sterile phenotype. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy of pollen from the knockout plants showed impaired pollen wall development with absence of exine. The fluorescent layer around the pollen grains ascribed to the presence of phenylpropanoid units in sporopollenin was absent in the CYP703A2 knockout lines. Heterologous expression of CYP703A2 in yeast cells demonstrated that CYP703 catalyzes the conversion of medium-chain saturated fatty acids to the corresponding monohydroxylated fatty acids, with a preferential hydroxylation of lauric acid at the C-7 position. Incubation of recombinant CYP703 with methanol extracts from developing flowers confirmed that lauric acid and in-chain hydroxy lauric acids are the in planta substrate and product, respectively. These data demonstrate that in-chain hydroxy lauric acids are essential building blocks in sporopollenin synthesis and enable the formation of ester and ether linkages with phenylpropanoid units. This study identifies CYP703 as a P450 family specifically involved in pollen development.

  3. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants.

  4. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants. PMID:26340594

  5. Exergoeconomic performance optimization of an endoreversible intercooled regenerated Brayton cogeneration plant. Part 2: Heat conductance allocation and pressure ratio optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite time exergoeconomic performance of an endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton cogeneration plant is optimized based on the model which is established using finite time thermodynamic in Part 1 of this paper. It is found that the optimal heat conductance allocation of the regenerator is zero. When the total pressure ratio and the heat conductance allocation of the regenerator are fixed, it is shown that there exist an optimal intercooling pressure ratio, and a group of optimal heat conductance allocations among the hot-, cold- and consumer-side heat exchangers and the intercooler, which correspond to a maximum dimensionless profit rate. When the total pressure ratio is variable, there exists an optimal total pressure ratio which corresponds to a double-maximum dimensionless profit rate, and the corresponding exergetic efficiency is obtained. The effects of the total heat exchanger conductance, price ratios and the consumer-side temperature on the double-maximum dimensionless profit rate and the corresponding exergetic efficiency are discussed. It is found that there exists an optimal consumer-side temperature which corresponds to a thrice-maximum dimensionless profit rate.

  6. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baker, B.L. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. (New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Sch

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements ({section} 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements ({section} 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Intraspecific variability of Holostylis reniformis: concentration of lignans, as determined by maceration and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-CO{sub 2}), as a function of plant provenance and plant parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Gislaine F.; Pereira, Marcos D.P.; Lopes, Lucia M.X., E-mail: lopesxl@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Silva, Tito da [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Imperatriz, MA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Sociais, Saude e Tecnologia; Rosa, Paulo de T. Vieira e; Barbosa, Fernanda P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Messiano, Gisele B. [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Krettli, Antoniana U. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto Rene Rachou

    2014-04-15

    Maceration and supercritical fluid extraction were used to prepare extracts from parts of plants (Holostylis reniformis) collected in two different regions of Brazil. {sup 1}H NMR, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, HPLC-DAD, GC-MS, and chemometric techniques were used to analyse lignans in the extracts and showed that yields of SFE-CO{sub 2} were less than or equal to those of hexane maceration extracts. These analyses, in conjunction with the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl derivatives in the extracts, also allowed the chemical composition of parts and provenance of the plant to be differentiated. (author)

  8. Validation of plant part measurements using a 3D reconstruction method suitable for high-throughput seedling phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golbach, Franck; Kootstra, Gert; Damjanovic, Sanja; Otten, Gerwoud; Zedde, van de Rick

    2016-01-01

    In plant phenotyping, there is a demand for high-throughput, non-destructive systems that can accurately analyse various plant traits by measuring features such as plant volume, leaf area, and stem length. Existing vision-based systems either focus on speed using 2D imaging, which is consequently

  9. Extraction efficiency, phytochemical profiles and antioxidative properties of different parts of Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis L.) - An important underutilized plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadage, Dhanaji M; Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Pai, Sandeep R; Chavan, Jaykumar J

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate extraction efficiency, detection and quantification of phytochemicals, minerals and antioxidative capacity of different parts of Salacia chinensis L. Continuous shaking extraction, steam bath assisted extraction, ultrasonic extraction and microwave assisted extraction with varied time intervals were employed for extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants. Preliminary screening revealed the presence of wide array of metabolites along with carbohydrates and starch. Steam bath assisted extraction for 10 min exposure was found most suitable for extraction phenolics (46.02 ± 2.30 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight and 48.57 ± 2.42 mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight) and flavonoids (35.26 ± 1.61 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight and 51.60 ± 2.58 mg of ellagic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight). In support, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector confirmed the presence of seven pharmaceutically important phenolic acids. Antioxidant capacity was measured by 1, 1- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging (ABTS) and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) assays and represented as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC). Antioxidant capacity ranged from 121.02 ± 6.05 to 1567.28 ± 78.36 µM trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 56.62 ± 2.83 to 972.48 ± 48.62 µM ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity. Roots showed higher yields of illustrated biochemical parameters, however fresh fruit pulp was found a chief source of minerals. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of a vast array of phytoconstituents associated with different plant parts. The present study revealed the amounts of minerals and diverse phytoconstituents in

  10. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (DK)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (DK))

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  11. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  12. ACHIEVING PAKIS’S THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AS ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING THERMAL RESISTANT BY GUARDED STEADY-STATE HOTBOX METHOD:PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Santoso Mintorogo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of various materials which are mostly listed available as building or industrial materials in reference books and websites; but one will hardly find out for every new material, and has to be observed and try out itself if we want to know the new thermal conductivity value (k. Nonetheless with new substanct likes pakis-stem blocks that come from natural tree that could be found in the tropical woodland of Indonesia. Steady-state homogeneous temperature applied with hotbox method in an uninfluent environment likes guarded laboratory environment is the right method to obtain the thermal conductivity and resistance of porousness and semi-solidness of the pakis-stem blocks. After investigating almost 24 hours with controller TRSYS01 applying with ASTM C1155, physical semi-solid pakis blocks tend to be more easy to obtain the R-value, k-value, and surface temperatures than the porous pakis. The porous pakis blocks were tend to unstable during the test due to its physical permeable condition. The resistant values (R-value and thermal conductivity (k values will be further published on the following discussion of pakis thermal conductivity part 2.

  13. ICSC Problems and Perspectives of high-calcium fly ash from heat power plants in the composition of “green” building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domanskaya Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of the composition formation and hydraulic activity of high calcium fly ash got by burning of Kansk-Achinsk brown coals have been described. Fly ashes selected in dry state can be used as peculiar (specific binding agents (minerals on condition of their preliminary handling reducing nonuniform volume change of the ash stone during hydration and also the expansion range of their application in green building. The cavitation technologies, the organization of the fly ash granulation at heat power plants instead of hydraulic ash removal systems and enrichment by various means to extract rare-earth metals are considered to be the most perspective methods of fly ash conditioning.

  14. Numerical simulation of fire smoke flowing at typical lower part of hillside buildings%典型坡地建筑吊层空间火灾烟气流动数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建荣

    2012-01-01

    以局部下沉式典型坡地建筑吊层空间为研究对象,利用火灾计算机模拟工具FDS研究吊层空间发生火灾时烟气流动的特性.模拟分为无边坡建筑、三面边坡建筑、背面边坡建筑三种情况.分析得到各情况下3 m高度处的CO体积分数、温度和气流速度场的空间分布.边坡建筑无自然通风口的一侧或几侧应设置机械通风口.%With the lower part of typical locality sink hillside buildings as the object of study, computer simulation tool FDS was used to study the smoke flow characteristics of lower part of hillside buildings fires. The simulation has three scenarios as normal building, three hillside building and back hillside building. The distribution of CO concentration, temperature, temperature and gas flow velocity at 3 m form the ground were analyzed. The hillside of building that have no natural vents should have mechanical vents.

  15. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  17. Influence of Cropping System Intensity on Dry Matter Yield and Nitrogen Concentration in Different Parts of Soybean Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudija Carović

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-year investigations were conducted within the three-year maize-soybean-wheat crop rotation with the aim to assess the influence of two cropping systems, conditionally marked as high-input and reduced-input systems, on soybean dry matter yield and nitrogen concentration in its different plant parts. The high-input system was characterized by: ploughing at 30-32 cm, fertilization with 80 kg N and 130 P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, weed control based on oxasulfuron and, if required, a corrective treatment with propachizafop and bentazone. The reduced-input system involved: ploughing at 20-22 cm, fertilization with a total of 40 kg N and 130 kg P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, and only oxasulfuron-based weed control. Investigations involved two soybean genotypes: L 940596 and L 910631, vegetation group I. An identical monofactorial trial with four replications was set up in each cropping system. Cropping system intensity had a positive effect on leaf and stem dry matter mass in 2002, and on leaf and stem nitrogen concentration, whereas it had no effect on pod dry matter, seed yield and seed nitrogen concentrations in either year. The highest leaf dry matter was recorded in R4 development stage and that of stem and pod without seeds in R7 development stage. In both trial years, the highest nitrogen concentrations in leaf and stem were recorded in R1 development stage. In both trial years, higher pod nitrogen concentration was achieved in R4 development stage than in the R7 stage.

  18. The internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2011-07-01

    Within the last decade the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. It consists of several hundred companies, including manufacturers and providers of plant components and entire plants as well as service providers, operators, etc. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of biogas plants in Germany. They are centered around the many potentials of biogas plants, among them the biogas plants' capability to support sustainable development processes, especially in rural areas. The major challenge in realizing such aims partly springs from the several unwelcome side effects which accompany the fast and steady growth of biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. The presented PhD project shows the actions and significance of family farms in Germany in order to successfully master the complex challenge of using the operation of biogas plants for multilayered sustainable development processes in rural areas. The internal sphere of influence family farms use to do so comprises of inter alia deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources as well as sustaining self-determined innovativeness. Furthermore it includes making use of a farm's ability to self-regulate. In this way the surveyed family farms pursue strategies which reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has been observed as a current repeasantization worldwide. The PhD project is methodologically based on holistic approaches using a sample of family farm case studies. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  20. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  1. Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2009-05-01

    Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery

  2. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  3. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  4. Smart Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Plants: Prediction and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency at Part Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, S.Z.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates various operational aspects of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants (GTCC). GTCC power plants are expected to play an increasingly important role in the balancing of supply and demand in the electricity grid. Although originally meant for predominantly base load operatio

  5. CO2 capture from power plants: Part I. A parametric study of the technical performance based on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R.M.; Schneiders, Le´on H.J.; Niederer, John P.M.; Feron, Paul H.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2007-01-01

    Capture and storage of CO2 from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increasing interest as a potential method for the control of greenhouse gas emissions. An optimization and technical parameter study for a CO2 capture process from flue gas of a 600 MWe bituminous coal fired power plant, based

  6. Smart Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Plants: Prediction and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency at Part Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, S.Z.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates various operational aspects of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants (GTCC). GTCC power plants are expected to play an increasingly important role in the balancing of supply and demand in the electricity grid. Although originally meant for predominantly base load

  7. CO2 capture from power plants: Part I. A parametric study of the technical performance based on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R.M.; Schneiders, Léon H.J.; Niederer, John; Feron, Paul H.M.; Versteeg, Geert

    2007-01-01

    Capture and storage of CO2 from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increasing interest as a potential method for the control of greenhouse gas emissions. An optimization and technical parameter study for a CO2 capture process from flue gas of a 600 MWe bituminous coal fired power plant, based

  8. CO2 capture from power plants. Part I : A parametric study of the technical performance based on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M. R. M.; Schneiders, L. H. J.; Niederer, J. P. M.; Feron, P. H. M.; Versteeg, G. F.

    Capture and storage of CO2 from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increasing interest as a potential method for the control of greenhouse gas emissions. An optimization and technical parameter study for a CO2 capture process from flue gas of a 600 MWe bituminous coal fired power plant, based

  9. Smart Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Plants: Prediction and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency at Part Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, S.Z.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates various operational aspects of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants (GTCC). GTCC power plants are expected to play an increasingly important role in the balancing of supply and demand in the electricity grid. Although originally meant for predominantly base load operatio

  10. CO2 capture from power plants. Part I : A parametric study of the technical performance based on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M. R. M.; Schneiders, L. H. J.; Niederer, J. P. M.; Feron, P. H. M.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Capture and storage of CO2 from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increasing interest as a potential method for the control of greenhouse gas emissions. An optimization and technical parameter study for a CO2 capture process from flue gas of a 600 MWe bituminous coal fired power plant, based

  11. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part II: One-cycle PLE in determining total amount of analyte in plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is recognised as one of the most effective sample preparation methods. Despite the enhanced extraction power of PLE, the full recovery of an analyte from plant material may require multiple extractions of the same sample. The presented investigations show the possibility of estimating the true concentration value of an analyte in plant material employing one-cycle PLE in which plant samples of different weight are used. The performed experiments show a linear dependence between the reciprocal value of the analyte amount (E*), extracted in single-step PLE from a plant matrix, and the ratio of plant material mass to extrahent volume (m(p)/V(s)). Hence, time-consuming multi-step PLE can be replaced by a few single-step PLEs performed at different (m(p)/V(s)) ratios. The concentrations of rutin in Sambucus nigra L. and caffeine in tea and coffee estimated by means of the tested procedure are almost the same as their concentrations estimated by multiple PLE.

  12. Power Plant Optimization: Oh What a Tune-Up!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubner, J.

    2010-01-01

    It takes around a decade to plan and build a power plant. As a result, within a few years of commissioning, most plants no longer meet the latest technological standards. But in many cases, replacement of key parts and adjustments to a plant’s control system can help it to meet evolving requirements

  13. Stabilization of endangered part of structures by building dry brunt brick buttressing, critical case study of plane wall in DKG-North Area, Mohenjo daro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, J. M.; Park, J.

    2013-07-01

    'World Heritage Sites' are places or buildings of outstanding universal value recognized as constituting a world heritage 'for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate'. The concept of World Heritage is at the core of the World Heritage Convention, adopted by Heritage List as a means of identifying, protecting, conserving and presenting those parts of the world's natural and cultural heritage that are of sufficient 'outstanding universal value' to be the responsibility of the international community as a whole. By joining the Convention, nation states are pledged to safeguard the WH S by protecting their national heritage. UNESCO in 1972, to which 160 nations have now been adhered. The Convention came into force in 1975 and established a Site in their territory as part of a universally agreed policy for World. Moenjodaro site covering an area of 555 Acres out of which only 10 % of it has been excavated by exposing 50 Kilometer standing walls. The wall of the main street of DK G Area, Mohen jo Daro partially deformed, due to the torque effects this is studied here on a lateral cross wall in the chief house. Furthermore, the resulting behaviour of the bucking wall demonstrates the significant loadbearing capacity of the structure under service conditions and its high sensitivity to imposed changes of the geometry. Although the tensile stresses exceeded the flexural strength at the vertices and the length of the wall, hence both the geometry and condition of this area are critical for the safety of the wall. The results of this study can improve the assessment and thus help in the preservation of many important structures of the metropolitan city. Here the hydrous characteristic of the brick is studied as a general phenomenon, it is observed that the remains of the sites located in Sindh suffered a lot mostly due to age, human neglect variations of atmospheric condition, severe temperature and natural disasters. The main

  14. Is time running out for US energy merchant companies? Part III: The prospects for principal recovery, by region and plant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, P. [McGraw-Hill Co. (USA). Standard & Poor' s

    2003-03-01

    Parts I and II of this article detailed the signs of distress in the US energy merchant sector that lenders should look for and the analytic issues they should consider in estimating load-recovery prospects if a generator defaults. This final instalment presents three examples that illustrate how Standard and Poor's loss recovery valuation analyses for secured power loans take into account variations in regional markets and plant type. Coal-MAAC, which is an example of how favourable recoveries in default could be, is a baseload, coal-fired plant that has undergone extensive retrofit work since its former owner divested it. 3 figs.

  15. Dynamic analysis of steel-concrete structure of TVO power plant containment building; Olkiluodon ydinvoimalaitoksen suojarakennuksen teraesbetonirakenteiden dynaaminen analyysi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Karjunen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-08-01

    The report presents results from a study concerning the ability of the containment to withstand the loads caused by steams explosions which are possible during a severe accident at TVO plant (BWR). In the first phase, the suitability of the engineering mechanics code (FLAC) for modelling the dynamic response of damaging steel-concrete structures was tested by post-calculating a small scale test. As a result, a new dynamic material model taking account the fracture orientation was developed. In containment calculations both the developed and the best generally accepted material model were used. The loads against the containment were obtained from a simple model for steam explosions, which allowed the impulse of the pressure load to be fixed by tuning a few parameters. The ability of the containment to withstand the pressure pulses was analysed with loads of 5, 1 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kPa s impulse. As a results, the area and magnitude of permanent damage together with time histories of displacement and stress at critical points are presented. The estimations on the consequences of the observed structural damages as far as the containment leak tightness and stability are concerned and presented as conclusions. (9 refs.).

  16. Design of a modular cogeneration plant to supply residential buildings; Dimensionierung eines Blockheizkraftwerkes zur Versorgung einer Wohnsiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, R.

    2000-03-01

    Excel tables are presented for fast integral calculation of all energetic and monetary parameters required for calculating the economic efficiency of a cogeneration plant. The Excel programming is more detailed than the method of calculation specified in VDI 2067 in that it also provides potential energy savings,carbon dioxide reduction and exergetic calculations. Influencing parameters like technical data, energy consumption data, fuel properties, and the cost structure of electricity and heat supply can be freely chosen so as to enable maximum parameter variation and an analysis of their influence on the result. [German] Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein Instrument in Form von Excel-Tabellen erstellt, das eine schnelle integrale Berechnung aller energetischen und monetaeren Ergebnisgroessen ermoeglicht, die beim Einsatz eines BHKW zur Versorgung einer Bedarfsstruktur im Vergleich zu einer konventionellen getrennten Energiebereitstellung von Interesse sind. Die Excel-Programmierung geht dabei ueber die Abbildung des in der VDI 2067 beschriebenen Berechnungsverfahrens hinaus und liefert neben der Berechnung der Waermebereitstellungskosten auch die Ermittlung von Energieeinspar-, CO{sub 2}-Minderungspotentialen sowie eine exergetische Betrachtung der Ergebnisse. Alle auf das Ergebnis einwirkende Parameter wie technische Anlagendaten, Energiebedarfswerte, Brennstoffeigenschaften, Kostenstruktur der Elektrizitaets- und Waermeversorgung u.a. sind prinzipiell frei waehlbar. So wurde sichergestellt, dass eine Variation verschiedener Parameter moeglich ist und deren Einfluss auf das Ergebnis analysiert werden kann. (orig.)

  17. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with P. agglomerans, others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with P. agglomerans is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by Pantoea agglomerans in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus). P. agglomerans strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. Pantoea agglomerans usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental plant called Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), and a grass called onion couch

  18. ELASTIC EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAME-BENT STRUCTURES OF MAIN BUILDINGS FOR LARGE THERMAL POWER PLANT%大型火电厂钢结构主厂房弹性地震反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建阳; 梁炯丰; 彭修宁; 温永强

    2012-01-01

    The steel frame-bent structure is the main load-supporting structure in thermal power plants of China, whose structural quality and rigidity are distributed non-uniformly. It is particularly necessary to research earthquake resistant behavior of this structure. The time history response analysis method was used to study the dynamic properties, the interlayer deformation and the interlayer shear of steel frame-bent structures of main buildings for large thermal power plant. The results showed that there were many weak parts in the horizontal frame-bent and longitudinal frame-supporting structures, which must be strengthened when designed. The space model should be used to consider the effect of torsion in structural calculation and analysis.%钢框排架结构是我国火电厂主厂房的主要结构形式之一,但因其结构质量、刚度分布不均匀,所以对它的抗震性能研究尤为必要。采用弹性时程分析方法对大型火电厂钢框排架主厂房进行抗震分析,研究该类结构的动力特性、层间变形和层剪力等。计算结果表明:主厂房横向框排架和纵向框架-支撑结构存在较多的薄弱部位,计算分析应采用考虑扭转效应的空间模型。

  19. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Replacement of the feedwater pipe system in reactor building outside containment at the nuclear power plant Philippsburg; Austausch der Speisewasserleitung im Reaktorgebaeude ausserhalb SHB im Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, A. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Labes, M. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Schwenk, B. [Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg GmbH (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    After full replacement of the feedwater pipe system during the inspection period in 1997, combined with a modern materials, manufacturing and analysis concept, the entire pipe system of the water/steam cycle in the reactor building of KKP 1 now consists of high-toughness materials. The safety level of the entire plant has been increased by leaving aside postulation of F2 breaks in the reactor building and providing for protection against 0.1 leaks. Based on fluid-dynamic calculations for the cases of pump failure and pipe break, as well as pipe system calculations in 5 extensive calculation cycles, about 130 documents were filed for inspection and approval (excluding preliminary test documents on restraints). Points of main interest for safety analysis in this context were the optimised closing performance of the 3rd check valves and the integrity of the nozzle region at the RPV. (oirg./CB) [Deutsch] Durch den Restaustausch der Speisewasserleitungen in der Revision 1997, verbunden mit einem modernen Werkstoff-, Fertigungs- und Nachweiskonzept, sind im Reaktorgebaeude von KKP 1 in den Hauptleitungen des Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaufes nur noch hochzaehe Werkstoffe eingesetzt. Durch den Verzicht auf das Postulat von 2F-Bruechen im Reaktorgebaeude und durch die Auslegung gegen 0,1F-Lecks wird das Sicherheitsniveau der Anlage insgesamt gesteigert. Ausgehend von fluiddynamischen Berechnungen fuer Pumpenausfall und Rohrbruch sowie Rohrsystem-Berechnungen in 5 umfangreichen Berechnungskreisen wurden fuer die Genehmigung und Begutachtung ca. 130 Unterlagen (ohne Halterungs-Vorpruefunterlagen) eingereicht und vom Gutachter geprueft. Schwerpunkte der Nachweisfuehrung waren die Optimierung des Schliessverhaltens der 3. Rueckschlagarmaturen sowie der Integritaetsnachweis des RDB-Anschlusses. (orig./MM)

  1. 广州东山湖公园水生植物景观营造实践%Practices on Building Aquatic Plant Landscape in Guangzhou Dongshan Lake Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彤; 刘智青; 林云

    2014-01-01

    Natural-community-like aquatic plant landscapes are well received. We have built aquatic plant landscapes in Guangzhou Dongshan Lake Park and achieved good effects. Based on the practices of building, this paper summarized experience of plants selection, scenery organization, function coordination and engineering measures. The principles of building of aquatic plant landscapes and main points of building natural-community-like aquatic plant landscapes were discussed. At the end suggestions of improving technical measures were expressed.%自然群落式水生植物景观在城市公园中深受欢迎。由于东山湖公园水生植物景观营造取得良好效果,文章基于该工程实践,总结了植物选择、景观组织、功能协调、工程措施等方面经验,探讨了水生植物景观营造原则和自然群落式水生植物景观营造要点,并进一步提出优化技术措施的建议。

  2. Recovery technologies for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Veiko; Nurme, Martin; Valgma, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Mining industry provides building materials for construction. Civil engineers have settled the quality parameters for construction materials. When we produce high quality building materials from carbonate rock (limestone, dolostone), then the estimated waste share is 25% to 30%, depending on crushing principles and rock quality. The challenge is to find suitable technology for waste recovery. During international mining waste related cooperation project MIN-NOVATION (www.min-novation.eu), partners mapped possibilities for waste recovery in mining industry and pointed out good examples and case studies. One example from Estonia showed that when we produce limestone aggregate, then we produce up to 30% waste material (fines with size 0-4mm). This waste material we can see as secondary raw material for building materials. Recovery technology for this fine grained material has been achieved with CDE separation plant. During the process the plant washes out minus 63 micron material from the limestone fines. This technology allows us to use 92% of all limestone reserves. By-product from 63 microns to 4 mm we can use as filler in concrete or as fine limestone aggregate for building or building materials. MIN-NOVATION project partners also established four pilot stations to study other mineral waste recovery technologies and solutions. Main aims on this research are to find the technology for recovery of mineral wastes and usage for new by-products from mineral mining waste. Before industrial production, testing period or case studies are needed. This research is part of the study of Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  3. Socio-economic impact in a region in the southern part of Jutland by the establishment of a plant for processing of bio ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Henning; Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    2005-09-15

    The Farmers Association of Southern Jutland took an interest in the establishment of a plant for processing of Ethanol primarily due to the wish to contribute to the business development in the western part of Southern Jutland. A large plant for production of bio ethanol will bring along a significant number of local jobs with positive derived economic effects in the local community. Further the plant will also form the basis for a new possibility of marketing of cereal crops. From asocial point of view the request to produce ethanol and other biomass based propellants are motivated by the international obligation to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses, which primarily originate from energy production from conventional fossil fuels. A certain amount of fossil fuels is required in the production of crops, but it has been estimated that the net emission of CO{sub 2} by production of ethanol only constitutes 10% of the emission by fossil energy. (au)

  4. Building flexibility into the design of a pilot plant for the immobilisation of Pu containing residues and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, C R; Maddrell, E R [NNL, Havelock Rd, Workington, CA14 3YQ (United Kingdom); Hobbs, J; Stephen, R [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Moricca, S; Stewart, M W A [ANSTO, New Illawara Road, Lucas Heights 2234 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    NNL and ANSTO on behalf of Sellafield Ltd have developed a process for the immobilisation of a range of Pu containing wastes and residues. Following the inactive demonstration of the technology the project is now focusing on the design of an active pilot plant capable of validating the technology and ultimately immobilising a waste inventory containing around 100 kg plutonium. The diverse wastes from which it is uneconomic to recover Pu, require a flexible process with a wide product envelope capable of producing a wasteform suitable for disposal in a UK repository. Ceramics, glass ceramics and metal encapsulated waste-forms can be delivered by the process line which incorporates size reduction and heat treatment techniques with the aim of feeding a hot isostatic pressing process designed to deliver the highly durable waste-forms. Following a demonstration of feasibility, flowsheet development is progressing to support the design which has the aim of a fully flexible facility based in NNL's Central Laboratory on the Sellafield site. Optimisation of the size reduction, mixing and blending operations is being carried out using UO{sub 2} as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}. This work is supporting the potential of using an enhanced glass ceramic formulation in place of the full ceramic with the aim of simplifying glove box operations. Heat treatment and subsequent HIPing strategies are being explored in order to eliminate any carbon from the feeds without increasing the valence state of the uranium present in some of the inventory which can result in an unwanted increase in wasteform volumes. The HIP and ancillary systems are being specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Sellafield site and within the constraints of the NNL Central Laboratory. The HIP is being configured to produce consolidated product cans consistent with the requirements of ongoing storage and disposal. With the aim of one cycle per day, the facility will deliver its mission of

  5. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  6. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  7. Biomass, Carbon and Nitrogen Distribution in Living Woody Plant Parts of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Growing on Reclamation Sites in the Mining Region of Lower Lusatia (Northeast Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Quinkenstein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the lignite mining region of Lower Lusatia (NE-Germany, Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree for the biomass production with short rotation coppices (SRCs on reclamation sites. In order to evaluate biomass production, C and N allocation patterns in R. pseudoacacia stands between shoot, stump, coarse, and fine roots samples were collected from seedlings and three adjacent plantations and plants that were one, two and twelve years old. Results indicated that the summarized average dry matter production (DM of the woody plant parts increased with plant age up to 7.45 t DM ha−1 yr−1 with a corresponding shoot increment of up to 4.77 t DM ha−1 yr−1 in the twelve-year-old stands. The shoot to root ratio changed from 0.2 for the one-year-old trees to 2.0 in the twelve-year-old plantation, whereby an average amount of 3.4 t C ha−1 yr−1 and 0.1 t N ha−1 yr−1 was annually bound in the living woody plant parts over the period of twelve years. Summing up, the results suggest a high potential for C and N storage of R. pseudoacacia what is also beneficial for land reclamation due to positive implications on soil humus and general site fertility.

  8. Stalk It up to Integrated Learning: Using Foods We Eat and Informational Texts to Learn About Plant Parts and Their Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel; Bradbury, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The diet of many students consists of on-the-go processed food. As part of a larger school garden project, the authors wanted students to consider the relevance of plants in their own lives, both as food sources for us and for the animals that we eat. In this article, they present a mini-unit they taught in a third-grade classroom that helped…

  9. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  10. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interdisciplinary research focusing on Durham University estate, we describe how buildings constructed as part of an eighteenth century transition to a high carbon coal-based economy, are used and understood by their current inhabitants. Applied heritage research has tended to focus...... on the thermal and energetic properties of historic buildings, as distinct from their social meaning and use. A similar separation between the physi- cal building and its social use is inherent in methodologies such as energy audits that constitute key devices through which buildings are institution- ally...... was given to the existing possibilities afforded by historic buildings and their users...

  11. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  12. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i], others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish ([i]Coryphaena hippurus[/i]. [i]P. agglomerans[/i] strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental

  13. Government Buildings, Owned, government buildings, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Buildings, Owned dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'government buildings'....

  14. Scada Systems – Control, Supervision and Data Acquisition for the Power Plants Settled on a Stream (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Ursoniu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scada (supervisory control and data acquisition is a complex system that supervises and control an industrial process and performs several functions. A human machine interface will also be presented and how the process in a power plant is controlled and supervised through it by the operator. The main screen will be described (which is a global view of the hydro unit and what the operator can see and what he can press to control the power plants process also a few more screens will be presented for auxiliary installations and it will be described what the operator can see and what he can do to control the installation.

  15. Scada Systems – Control, Supervision and Data Acquisition for the Power Plants Settled on a Stream (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Ursoniu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scada (supervisory control and data acquisition is a complex system that supervises and controls an industrial process and performs several functions. A human machine interface will also be presented and how the process in a power plant is controlled and supervised through it by the operator. The main screen will be described (which is a global view of the hydro unit and what the operator can see and what he can press to control the power plants process also a few more screens will be presented for auxiliary installations and it will be described what the operator can see and what he can do to control the installation.

  16. GREEN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING DESIGN OF TIANJIN ECO-CITY HEAT SUPPLY PLANT%中新天津生态热源厂绿色工业建筑的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟栋; 张杰; 彭慧

    2015-01-01

    Through the case introduction of sino-singapore Tianjin eco-city heat supply plant industrial building design, starting from “green industrial buildings” design concept, and by combining with the heat source plant project in site selection, function demand and structure, this paper investigated the heat source plant green industrial building design, particularly in terms of energy conservation and environmental protection design in order to advocate the application of green industrial building design and form a new pattern of the industrial building design that would be helpful to the development of modern and future society gradually.%通过介绍中新天津生态城热源厂工业建筑设计的案例,从“绿色工业建筑”设计理念出发,结合热源厂项目的选址、功能需求、建筑结构等特点,对热源厂绿色工业建筑的方案设计生成,特别是节能环保方面的设计进行研究。以倡导绿色工业建筑设计的应用,并逐渐形成对于现代及未来社会发展有益的绿色工业建筑设计模式。

  17. Base isolation system for earthquake protection of structures. (Part 9). ; Vibration tests and earthquake observation results from a 9 stories base-isolated building. Tatemono no menshin boshin koho no kenkyu kaihatsu. 9. ; 9 kaidate menshin building no shindo jikken kekka, jishin kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, H.; Yasaka, A.; Yamaya, H. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    As a part of the development of base isolation systems for earthquake protection of structures, the result of vibration tests and earthquake observations was reported of a 9-story base-isolated building. To clarify vibration characteristics of the base-isolated building, static loading tests and forced vibration tests were conducted by installing four oil jacks between the earth retaining wall and first floor beams, and an exciter at the center of the first floor, respectively, and the horizontal stiffness of isolators, building natural frequency, damping constant and vibration mode were obtained. In addition, three earthquake response observations were recorded until March 1991 since completion of the building. As every harmonic frequency and the acceleration response ratio of superstructure/basement floor were measured at earthquake response, the average peak acceleration response ratios of roof floor/basement floor were 0.85 along a short side and 0.71 along a long side of the building, indicating the acceleration reduction effect proper to base-isolated buildings. 6 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.92 Are any... specimens listed in Appendix II that are protected under another treaty, convention, or...

  19. Uptake of radionuclide thorium by twelve native plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils from south part of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xun, E-mail: m13836295186@163.com

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Screen dominant plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils. • Quantify the content of {sup 232}Th of soil samples from uranium mill tailings. • Quantify the transfer factor, bioconcentration factor and phytoremediation factor. • Screen out the plant species capable of remediating radionuclide contaminated soils. • Guide the reuse of study area in future. - Abstract: The concentrations of thorium ({sup 232}Th) in soil from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. The results showed that all the soil samples were acidic and the concentrations of {sup 232}Th in all the soil samples were more than the natural radionuclide content in soil of China. Through the field investigation, twelve kinds of dominant plants were discovered. The total quantity of {sup 232}Th in the whole plant is highest in rice flat sedge. We also found that Miscanthus floridulus has the greatest transfer factor (TF) for {sup 232}Th, rice flat sedge has the greatest bioconcentration factor (BF) for {sup 232}Th. At the mean time, M. floridulus has the greatest phytoremediation factor (PF) for {sup 232}Th. On the basis of the above conclusions and the definition for hyperaccumulator, rice flat sedge and M. floridulus could be the candidates of phytoremediation for radionuclide {sup 232}Th in the soil.

  20. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD system. Volume III. Plant profiles. Part 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    This volume contains plant profiles for: Petersburg 3; Hawthorn 3, 4; La Cygne 1; Jeffry 1, 2; Lawrence 4, 5; Green River 1-3; Cane Run 4, 5; Mill Creek 1, 3; Paddy's Run 6; Clay Boswell 4; Milton R. Young 2; Pleasants 1, 2; and Colstrip 1, 2. (DLC)

  1. A list of records of some rare vascular plants occurring in the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean) Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    A check-list of one hundred and twenty-three (123) rare or infrequent vascular plant species occurring in the Maltese Islands is hereby given, along with brief notes concerning the record date and location, population size and distribution on the islands.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  3. Insights to the internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2012-12-15

    Within the last decade, the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of local biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. They are centered on the potential of biogas plants for supporting rural sustainable development processes. On the other side, the national biogas praxis is accompanied by several unwelcome and partly severe side effects. This contrast has given rise to research on how to master the complex challenge of operating biogas plants as part of overall sustainable development processes in rural Germany. The research presented in this article is mainly based on the extended case study method. It gives insight into the respective actions and significance of family farms that proactively use and develop their internal sphere of influence. These farms do so by embracing deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources, as well as sustaining continuous innovativeness. Furthermore, they make use of a farm's capacity for self-regulation. The strategies of the surveyed family farms reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has currently been observed as a worldwide repeasantization. Given Germany's rapid decline of family farms over the past several decades, the future role of the farms in mastering the complex challenge of supporting overall sustainable development processes, e.g., with biogas plants as a technical link, is uncertain. Making use of current repeasantization processes for expanding the sustainable use of biogas plants is an approach which, to date, seems to be hardly noticed and considerably underestimated. (orig.)

  4. Pharmacy Locations, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part...

  5. Sports Complexes, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sports Complexes dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part...

  6. Swimming Pools, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part of...

  7. Investigations on sustainable utilization of buildings by ecological construction and prolonging life cycles of construction parts in buildings. Final report; Untersuchungen zur nachhaltigen Nutzung von Immobilien durch Oekologisches Bauen und Verlaengerung der Lebenszyklen von Bauteilen und Gebaeuden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-16

    This project made an important contribution to determine the rentability of model solutions of ecological and energy-saving ways of construction. In compliance with the objective of the project, the investigations were focused on commercial buildings and office buildings. Using the methods of dynamic investment calculation, decision supports were established and tested which will help to give the investment processes in ecological and energy-saving construction more transparency. The rentability which already exists when solar heat is used for the air heating and warm water preparation in commercial buildings could be proved exactly. [German] Mit diesem Projekt konnte ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Ermittlung der Wirtschaftlichkeit von Beispielloesungen des Oekologischen und Energiesparenden Bauens geleistet werden. Gemaess der Zielstellung fuer das Projekt standen insbesondere Gewerbe- und Bueroimmobilien im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen. Mit den Methoden der dynamischen Investitionsrechnung wurden Entscheidungshilfen erarbeitet und erprobt, die das Investitionsgeschehen beim Oekologischen und Energiesparenden Bauen transparenter gestalten werden. Insbesondere bei der Nutzung der Solarthermie fuer die Luftheizung und die Warmwasserbereitung von Gewerbebauten konnten die bereits jetzt vorhandene Wirtschaftlichkeit betriebswirtschaftlich exakt nachgewiesen werden. (orig.)

  8. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  9. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  10. Cleaning and sanitation in the design and management of buildings. Counselling part no 5; Renhold og hygiene ved planlegging, utforming og drift av bygg. Veiledningshefte nr.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Paal Anders; Nilsen, Steinar K.; Sjoevold, Oddbjoern

    1999-02-01

    The report series ''Cleaning and sanitation in the design and management of buildings'' consists of twelve reports containing professional advice. The present report discusses the design of ventilation rooms and ventilation systems, heating- and electricity systems, sanitary installation, shafts etc., and directions on constructional matters. Legal aspects are also dealt with.

  11. Developing a Philippine Cancer Grid. Part 1: Building a Prototype for a Data Retrieval System for Breast Cancer Research Using Medical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Andrei D.; Saldana, Rafael P.

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. Developed within the context of a Philippine Cancer Grid, the present study used web development technologies such as PHP, MySQL, and Apache server to build a prototype data retrieval system for breast cancer research that incorporates medical ontologies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

  12. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  13. Development of Wall-Thinning Evaluation Procedure for Nuclear Power Plant Piping—Part 1: Quantification of Thickness Measurement Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs. Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  14. Development of wall-thinning evaluation procedure for nuclear power plant piping-part 1: Quantification of thickness measurement deviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hun; Moon, Seung Jae [Dept. of Material Engineering, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies) have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  15. Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setúbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard).

  16. Feature selection of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry chemical profiles of basil plants using a bootstrapped fuzzy rule-building expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-11-01

    A bootstrapped fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) and a bootstrapped t-statistical weight feature selection method were individually used to select informative features from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chemical profiles of basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices. Feature subsets were selected from two-way GC/MS data objects, total ion chromatograms, and total mass spectra, separately. Four economic classifiers based on the bootstrapped FuRES approach, i.e., fuzzy optimal associative memory (e-FOAM), e-FuRES, partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (e-PLS-DA), and soft independent modeling by class analogy (e-SIMCA), and four economic classifiers based on the bootstrapped t-weight approach, i.e., e-PLS-DA-t, e-FOAM-t, e-FuRES-t, and e-SIMCA-t, were constructed thereafter to be compared with full-size classifiers obtained from the entire GC/MS data objects (i.e., FOAM, FuRES, PLS-DA, and SIMCA). By using three features selected from two-way data objects, the average classification rates with e-FOAM, e-FuRES, e-PLS-DA, and e-SIMCA were 95.3 ± 0.5%, 100%, 100%, and 91.8 ± 0.2%, respectively. The established economic classifiers were used to classify a new validation set collected 2.5 months later with no parametric change to experimental procedure. Classification rates with e-FOAM, e-FuRES, e-PLS-DA, and e-SIMCA were 96.7%, 100%, 100%, and 96.7%, respectively. Characteristic components in basil extracts corresponding to highest-ranked useful features were putatively identified. The feature subset may prove valuable as a rapid approach for organic basil authentication.

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Paegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, Pinsecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.

  18. Building a research program in rehabilitation sciences, Part II: case studies: University of Texas Medical Branch, Boston University, University of Pittsburgh, and University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leighton; Jette, Alan M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Robinson, Lawrence R; Tietsworth, Monica L; Ricker, Joseph H; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-08-01

    This article presents four case studies of rehabilitation science programs that have created enduring research efforts: one in physical therapy, one in interdisciplinary rehabilitation sciences, and two in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Several themes emerge from these case studies. First, building an enduring research program takes time and significant foundational work. Most importantly, it is crucial to have the support of the dean, academic institution, and medical center. This seems to be a prerequisite for success in this area.

  19. Fossil furnace with solar support. Part 1. Paths towards a forward-looking plant technology; Fossile Heizkessel mit solarer Unterstuetzung. Teil 1. Wege zu einer zukunftsfaehigen Anlagentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagnitz, M. [Zentralverband Sanitaer Heizung Klima, Potsdam (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Kyoto, climate targets, energy price discussions - the list of keywords is long. However the effects are mostly unclear. The only thing, which is for sure, nothing will remain as it is.This three-part series explains, how the different heating systems can be incorporated into the logic of the new Regulation for Renewable Energy and into which direction the development in the field of plant technology will go. Different systems for one-family houses are compared with each other as an example. (orig.)

  20. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Elyemeni, Mohammad; Khan, Abdur Rehman; Sabir, Amjad

    2011-04-01

    A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002-2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population size of targeted plants. The study showed that the involvement of locals in the gathering of targeted plants varied with the change in elevation. Among the targeted plants V. serpens was collected by large majorities of people (83.3%) at 2700 m followed by 72% at 2300 m and 37% at 1900 m. V. jatamansi was harvested by a small number of people (18.1%) at 1900 and 2300 m each, followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. While P. amplexicaule was harvested by a few collectors (9.1%) at 1900 m and 9.6% at 2300 m followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. The study concluded that these species have been extracted so heavily in the past that they are found now sparsely in some sites of the study area. Secondly, due to loss of its habitat by deforestation and encroachment of land for cultivation its population is on the decline towards extinction. Therefore, the current study recommends the conservation of the remaining populations of targeted plants through active participation of local communities.

  2. Yield estimation comparison of oil palm based on plant density coefficient variation index using spot-6 imagery in part of Riau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, H. A.; S, S. H. Murti B.; Widyatmanti, W.

    2016-06-01

    Oil palm plantations consist of diverse plant density level that influence the appearance of soil surface or commonly in remote sensing terms called as soil background. Choosing the right density coefficient of vegetation transformation can decrease the noise of soil background for estimating oil palm yield. This research aims 1) to examine the accuracy of SPOT-6 to identify the oil palm l plant growth level and to estimate their yield 2) to know the variation of oil palm yield based on SAVI index vegetation using different density coefficient; and 3) to determine the best density coefficient to estimate the yield of oil palm. This research was held in part of Air Molek, Indragiri Hulu Regency, Riau, one of the largest oil palm plantations in Indonesia. This research method utilises SAVI transformation with density coefficient L-0, L-0.5, and L-1, and regression statistics analysis. The land-cover primary data is derived from SPOT-6 imagery archived in 13rd June 2013. The field survey was conducted in the same month of image's acquisition time and 120 sample areas were taken during that time. Two steps of regression analyses were applied to see the correlation between, first, vegetation index value and oil palm plant; and second, oil palm plant, vegetation index values, and oil palm yield from field observation. These steps produced a model to estimate the oil palm yield based on the index values of yield and vegetation, and the productivity estimation. The result shows that SPOT-6 imagery has 96% accuracy level which is considered high for identifying the oil palm variation. The R value for L-0 density coefficient is 0.8, for L-5 is 0.81 whereas for L-1 is 0.82. The best plant's density coefficient for estimating oil palm yield/yield is L-0 with yield estimation accuracy of 83.33%.

  3. Smart Building Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Knezovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the paradigm of Smart Grid with focus on the smart building as its fundamental part. After a theoretical description of a current grid?s evolution to smart form as well as basic features and functionalities of a smart building, a draft model of the building has been developed in the AnyLogic program. It simulates the behaviour of a smart building and possibilities it can provide to the grid through various scenarios. In the end, a cost and benefit analysis has be...

  4. Numerical modelling of the turbulent flow developing within and over a 3-d building array, part iii: a istributed drag force approach, its implementation and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene

    A modified k- model is used for the simulation of the mean wind speed and turbulence for a neutrally-stratified flow through and over a building array, where the array is treated as a porous medium with the drag on the unresolved buildings in the array represented by a distributed momentum sink. More specifically, this model is based on time averaging the spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equation, in which the effects of the obstacle-atmosphere interaction are included through the introduction of a distributed mean-momentum sink (representing drag on the unresolved buildings in the array). In addition, closure of the time-averaged, spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equation requires two additional prognostic equations, namely one for the time-averaged resolved-scale kinetic energy of turbulence,, and another for its dissipation rate, . The performance of the proposed model and some simplified versions derived from it is compared with the spatially averaged, time-mean velocity and various spatially averaged Reynolds stresses diagnosed from a high-resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow within and over an aligned array of sharp-edged cubes with a plan area density of 0.25. Four different methods for diagnosis of the drag coefficient CDfor the aligned cube array, required for the volumetric drag force representation of the cubes, are investigated here. We found that the model predictions for mean wind speed and turbulence in the building array were not sensitive to the differing treatments of the source and sink terms in the and equations (e.g., inclusion of only the `zeroth-order'' approximation for the source/sink terms compared with inclusion of a higher-order approximation for the source/sink terms in the and equations), implying that the higher-order approximations of these source/sink terms did not offer any predictive advantage. A possible explanation for this is the utilization of the Boussinesq linear stress-strain constitutive

  5. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  6. Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Braga de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the most destructive and dangerous parasitic infection in many tropical and subtropical countries. The burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for new, more affordable and accessible antimalarial agents possessing original modes of action. Natural products have played a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and this fact anticipates that new antimalarial leads may certainly emerge from tropical plant sources. This present review covers most of the recently-published non-alkaloidal natural compounds from plants with antiplasmodial and antimalarial properties, belonging to the classes of terpenes, limonoids, flavonoids, chromones, xanthones, anthraquinones, miscellaneous and related compounds, besides the majority of papers describing antiplasmodial crude extracts published in the last five years not reviewed before. In addition, some perspectives and remarks on the development of new drugs and phytomedicines for malaria are succinctly discussed.

  7. 高职院校环艺专业校企专兼团队构建策略研究%Vocational Colleges Environmental Art School-Enterprise Full-time and Part-time Team Building Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 孙巍

    2015-01-01

    Vigorously promote school-enterprise cooperation, and fully mobilize the initiative to participate in the team is to achieve long-term stable operation of school-enterprise cooperation is important guarantee. Based school-enterprise cooper-ation in higher vocational college and part way to build a team to expand the analysis and strategy, focusing on analysis of team building motivation, infrastructure, and security for mechanism.%大力推进校企合作,充分调动参与团队的能动性,是实现校企合作长久稳定运行重要保障.本文基于高职院校环艺专业校企合作专兼团队构建方式与策略展开分析,重点剖析团队构建动因、基础及运行保障机制.

  8. Solar radiation concentrators paired with multijunction photoelectric converters in ground-based solar power plants (part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionova, E. A.; Ulanov, M. V.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Sadchikov, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a method for determining parameters of radiation concentrator in solar power plants. To estimate the efficiency of concentrators in the form of Fresnel lenses in setups with three-junction photoelectric converters, the concept of the efficiency of the concentrator-photoelectric converter pair has been introduced. We have proposed a method for calculating the refracting profile of concentrators taking into account the dispersion relation for the refractive index and its variations with temperature for the material of the refracting profile of the concentrator (Wacker RT604 silicone compound). The results of calculation make it possible to achieve the maximal efficiency of the concentrator-photoelectric converter pair in the presence of chromatic aberrations in the optical system of solar radiation concentration.

  9. Savannah River Plant 200 Area technical manual. Part SP. Processing of Np/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.J. (comp.)

    1963-01-03

    This manual covers the technology involved in the 200 Area process for the recovery of Np/sup 237/ from certain aqueous waste streams in the separations plants, for the recovery of NP/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/ from irradiated NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs and for the fabrication of NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs. The manual contains sections on the fundamental chemistry, the primary recovery of Np by ion exchange, the decontamination of Np by ion exchange, the processing of NpO/sub 2/-Al targets, the separation and purification of Np/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/, the finishing of Np, the preparation of NpO/sub 2/, the disposal of spent resin, and the safety aspects of the handling of hydrazine. The section on the fabrication of NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs will be added later. 76 refs., 22 figs.

  10. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  11. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plantsPart I: Quantification of radiation exposure and radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.G., E-mail: fieldkg@ornl.gov; Remec, I.; Pape, Y. Le

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Neutron and gamma rays fields in concrete biological shield are calculated. • An extensive database on irradiated concrete properties has been collected. • Concrete mechanical properties decrease beyond 1.0 × 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} fluence. • Loss of properties appears correlated with radiation induced-aggregate swelling. • Commercial reactor bio-shield may experience long-term irradiation damage. - Abstract: A large fraction of light water reactor (LWR) construction utilizes concrete, including safety-related structures such as the biological shielding and containment building. Concrete is an inherently complex material, with the properties of concrete structures changing over their lifetime due to the intrinsic nature of concrete and influences from local environment. As concrete structures within LWRs age, the total neutron fluence exposure of the components, in particular the biological shield, can increase to levels where deleterious effects are introduced as a result of neutron irradiation. This work summarizes the current state of the art on irradiated concrete, including a review of the current literature and estimates the total neutron fluence expected in biological shields in typical LWR configurations. It was found a first-order mechanism for loss of mechanical properties of irradiated concrete is due to radiation-induced swelling of aggregates, which leads to volumetric expansion of the concrete. This phenomena is estimated to occur near the end of life of biological shield components in LWRs based on calculations of estimated peak neutron fluence in the shield after 80 years of operation.

  12. Compost spreading in Mediterranean shrubland indirectly increases biogenic emissions by promoting growth of VOC-emitting plant parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Romain; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Ormeño, Elena; Mouillot, Florent; Greff, Stéphane; Lecareux, Caroline; Staudt, Michael; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effect of sewage sludge compost spreading on plant growth and leaf terpene emissions and content of Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis and Cistus albidus in a Mediterranean shrubland. Measurements were performed during 3 consecutive summers on 2 different plots treated in 2002 or 2007 with 50 or 100 tons of compost per hectare, corresponding to observations carried out 2 months to 7 years after spreading. A slight nutrient enrichment of soil and leaves ( R. officinalis and C. albidus) was observed, especially for phosphorous. Terpene emissions were not affected by compost spreading, although they tended to increase on treated plots after 6 and 7 years for R. officinalis and C. albidus respectively. Terpene content was not affected by any compost treatment. Leaf and stem growth were significantly enhanced by compost spreading after 2 and/or 7 years in all species with little difference between doses. Total leaf biomass on the last growth units was increased by more than 50% in C. albidus and more than 90% in Q. coccifera. The results suggest that compost spreading in Meditteranean shrublands has no or little direct effect on leaf terpene emissions, but indirectly leads to their increase through leaf biomass enhancement. Simulation of terpene emissions at stand level revealed an increase of terpene fluxes ranging between 6 and 13%, depending on the plant species. Overall, compost spreading was assessed to result in an emission rate of 1.1 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical Q. coccifera shrubland, but can reach 2.6 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical R. officinalis shrubland.

  13. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  14. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  15. Assisted Living Facilities, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described...

  16. Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Aoki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

  17. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  18. Antiplasmodial activity and toxicity of crude extracts from alternatives parts of plants widely used for the treatment of malaria in Burkina Faso: contribution for their preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansané, Adama; Sanon, Souleymane; Ouattara, Lamoussa P; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Hutter, Sébastien; Ollivier, Evelyne; Azas, Nadine; Traore, Alfred S; Guissou, Innocent P; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Nebié, Issa

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent the destruction of the ecology and to sustain the flora mainly for medicinal plants, we investigated on alternative parts taken from four plants already known to display antiplasmodial activities and largely used by traditional healers in sub-Saharan Africa. The evaluated parts are bark of trunk for Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and leaves for Sarcocephalus latifolius instead of roots, and leaves for Combretum molle and Anogeissus leiocarpus instead of stem bark. The antiplasmodial activity of extracts of these plants was evaluated in vitro using the multi-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum. Antiproliferative activity was also assessed, using K562S human monocyte cell lines, along with calculation of the selectivity index (SI) of each extract. The highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity was found in the alkaloid extract of trunk bark from Z. zanthoxyloides and from the MeOH extract of A. leiocarpus leaves (IC(50) = 1.2 microg/mL and 4.9 microg/mL, respectively) with good selectivity index. Moderate activity was found in the MeOH extract (IC(50) = 5.7 microg/mL) and MeOH/H2O extract (IC(50) = 7.9 microg/mL) of C. molle leaves. Moderate activity was also found in the MeOH/H20 extract (IC(50) = 5.2 microg/mL) and the decoction (IC(50) = 8.2 microg/mL) from leaves of A. leiocarpus. No good activity was found with extracts from roots of S. latifolius. All extracts tested displayed low levels of cytotoxicity against K562S cells. The data generated clearly show that the trunk bark for Z. zanthoxyloides and the leaves for A. leiocarpus and C. molle could be used for the treatment of malaria instead of roots and stem bark.

  19. Is a Wood Waste Gasification Project at Norbord South Carolina, Inc. a Fuel Conversion Plant, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant Part 1: Characterization of uncertainty in concrete constitutive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Sammiuddin [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 426 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 413 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A framework is proposed for seismic fragility assessment of Reinforced Concrete structures. • Experimentally validated finite element models are used to conduct nonlinear simulations. • Critical parameters in concrete constitutive model are identified to conduct nonlinear simulations. • Uncertainties in model parameters of concrete damage plasticity model is characterized. • Closed form expressions are used to compute the damage variables and plasticity. - Abstract: This two part manuscript proposes a framework for seismic fragility assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear energy facilities. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the characterization of uncertainties in the parameters of the material constitutive model. Concrete constitutive models that comprehensively address different damage states such as tensile cracking, compression failure, stiffness degradation, and recovery of degraded stiffness due to closing of previously formed cracks under dynamic loading are generally defined in terms of a large number of variables to characterize the plasticity and damage at material level. Over the past several years, many different studies have been presented on evaluation of fragility for reinforced concrete structures using nonlinear time history simulations. However, almost all of these studies do not consider uncertainties in the parameters of a comprehensive constitutive model. Part-I of this two-part manuscript presents a study that is used to identify uncertainties associated with the critical parameters in nonlinear concrete damage plasticity model proposed by Lubliner et al. (1989. Int. J. Solids Struct., 25(3), 299) and later modified by Lee and Fenves (1998a. J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 124(8), 892) and Lee and Fenves (1998b. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 27(9), 937) for the purpose of seismic fragility assessment. The limitations in implementation of the damage plasticity model within a finite element framework and

  1. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes and vegetative organs (leaves from 18 populations representing the species’ geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of

  2. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  3. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Beak Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) for several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Each annual Part 2 GWQR addresses RCRA interim status reporting requirements regarding assessment of the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater contamination. This report includes background information regarding the extent of groundwater and surface water contamination in the Bear Creek Regime based on the conceptual models described in the remedial investigation report (Section 2); a summary of the groundwater and surface water monitoring activities performed during CY 1995 (Section 3.0); analysis and interpretation of the CY 1995 monitoring data for groundwater (Section 4.0) and surface water (Section 5.0); a summary of conclusions and recommendations (Section 6.0); and a list of cited references (Section 7.0). Appendices contain diagrams, graphs, data tables, and summaries and the evaluation and decision criteria for data screening.

  4. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic ions in plant parts of Betula pendula from two different types of ecosystems (Wielkopolski National Park and Chemical Plant in Luboń, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The results of inorganic and organic anion concentrations in samples of soils and plant parts of Betula pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, leaves), in the bioavailable fraction, are presented in this study. An ion chromatography method was applied for the first time in the simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions, as an effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples with different matrix. A linear gradient elution with potassium hydroxide allowed for the separation of both inorganic and organic ions such as: F(-), CH3COO(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2 (-), Br(-) and NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), CH2(COO)2 (2-), C2O4 (2-), PO4 (3-) and C3H5O(COO)3 (3-). The samples of soils and plant parts of B. pendula from the area of the Wielkopolski National Park (WNP) and the Chemical Plant in Luboń (LU; protected vs. contaminated area) were selected for the study. The obtained results indicated that such inorganic ions as: F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) are quite easily transported from soil to leaves. In contrast, the mechanism of migration could not be clearly defined for SO4 (2-) because the ion was retained in roots of many of the analysed samples. Significantly higher bioavailability of inorganic ions was observed for samples collected from the area of the WNP. Phosphates were the only ions which showed no variation in their concentrations between the two sampling sites, both for soils and plant parts of B. pendula. None of the organic anions was detected in soil samples. The acetate, formate, malonate, oxalate and citrate ions were detected in all leaf samples. The statistical analysis allowed the author to determine the mechanism of ion migration and accumulation in leaves and, additionally, determine the variation in the occurrence of inorganic and organic ions depending on the sampling site (WNP vs. LU). The results of the statistical analysis were confirmed by the bioacumulation (BF) and translocation (TF) factors.

  5. Case building for the global environment era. Part 1. Introduction of household cogeneration system into HUD building; Chikyu kankyo jidai e mukete no tatemonorei. 1. Kodan jutaku ni okeru jutaku cogeneration donyu no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Housing and Urban Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    A household cogeneration system is described, to be introduced into an HUD (Housing and Urban Development Corporation) skyscraper, a leading-edge environmental coexistence type of the corporation with 40 stories above ground and one below, total floorage 55,681{sup 2}m, accommodating 462 residences. The energy consumption under the maximum load is approximately 6723MJ/h for cooling, 5379MJ/h for heating, 4613MJ/h for hot water supply, or 1009kW in wattage. The cogeneration system is to have two 100kW city gas engine generators, whose output will be supplied only to common use facilities and heat source rooms in the high-rise building, for corridor lighting, elevators, and pumping. Heat in the gas engine exhaust and waste cooling water is recovered and utilized for hot water supply and heating for the individual residences. Simulation results show that there is an approximately 7.2% saving on energy and, relative to environmental protection, a reduction in CO2 emission of approximately 9% a year. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Strategic stock management task for building corporations. Energy as part of the house quality; Strategisch voorraadbeheer taak woningcorporaties. Energie als onderdeel van de woonkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, E. [DWA installatie en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    From a strategic stock management perspective building corporations should have a vision on what is important for future target groups: young or old, families or singles, income, etc. Those aspects have a great impact on the level of facilities and provisions in houses and the possibility to adjust houses by applying domotics, comfort cooling, care facilities, the use of renewable energy systems. [Dutch] Vanuit het strategisch voorraadbeheer van woningcorporaties is een visie op de toekomstige doelgroepen van belang. Vindt er een verschuiving plaats van jong naar oud? Gezinnen of juist alleenstaanden? Welke inkomensgroepen worden bediend? Dergelijke vragen hebben grote invloed op het voorzieningenniveau in de woningen. Flexibiliteit inbouwen door woningen gemakkelijk aanpasbaar te maken voor domotica, comfortkoeling, zorgfuncties, en met oog voor de opties voor duurzame energie. Want met de huidige stijgende energieprijzen kunnen de energielasten stijgen tot 40 procent van de woonkosten. Dat vraagt aandacht voor de post energie.

  7. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-07

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.

  8. Toolkit of Resources for Engaging Families and the Community as Partners in Education. Part 1: Building an Understanding of Family and Community Engagement. REL 2016-148

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Elena; Frunzi, Kay; Dean, Ceri B.; Flores, Nieves; Miller, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    The Toolkit of Resources for Engaging Families and the Community as Partners in Education is a four-part resource that brings together research, promising practices, and useful tools and resources to guide educators in strengthening partnerships with families and community members to support student learning. The toolkit defines family and…

  9. Toolkit of Resources for Engaging Families and the Community as Partners in Education: Part 2: Building a Cultural Bridge. REL 2016-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Elena; Frunzi, Kay; Dean, Ceri B.; Flores, Nieves; Miller, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    The Toolkit of Resources for Engaging Families and the Community as Partners in Education is a four-part resource that brings together research, promising practices, and useful tools and resources to guide educators in strengthening partnerships with families and community members to support student learning. The toolkit defines family and…

  10. Installation and working methods of a testing laboratory to establish a private control at the concrete plant (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haarmann, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl ''Control de Calidad'' puede considerarse tan importante, desde un punto de vista práctico, que unas instalaciones adecuadas para el control, tanto de la producción como de los productos acabados, representan una seguridad en la calidad de los productos y en el rendimiento de la empresa. Con la ayuda de algunos ejemplos, el presente trabajo muestra las posibilidades existentes para mantener la calidad del producto a un elevado nivel, empleando para ello instalaciones de control de calidad, aumentando, además, el rendimiento y reduciendo los costos innecesarios. En la segunda parte de este trabajo se describen ocho centros de control de calidad de grandes y pequeñas dimensiones y de acuerdo con la disposición de la figura 1. Seguidamente se hacen algunas observaciones críticas respecto a la adquisición de instalaciones para realizar un adecuado control. En un apéndice del trabajo se representan esquemáticamente unas instalaciones para el control de áridos, del hormigón fresco y del hormigón endurecido.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Effects of Different Parts of Cassia fistula Linn, a Southeast Asian Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilking Einstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole parts of Cassia fistula in both normoglycemic and streptozotocin-nictotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Acute toxicity, oral glucose tolerance test and glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm were performed in normal rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by the administration of streptozotocin-nictotinamide (50, 110 mg/kg b.w., resp. intraperitoneally. Different extracts of Cassia was administered to diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and serum marker enzymes were determined. The methanolic extract of the bark and leaves were show more effective in causing hypoglycemia in normoglycemic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, reduced levels of plasma insulin, were significantly reverted to near normal after oral administration of the bark and leaf methanolic extracts. Glucose uptake studies in isolated rat hemidiaphragm have shown enhanced peripheral utilization of glucose. Chronic treatment of Cassia remarkably restored the normal status of the histopathological changes observed in the selected tissues. Dose dependent anti-diabetic effects with the cohorts receiving the methanolic extract of bark followed by leaves of Cassia was revealed.

  12. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food-processing technologies part 3: ultrasonic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    High-power ultrasound is a versatile technology which can potentially be used in many food processing applications including food preservation. This is part 2 of a series of review articles dealing with the effectiveness of nonthermal food processing technologies in food preservation focusing on their effect on enzymes. Typically, ultrasound treatment alone does not efficiently cause microbial or enzyme inactivation sufficient for food preservation. However, combined with mild heat with or without elevated pressure (P ≤ 500 kPa), ultrasound can effectively inactivate enzymes and microorganisms. Synergistic effects between ultrasound and mild heat have been reported for the inactivation of both enzymes and microorganisms. The application of ultrasound has been shown to enhance the rate of inactivation of quality degrading enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and lipoxygenase (LOX) at mild temperature by up to 400 times. Moreover, ultrasound enables the inactivation of relatively heat-resistant enzymes such as tomato PG1 and thermostable orange PME at mild temperature conditions. The extent to which ultrasound enhances the inactivation rate depends on the type of enzyme, the medium in which the enzyme is suspended, and the processing condition including frequency, ultrasonic intensity, temperature, and pressure. The physical and chemical effects of cavitation are considered to be responsible for the ultrasound-induced inactivation of enzymes, although the dominant mechanism depends on the structure of the enzyme.

  13. FAULT PROPAGATION AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS FOR DESIGNING AN ONLINE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SECONDARY LOOP OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PART OF A HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huijuan; Diao, Xiaoxu; Li, Boyuan; Smidts, Carol; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the propagation and effects of faults of critical components that pertain to the secondary loop of a nuclear power plant found in Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES). This information is used to design an on-line monitoring (OLM) system which is capable of detecting and forecasting faults that are likely to occur during NHES operation. In this research, the causes, features, and effects of possible faults are investigated by simulating the propagation of faults in the secondary loop. The simulation is accomplished by using the Integrated System Failure Analysis (ISFA). ISFA is used for analyzing hardware and software faults during the conceptual design phase. In this paper, the models of system components required by ISFA are initially constructed. Then, the fault propagation analysis is implemented, which is conducted under the bounds set by acceptance criteria derived from the design of an OLM system. The result of the fault simulation is utilized to build a database for fault detection and diagnosis, provide preventive measures, and propose an optimization plan for the OLM system.

  14. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  15. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of the Part Building Orientation in Stereolithography%光固化快速成型中零件制作方向的多目标优化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 武殿梁; 李涤尘; 卢秉恒

    2001-01-01

    阐述了快速成型中与制作方向相关的质量与经济性问题,对制作方向的优化目标进行了定义,并依据该目标建立了制作方向多目标优化模型.针对悬臂变形、台阶效应、过固化及制作时间,分别构造了子目标函数,利用评价函数法,把制作方向优化的多个目标函数转化为一个数值目标的评价函数,并给出了优化模型的约束函数.最后,以该优化模型作为计算的理论依据,进行了应用实例的方向优化.计算结果表明:该模型准确地表达了快速成型中的制作方向优化问题,理论正确,方法可行.%The quality and cost related to the part building orientation are discussed and an optimization objective of the building orientation is defined. Considering the cantilever deformation, step-effect, over-curing and building time, the sub-objective functions are constructed. Using evaluation function, the multi-objective function is converted into an evaluation function with single objective and the constraint function of optimization model is formulated. Using this optimization model as the theoretical basis in computation, the orientation optimization of a practical case was done. The results show that this modal correctly represents the building-orientation optimization in stereolithography process, and the method is feasible.

  17. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  18. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant part 2: Influence of uncertainty in material parameters on fragility of concrete shear walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Sammiuddin [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework is presented. • The framework incorporates uncertainties and randomness in damage plasticity model of RC shear walls. • The framework also incorporates randomness in earthquake time histories. • Performance of RC shear walls is characterized in terms of two different limit states. • Significance of considering uncertainties in material constitutive model is illustrated. - Abstract: Part 2 of this two-part manuscript builds upon the conclusions from Part 1 by evaluating whether or not it is important to considering uncertainties in material constitutive model parameters in the fragility assessment of concrete shear walls. A particular application of a box-shaped shear wall is considered because this particular specimen was tested in the past under the JNES/NUPEC program in Japan and has been used extensively by various researchers around the world to conduct studies on reconciliation of experimental and analytical results. A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework is presented in this paper. The uniqueness of this framework lies in incorporation of the uncertainties and randomness associated with the parameters of damage plasticity model as well as earthquake input motions, which are essential for estimating the demands. Unlike most of the previous studies that focus mostly on shear capacity, two different performance limit states based on maximum shear strains and maximum shear force are considered in the fragility assessment. For each performance limit state, variation in the probability of failure due to uncertainties in the material constitutive model is determined for illustrating the significance of considering such uncertainties.

  19. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  20. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  1. Green synthesis of ZnO NPs from various parts of Azhadirachta indica (neem) plant as biotemplates for anti-bacterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Oudhia, Anjali

    2016-05-01

    A green and cost effective method of production of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was developed using extracts from different parts of Neem plant (e.g. leaf, seed, and stem) as bio templates. ZnO NPs obtained through these bio-templates exhibit different structures, morphologies and optical properties, showing potential of the present method in preparing NPs with desired properties, FTIR and XRD techniques were used for characterization. A comparison of antibacterial activities of ZnO NPs show decreasing zone of inhibition with increasing particle sizes. The as prepared ZnO NPs functionalized with various materials to make them bio compatible. It was observed that natural tri-peptide GSH was most effective capping agents for controlling the toxicity of ZnO NPs. A mechanism is proposed to explain the variation in growth patterns and properties of ZnO NPs obtained from the aforementioned bio-templates.

  2. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts of Satureja hortensis As a Potent Medical Plant Using Traditional Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadhosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-distilled essential oils, which were obtained from the fresh aerial parts of Satureja hortensis were analyzed by means of GC and CC/MS instruments. The plant was collected during the flowering stage from Foroomad Mountains, Semnan Province, and heart of Iran. Twenty compounds were identified in the different samples analyzed, representing 100% of the total oil contents. In terms of general categories, monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the chemical profile of the oils with γ-terpinene (27.4%, carvacrol (23.7%, p-cymene (11.1%, α-terpinene (10.2%, α-pinene (5.1% and myrcene (5.1% as the main constituent components. The other constituents were found to be α-thujene (3.9%, β-pinene (3.0%, sylvestrene (3.0%, α-phellandrene (1.2% and (--terpinen-4-ol (1.0%.

  3. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  4. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  5. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011-2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March-April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured (137)Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T(eff)) of (137)Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April-May) and mature (June-November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in (137)Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T(eff) values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216-243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of Teff. For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including (137)Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T(eff) for persimmon trees. Values of Teff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d.

  6. Hygienic aspects of the use of pressed-wood products in residential buildings. Part I. The effect of particleboards ageing on release of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiglusz, R; Jarnuszkiewicz, I; Sitko, E; Wolska, L

    1990-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde-resins bounded particleboards (100 x 40 mm plates) each from a different manufactory plant, were stored at room temperature, with free access of air. In selected time intervals plates were placed in the climatic chamber for five days, and formaldehyde (CH2O) emission were determined. The conditions were as follows: loading factor 1 m2/m3, one air exchange per hour, air temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity (RH) 45%. During the 3 months following the production, CH2O emission decreased by more than 50%. During the next months of storing the emission decrease was slight. In the period of 1-3 years since the production, CH2O emission was 0.13-0.06 mg/m2/h, regardless of the amount of formaldehyde released in the first period after the production.

  7. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  8. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  9. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. 'Two root-one shoot' grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespective of whether relative sap flow was assessed using sap flow sensors in vivo or by pressurization of de-topped roots, each root system contributed similarly to total sap flow during DI, while sap flow from roots in drying soil declined linearly with soil water potential (Psisoil) during PRD. Although Psisoil of the irrigated pot determined the threshold Psisoil at which sap flow from roots in drying soil decreased, the slope of this decrease was independent of the wet pot Psisoil. Irrespective of whether sap was collected from the wet or dry root system of PRD plants, or a DI plant, root xylem ABA concentration increased as Psisoil declined. The model, which weighted ABA contributions of each root system according to the sap flow from each, almost perfectly explained [X-ABA] immediately above the graft union. That the model overestimated measured [X-ABA]leaf may result from changes in [X-ABA] along the transport pathway or an artefact of collecting xylem sap from detached leaves. The implications of declining sap flow through partially dry roots during PRD for the control of stomatal behaviour and irrigation scheduling are discussed.

  10. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  11. The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants, part I: a pharmacological evaluation of alkaloids and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoa Onguéné, Pascal; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Lifongo, Lydia Likowo; Ndom, Jean Claude; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2013-12-13

    Traditional medicine caters for about 80% of the health care needs of many rural populations around the world, especially in developing countries. In addition, plant-derived compounds have played key roles in drug discovery. Malaria is currently a public health concern in many countries in the world due to factors such as chemotherapy faced by resistance, poor hygienic conditions, poorly managed vector control programmes and no approved vaccines. In this review, an attempt has been made to assess the value of African medicinal plants for drug discovery by discussing the anti-malarial virtue of the derived phytochemicals that have been tested by in vitro and in vivo assays. This survey was focused on pure compounds derived from African flora which have exhibited anti-malarial properties with activities ranging from "very active" to "weakly active". However, only the compounds which showed anti-malarial activities from "very active" to "moderately active" are discussed in this review. The activity of 278 compounds, mainly alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarines, phenolics, polyacetylenes, xanthones, quinones, steroids, and lignans have been discussed. The first part of this review series covers the activity of 171 compounds belonging to the alkaloid and terpenoid classes. Data available in the literature indicated that African flora hold an enormous potential for the development of phytomedicines for malaria.

  12. Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in three tea gardens soil profiles and distribution of As in different parts of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Abollino, Ornella; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Das, Kishore K; Paul, Ranjit K

    2011-10-01

    The distribution pattern and fractionation of arsenic (As) in three soil profiles from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) gardens located in Karbi-Anglong (KA), Cachar (CA) and Karimganj (KG) districts in the state of Assam, India, were investigated depth-wise (0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm). DTPA-extractable As was primarily restricted to surface horizons. Arsenic speciation study showed the presence of higher As(V) concentrations in the upper horizon and its gradual decrease with the increase in soil depths, following a decrease of Eh. As fractionation by sequential extraction in all the soil profiles showed that arsenic concentrations in the three most labile fractions (i.e., water-soluble, exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions) were generally low. Most arsenic in soils was nominally associated with the organic and Fe-Mn oxide fractions, being extractable in oxidizing or reducing conditions. DTPA-extractable As (assumed to represent plant-available As) was found to be strongly correlated to the labile pool of As (i.e. the sum of the first three fractions). The statistical comparison of means (two-sample t-test) showed the presence of significant differences between the concentrations of As(III) and As(V) for different soil locations, depths and fractions. The risk assessment code (RAC) was found to be below the pollution level for all soils. The measurement of arsenic uptake by different parts of tea plants corroborated the hypothesis that roots act as a buffer and hold back contamination from the aerial parts.

  13. Healthy Buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  14. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the way building envelopes can contribute to developing green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also proposes a number of approaches that can be used to help design green building envelopes...

  15. The Great Societal Transformations: Epigenetic Explorations: A Transdisciplinary Perspective on the Evolution of Modern Knowledge Societies - Part I: The Epigenetic Research Program (ERP), Basic Building Blocks - Part II: The "Great Transformations" within Modern Societies, Epigenetic Transfer Modules (TM)

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Karl H.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: The subsequent two parts give a precise overview of a new and transdisciplinary perspective for the study of "knowledge based processes" in a wide variety of domains, including natural science fields and social science areas. This new approach which runs under the label of an "epigenetic research program" (ERP) is able, so the core message, to capture the evolutionary development patterns of the socio-economic and the socio-cultural world. This achievement is brought about through t...

  16. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  17. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  18. Arsenic in the water-soil-plant system and the potential health risks in the coastal part of Chianan Plain, Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sandeep; Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the bioavailability, soil to plant transfer and health risks of arsenic (As) in the coastal part of Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan. Groundwater used for irrigation, surface soils from agricultural lands and locally grown foodstuffs were collected from eight locations and analyzed for As to assess the risks associated with consuming these items. The concentration of As in groundwater ranged from 13.8 to 881 μg/L, whereas surface soil showed total As content in the range of 7.92-12.7 mg/kg. The available As content in surface soil accounted for 0.06-6.71% of the total As content, and was significantly correlated with it (R2 = 0.65, p < 0.05). Among the leachable fraction, the organic matter (3.23-54.8%) and exchangeable portions of oxides (6.03-38.4%) appear to be the major binding phases of As. The average As content in fourteen studied crops and vegetables varied from 10.3 to 151 μg/kg with maximum in mustard and minimum in radish. All the plants showed considerably higher As content (21.5 ± 3.64-262 ± 36.2 μg/kg) in their roots compared to the edible parts (9.15 ± 1.44-75.8 ± 22.9 μg/kg). The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) based on total As (ranging from 0.0009 to 0.144) and available As in soil (ranging from 0.039 to 0.571) indicate that mustard, rice, amaranth and spinach are the highest accumulators of As. Although the health risk index (HRI) of the studied crops and vegetables ranged from only 0.0068-0.454, with the maximum in rice, the combined HRI indicates an alarming value of 0.88. Therefore, the possible health risks due to long-term consumption of rice and other As-rich foodstuffs could be overcome by controlling the contamination pathways in the water-soil-plant system.

  19. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... Building Handbook Volume 1 Sustainable Building versus Ecological Building Llewellyn van Wyk Principal Researcher CSIR Background and Context ?Evidence is mounting that humankind, and the environment that shapes its existence, are in the midst...

  20. Contemporary state and possibilities of improvement of local infrastructures for leisure-time physical activity from the aspect of national policy, planning, building, financing and management - the Impala project, part ii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Neuls

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The second part of the IMPALA project was based on a wide discussion dealing with the problem of improving the local infrastructure for leisure time physical activity (LTPA from practical and specific points of view that were represented by invited participants from all Czech regions. One of the results of the IMPALA project was the finding from some experts that physical environment mostly in adults contribute to an increase of physical activity. AIM: The main aim of this part of the IMPALA project is to present specifically discussed problems from the area of national policy, planning, building, financing and management of the infrastructure for LTPA. METHODS: A discussion was held during a national workshop that was organized in June 2010 at the Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University in Olomouc and had a strictly structured programme that was announced and prepared by the main project coordinator. A discussion took place firstly in small groups according to each section (planning, building, financing, and management toward the assessment of a contemporary state and later on proposals whether some improvements exist. RESULTS: The biggest problem connected with planning is the non-existence of external as well as an internal evaluation of a planning process. In the building area the main problem is the accessibility of infrastructures in small villages; social-spatial aspects are not taken into account and building is also influenced by land ownership. Financing of local infrastructures for LTPA is very diverse, from public sources to private and also in different business models. Existing financial models are secured by law contracts and taken into account by operating costs. Focusing on management of infrastructures differs according to the owner, to financial sources, and to the type of infrastructure. Overemphasizing of top sport means higher allocation of finance mostly into sport infrastructures that are not or

  1. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  2. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater and surface water quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater and surface water report for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater and surface-water quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  3. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part II: Plant Simulation and Optimisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    After having described the models for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipment in the first part of this paper, this second part provides an example that demonstrates the performance of different ORC systems in the energy recovery application in a gas compressor station. The application shows certain specific characteristics, i.e. relatively large scale of the system, high exhaust gas temperature, low ambient temperature operation, and incorporation of an air-cooled condenser, as an effect of the localization in a compressor station plant. Screening of 17 organic fluids, mostly alkanes, was carried out and resulted in a selection of best performing fluids for each cycle configuration, among which benzene, acetone and heptane showed highest energy recovery potential in supercritical cycles, while benzene, toluene and cyclohexane in subcritical cycles. Calculation results indicate that a maximum of 10.4 MW of shaft power can be obtained from the exhaust gases of a 25 MW compressor driver by the use of benzene as a working fluid in the supercritical cycle with heat recuperation. In relation to the particular transmission system analysed in the study, it appears that the regenerative subcritical cycle with toluene as a working fluid presents the best thermodynamic characteristics, however, require some attention insofar as operational conditions are concerned.

  4. Plants used by the Tsonga people of Gazankulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Liengme

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken in part of the Tsonga homeland, Gazankulu, to identify plants used by these people. A list of Tsonga plant names was extracted from a Tsonga-English dictionary and this was used as a basis for the study. The uses of almost 200 plants were recorded, including medicine, food, building materials, firewood, household utensils, implements, implement handles and toys. This information is presented in the form of an annotated list of  the plants. This is followed by a discussion of some of the more important uses. Some of the aspects of Tsonga taxonomy are briefly discussed and illustrated with examples.

  5. Plants, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  6. Transposing an active fault database into a seismic hazard fault model for nuclear facilities - Part 1: Building a database of potentially active faults (BDFA) for metropolitan France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomard, Hervé; Cushing, Edward Marc; Palumbo, Luigi; Baize, Stéphane; David, Claire; Chartier, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), with the support of the Ministry of Environment, compiled a database (BDFA) to define and characterize known potentially active faults of metropolitan France. The general structure of BDFA is presented in this paper. BDFA reports to date 136 faults and represents a first step toward the implementation of seismic source models that would be used for both deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard calculations. A robustness index was introduced, highlighting that less than 15 % of the database is controlled by reasonably complete data sets. An example of transposing BDFA into a fault source model for PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) calculation is presented for the Upper Rhine Graben (eastern France) and exploited in the companion paper (Chartier et al., 2017, hereafter Part 2) in order to illustrate ongoing challenges for probabilistic fault-based seismic hazard calculations.

  7. Wire-based laser metal deposition for additive manufacturing of TiAl6V4: basic investigations of microstructure and mechanical properties from build up parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Arntz, Kristian; Klingbeil, Nils; Schulz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The wire-based laser metal deposition (LMD-W) is a new technology which enables to produce complex parts made of titanium for the aerospace and automotive industry. For establishing the LMD-W as a new production process it has to be proven that the properties are comparable or superior to conventional produced parts. The mechanical properties were investigated by analysis of microstructure and tensile test. Therefore, specimens were generated using a 4.5 kW diode laser cladding system integrated in a 5-Axis-machining center. The structural mechanical properties are mainly influence by crystal structure and thereby the thermal history of the work piece. Especially the high affinity to oxide, distortion and dual phase microstructure make titanium grade 5 (TiAl6V4) one of the most challenging material for additive manufacturing. By using a proper local multi-nozzle shielding gas concept the negative influence of oxide in the process could be eliminated. The distortion being marginal at a single bead, accumulated to a macroscopic effect on the work piece. The third critical point for additive processing of titanium, the bimodal microstructure, could not be cleared by the laser process alone. All metallurgical probes showed α-martensitic-structure. Therefore, a thermal treatment became a necessary production step in the additive production chain. After the thermal treatment the microstructure as well as the distortion was analyzed and compared with the status before. Although not all technical issues could be solved, the investigation show that LMD-W of titanium grade 5 is a promising alternative to other additive techniques as electronic beam melting or plasma deposition welding.

  8. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  9. The advantages and disadvantages of XPS, EPS and their's part used in building exterior insulation%XPS、EPS的优缺点及在建筑外保温中的使用部位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 叶玉; 邓海涛

    2009-01-01

    Currendy,there is a shortage of non-renewable resources gradually,how to use energy effectively and economi-cally had become particularly important. Therefore, saving energy in buildings had become a common concern in all walks of life, which play an important role in easing energy crisis and reducing energy consumption. At present, in the field of building external insulation, there are more mature insulation materials and insulation systems availabely.The insulation sys-tem made up of EPS,XPS insulation board had been used widely. This paper state the performance difference between EPS and XPS,then expounds the used part of building exterior insulation which made up of EPS and XPS.%在目前不可再生资源及各类能源日趋紧张的形势下,如何有效、节约地使用能源变得尤为重要.由此,建筑节能已成为各界共同关注的问题,其对缓解能源危机、减少能耗起着非常大的作用.目前,在建筑外保温方面,有比较成熟的保温材料和保温体系可供选择.其中由EPS、XPS保温板为保温材料组成的保温系统得到了广泛地使用.本文就EPS、XPS保温材料性能区别及所其保温系统使用部位做了阐述.

  10. Experience with building integrated solar collectors; Erfaring med bygningsintegrerte solfangere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Ingeborg; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the research 'Zero Emission Buildings' ZEB is to develop products and solutions that provide buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production, operation and disposal. Can we make this happen must the building produce more energy than it needs to compensate for greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials and the actual construction.To build up knowledge on experience with building integrated solar collectors in Norway, we have in this study made interviews with suppliers and manufacturers of solar collectors and some building owners. Since the focus is on climate shell, we have limited the study to include solar collectors to replace a part of the cladding or roofing. Construction upstairs roofing, outside facade or freestanding rack is not considered as building integrated in this context. The providers we have been in contact with appeals to slightly different parts of the market. This is reflected in the product's development, assembly and approach to the calculation of energy delivery. Overall, providers may offer a range of products suitable for both the professional and skilled carpenter, the interested 'man in the street' . The feedback we have received shows generally good experiences with the product and the installation. Because of the preliminary short operating periods of the investigated plants we have little data on energy supply from these plants. In summary, we can say that the knowledge and the products are available and it is up to use to use them.(Author)

  11. Mercury contamination in the vicinity of a derelict chlor-alkali plant. Part I: sediment and water contamination of Lake Balkyldak and the River Irtysh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Susanne M; Ilyushchenko, Mikhail A; Kamberov, Irken M; Tanton, Trevor W

    2007-08-01

    A mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant operated in Pavlodar, Northern Kazakhstan, for 18 years and caused widespread contamination of the surrounding environment. Untreated wastewater from the plant was discharged to Lake Balkyldak, a shallow impounded lake without an outlet. The nearby River Irtysh was also suspected to be impacted by mercury (Hg) via the transport of contaminated groundwater. We took sediment and water samples from both aquatic systems, and also sampled soils along the shoreline of the lake and in the Irtysh flood plain. Sediments from Lake Balkyldak were found to be very heavily contaminated, with Hg concentrations in the surface layer reaching up to approximately 1500 mg kg(-1) near the wastewater outfall pipe. The contaminated lake sediments are prone to wind-driven resuspension and are acting as a strong source of Hg to the water column. Unfiltered lake water samples taken in shallow areas within 10-15 m from the shoreline contained from 0.11 microg Hg L(-1) in the less contaminated northern part of the lake to 1.39 microg L(-1) near the pollutant outfall in the south (up to 7.3 microg L(-1) on windy days). Sediments from the River Irtysh were only slightly impacted, with maximum Hg concentrations of 0.046 mg kg(-1) in the old river channel and 0.36 mg kg(-1) in floodplain oxbow lakes. In water samples from the River Irtysh, Hg was generally not detected, although trace concentrations (3 to 9 ng L(-1)) were found in some samples taken from oxbow lakes. We conclude that the river is not significantly impacted by Hg, but the highly contaminated Lake Balkyldak poses a threat and is in need of remediation. Potential remediation options for the lake are reviewed and are discussed in the context of experiences made at other Hg-contaminated sites.

  12. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  15. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?; Driftklarhetsbeslut i kaernkraftanlaeggningar - del 2. Vilka faktorer paaverkar beslutsfattandet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara (MTO Psykologi, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  16. European protection principles against external hazards by means of Emergency Power Supply and Control Safety System Building in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Dipl Ing [Max Aicher Engineering GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    One of the most important nuclear power plant safety requirements is a redundant and independent power system. This requires such a design of emergency power systems that failure of one will not adversely impact the other. External hazards of natural origin or linked to human activity could potentially affect plant safety. The general objective of the design provisions is to ensure that the safety functions of the systems and components required to return the plant to a safe shutdown state and to prevent and limit radioactive release are not adversely affected. As external hazards are site dependent, Technical Guidelines specify that 'it is not necessary to take all of the hazards in a standardized design; such external hazards as external flooding, drought, ice formation and toxic, corrosive or combustible gases may be dealt with only for a specific plant, on a plant specific basis'. In accordance with the Technical Guidelines, external hazards are taken into consideration at the design stage consistently with internal events or hazards. The basic design principle is to protect against external hazards in accordance with the Technical Guidelines using a 'load case' procedure.

  17. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  18. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  19. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, comple...

  20. GREEN BUILDING CHALLENGE 2005

    OpenAIRE

    López de Asiaín, Jaime; Alvarez-Ude, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Green Building Challenge 2005 forma part d'un projecte de cooperació entre diferents països (més de 20 en l'actualitat) que té per objectiu el desenvolupament d'una metodologia d'avaluació del comportament ecològic dels edificis i els resultats se presentaran en una conferència internacional a celebrar a Tòquio (Japó) a la finals de l'any 2005: Sustainable Building 2005. Green Building Challenge 2005 forma parte de un proyecto de cooperación entre distintos países (más de 20 en la actualid...

  1. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food processing technologies part 2: pulsed electric field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is an effective technique for the preservation of pumpable food products as it inactivates vegetative microbial cells at ambient to moderate temperature without significantly affecting the nutritional and sensorial quality of the product. However, conflicting views are expressed about the effect of PEF on enzymes. In this review, which is part 2 of a series of reviews dealing with the effectiveness of novel food preservation technologies for controlling enzymes, the scientific literature over the last decade on the effect of PEF on plant enzymes is critically reviewed to shed more light on the issue. The existing evidence indicates that PEF can result in substantial inactivation of most enzymes, although a much more intense process is required compared to microbial inactivation. Depending on the processing condition and the origin of the enzyme, up to 97% inactivation of pectin methylesterase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase as well as no inactivation have been reported following PEF treatment. Both electrochemical effects and Ohmic heating appear to contribute to the observed inactivation, although the relative contribution depends on a number of factors including the origin of the enzyme, the design of the PEF treatment chamber, the processing condition, and the composition of the medium.

  2. Effect of fermentation time on antioxidative activities of Ganoderma lucidum broth using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yung Liang; Ho, Chi Tang; Chiang, Been Huang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2011-06-15

    Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathology of human diseases. Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus, has been used for thousands of years in traditional Oriental medicine. It is reported to have antioxidant functions such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation time on the antioxidative activities of G. lucidum broth filtrate using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium. Inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), DPPH radical-scavenging activity, total phenolic compounds, isoflavones and protocatechuic acid were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity of G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Our results showed that black soybean and Astragalus membranaceus improved the antioxidant activity of the G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Protocatechuic acid was identified by LC-MS as the antioxidant compounds whose relative potency of inhibiting LDL oxidation to Trolox is 1.55. Protocatechuic acid showed positive correlation with the antioxidant activity of the fermentation broth filtrate while isoflavones did not contribute to antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of three important bioactive compounds in different plant parts of Withania somnifera and its determination by the LC-ESI-MS-MS (MRM) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Narendra A; Makasana, Jayanti; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive experiment was conducted to study the accumulation pattern and determination of three important bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A (WA), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (WO) and withanolide-A (WD) and its determination by the liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method in root, stem, fruits and leaves of Withania somnifera. A rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of these three important bioactive compounds, having same molecular weight. The multiple reaction monitoring method was established by two transitions for each analyte and intense transition used for quantification. Separation of the three analytes was achieved within a run time of 5 min on an RP-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water in an isocratic condition. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed method was found to be suitable for identification and quantification of WA, WO and WD in different plant parts such as roots, stems, fruits and leaves of W. somnifera. The accumulation of WA was highest in leaves samples (8.84 ± 0.37 mg/g) and it was 2.23, 5.85 and 27.26 times higher than its concentration in fruits, stems and roots, respectively. WO and WD contents were highest (0.44 ± 0.016 and 0.72 ± 0.016 mg/g, respectively) in root.

  4. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Trade-off study VI, by-product sales analysis. Part 1. Sulfur recovery system. Part 2. Carbon dioxide, fly ash, bottom ash and slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and analyze information to facilitate decision making in regard to by-products from the Commercial Plant. Part 1 of the study investigated the alternative marketing and commercial advantages of producing elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid, the findings to be used with results of a technical and economic analysis to determine the relative desirability of choosing either as a by-product. The principal commercial and marketing input for this portion of the study were provided by review of authoritative published material and by personnel interviews with government, trade association and commercial information sources, including a limited number of major consumers and producers. Compilation and analysis of statistical data and knowledgeable opinions on the following were included: production and consumption trends and future outlook; levels of current and expected future prices; end-use trends and outlook for new uses; geographic consumption patterns; export market and outlook for foreign sales; and other factors related to the present and future supply and demand and effective marketing of the by-products. Technical data were obtained from the commercial suppliers of the processes involved, supplemented by information from producers of the by-products under consideration. The predicted composition and quantity of all gaseous waste streams were used for investigation of by-product potential. Capital investment and operating costs to produce the saleable by-products investigated were developed for each production alternative considered. Operating profits were determined and comparative figures were calculated for net cash flow and return on investment.

  5. Sustainable Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Charney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intended audience for this webliography is librarians, both in the sciences and in other disciplines, and others that are new to the field such as students and members of the general public who are interested in this topic. Sustainable building practitioners may find parts useful as well.

  6. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our ...

  7. Design and build of fieldbus-based control systems for ENEL thermoelectric plants; Sistemi di controllo con bus di campo. Applicazioni in impianti termoelettrici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, G. [Automazione e Robotica, Cesi (Italy); Prandoni, W. [Business Unit Processi per la Generazione, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The intention to start first plant-wide control applications based on fieldbus in ENEL (Electric Power Production Company) combined cycle plants demands to define appropriate requirements for design, planning, implementation, technical management and maintenance of control systems. One of the first needs is to express, in the bid specifications for Dc san other plant components, those requirements necessary on one side to guarantee the same levels of performance and reliability of traditional systems, and on the other side to ensure the improvement of the operations of installation and commissioning and of management of normal and abnormal plant behaviour, which are among the main benefits expected from this new technology. The definition of such requirements appears to be complex due to the variety and lack of a homogenous approach of the different market solutions, and also because a real experience of systems of considerable size is still missing. The memory introduces the results and problems met in the requirement specification phase, and the activity of definition of a pilot control system for demineralized water production of Fusina power plant. [Italian] In vista delle prime applicazioni negli impianti ENEL a ciclo combinato della tecnologia a bus di campo si presenta la necessita' di esprimere, nelle specifiche di acquisizione del Dcs e dei componenti, i requisiti necessari da un lato a garantire i medesimi livelli di prestazione e sicurezza dei sistemi tradizionali, dall'altro ad assicurare il miglioramento delle operazioni di installazione e delle strategie di conduzione e manutenzione dell'impianto, che sono come i ritorni piu' promettenti di questa nuova tecnologia. L'articolo presenta le principali problematiche emerse e l'attivita' di definizione di un'esperienza pilota su un impianto in esercizio nella centrale termoelettrica di Fusina.

  8. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  9. Designing with plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Rainforests are the lungs of the earth and plants can be the lungs of a buildings. Every plant uses CO2, water and light to produce sugars and oxygen; furthermore plants provide shade, take pollutants from th

  10. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood......-firing. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online ash deposition/shedding probe. Quantification of ash deposition and shedding was made via deposit mass uptake signals obtained from the deposit probe. The influence of coal ash, flue gas temperature, probe surface temperature...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  11. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  12. Participation of C.N. Vandellos II as a pilot plant in the PWROG PA-ASC-1084 project about analysis and distribution of hydrogen in the containment buildings annexes; Participacion de C. N. Vandellos II como planta piloto en el proyecto del PWROG PA-ASC-1084 sobre analisis y distribucion del hidrogeno en edificios anexos a la Contencion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fukushima accident has demonstrated that hydrogen outside the Containment building, due to its potential combustion or explosion, may result in loss of mitigation equipment, thus hindering the recovery of the plant. This reality has been treated in the framework of Stress Tests that are being developed at European level, and the Spanish nuclear power plants should evaluate this potential risk according to the specific design of each plant. The aim of this paper is to introduce this hydrogen problem and to present the main developments of the Vandellos II NPP experience as pilot plant in the project that PWROG is developing to analyze the potential risk of hydrogen in the Containment outbuildings.

  13. Tri-trophic effects of seasonally variable induced plant defenses vary across the development of a shelter building moth larva and its parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Noah H; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history.

  14. 49 CFR 41.110 - New DOT owned buildings and additions to buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the design and construction of new DOT Federally owned buildings will ensure that each building is... of this part. (b) This section pertains to all building projects for which development of detailed... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New DOT owned buildings and additions to...

  15. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  16. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  17. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  18. School Building in Early Development. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    This bulletin, concerned mainly with the educational problems in developing lands, focuses on school development, the future of education, and the schools that will have to be built to meet the needs of the future. The report deals with problems arising from the present rates of dropout in traditional primary education, and proposes possible…

  19. Building the ship of death: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Sharon; Haberman, Mel

    2007-01-01

    This is the first in a series of two consecutive articles, both of which present the results of original research from a team of music-thanatology musician-clinicians working in Spokane, Washington. This article presents not only an overview of the music-thanatology narration style (through direct excerpts from clinical narratives), it also describes the interconnected physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of 11 dying persons and their families as they occur in a hospital setting. Core to narrative medicine practice, in the first article, we welcome these excerpts from patient, provider, and caregiver experiences to stand on their own, in their own voice, without interpretation. The second article will be published in the following issue and will focus on the clinical practice of music-thanatology, as well as the documentation of the palliation it offers to meet the complex physical, emotional, and spiritual needs described below.

  20. Lego clocks: building a clock from parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Michael; Simons, Mirre J P; Merrow, Martha

    2008-06-01

    A new finding opens up speculation that the molecular mechanism of circadian clocks in Synechococcus elongatus is composed of multiple oscillator systems (Kitayama and colleagues, this issue, pp. 1513-1521), as has been described in many eukaryotic clock model systems. However, an alternative intepretation is that the pacemaker mechanism-as previously suggested-lies primarily in the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the clock protein KaiC.

  1. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  2. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). The discussed approach is applied in a case study on the power...

  3. Cytomorphological studies and HPTLC fingerprinting in different plant parts of three wild morphotypes of Datura metel L. "Thorn Apple" from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Datura metel L. (Solanaceae with its trade name "Thorn Apple" is a herb that exists in tropical, warm temperate regions of the old world, throughout the hills of India, up to an altitude of 8000 ft. The objective of the present study is to investigate the morphological and phytochemical variabilities in the wild taxa of D. metel. On the basis of 17 phenotypic traits three morphotypes I, II and III were identified, and highly significant variations were seen among them. The three morphotypes of the species, with quite distinct flower colours, that is, purple, yellow and white, had the same diploid chromosome number n=12. The pharmacological activities of D. metel are mainly attributed to the presence of two tropane alkaloids, namely hyoscyamine and scopolamine. For the systematic quantification of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in different plant parts such as, leaves, roots and seeds of these three wild morphotypes (I, II and III of D. metel, the high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC technique was employed. Better resolution was achieved by using chloroform:acetone:diethyl amine (50: 40: 10 v/v/v as a mobile phase. Quantitative, densitometric evaluation of the plate was performed in the absorbance/reflectance mode at 530 nm. The average recovery of hyoscyamine and scopolamine was 97.4 and 96.8%, respectively, showing the excellent reproducibility of the method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1000-4000 ng for hyoscyamine and 500-2000 ng for scopolamine, respectively. The method was simple, precise, specific, sensitive, accurate and could be used for routine analysis as well as quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations. The present study has established a link between cytomorphological variations and chemical characterization for the first time and was also helpful in discovering the best genotype with richer active constituents for future herbal formulations.

  4. Application of Foliage Plants and Ornamental Fruit Plants to Garden Building%秋色叶及观果树木在园林造景中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思政; 聂东伶; 柏文富

    2001-01-01

    我国秋色叶和观果树木资源极其丰富,开发利用秋色叶及观果树木资源对我国园 林建设具有重要意义.分析了枫香、鸡爪槭、重阳木等18种秋色叶植物及南天竺、天目琼花等7种观果植物的形态美学特征及在秋季的观赏特性,探讨了它们在园林造景中的应用.%The resources of foliage and ornamental fruit plants in China are very rich, and the exploitation and utilization of foliage and ornamental fruit plan ts are of great significance. This paper discusses the morphological aestheti cs features and the autumnal ornamentation features of 18 foliage plants (Liquidambar formosan,Acer sapium,Bischofia racemosa,etc.) an d 7 ornamental fruit plants( Na ndina domestica,Vibumam sargentw,etc.). The application of the plants is als o discussed.

  5. The effect of silicon foliar application on the development of Seasonal ornamental plants. Part I: Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', Verbena 'Patio Blue' and Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Dębicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is known as an element stimulating plant immunity and resistance to unfavorable conditions. Additional treatment with silicon may also cause a positive change in plant performance, improving the quality of ornamental plants. In the years 2009-2010, a two-factorial experiment was conducted involving three cultivars of seasonal ornamental plant species: creeping zinnia Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', vervain Verbena 'Patio Blue', and purslane Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'. The first experimental factor was the concentration of Actisil preparation being an equivalent of 60, 120, and 180 mg Si×dm-3, applied three times by spraying, the second one was the type of medium: peat substrate and peat substrate with sand. The experiment proved the beneficial effect of fertilization with silicon on plant development of Verbena and the number of shoots of all examined plant species. The higher concentrations of Actisil were applied, the higher number of shoots the plants developed. Plants treated with Actisil also produced a higher number of buds and flowers or inflorescences featuring an increased diameter. Plants cultivated in peat substrate flowered better.

  6. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  7. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  8. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  9. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  10. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  11. Measures for Equipment Installation in Nuclear Power Plant CI Main Building%核电厂常规岛主厂房设备安装保证措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春霖; 金欣

    2014-01-01

    阐述了AP1000核电是目前世界上最先进的核电堆型之一,海水冷却的常规岛 CI (Conventional Island)主厂房多采用半地下结构,在CI主厂房内的凝汽器、发电机定子、汽水分离再热器、除氧器等设备的重量和外形尺寸均比常规火电的设备重和大,其吊装措施在CI主厂房设计时应综合考虑,对施工质量和工程进度都是有益的。介绍了某AP1000核电厂设备安装的CI主厂房设计与设备安装的配合,为相关工程建设、设计者提供参考。%AP1000 unit is one of the most advanced nuclear reactors at present. The main building of sea water cooling CI (Conventional Island) is mostly of the semi-underground structure. The weight and dimension of CI major equipment in the main building, such as condenser,generator stator,MSR and deaerator etc. are bigger than that of the fossil power plant. In order to ensurre the construction quality and schedule,the equipment installation plan should be considered sufficiently. This paper introduced the design of CI main building and its influence on equipment installation for further reference to other designers.

  12. Tri-trophic effects of seasonally variable induced plant defenses vary across the development of a shelter building moth larva and its parasitoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah H Rose

    Full Text Available Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history.

  13. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  15. The Team Building and Outcome of Part-time Pregnancy Manager in Hospital%医院兼职孕期管理师团队的建设与成效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美燕; 毕东军; 沈红芳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author summarized the significance of team building of part-time pregnancy managers in hospital, staffing and job duty setting and work methods. With the guidance from pregnancy manager, patients' compliance for prenatal check-ups, their satisfaction about the work and knowledge of pregnancy improved. At the same time, pregnancy complications and cesarean delivery rate decreased significantly. All of these prove that the pregnancy manager is of important implications for prenatal care.%总结了医院兼职孕期管理师团队建设的现实意义、人员设置与工作职责、工作方法等。通过孕期管理师的指导,孕妇产检的依从性、产检工作的满意度与孕期知识的掌握度都得到提高,妊娠期并发症和剖宫产率显著下降,对孕期保健具有重要意义。

  16. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 7 CFR 51.56 - Buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings and structures. 51.56 Section 51.56... § 51.56 Buildings and structures. The packing plant buildings shall be properly constructed and... be sufficient light consistent with the use to which the particular portion of the building is...

  18. The implementation of cogeneration plants in new and older buildings for power generation under technical and economic aspects; Der Einsatz von Blockheizkraftwerken im Neubau und Gebaeudebestand zur Waerme-, Kaelte- sowie Elektrizitaetserzeugung unter techni-schen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauersberger, Frank; Lipski, Thomas [heima-welte Haustechnik GmbH und Co.KG, Balingen (Germany); Cibis, Dominik [Europaeische Studienakademie Kaelte-Klima-Lueftung, Maintal (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Cogeneration plants have become a key element of modern space HVAC systems. Serial production resulted in higher quality and lower production cost, which made them interesting also for private buildings. However, cogeneration plants must compete with other systems, e.g. high-efficiency boilers and heat pumps. An accurate economic assessment requires not only acquisition and processing of building-specific data but also adherence to the restrictive specifications of the Energy Conservation Ordinance (EnEV) and Renewables Act (EEWaermeG) discussed in more detail. The EEWaermeG 2011 specifies not just heating systems but also refrigeration systems. Here, a cogeneration plant combined with a sorption refrigerator will have higher economic efficiency and will fully meet the specifications of the EEWaermeG. Of course, this is a challenge for planners, architects and constructors. The contribution outlines the various options of combined heat, cold, and power generation and presents efficiency calculations for an economic assessment. [German] Blockheizkraftwerke zur Waerme- und Elektrizitaetserzeugung nehmen heute einen immer groesseren Stellenwert in der modernen Gebaeudetechnik ein. Die industrielle Serienproduktion verhalf dem BHWK zu einer deutlich gesteigerten Qualitaet und ermoeglichte durch gesunkene Produktionskosten den Einsatz im privaten Wohnraum. Im Neubau sowie im Gebaeudebestand steht das BHKW jedoch in direkter Konkurrenz mit anderen Waermeerzeugern wie Brennwertgeraeten und Waermepumpen. Um eine exakte Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtung der jeweiligen Waermeerzeuger erstellen zu koennen, muessen nicht nur gebaeudespezifische Daten erfasst und berechnet werden, sondern es muss auch auf die restriktiven Vorgaben der Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV) und des Erneuerbare-Energien-Waerme-Gesetzes (EEWaermeG) genauer eingegangen werden. Im EEWaermeG 2011 wird unter anderem erstmalig neben der Waerme- auch auf die erneuerbare Kaelteerzeugung eingegangen. Hier kann

  19. Fuel cells and virtual power plants. Aspects of environmental and technology policy regarding an efficient energy supply for buildings; Brennstoffzellen und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Energie-, umwelt- und technologiepolitische Aspekte einer effizienten Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie GmbH, Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Berg, Holger; Koetter, Annette; Krueger, Joerg; Mause, Karsten; Pielow, Johann-Christian; Romey, Ingo; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The possibilities of making sustainable use of available energy resources are currently a much-discussed topic. One instance of this are sustainable energy supply systems for buildings. Fuel cells in mini power plants which can be used in place of a heating system are an option to this end. When coupled and steered in a coordinated manner fuel cells function as virtual power plants which can be operated according to demand to cover the base load as well as peaks in demand. The present study points out ways of making sustainable use of two technologies for energy supply systems for buildings: the fuel cell and the virtual power plant. To begin with it compares competitor technologies, points out distortions of competition and analyses framework conditions. Taking this as a point of departure it elaborates strategies for the removal of innovation barriers and gives recommendations for action for dealing with these technologies in the realms of environmental, energy and technology policy. Amongst other things the authors identify challenges involved in designing technology promotion schemes, developing additional profit sources, avoiding the abuse of market power and creating a legal framework for the use of these technologies. This interdisciplinary research study brings together aspects from the fields of energy technology, technology assessment, political science, economics and jurisprudence. It is intended for readers from the realms of science, politics, the energy industry and the interested layperson. [German] Die nachhaltige Nutzung verfuegbarer Energieressourcen, deren Moeglichkeiten derzeit viel diskutiert werden, beinhaltet auch eine zukunftsfaehige Hausenergieversorgung. Eine Option dafuer stellen Brennstoffzellen in Minikraftwerken als Heizungsersatz dar, mit denen bei einer koordinierten Kopplung und Steuerung in sogenannten Virtuellen Kraftwerken durch bedarfsgerechte Fahrweise neben einer Grundversorgung auch Nachfragespitzen abgedeckt werden koennen

  20. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...